WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

2014-04-01

2

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

3

National Priorities in Marine Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, de...

W. M. Smith T. M. Leschine R. B. Landy

1988-01-01

4

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group) from Ahvaz-Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospe...

Rafiei Masoud; Gadgil Alaka; Ghole Vikram; Gore Sharad; Jaafarzadeh Neemat; Mirkazemi Roksana

2009-01-01

5

Australian Government: National Pollutant Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Department of Environment and Heritage, the Australian Government has developed the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI), "...an Internet database designed to provide the community, industry and government with information on the types and amounts of certain substances being emitted to the environment." Visitors to the Web site can search for emissions by location, substance, source or facility. The NPI requires industries to report on their emissions to air, land and water on 90 NPI substances including Benzene, Carbon Monoxide, Cyanide (inorganic) compounds, Methanol, and Sulfuric Acid. The Web site contains detailed information on which industrial facilities must report their emissions and how to do so. The site also provides tools for people to map emissions data or download data.

6

Industrial Pollution Control  

...Historically certain industrial processes were authorised under the Industrial...Public Registers with respect to processes authorised under the 1997 Order...Part A and Part C processes have been transfered to regulation...

7

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group) from Ahvaz-Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM) concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher's exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR) of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

Rafiei, Masoud; Gadgil, Alaka S.; Ghole, Vikram. S.; Gore, Sharad D.; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Mirkazemi, Roksana

2009-01-01

8

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

Rafiei Masoud

2009-01-01

9

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997  

Variation notice with introductory note Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2013 Operator Name L.E. Pritchitt & Co Ltd Installation address Kiltonga Industrial Estate...

10

Pollution prevention in the electronics industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electronics industry manufacturers components and electronics packages. The demand for industry products is expected to go above $370 billion in the US by the mid-90s. The industry is comprised of three major sectors: printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication, PCB assembly, and semiconductor manufacturing. This chapter describes the industrial processes and pollution prevention measures related to PCB assembly, and to a lesser extent the semiconductor manufacturing process.

Yazdani, A. [Pollution Prevention International, Inc., Brea, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

11

Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

1973-01-01

12

Factors controlling bioindicators for industrial pollution detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindicators of pollution containing industrial metals. Phytoplanktonic algae varied with waste type and with environmental and growth conditions. In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta species and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were cultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution. PMID:10674183

Ali, G H; Abd el-Salam, N F

1999-09-01

13

Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

1996-12-31

14

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

15

Parameter estimation of harmonic polluting industrial loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper develops a methodology for the estimation of relevant parameters characterizing harmonic polluting industrial loads through a set of measurements acquired at the point of common coupling. The proposed method is capable of obtaining an accurate load model in absence of detailed information about its internal structure and composition. (author)

Maza-Ortega, J.M.; Gomez-Exposito, A.; Trigo-Garcia, J.L.; Burgos-Payan, M. [University of Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain). Department of Electrical Engineering

2005-12-01

16

The nuclear industry - pollution and risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other power sources, the only pollution from the nuclear industry is radioactive pollution, which on average in Britain represents 0.2% of the annual dose due to natural background radiation. This 0.2% is not spread uniformly over the population and there is genuine concern about its effects where it is most concentrated. The only significant doses of radiation to the general public due to the nuclear industry are derived from the spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and in particular from the concentration of Caesium-134 and Caesium-137 in fish, Ruthenium-106 in edible seaweeds and plutonium in shellfish and in silt. The concern about the possible escape of high-level wastes stored at the Sellafield site is discussed, and the hazard compared with that dangerous chemicals stored at other industrial sites. The effects of pollution by the nuclear industry, based on the conventional and generally accepted view of radiation risks, add up to a few deaths per year in the 50 million population of England and Wales from an industry producing 15% of the electricity needs of those countries. When this is compared with the risk associated with other methods of electricity production, the author concludes that replacement by nuclear power of any major source of power using fossil fuel, with the possible exception of natural gas, would save lives

1985-08-01

17

Noise pollution in iron and steel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iron and steel industry is characterized by high energy consumption and thus present remarkable problems from the point of view of noise pollution. The aims of this paper is to examine characteristic and acoustical emissions and immisions of some fundamentals iron and steel plants with several remarks on the possible measures to reduce noise pollution. For a large integrate iron and steel system, some surveys are shown with all devices running and, in addition, comparisons are made with other surveys when the main devices were out of service owing to great maintenance works

1999-01-01

18

Pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A clear understanding of the process, reaction pathways, process equipment, operational requirements, and waste stream characteristics are critical for the evaluation, selection, and implementation of pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry. Although pollution prevention opportunities are always preferred over treatment and disposal techniques, consideration of a full range of options--including at-source treatments and disposal--is a practical necessity to ensure protection of the environment using best available technology. General housekeeping can also play a major role in waste minimization. Waste minimization and pollution prevention are not new concepts for the pharmaceutical industry. But the confidential and highly competitive nature of the business stands in the way of disseminating information regarding specific activities in this area. The pharmaceutical industry could probably do much better in this respect. Successful implementation of waste minimization in the pharmaceutical industry requires that a process modification not have a negative impact on product quality. Recovered and recycled materials must meet quality specifications that are similar to those for virgin raw materials.

Venkataramani, E.S. [Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

19

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group), Ahvaz, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM) and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different (P < 0.05) in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene's (3 mg/m3). The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei, Masoud; Gadgil, Alaka S.; Ghole, Vikram S.; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Gore, Sharad D.; Aberomand, Mohammad; Shabab, Mitra

2008-01-01

20

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene?s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei Masoud

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Industrial pollution: The threat to Polish forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poland's forests are continually under strong anthropogenic pressure. Deforestation together with the harmful effects of air pollution have resulted from growing industrialization and urbanization. These effects have been further exacerbated by considerable negligence in environmental protection in Poland and by the high level of toxic substances transported from neighboring states. This article presents the consequences and spatial differentation of this forest destruction. The most extreme effects have been observed in the West Sudetes Mountains and Upper Silesia. The situation in these areas is catastrophic. Whole high mountain regions are threatened with total devastation within the near future. (15 refs.).

Mazurski, K.R. (Academy of Economics, Wroclaw (PL))

1990-04-01

22

The Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial and Radiochemical Inspectorate) Charging ..  

The Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate) Charging Scheme (Northern Ireland) 2012 Department of the Environment 1 April 2012 A Charging Scheme made under Regulation 22 ...

23

Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies, examination of pH-dependent desorption, distribution in grain-size fractions and sequential extraction. Our results show that the first factors determining the speciation of Pb in soil are: (1) the stability of the original speciation and (2) the contamination level, while soil characteristics are of secondary importance. In nine of ten soils Pb was concentrated strongly in the soil fines ( 50% extracted in step III (oxidizing) and IV (residual) of sequential extraction for all soils but one. A significant amount of exchangeable Pb existed only in severely contaminated soils, where the bonding capacity of organic matter and oxides was exceeded. Among soil constituents, Pb was observed to adsorb preferentially to feldspars and organic matter while presence of phosphate increased the strength of the Pb-bonding in phosphate-rich soils.

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2006-01-01

24

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group), Ahvaz, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of th...

Rafiei, Masoud; Gadgil, Alaka S.; Ghole, Vikram S.; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Gore, Sharad D.; Aberomand, Mohammad; Shabab, Mitra

2008-01-01

25

Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

2004-06-07

26

Pollution and energy management in tanning industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat in flue gases through a thermal wheel. Savings in the use of electrical and mechanical energy can carried out by using simple techniques. (author)

2004-06-07

27

Environmental pollution-effects on national development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

1992-08-07

28

Monitoring system for industrial gases pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system is designed for monitoring gas pollutants in air, in a chemical plant. It consists of gas detectors with transmitter and modules for environmental conditions measurement, data loggers and a central monitoring station which role is to collect data, generate alarms if pollutants concentration becomes over limit and create database. A dedicated software permits data collecting and processing in order to get solutions for minimising human and technological risks. The system role is monitoring the pollution sources and the surrounded areas that might be affected, for keeping gas pollutants concentration at an acceptable level and to minimise the pollution effects. (author)

2003-09-08

29

76 FR 18066 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...constructed in 1942 by Bendix Aviation Corporation, which...produce gears for various industries. The southern and...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals...Superfund, Water pollution control, Water...

2011-04-01

30

How to control the industry pollution in China optimally?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this paper, we empirically examine the effectiveness of existed several economic instruments in 31 provinces in China and develop the ways that could control the industrial pollution effectively. Although the current pollution norms and the informal pressure have a positive effect on controlling the water pollution in China, there are still some tasks we are supposed to do to improve the water quality. In this paper, the author suggests testing the monitoring and enforcement effor...

Li, Hui

2006-01-01

31

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

2013-06-01

32

UNIDO's work on pollution control and risk management in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important aspect of UNIDO's work is to learn from the experience of industrialized countries and to avoid severe health and environmental pollution problems through the transfer of appropriate technologies and pollution control mechanisms as an essential part of industrial development - which is UNIDO's main mandate. Moreover, UNIDO's role is to provide to the policy makers of developing countries a better understanding of environmental problems and appreciation of early remedial action. One way to achieve this is through the application of environmental impact assessment and risk assessment methodologies. Since 1972 UNIDO has developed and implemented about 172 projects related to industrial pollution control and management of environmental resources. Currently UNIDO implements about 60 projects in this area. This represents about 10 per cent of the total UNIDO technical assistance budget. Specifically, UNIDO's programme focuses attention on the following main areas: Developing Low- and Non-Waste Technologies, Reutilization and Recycling of Wastes, Energy Conservation and Promotion of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy; Control of Air, Waste and Solid Waste Pollution; Assistance in Environmental Planning, Environmental Impact Assessment, Elaboration of Integrated Planning Concepts for Industrial Areas; Industrial and Plant Safety and Emergency Planning Systems. Clearly toxic materials and waste management, energy resources development and conservation, low- and non-waste technology, risk assessment, industrial and plant safety and emergency planning, transboundary pollution, are foremost concerns of both industrial and industrializing countries at this time

1988-03-01

33

Sound Pollution Caused by the Industrial Activity in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise pollution is the problem of the industrial world that along with noised induced by traffic has become a problem in human life.This is more problematic in Tehran because of the traffic and the accumulation of small or large industries. People are profoundly exposed to the high level noises and there are increasing demands to solve the problem of noise in Tehran or at least alleviate it.In the current article we will have a brief and quick look to the noise making industries, the reason behind the noise pollution and the strategies for facing the disturbing industries.

Mehrangiz shams

1999-03-01

34

Pollution prevention for industrial water/wastewater facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the world of environmental engineering, a popular phrase is pollution prevention. Real pollution prevention requires implementation of real projects. This presentation addresses the subject of converting environmental liabilities into opportunities in the areas of water and wastewater treatment. The authors cite three specific examples of real projects, two of which are for the steel industry and the third from the automobile manufacturing industry. All of these projects have common traits: they all represent real pollution prevention and they all entail real quantifiable net savings contrasted with the status quo. They also tend to be motivated both by economics and by environmental compliance.

Duckett, E.J.

1999-07-01

35

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009) Using the LMDI I Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4

Hongjun Lei; Xunfeng Xia; Changjia Li; Beidou Xi

2012-01-01

36

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and...

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-01-01

37

Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

E. D. Sellers

2007-03-01

38

Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility

2007-01-01

39

Reducing environmental pollution from the coking industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses methods for air pollution control in coking plants. The following problems are evaluated: reducing sulfur content in gases used for coke oven battery heating, optimization of control systems for coke oven heating, smokeless coal charging to coke ovens (using steam injection systems), smokeless coke discharge with two-stage separation of dusts, dry coke quenching with heat utilization for heating of boilers, eliminating waste water - a source of emission of phenols, ammonia and hydrocyanic acid - from wet coke quenching.

Anichin, V.I.; Naiman, A.M. (Giprokoks (USSR))

1989-07-01

40

Green Design and Planning Resolutions for an Eco-Industrial Town: A Case Study of Polluted Industrial Estate in Rayong Province, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Map Ta Phut was designated for development in national policy as an Eastern Seaboard Industrial Port. It is located in Rayong Province with growing demand from Eastern Seaboard industries and is heavily affected by serious environmental problems as a"pollution control zone". While the Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry and Banking, representing the national business sector, claimed that the area generated total revenues of 1.1 trillion baht per year, or 11% of Thailand’s gross d...

Ariya Aruninta

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Monitoring of pollution from aluminium industry in India; Completion document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overall description of activities and experiences during the project ``Monitoring of Pollution from Aluminium in India``. The aim of this project was to supply equipment to Indian authorities for monitoring of fluoride emission from aluminium industry, and to present a course in environmental monitoring for people related to the issue of pollution monitoring. The report also presents possible future activities that may be made to follow up on the project. 4 refs.

Helland, K.; Nagy, K.

1994-11-01

42

Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions)  

...seven previous European Commission Directives covering industrial emissions. A review of these resulted in the merging of the seven existing Directives to ensure clearer environmental benefits and consistent application...

43

Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer. PMID:22444064

López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

2012-05-01

44

Methodology for monitoring air pollutants on industrial landfill sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A strategy is outlined to study volatile pollutants from an industrial landfill site with unknown contents. A realtime mobile mass spectrometer system was adapted to achieve the requirements for monitoring the pollutants in a step-wise fashion. (1) In situ sampling and analysis, i.e. a realtime on site monitoring of pollutants. (2) Selective monitoring of chemical classes based on the chemical functional groups. (3) Speciation of the individual chemical compounds within each chemical class. (4) Quantitation of the detected individual chemicals. 3 figures.

Hijazi, N.H.; Chai, R.; Nacson, S.

1982-01-01

45

Pollution  

…Major Incidents service. Water pollution How you can prevent water pollution from your home, and information about issues such as sewage treatment. Radiation Information about Sellafield and other nuclear issues. Odour Find out about odour issues from agriculture and industry.

46

Environmental Assessment due to Air Pollution near Iron Smelting Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was on iron smelting industry which was located in Papankulam-Madavarvilagam Village, Tamilnadu, India and polluting the environment in the forms of fumes. The pollutant seems to affect the various plants and human beings residing at the vicinity of industry. In this industry, for a month 40-50 tones of ferric sulphate was produced using sulphuric acid, nitric acid and iron which were considered major environmental contaminant. Ditch, well, bore-well waters, plant samples like coconut tender water, Cassia auriculata and Opuntia elatior extracts were captivated from pollutant and unpollutant sites and the concentration of iron content in the captivated water samples and plant extracts were monitored and also the effect of iron on the physiology of plants was studied. On the basis of results, we concluded the exhaust from the iron smelting industry had a telling effects on the near by ecosystem. Accordingly, continuous monitoring of this polluted study site can be helped to solve this air pollution.

R. Arunachalam

2009-01-01

47

Prevention of industrial pollution in English law. Der Schutz gegen industrielle Immissionen im englischen Recht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nineteenth-century industrial revolution turned the largely agricultural nations of Europe into industrial nations. The radical changes resulting from this development made difficult demands on the traditional apparatus of society. Harmful substances from industrial production penetrated the environment, and the population still suffers as a result of them. How was and is the law able to reconcile the diverging interests. This investigation attempts to determine whether England as 'the first industrial nation' has found more effective remedies with respect to these demands or whether the attempts at solutions which are so different when compared with German law, can be explained simply by the different legal system. The German private pollution prevention law and principally English Case Law and Common Law are analyzed and compared. (orig./HSCH).

Pill, B.W.

1988-01-01

48

Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

1993-01-01

49

The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

1989-06-01

50

2001 national overview of the National Pollutant Release Inventory : recycling and energy recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) was established in 1992 as a national, legislated, publicly accessible inventory in Canada that provides information to Canadians on industrial pollution and their communities. Companies are required to report annually to Environment Canada any information on releases and transfers of pollutants. A list of substances for which reports are required is published each year along with reporting requirements and thresholds for each substance. Changes to the NPRI are considered on an annual basis. The NPRI covers about 100 sectors of industrial and commercial activity ranging from electric power generation to leather tanneries. In 2001, 2618 facilities reported to the NPRI. This report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001. A total of 857 facilities submitted data on off-site transfers for recycling and energy recovery totalling 1,126,461 tonnes, a decrease of 3,911 tonnes from 2000. The report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001 with reference to recycling activities (80.8 per cent); metals and metal compounds (10.2 per cent); acids or bases (5.6 per cent); solvents (1.0 per cent); catalysts (1.0 per cent); energy recovery (0.8 per cent); organic substances (0.3 per cent); inorganic materials (0.2 per cent); pollution abatement residues (0.1 per cent); and, used oil (less than 0.1 per cent). The report also includes a summary of the 25 NPRI-listed substances transferred off-site in the largest quantities for recycling and energy recovery in 2001. The substances that accounted for nearly 1,077,306 tonnes were hydrogen sulphide, sulphuric acid, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese. 2 tabs., 6 figs

2003-01-01

51

Magnetic method of mapping industrially polluted soils.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

mining areas. Proceedings, Vol. 1. The unknown urban soil, detection, resources and faces. Essen : UniversitätGH Essen, 2000 - (Burghardt, W.; Dornauf, C.), s. 151-156 ISBN 3-922602-79-7.[International conference on soils of urban, industrial, traffic and mining areas /1./. Essen (DE), 12.07.2000-18.07.2000]Grant CEP: GA AV ?R IAA3012905; GA ?R GA205/96/0260Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z3012916Kód oboru RIV: DB - Geologie a mineralogie

Kapi?ka, Aleš; Petrovský, Eduard; Hrabák, P.; Hoffmann, V.; Knab, M.

52

Pollution prevention assessments for marine maintenance and commercial printing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper represents the results of ten pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on marine maintenance and commercial printing industries in the Hampton Roads area of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between Old Dominion University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (ODU) and Hampton Roads Sanitation District Industrial Waste Division (HRSD) for the Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS) grant awarded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, waste water discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Financial analyses of identified technology and procedural options were developed in order to prepare comprehensive reports for each business on findings and recommendations. Industry profiles are provided in order to establish the type of services rendered by the facilities participating within the program. Material usage, waste generation, and waste minimization recommendations are examined for both the marine maintenance and commercial printing industries. In addition to loss prevention and good housekeeping, waste minimization recommendations for the commercial printing industry include hazardous solvent source reduction, recycling of available markets, and silver recovery during photoprocessing operations.

Robinson, H.L.; Erten-Unal, M.; Marchello, J.M. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Burgess, M.; Aydlett, G.M. [Hampton Roads Sanitation District, Virginia Beach, VA (United States). Industrial Waste Div.

1996-12-31

53

National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan Review  

Science.gov (United States)

... were finalized in 1994 to reflect the oil spill provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 . Key provisions of National Contingency Plan Oil Removals Hazardous Substance Removals Related Federal Register ...

54

Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

Sixt, H.

1985-06-01

55

Prosperity without pollution: The prevention strategy for industry and consumers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here is the first book to explain why only a preventative environmental strategy can work: because growing population, consumption and industrialization cripple current, rather haphazard, remedial efforts. This book shows how our society can make more with less, be more competitive and less polluting, while maintaining our standard of living by reducing and eventually eliminating the production of wastes and pollutants from industry, commerce, homes, farms, and institutions. This may seem far-fetched, but be prepared to discover in this book that there can be a middle ground between ecology and economy - and that you can help achieve it. You'll find data and examples that any person can use, from engineers in industry to office workers to activists. Every concerned citizen will also want to consider the authors' innovative suggestions for taxing wastes and using the proceeds to help companies and communities switch to new industrial processes. Also, you should evaluate their proposals to reburies meaningful waste and toxicity information on product labels, to make bans on chemicals and products a more credible and available corrective measure, and to secure permanent, high-level government support for pollution prevention

1990-01-01

56

The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

1989-01-01

57

Identification of the Water Pollutant Industries in Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to build up a logic ranked pattern between the most important industrial activities with respect the type of water pollution and the discharge ways or managing the wastewaters in these units. For this purpose all of the statistical data have been gathered by referring to the responsible organizations. After that, by using the desk study, field work and selecting some of the industrial units as studied cases and by referring to their production processes and obtaining the curtained analytical results, the industries have been separated to several groups including Food ,Textile , Pulp & Paper/, Chemical, Non-metallic mineral, Metal and Electricity & electronics Comparing the number of active industrial plants within the boundaries of Khuzestan province at 5 catchments area, indicates that Karun, Dez and Jarrahi basins with 1044. 324 and 290 active plants, respectively, are crowded with a lot of industries. Nature of the examined parameters has been selected in view of the production process type and includes pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chloride, sulfate, BOD, COD, TSS, iron. Results indicates that Dez river basin, being compared with the other two basins, impose the most degradable organic, nutrient substances and suspended particle loads to Dez River , and the metal pollution load at Karun basin is more than the other two basins , caused by the steel industries concentrated in Ahvaz city.

N Jafarzadeh, S Rostami, K Sepehrfar, A Lahijanzadeh

2004-10-01

58

Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

1992-04-22

59

Pollution prevention assessments for metal fabricating and metal finishing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper represents the results of three pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on metal fabricating and metal finishing industry. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between a higher education institution and a municipality. Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, wastewater discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Proposed waste minimization recommendations for the electroplating industry include loss prevention, good housekeeping, bath replenishment, filtration, and the installation of evaporators and drainboard for a drag-out recovery system, and use of a solvent distillation system.

Erten-Unal, M.; Timbo, D.I.; Hamedani, Z.N.; Marchello, J.M.

1999-07-01

60

Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns, over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR of towns situated at a distance of less than 2?km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463, paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140, food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111, metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123 and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099. Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of the differences between men and women observed in the analyses of the industrial groups suggest that there may be a component of occupational exposure, little-studied in the case of cancers of the digestive system.

López-Abente Gonzalo

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31

62

Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the industrial sectors included in the E-PRTR pollutant register, emissions from the power generating sector contribute the largest share of the damage costs (estimated at EUR 66-112 billion). Excluding CO{sub 2}, the estimated damage costs from this sector are EUR 26-71 billion. Sectors involving production processes and combustion used in manufacturing are responsible for most of the remaining estimated damage costs. (LN)

Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

2011-11-15

63

Evaluation of Historical Industrial Pollution in urban sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of new tools and policies on urban management and planning have led to significant changes in land use in cities in the last decades. Better planning means that polluting industrial activities that once integrated urban scenario are now placed well outside city limits, where their impacts on the population are reduced. Relocating these activities has opened new possibilitiesfor urban refurbishing, and the vacant spaces previously occupied by these industries are now being taken over for other uses, such as housing, leisure and services. However, the impact of these industries in the urban environment is far from over. In fact, it is expected that previously released pollutants from these activities are still hidden within the city, and might pose a risk to the unaware city dweller and the environment in general. One of the possible reservoirs for pollutants within city limits are sediments in the bottom of streams. In this work a survey is made of the sediments from 4 streams running through the city of Coimbra(Portugal) in an attempt to evaluate contamination due to previous industrial activities, now relocated. For comparison purposes and whenever possible,samples were taken before and after historic industrial areas, at four depths (0-20 cm; 20-40 cm; 40-60 cm; 60-80 cm). Characterization of the sediments involved measurements of pH, organic matter and metal content: iron, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, lead, cadmium, nickel and mercury. Preliminary results (on-going work) show that levels of Cadmium and Lead largely exceed the lowest effect levels for the protection and management of aquatic sediment quality (Ontario Guidelines). Additionally, metal content is not consistently higher in the deeper layers of the sediment, as would be expected if it was the case of historic contamination.

Pato, R. L.; Dias-Ferreira, C.; Tavares, A. O.; Magalhães, M. C.

2012-04-01

64

National marine pollution program: Summary of federal programs and projects, FY 1988 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (NOPPA; P.L. 95-273) requires NOAA to develop a detailed description of Federal research, development, and monitoring efforts related to ocean pollution. The Summary of Federal Programs and Projects is prepared each year in partial fulfillment of this requirement. The Summary presents descriptions of 474 projects in 44 programs funded by the 11 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. Figure 1 displays the agencies involved and their responsibilities. The update reviews the marine pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1987 through 1990, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs. Projects included are limited to efforts that focus primarily on pollution problems in the oceans and Great Lakes. Projects that exclusively address inland pollution are excluded, as are industrial, regulatory, and management activities such as development of waste treatment methods or assessment of fisheries stocks. The FY 1988 update of the Summary presents information on projects and programs that were funded or underway during FY 1988.

1990-06-01

65

Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

2014-07-01

66

Pollution prevention practices in Oregon`s electronics industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research was to identify prevention strategies that are currently being used by the electronics industry in oregon and to assess the industry`s interest in switching to less hazardous practices. A survey was distributed to 180 businesses, including all companies affiliated with the Oregon Electronics Association, and additional electronics corporations listed in Oregon phone directories. Forty-seven percent of the respondents indicated that their organization had attempted substituting less hazardous compounds for those used previously. Factors influencing the movement towards cleaner practices included the desire to find safer products that work as well as current products, ethical concerns, and long term financial benefits. Common problems that discouraged the industry from changing to less hazardous practices included: (1) the new product did not function as well as the original material; (2) the respondents did not believe current practices were harmful; and, (3) initial costs were prohibitive. Representatives from within this industry are encouraged to share information about methodologies that have been successful, as well as strategies that may not have lead to intended goals; to clarify green terminology for use in this industry; and to establish a reward system for recognizing those who have instituted pollution prevention strategies into their operations.

Jones, C.L.; Harding, A.K.

1997-01-01

67

Integrated pollution prevention and control scares industrial companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It will not be easy to obtain a permit to open a new industrial plant. And not only the new ones but all important operating industrial productions will require a so called integrated permit. Both authorities and company managers consider the validation process to be more demanding compared to the current procedure for obtaining a building or user permit. As of August 1, 2003 - the day a new Act on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is expected to enter into force - only integrated permits will be given. The related bill has been passed to the parliament for the second reading. As of end of April next year the future of 31 industrial plants will depend on whether they will be granted a integrated permit or not. IPPC is a terror for companies due to its seriousness, complexity and the relatively short time given, should they not manage to obtain a permit the plant may be closed down. The European Commission (EC) Directive 96/61/EC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control raises the same concerns among companies in European Union (EU) member states. It is one of the most strict environmental standards and one of the sensitive conditions of EU entry. That is one of the reasons transition periods for this Directive were negotiated for ten Slovak companies. (Authors)

2003-06-12

68

Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (?g/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 ?g/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

2011-01-01

69

Air pollution control measures of the electricity industry in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pollution of air with SO2 and NOx constitutes a problem which can be regionally delimited and can be solved by a harmonization of pollution control standards at the highest possible level. The growing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, however, has possibly a strong impact on the global climate. In this context it has to be borne in mind in particular that it will be impossible to undo environmental damage once it has arisen. Once lasting changes of the world climate have been caused by the increased CO2 concentration, all the pollution control efforts will not achieve any short-term success but will produce desired effects only with a time-lag of decades at the earliest. All measures by a country to contain CO2 emissions on a national level are almost ineffective if a reduction of CO2 emissions is not aimed at by international agreements at the same time. All nations are therefore called upon to help solve the CO2 problem. National single-handed approaches are equally inappropriate as the oft-heard reference to the just marginal contribution by the respective countries to global CO2 emissions. In light of their possibilities and the magnitude of the problem, it is precisely the industrial nations that have the duty not only to cut CO2 emissions in their own countries but also to give the developing countries the assistance required to keep the CO2 content of the atmosphere from rising further. (author). 9 figs

1989-09-17

70

National Marine Pollution Program: Federal Plan for Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring, Fiscal Years 1988-1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct marine pollution research, development, or monitoring activities. In FY 1988, the Federal Government expended an estimated $107.2 million ...

1988-01-01

71

Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6) nuclear sources until the year 2005. Each module was analyzed separately and the result from each module was transferred into the Air Quality Impact model. The model assesses the changes in electricity generation within each module due to deregulation and these changes can then be correlated to the emission of air pollutants in the United States.

Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

72

Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-05-01

73

Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-05-01

74

Industrial pollution and its impacts on public health in the Chekka area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial development in the region of Chekka - North Lebanon, has caused a serious industrial pollution.This is mainly due to the presence of multiple industrial plants such as cement industries, chemical industry and others... The article describes pollution of air, water and soil by effluents, dusts and chemicals emitted by industries. Many studies were done to analyze the rate of pollution in water, dusts, petroleum coke and results showed that industrial plants were the primary source of environmental pollution. Three kinds of gases are considered to be the main cause of pulmonary cancer: black smog, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide and NO2. Safety procedures were taken within industries to assure public safety of workers

1998-06-01

75

CHARACTERIZATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR THE COMPOSITE WOOD INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Information was gathered during a literature search that included trade association publicatio...

76

GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a model monitoring network providing public administration, private subject, and general public information about air pollution by POPs that had not been previously regularly monitored and whose measurement is further required by global monitoring plan of the Stockholm Convention. The MONET network is international project with many participants. Monitoring in the MONET-CZ network started in 2004 with the pilot project and continues to the current days, MONET CEEC started in 2006 and continues nowadays, MONET Africa started in 2008. The database of the GENASIS systems currently covers MONET-CZ data until the year 2008. The MONET network currently covers 37 countries in the Europe, Asia and Africa with more than 350 sampling sites. The paper will discuss about following topics * Data Fusion in GENASIS: how can GENASIS maximize the value and accuracy of the information gathered from heterogeneous data sources? * Sensor types in GENASIS: which POPs can be measured; what are the physical limitations to achievable accuracy, reliability, and long-term stability of miniaturized sensors; which applications can (not) be realized within these limitations?

Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; H?ebí?ek, Ji?í; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

2010-05-01

77

MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

M. LUCA

2011-03-01

78

National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

1998-09-01

79

National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations

1998-01-01

80

Wastewater Pollution Abatement in China: A Comparative Study of Fifteen Industrial Sectors from 1998 to 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the management of wastewater pollutants in a number of Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2010. We use decomposition analysis to calculate changes in wastewater pollutant emissions that result from cleaner production processes, end-of-pipe treatment, structural changes in industry, and changes in the scale of production. We focus on one indicator of water quality and three pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD), petroleum, cyanide,...

Hidemichi Fujii; Shunsuke Managi; Shinji Kaneko

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

AbdulFatai JIMOH

2006-07-01

82

Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

2002-04-10

83

National Marine Pollution Program: Summary of Federal Programs and Projects: FY 1988 Update.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is published annually by the National Ocean Pollution Program Office, created under P.L. 95-273 (as amended), which calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, develop...

1990-01-01

84

75 FR 37730 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...pollutants from heat exchange systems at petroleum refineries. These requirements were...to the national emission standards for petroleum refineries. In this notice, we...

2010-06-30

85

Restaurant Industry Research from the National Restaurant Association  

Science.gov (United States)

This section of the National Restaurant Association's website provides extensive free & for-purchase restaurant industry research. Free content includes yearly industry forecasts; detailed and visually appealing state-by-state statistics brochures; up-to-date restaurant industry facts; and breaking news on current industry trends and data. Additionally, reports on human resources, restaurant operations, and the restaurant consumer base may be purchased.

2006-12-15

86

National Security Assessment of the U.S. Robotics Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report analyzes the U.S. robotics industry's historical performance and examines both the national security and commercial importance of the industry within the context of international competitiveness. The report finds that U.S. robot manufacturers h...

1991-01-01

87

Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

88

Prosperity without Pollution: The Prevention Strategy for Industry and Consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Pollution prevention pays for everyone; What pollution prevention is-What waste recycling and other strategies are not; Achieving succcess by overcoming obstacles; Data tells the story-too much waste; The ozone groan-do we still have time; Harm ...

J. S. Hirschhorn K. U. Oldenburg

1991-01-01

89

Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

2007-07-01

90

Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

1993-03-24

91

Effect of industrial pollution on behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate how and to what extent industrial pollution affects the behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems, studies were conducted in the vicinity of two Cu-Ni smelters: one in a pine forest at Harjavalta, Finland, and the other in a spruce forest at Monchegorsk, Russia. Industrial pollution had significant effects on the distribution of radionuclides in soil horizons. With the increase in pollution towards the smelter, radionuclides were accumulated more in the litter layer because the conversion of litter into organic material was diminished due to inhibited microbial activity. As a result, the organic layer contained less radionuclides towards the smelter. The effect of industrial pollution on soil-to-plant transfer was complex. The effect varied with radionuclide, plant species and also on forest type. For 137Cs, soil-to-plant transfer decreased significantly as industrial pollution increased in pine forest, whereas the decrease was less pronounced in spruce forest. Root uptake of 239,240Pu by plants is extremely small, and plant contamination by resuspended soil is an important factor in considering the soil-to-plant transfer of this radionuclide. In spruce forest, more plutonium was transferred into plants when pollution load increased due to resuspension of litter particles, which contained higher concentrations of plutonium in the vicinity of the smelter. Soil-to-plant transfer of plutonium was much less affected in pine forests contaminated with industrial pollution. This research clearly indicates the sensitivity of the northern forest ecosystem to inorganic pollutants. Prediction of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in industrially polluted forest ecosystems requires detailed information on the total deposition, vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil, soil microbiological factors, other soil parameters as well as the rooting depths of the plants. (LN)

2009-06-01

92

1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

1999-06-01

93

1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

2000-06-01

94

STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL POLLUTANTS IN KANO INDUSTRIAL AREAS, KANO STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physicochemical pollutant indicators in Kano industrial area of Kano State Nigeria were determined. Effluents from tannery and textile industries and surface water samples were collected from the industrial areas on quarterly basis from June 2007 to May 2008 to reflect the seasonal factors. Effluents from ten industrial and water sample from eight sampling points in River Challawa were sampled to determined physicochemical pollutants. The physicochemical pollutant determined include pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour, total suspended solid and oil and grease. The levels pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour, oil and grease and total suspended solid (TSS in the effluent and surface water samples were higher than the WHO limits. Statistical analysis shows that the concentrations of the above parameters were significant (p<0.05 between industries, but not significant between seasons. The above parameters measured for River Challawa are potential for profound effect on the water body itself and resident aquatic life.

K. D. REUBEN

2009-08-01

95

Federal Register Volume 57 No. 64 Thursday, April 2, 1992, Part 4. 40 CFR Part 122. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Application Deadlines, General Permit Requirements and Reporting Requirements for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity; Final Rule.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Water Quality Act (WQA) of 1987 added section 402(p) to the Clean Water Act (CWA). Section 402(p) of the CWA requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish phased and tiered requirements for storm water discharges under the National P...

1992-01-01

96

Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

1999-06-20

97

Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost.

Rao, B.P.S.; Pandit, V.I.

1999-07-01

98

Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

2014-02-01

99

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

100

Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was the key soil characteristics determining the Cu removal rate.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

102

Defense programs industrial partnerships at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy`s Defense Programs face unprecedented challenges of stewardship for an aging nuclear stockpile, cessation of nuclear testing, reduced federal budgets, and a smaller manufacturing complex. Partnerships with industry are essential in developing technology, modernizing the manufacturing complex, and maintaining the safety and reliability of the nation`s nuclear capability. The past decade of federal support for industrial partnerships has promoted benefits to US industrial competitiveness. Recent shifts in government policy have re-emphasized the importance of industrial partnerships in accomplishing agency missions. Nevertheless, abundant opportunities exist for dual-benefit, mission-driven partnerships between the national laboratories and industry. Experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory with this transition is presented.

Freese, K.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Industrial Partnership Office

1996-10-01

103

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU, tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU, textile: Dying Unit (DU and textile: Finishing Unit (FU in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

Muhammad Asif Hanif

2005-01-01

104

Pollution assessment software as chemical industry process simulator enhancements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercial process flowsheet simulators (PFS) have evolved to an advanced state and provide sophisticated unit process simulation and vital material and energy balance parameters. The PFS can estimate process stream conditions and equipment capacities and costs and it essentially defines the chemical process itself. A deficiency of PFS is their inability to incorporate environmental considerations into process optimization calculations. As a result, information as to environmental impacts and pollution control costs are not available to the design engineer, and often the optimum process design, from both economic and environmental standpoints, may not be obtained. Commercial process simulator enhancement software, whose goals are to provide environmental, safety, regulatory, and economic indices to the process design engineer as well as pollution prevention heuristic guidance, can overcome many of these obstacles to clean chemical process design. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of a new set of pollution assessment software tools being developed to provide indices to the process design engineer during flowsheet synthesis. The capabilities of each of these tools will be highlighted by applying them in a coupled fashion with process flowsheet simulator information to a case study involving power and process heat co-generation design options. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Shonnard, D.R.; Herlevich, J. Jr.; Parikh, P. [and others

1996-12-31

105

Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored

1996-01-01

106

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

1995-01-01

107

Cracks in the Dutch national wind industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1998 has been a turbulent year for the wind turbine industry in the Netherlands. NedWind was taken over by the Danish NEG Micon, parts of WindMaster were taken over by Lagerwey, and blade manufacturer Rotorline was also taken over by a Danish firm (LM Glasfiber). Some consider those developments as a proof for the decline of a once promising industry in the Netherlands, others see it as an excellent chance to improve the position of the Dutch market in the world. 11 refs

1999-05-01

108

National marine pollution program: catalog of federal projects FY 1984 update. Appendix No. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, P.L. 95-273 (as amended), calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. The Catalog of Federal Projects is one of a series of documents published by NMPPO to meet the mandates of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act. The Act calls for a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs related to ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. Two reports are published on an annual basis to meet this requirement. One of these contains summaries of the major programs conducted by the Federal agencies.

1985-06-01

109

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

2008-03-15

110

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

2008-03-01

111

Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

2009-01-01

112

Perspectives on nonpoint source pollution - proceedings of a national conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented on aspects of non-point source pollution under the following headings: legal aspects; state nonpoint source programs; institutional/financial aspects; ground water quality; lake quality; estuarine quality; streams and rivers; livestock waste management; economics of pollution; agricultural issues; urban issues (run-off, septic tanks); rural issues, including coal mining and abandoned land reclamation; land use issues; decision-making; data availability and needs; water quality criteria and standards; sources and fate's of pollutants; cross boundary pollution. Relevant papers have been abstracted separately.

1985-01-01

113

Industrial Applications of E-Beam Plasma to Air Pollution Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel combustion creates a the treat to environment. Waste quantities of SO2, NOx and VOC (volatile organic compounds) are emitted in to atmosphere. Municipal wastes incineration is another air pollution potential problem. New technologies for simultaneous removal of different pollutants are searched for. Electron beam process is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. The laboratory unit (400 Nm3/h) and industrial pilot plant (20000 Nm3/h) have been constructed in Poland. Full scale industrial project is under development (270000 Nm3/h). New developments, connected mostly with energy consumption reduction, made this process very competitive in comparison with conventional technologies. (author)

1999-07-11

114

Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

1998-06-21

115

Air pollution aspects of the atomic energy industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meteorology is important to the atomic energy industry for engineering and operational applications common to industry generally, but, in particular, it is important because of its usefulness when dealing with radioactivity in the atmosphere. Meteorology must be used in estimating environmental exposure risks if radioactivity is released through tall stacks and laboratory type vents as part of a routine waste disposal procedure or when it is necessary to consider accidental releases under a variety of circumstances. An outstanding use of meteorology is in the estimation of the spread of contaminants from a reactor disaster. The nature of radioactive materials and their sources are discussed. 7 figures

1986-01-01

116

STUDIES ON THE POLLUTION OF WATERBODY BY TEXTILE INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution arises from introduction of foreign materials capable of deteriorating water quality into a waterbody, hence, posing negative effects on aquatic lives and human health. Industrial effluents accounts for several point sources of water pollution. To quantify the impacts of these industrial discharges on water bodies, water samples from a stream polluted by a textile industry were collected at twelve sampling points with sampling intervals of 50 m. Samples were analyzed using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: temperature, turbidity, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC, color, total dissolved solids (TDS, suspended solids (SS, total solids (TS dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, metals (Chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, potassium (K and total coliform. Results showed that parameters: (colour, EC, SS, TDS, TSS, nitrate, phosphate, COD and TC recorded high values at the discharge point (0 m and points 50 m, 100 m after the discharge point respectively. Zero values of DO observed at these sampling points showed that the stream was heavily polluted and may not likely support aquatic lives. Metal values of the stream were generally low. This study also revealed that the values of most water parameters were higher than international permissible standards in drinking water, thereby, rendering the stream useless for domestic, agriculture and industrial purposes. This study, therefore, recommends that wastewater from the textile industry should be treated before being discharge into the water body.

ADENOWO, J.A.

2010-12-01

117

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-04-01

118

THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and carbon (CO and CO2. The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches; percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA

2013-03-01

119

Environmental policy, intra-industry trade and transfrontier pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses effects of domestic environmental policy on foreign emissions and on transboundary pollution. We use a Dixit-Stiglitz type model of monopolistic competition with an endogenous number of firms. Production generates environmental externalities which spill over to the other country. It is shown that environmental policy has an impact on market structure at home and abroad. These market structure effects induce changes in emissions abroad. In contrast to what has been derived in earlier contributions, it turns out to be possible that tighter environmental standards at home lead to less emissions abroad. The paper derives these results and provides the economic intuition behind them. Finally, conditions for optimal environmental policies are derived. 17 refs

2000-09-01

120

Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

1977-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

122

78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...river were contaminated with radioactive thorium waste materials that...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2013-02-19

123

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

124

A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh w...

Deshar Bashu Dev

2013-01-01

125

Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations. PMID:16963182

Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

2007-03-22

126

Reduction of environmental pollution by the lead glass industry of the Federal Republic of Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey is given over technological developments of the last years within the lead glass producing industry of the Federal Republic of Germany with impact to environmental pollution reduction. Special attention is put on clean air technologies including recycling of filter dusts, to the removal of heavy metals from recycling and waste waters and to environmental improvements of the acid polishing process.

Kaiser, A. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung, Wuerzburg (FRG))

1989-01-01

127

Global marine pollution bibliography: Ocean dumping of municipal and industrial wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains papers from the following categories: marine pollution/ocean dumping, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, legislation/regulations, international conventions, ocean dumping criteria/site selection studies, waste management strategies, biological processes, chemical processes, geological processes, physical processes, engineering studies, and dumping by countries and by regions.

Champ, M.A.; Park, K.P.

1982-01-01

128

Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263t, also other emissions were 48,853t PM, 24,533t SOx, 79,943t NOx, 31,908t VOC, 454t NH3 and 2264t N2O under controlled conditions. PMID:24576652

Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

2014-08-01

129

Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

2011-09-01

130

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

2011-01-01

131

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2010-03-01

132

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved 'critical receptor' stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout)

2006-01-01

133

Variation in the chemical constituents of soybean due to industrial pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The two varieties of soybean (Soybean Bragg and Soybean JS-71-05 were collected from an industrial site (IS and from a non-industrial site (NIS for the study of their chemical composition and fatty acids profiles by gas liquid chromatography (GLC. These studies revealed large changes in the major and minor fatty acids of the soybean seeds due to the effect of chemical pollutants. There was a significant decrease in the amounts of major and minor fatty acids, such as myristic acid (14:0, palmitic acid (16:0, stearic acid (18:0, oleic acid (18:1, linoleic acid (18:2, and linolenic acid (18:3, in the seeds from industrial site. The changes in the chemical composition due to chemical pollutants showed mixed results.

SATGUR PRASAD

2004-09-01

134

Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure that's why man is bent on industrializing his domain from earlier. The environment acts like a source to supply raw materials for production processes. The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE, Peshawar, to investigate the individual industrial effluent load. All the industries were divided into five categories like Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical and Paper and three industry from each category were selected. The samples were collected from end-up-pipe of individual industrial process and were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Effluent of Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical, and Paper industries were analyzed for pH, Temperature, DO, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cu were investigated in the effluents of selected industries. The concentrations of BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Pb, Cr and Ni were found higher than NEQS for industrial discharges. The wastewater flow rate was also calculated for industrial effluent. Wastewater treatment facilities are not present in the industrial estate. The study suggests that huge quantities of wastewater is generating in industrial estate can be minimized through process modification, change in existing equipment, installation of recycling plants and selection of proper trained employees.

Sardar Khan

2002-01-01

135

Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

1989-01-01

136

Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

1994-11-01

137

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relations are shown used for calculating air and surface pollution in the METEO-2 computer programme. The programme may be used for computing both short-term and long-term stack emissions of conventional and radioactive industrial wastes into the atmosphere and their deposition in the neighbouring environment. The factors for pollution computation comprise vertical plume dynamics and heat capacity. Methods of dispersion data determination are given. The practical choice of a mesh point system used in the computations is discussed. (J.B.)

1977-01-01

138

Macro impact of the law on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution on power industry development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.

Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment

2001-07-01

139

Evaluation of Indoor Air Pollution of Polyurethane Industries with Emphasis on Exposure with Methylene Diphenyle Diisocyanate (MDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diisocyanates are used as a initial chemical material in different factories such as surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders and sealants. In the polyurethane workplace there are aerosols of diisocyanates which has important to effect on workers. They can also be exposed to partial reaction of isocyanate-containing intermediates formed during polyurethane production. The main objective of this study pointed on assessment of exposure risk factors with MDI in the workplace, determination of MDI concentration and biomonitoring of MDA in polyurethane industries. NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 5522 sampling and analysis method was used by midget impinger contained dimethyl sulfoxide with tryptamine. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography was employed for air sampling analysis and GC (Gas Chromatography for urine analysis. Getting personality data was carried out by Health Surveillance Questionnaire and multiple linear regression models with ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis. The result of study showed that there was a diisocyanate pollution (MDI > 96.6?g/m³ and it have seen in the workers' urine. A new approach to assess isocyanate pollution in the workplace is risk factor assessment simultaneously with indoor air pollution and biological monitoring.

Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi

2010-01-01

140

75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Science.gov (United States)

...Office 32 CFR Part 2004 [NARA-09-0005] RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security...provides a new regulation identifier number (RIN). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laura...ISOO-09- 0001]''and correct the RIN to read ``3095-AB63''. Dated:...

2010-01-12

 
 
 
 
141

Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations. But since the inception of the oil industry in Nigeria, more than twenty-five years ago, there has been no concerned and effective effort on the part of the government, let alone the oil operators, to control environmental problems associated with the industry'. The article reviews the meaning of water pollution, water pollution categories, point source pollution, non-point source pollution, ground water pollution, causes of water pollution, pathogens, chemicals and other contaminants, thermal pollution, transport and chemical reactions of pollution, measurement of pollution, sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, biological testing, control of water pollution, domestic sewage, industrial waste water, agricultural waste water, construction site storm water urban runoff (storm water, radiation pollution, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, The National Policy on Environment, The national environmental reference laboratory, Water resources management, Strategies under the National Policy on Environment, Industrial water pollution control programme, Industrial effluent standards to provide some information on the Nigeria situation.

A.T. Ekubo

2011-11-01

142

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

2012-05-01

143

Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and wi...

Parvin Nasiri

1999-01-01

144

A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from 210Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ? 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our 14C and 210Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ? 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ? 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 ?g g-1. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution

2008-04-15

145

Full automatic system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the full automatic monitoring system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds is presented. Continual preparation of samples and their analysis ensure the instrument PROSPEKT and liquid chromatograph/diode array detector UV (LC/DAD UV) in 'on-line' connection. Function of the PROSPEKT instrument is described. This system works at levels ?g dm"-"3 - mg dm"-"3 and it is programmed for detecting of 18 compounds

1999-09-01

146

Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reduction of environmental concentration of air pollutants from industrial line sources by changing the geometrical orientation of the line source was studied. A case study was performed of two line sources, one composed of 16 and the other of 14 individual sources at a height of release ranging between 15 and 33 m and a uniform rate of release of pollutant of 1 Ci/s. Average environmental concentrations of the air pollutants were calculated for an original setting of the line sources, using a Gaussian model, in which the environmental conditions were represented by a three-dimensional matrix. These concentrations were then compared with those obtained from other settings of the line sources in which the individual sources, of the same physical height of release, were differently orientated geometrically, as well as with those obtained from a single source releasing the whole amount of pollutant (30 Ci/s) at a height of 70 m. It was found that there is a given geometrical orienta-tion of the line sources, which minimizes the concentration of the pollutant at given locations in the environment of the sources. The reduction of the average environmental concentration by a proper geometrical orientation of the sources, may attain values of up to about 50%, as compared with the original setting, as well as with a single source of 70 m height. Considering the substantial increase in cost of augmenting the height of release of pollutants as a means of reducing the air pollutants concentration, the proper geometrical orientation of line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving the environmental air quality. (H.K.)

1980-03-14

147

Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances - overview and current issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) has operated since 1973. The objectives of the National Plan are based on Australia's obligations as a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 and a responsibility to protect natural and artificial (man made) environments from the adverse effects of oil pollution and minimise those effects where protection is not possible. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is the managing agency of the National Plan, working together with the States and Northern Territory governments, other Commonwealth agencies, ports, and the shipping, oil and exploration industries, to maximise Australia's marine pollution response capability. The 1990s have been a period of significant change for oil spill response arrangements in Australia. The National Plan was extended in 1998 to cover chemical spills and is currently in the process of implementing the oil spill response incident control systems (OSRICS). A fixed wing aerial dispersant spraying capability was implemented in 1996 and a research and development program has been put in place. The development of a computer-based National Oil Spill Response Atlas was a major project completed during 1999. (Author)

2000-08-01

148

Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances - overview and current issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) has operated since 1973. The objectives of the National Plan are based on Australia's obligations as a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 and a responsibility to protect natural and artificial (man made) environments from the adverse effects of oil pollution and minimise those effects where protection is not possible. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is the managing agency of the National Plan, working together with the States and Northern Territory governments, other Commonwealth agencies, ports, and the shipping, oil and exploration industries, to maximise Australia's marine pollution response capability. The 1990s have been a period of significant change for oil spill response arrangements in Australia. The National Plan was extended in 1998 to cover chemical spills and is currently in the process of implementing the oil spill response incident control systems (OSRICS). A fixed wing aerial dispersant spraying capability was implemented in 1996 and a research and development program has been put in place. The development of a computer-based National Oil Spill Response Atlas was a major project completed during 1999. (Author)

Nelson, Paul [Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

2000-08-01

149

Impacts of different concentrations of main pollutants from the synthetic leather industry on the physiology and ecology of Pinus taiwanensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims Vegetation in developed areas of China has been polluted by dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene (TOL), solvents used in the synthetic leather industry; however, little research has been done on the impact of these pollutants on the physiology and ecology of trees.Methods In this paper, we studied the pollution effects of DMF and TOL on the physiological and ecological characteristics of Pinus taiwanensis.Important findings DMF began to induce an increase in total soluble sugars and gluta...

2011-01-01

150

Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winners

2000-03-01

151

Twentieth century shocks, trends and cycles in industrialized nations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using annual data on real Gross Domestic Product per capita of seventeen industrialized nations in the twentieth century the empirical relevance of shocks, trends and cycles is investigated. A class of neural network models is specified as an extension of the class of vector autoregressive models in order to capture complex data patterns for different countries and subperiods. Empirical evidence indicates nonlinear positive trends in the levels of real GDP per capita, time varying growth rat...

Dijk, H. K.

2004-01-01

152

POLLUTANT MONITORING IN THE OLYMPIC NATIONAL PARK BIOSPHERE RESERVE  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in global contamination has been instrumental in the establishment of over 33 Biosphere Reserves in the United States. These reserves include pristine areas that have been protected from industrial development. They serve as areas in which present and future environmenta...

153

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

2011-07-01

154

Analysis of black carbon, particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants in an industrial area in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), CO, NO 2, SO 2, benzene, toluene, and xylene were measured in an industrial area in Incheon City, Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that PC1 had high contributions from PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene (31.225%), and was strongly associated with vehicular emissions and industrial sources, the major contributors to air pollution in Incheon. PC2 was heavily enriched with NO 2 and BC (24.555%), and was attributed to emissions from vehicles such as buses, vans, taxis, cars, motorcycles, and trucks. PC3 was highly enriched with toluene and xylene (20.884%), and thus represented solvent usage. PC4 was enriched with SO 2 (12.884%), which could be attributed to the high S content in diesel fuel used in trucks, which may contribute to the high ambient levels of SO 2 in the city. Cluster analysis (CA) revealed four subgroups: Cluster 1 (SO 2), Cluster 2 (toluene and xylene), Cluster 3 (NO 2 and BC), and Cluster 4 (PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene), which agree with the PCA results. This study showed that benzene had a higher correlation with PM 2.5, PM 10, and CO than toluene and xylene, providing insights into source contributions that, together with a source-species atmospheric dispersion model, can be used to devise new control strategies for industrial urban areas. Our results suggest that appropriate vehicle emission management coupled with industrial air pollution control should be applied to fine particulate (PM 2.5) and gaseous pollutants including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in the study area.

Yoo, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jungkon; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

2011-12-01

155

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-07-01

156

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-03-01

157

Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

2007-01-01

158

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?-T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants. PMID:23313891

Zhu, Zongmin; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Han, Zhixuan; Yu, Genhua

2013-02-15

159

Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

1999-01-01

160

Identification of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants in untreated industrial wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a generic protocol for the determination of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants on untreated industrial wastewaters involving the use of two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methodologies followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Untreated industrial wastewaters might contain natural and synthetic dissolved organic compounds with total organic carbon (TOC) values varying between 100 and 3000 mg/L. All polar, ionic and highly water soluble compounds comprising more than 95% of the organic content and with major contribution to the total toxicity of the sample cannot be analyzed by conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and LC-MS is a good alternative. In this work two extraction procedures were used to obtain fractionated extracts of the nonionic polar compounds: a polymeric Isolute ENV + SPE cartridge for the preconcentration of anionic analytes and a sequential solid-phase extraction (SSPE) method percolating the samples first in octadecylsilica cartridge in series with the polymeric Lichrolut EN cartridge. Average recoveries ranging from 72% to 103% were obtained for a variety of 23 different analytes. Determination of nonionic pollutants was accomplished by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS), while anionic compounds were analyzed by ion pair chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (IP-ESI-MS) and LC-ESI-MS. This protocol was applied to a pilot survey of textile and tannery wastewaters leading to the identification and quantification of 33 organic pollutants.

Castillo, M.; Alonso, M.C.; Riu, J.; Barcelo, D. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1999-04-15

 
 
 
 
161

Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:20734618

Rai, Prabhat Kumar

2010-03-01

162

Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO_2, NO_x, CO_2, CO, CH_4, N_2O, NH_3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

2001-01-01

163

Assimilative Capacity Analysis of Air Pollutants over the Dawai Industrial Complex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assimilative capacity of Dawai industrial complex, located in Mynamar has been evaluated by the AERMOD air dispersion model. Maximum emission loadings of PM-10, SO2 and NO2 are calculated and presented in the unit of amount per unit of time as well as amount per area per unit of time. Assimilative capacity concentration is determined by subtract the 90% of air pollution standard with the exiting measured air concentration in the study area. Then the maximum loading is calculated using those assimilative capacity values. It is found that assimilative capacity of PM-10, SO2 and NO2 in this area are0.0025, 0.0031 and 0.0075 kg/ha/day, respectively. By considering the modeled results of maximum ground level concentration, it is found that dispersions of air pollutants in this study are greatly affected by complex topographical characteristic of the area.

Sarawut Thepanondh

2014-04-01

164

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ? Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ? Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ? Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants

2013-02-15

165

Single-Mother Families and Air Pollution: A National Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: This study uses tract-level demographic data and toxicity-weighted air pollutant concentration estimates for the continental United States to determine whether (1) single-mother families are overrepresented in environmentally hazardous Census tracts and (2) the percentage of single-mother families in a Census tract is a significant predictor of tract-level toxic concentration estimates. METHODS: After calculating tract-level toxic concentration estimates for the average female-headed family, male-headed family, and married-couple family with and without children, we use fixed-effects regression models to determine whether the percentage of single-mother families in a tract is a significant predictor of tract-level toxic concentration estimates. RESULTS: Single-mother families are overrepresented in environmentally hazardous Census tracts, and the percentage of single-mother families in a tract remains a significant predictor of estimated toxic concentration levels even after controlling for many of the most commonly used variables in the literature. CONCLUSION: Environmental inequality researchers need to broaden their focus beyond race and income to include groups such as single-mother families in their research. PMID:19347054

Downey, Liam; Hawkins, Brian

2008-01-01

166

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

NSTec Environmental Technical Services

2007-06-01

167

Recommended Integrated Monitoring System for Pollutants on US National Parks Designated as Biosphere Reserves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere re...

G. B. Wiersma

1985-01-01

168

75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...  

Science.gov (United States)

...apply to the Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) methods...Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National...on the mass and/or concentration of pollutants \\1...NPDES permits include effluent limitations that implement...below the level of the effluent limit established...

2010-06-23

169

Horse Hair as an Indicator of Pb Pollution Around Shiraz Oil Industry, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for using the horse hair as a bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Horse hair samples from different radial distances from oil and petrochemical industries of Shiraz were analyzed to determine their Pb content. Viz farms located in radial zone of 1-1.5, 1.5-5, 5-7, 7-10 km, respectively considered as group A, B, C and D. Group E (control farms) were far from exam place and roads. In order to sampling, each farm was v...

Mehrdad Pourjafar; Khalil Badiei; Mostafa Shakhse-Niaie

2008-01-01

170

Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and will discuss the findings in regard to noise control and management in details.

Parvin Nasiri

1999-03-01

171

Aquatic Fungi Recovered from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted With Industrial Effluents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nineteen species were recovered belonging to 9 genera of aquatic fungi in addition to unidentified species of Aphanomyces, Pythium and Saprolegnia. These species were isolated from surface water and submerged mud samples collected from canal polluted with industrial effluents of Kima factory for fertilizers and River Nile during the period from January to December 1996 at Aswan region, using baiting technique of sesame seeds at 22+1 oC. Pythium, Nowakowskiella and Saprolegnia contributed the broadest spectra of species. Pythium (5 identified in addition to unidentified species, Nowakowskiella (4 species, Saprolegnia (3 identified and unidentified species, whereas the other aquatic fungal genera of the narrowest spectra of species.

Farida T. El-Hissy

2001-01-01

172

78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Deletion of the Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund...Intent to Delete the Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund...Notice of Deletion of Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund...Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste,...

2013-07-26

173

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-02-01

174

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

175

Two pollution prevention technology evaluations for the printed circuit board industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Minnesota/EPA Waste Reduction Innovative technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program is one of seven programs nationwide in which EPA and cooperation states or local governments evaluate and demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of selected waste reducing technologies in a manufacturing or fully operation setting. The program in Minnesota, which began in mid 1989, targets the metal finishing industry, specifically rinsing operations within metal finishing operations, as the focus of the evaluations. The 5 technology evaluation projects planned for the full life of the Minnesota/EPA Program and subsequent technology transfer activities are intended to speed the early introduction of cleaner, pollution preventing technologies in the metal finishing industry. This extended abstract presents final results from the first project and preliminary results from the second project conducted under the Program

1992-01-01

176

[Retrospective monitoring of radioactive pollution in zones of the nuclear industry impact].  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach to the acquisition of retrospective information on the radioactive pollution of the territories to organize the radioecological monitoring of environment was proposed. The approach is based on the application of the method of dendrochronoindication, allowing one to obtain the retrospective information on the delivery and accumulation of radioactive and other chemicals in the growth rings of the trees. Statistical processing and the analysis of the arrays of the multidimensional retrospective data was carried out using the principal components method. It was shown that the approach proposed allows one to reveal the emergency emissions that took place in the past at the enterprises of nuclear industry and make a well-grounded selection of the monitoring sites to establish the radioecological monitoring in the zones of nuclear industry impact. PMID:17953431

Peremitina, T O; Polishchuk, Iu M; Nesveta?lo, V D

2007-01-01

177

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2011-06-01

178

Radiation-induced oxidation of biologically resistent organic pollutants in industrial waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidative ?-radiation-induced degradation of organic pollutants in industrial waste water is demonstrated with the biologically resistant chlorinated phenols as well as with a waste water containing organic dyes. Complete dechlorination of the chlorinated phenols is achieved with an absorbed dose of 6 Mrad. The organic chlorine is completely converted to chloride. In average 1 Mrad degrades 200 ppm of organic substrate. The final products of the radiation induced oxidation are degraded by activated sludge bacteria. The red coloured waste waters of biologically resistant anthraquinone dyes are completely decolourized after absorption of a ?-dose of 2.5 Mrad. With increasing irradiation time the TOC and COD values decrease. The irradiated decolourized solutions are not at all toxic for fish. - The radiation-induced oxidation of refractory industrial waste waters with non-biodegradable organic pollutants is discussed as a pretreatment to the activated-sludge process. The potential application of the Cs fission products or solified radioactive waste as radiation sources is briefly outlined. (orig.)

1977-01-01

179

Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

Timur, Emre

2014-05-01

180

Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failure.

I. M. Román-Sánchez

2013-06-01

182

Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as co...

Roma?n-sa?nchez, I. M.; Irene Carra

2013-01-01

183

The British National Museum of Science and Industry: Ingenious  

Science.gov (United States)

The British National Museum of Science and Industry (NMSI) hosts the Ingenious website, which "brings together images and viewpoints to create insights into science and culture." Visitors can read articles covering over 30 topics, including travelling, communication, and the environment. The entries are organized so you can explore topics further. For example, the section on Understanding our World includes a discussion of "the beauty and utility of maths," which then leads to three other articles on mathematics. The image or "See" section, which includes over 30,000 images from the Science Museum, the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, the National Railway Museum, the Science & Society Picture Library and the Science Museum Library, can be searched or browsed by topic area. By completing the free registration form, you can join in the Debate on questions such as "Has technology given us a home life filled with opportunities?" Registered users can also go to the Create section to set up personalized links, saved images, e-cards, and web galleries.

184

Guide to marine-pollution related data collected by federally sponsored projects identified in the FY 1984-1987 National Marine Pollution Program catalogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Section 8 of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-273, supplemented by PL 99-272 to include specifically the Great Lakes and estuaries of National importance) mandates that the results of Federally sponsored marine pollution programs be disseminated to all interested persons. In an effort to fulfill NOAA's responsibility under Section 8 of the Act, the Central Coordination and Referral Office (CCRO) of the Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN) has compiled summary descriptions of 98 projects described in the annual Summary of Federal Programs and Projects published for fiscal years 1984 through 1987 that have collected pollution related measurements in the marine or Great Lakes environment.

1991-08-01

185

Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

2008-03-01

186

Pollution strength in effluents of Telephone Industries of Pakistan (TIP) in Haripur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The telephone industries of Pakistan (TiP), being the oldest industry in District Haripur, is in is operation for the last forty years. Industrial wastewater is drained into a natural stream/nallah, which is either used for agricultural purposes of becomes part of an Ox-Bow lake in the midway used for fishing and it ultimately joins river Indus through river Haro. Effluents were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, hardness alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids and ammonia etc. Cations like nickel, copper, iron, chromium and anions like sulphates and nitrates were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Some trace metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, cobalt, arsenic and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. The results were interpreted an d compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). (author)

2000-10-01

187

Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale. PMID:23416485

Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

2013-03-15

188

Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

1998-01-21

189

Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

1998-10-01

190

Metal body burdens and detoxifying enzymes in spiders from industrially polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and metal concentrations have been monitored in four species of spiders from differently contaminated localities in Southern Poland. A behavioural feeding activity and the life style decide on sensitivity and vulnerability of spiders. Wolf-spiders, more active than the web-spinners, cumulate higher amounts of metals, reflecting quantitatively and qualitatively the pollution level in their environment. Detoxifying systems in spiders appeared inducible and efficient to maintain normal physiological responses. Within web-spinning spiders the linyphiids seem to be the most effective regulators of metal burdens. Their detoxifying capabilities correlate well with increased industrial contaminants. The analysis of biochemical biomarkers of exposure confirmed earlier ecological findings that species of the family Linyphiidae are more favoured than the Araneidae. Differences in their feeding activity, behaviour of web-spinning and the size of animals would explain alterations in detoxifying abilities between Meta segmentata and Araneus diadematus. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilczek, G. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, P. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland)

1996-03-01

191

Growth of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Mimosaceae in Polluted Soils of Landhi and Korangi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth of Albizia lebbeck was observed in the polluted soils from towel, garment, rubber and ply board factories in the vicinity of Landhi and Korangi industrial areas of Karachi. Growth of A. lebbeck was reduced in most of the industrial area soils as compared to the control soil from Karachi University campus. The rubber factory soil reduced all the growth parameters as compared to the control soil. Percentage of soil pollutants (total soluble salts and available sulfate in all of the industrial area soils was higher than in the control area soil. Percentage of coarse sand, calcium carbonate, total soluble salts, available sulfate, and chromium was higher in soil of rubber factory then in the control area soil whereas percentage of water holding capacity, organic matter and zinc was lower in soil from rubber factory than in the control area soil. This showed that the soil of industrial areas of Landhi and Korangi particularly from rubber factory and ply board factory was contaminated by the pollutants in the area and drastically affected the plant growth. The findings of this research could be helpful in monitoring and controlling the pollutant levels in soils of the industrial areas. Such information could also be useful for landscaping and urban planning.

Syed Atiq-ur- Rehman

2011-06-01

192

Pollution from metals and fluorine issued by industrial extraction sites in an agricultural zone; Pollution par des metaux et du fluor decoulants d`etablissements industriels d`extraction, dans une aire agricole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluoride and heavy metal pollution has been measured in a wide agricultural area of S.W. Sardinia in the vicinity of an important industrial and metal mining zone. Pb, Cd and F concentrations in soil, leaf and grape samples have been recorded, showing results often higher than toxicity thresholds. A strong relation between leaf and fruit pollutant concentration and dominant wind directions is demonstrated, showing that the major source of pollution is the nearby industrial site through atmospheric fallout

Melis, P.; Senette, C. [Universita di Sassari Viala Italia, Di S.A.A.B.A. (Italy)

1997-12-31

193

The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

1989-01-01

194

Air Pollution-Related Lichen Monitoring in National Parks, Forests, Refuges: Guidelines for Studies Intended for Regulatory and Management Purposes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guidance document is intended to serve as a resource for national park, forest, and refuge staff when considering lichen studies to address air quality concerns. It provides background regarding the use of lichens as air pollution indicators, their s...

E. Porter L. Geiser T. Blett

2003-01-01

195

Assessment of responsibility for pollution from PM10 and Sulfur dioxide. Application to an industrial area on the northeastern coast of Venezuela  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study proposes a methodology to determine the origin of industrial emissions in order to attribute responsibility to the industries that pollute nearby towns. The methodology has been applied to the industrial area on the northeastern coast of Venezuela. This area is close to six densely populated towns. The study also gives the estimated PM10 and SO2 levels in the towns adjacent to 11 industries, through modeling the dispersion of air pollutants from stationary sources. The mod...

Rinco?n Polo, Gladys; Cremades Oliver, La?zaro Vicente

2012-01-01

196

Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inici?...

Nadal Lomas, Marti?

2005-01-01

197

Recommended integrated monitoring system for pollutants on US national parks designated as biosphere reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere reserves and that can produce data that are comparable between reserves. This report discusses the design of a pollutant monitoring system that has been successfully used in the United States and provides detailed instructions for its application and use. Mathematical models were applied to help determine the optimum monitoring system design. The modeling technique is briefly described, and results are shown using lead as an example. Analytical procedures were chosen for sample analyses because of their ability to detect suspected pollutants and for their cost effectiveness. Multielemental analytical techniques were used whenever possible, and multiorganic analytical techniques were used when available. Samples of air, water, soil, vegetation, and forest litter were collected. The sampling design is discussed, including the layout of sampling blocks, subsampling, sample handling, and sample preservation. Detailed instructions are provided for obtaining samples and operating the necessary equipment. Finally, the maintenance of field log books and the timing of sample collections are discussed, and conclusions regarding the use of an integrated pollutant monitoring system for biosphere reserves are presented. 27 references, 25 figures

1985-01-01

198

Recommended integrated monitoring system for pollutants on US national parks designated as biosphere reserves. [Biosphere reserves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere reserves and that can produce data that are comparable between reserves. This report discusses the design of a pollutant monitoring system that has been successfully used in the United States and provides detailed instructions for its application and use. Mathematical models were applied to help determine the optimum monitoring system design. The modeling technique is briefly described, and results are shown using lead as an example. Analytical procedures were chosen for sample analyses because of their ability to detect suspected pollutants and for their cost effectiveness. Multielemental analytical techniques were used whenever possible, and multiorganic analytical techniques were used when available. Samples of air, water, soil, vegetation, and forest litter were collected. The sampling design is discussed, including the layout of sampling blocks, subsampling, sample handling, and sample preservation. Detailed instructions are provided for obtaining samples and operating the necessary equipment. Finally, the maintenance of field log books and the timing of sample collections are discussed, and conclusions regarding the use of an integrated pollutant monitoring system for biosphere reserves are presented. 27 references, 25 figures.

Wiersma, G.B.

1985-01-01

199

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT –THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DÂMBOVI?A COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat, knows no frontiers, which makes it absolutely necessary to unite our efforts and energies in order to assure the maintenance within normal limits of the ecological balance, both for the present and for future generations. Environmental protection is a relatively recent notion, the bad consequences on certain factors considered “destructive agents” (acid rains, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, escape gases, chemical fertilizers based on nitrogen, sulphur used in agriculture, pesticides, insecticides, insecto-fungicides, industrial waste, non-recyclable wrappers have led to major environmental misbalances, which triggered the prompt reaction of most of the world’s states. The complexity of environmental factors that influence and determine environmental balance justifies the need and opportunity of a environmental management system, organized as a component of the global system of public and private.

Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?

2009-10-01

200

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms

2003-07-01

202

Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification

2008-11-01

203

Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification.

Zverev, Vitali E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: vitzve@utu.fi; Zvereva, Elena L.; Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

2008-11-15

204

77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...North Carolina, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the Comprehensive...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The site to be deleted from the NPL is: Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund Site...

2012-01-20

205

78 FR 56611 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...South Carolina, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the Comprehensive...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The site to be deleted from the NPL is: Koppers Co., Inc. (Florence Plant)...

2013-09-13

206

77 FR 21919 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Illinois from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on this proposed action. The NPL, promulgated pursuant to Section 105 of...submitting comments. Email: Gladys Beard, NPL Deletion Process Manager, at...

2012-04-12

207

75 FR 54821 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List; Intent...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Denver, Colorado, from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on this proposed action...Groundwater associated with Operable Unit 8 will remain on the NPL. The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the...

2010-09-09

208

78 FR 69360 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California, from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on this proposed action. The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of...remaining areas of the Site will remain on the NPL and are not being considered for...

2013-11-19

209

78 FR 70256 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Municipal Landfill 1 Superfund Site (Site) located in Bartholomew County, Indiana from the National Priorities List (NPL...to 4:30 p.m. CST, excluding federal holidays. Bartholomew County Public Library, 536 Fifth Street, Columbus,...

2013-11-25

210

Study of industrial consumption behavior in the conditions of low power consumption and decrease of pollution using input-output analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study, regarding the industrial consumption behaviour at low power consumption and under low pollution constraints, making use of the input-output analysis, is based on models for prices, energy demand, and pollution. Numerical applications were developed by use of MATILDA program and the methods of setting the model parameters and data acquisition are presented. The analysis provided prognoses for pollution coefficients for given price and consumption input data and very important data for industrial consumption behavior. (author) 7 refs

1996-09-01

211

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2012-06-01

212

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility FEL industrial applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, a $600 million US Department of Energy national laboratory, serves basic science by carrying out a primary mission of nuclear and particle physics research. A technologically related secondary mission now also exists for Jefferson Lab: applied research to develop superconducting radio-frequency (SRF)-based free-electron lasers as cost-effective new manufacturing capabilities for industry. A number of high-technology corporations and research universities, believing in the potential of SRF-driven FELs to overcome the constraints of cost, capacity, wavelength, and pulse-length, have formed the Laser Processing Consortium, and have joined with Jefferson Lab to develop the needed laser technology. Consortium members plan a range of industrial applications. In the area of polymer surface processing, they intend to develop amorphization to enhance adhesion, fabric surface texturing, enhanced food packaging, and induced surface conductivity. In micromachining, applications are ultrahigh-density CD-ROM technology, surface texturing; micro-optical components, and Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS). In metal surface processing proposed applications are laser glazing for corrosion resistance and adhesion pre-treatments. In electronic materials processing, the authors will investigate large-area processing (flat-panel displays) and a laser-based icluster tool for combined deposition, etching, and in situ diagnostics. The potential commercial value of the technology is significant, impacting several multibillion dollar markets. Moreover, significant additional applications exist in basic and applied research. The FEL is laid out in a racetrack configuration to utilize energy recovery of the spent electron beam. The electrons are produced in a 350 kV DC photocathode gun and accelerated to 10 MeV in a superconducting accelerating unit with 1 meter of active length. The electrons are then accelerated in an SRF cryomodule up to an energy of 57 MeV. In order to minimize emittance-growth effects and to accelerate the commissioning process, the FEL is placed at the exit of the linac. The electron beam is deflected around two cavity mirrors in two magnetica chicanes with a path-length dispersion (M56) of 30 cm. After the FEL, the beam can be recirculated for energy recovery and dumped at the injection energy of 10 MeV. The recirculation loop is based on the isochronous achromat used in the MIT Bates accelerator but designed with an energy acceptance of 6%. They estimate that the power output at 3 ?m should be 980 W with a small signal gain of 46%. This paper will explore the technical and economic justification of the design and present the commissioning progress to date

1998-01-01

213

STUDY ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTED INDUSTRIAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waterways are contaminated with industrial waste containing different concentrations of heavy metals, solvents and various other organic substances. All these waste products reach the people after they have accumulated in the food chain for decades. Even worse, they gather in the groundwater from which most of the drinking water is sourced. In order to determine the contents of heavy metals - arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, zinc - from various sources of drinking water and groundwater, this paper analyzed 11 water sources of drinking water and groundwater. The results were interpreted according to European quality standards and national limits that should not be exceeded to protect ecosystems and human health. In relation to national quality standards for drinking water and groundwater, all the samples showed concentrations of heavy metals within limits. Lead, chromium and nickel had non-detect values in most samples.

Florica Morar

2012-11-01

214

Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (?-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

2006-11-16

215

Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

2005-01-01

216

Sector Model of Development of the National Economy of Ukraine under Post-industrial Society Conditions ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article discloses provisions of the sector model of development of the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. It improves and expands theoretical foundations of the sector model of the national economy. It identifies specific features of the structure of the sector model of the national economy depending on the stage of country development. It provides results of this model modelling for the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society c...

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Pirog Olga V.

2013-01-01

217

Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60 min HRT. In conclusion, results confirmed that the application of the proposed sequential treatments removed almost all COD, BOD5, high molecular weight compounds, and silica from RAKTA and El-Ahlia influents and produced high-quality effluents, thus achieving the main objective of this study. PMID:18716811

El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

2008-11-01

218

Towards a comprehensive analysis of cleaner technology potentials to address industrial pollution arising from natural rubber processing industry: A case study of Cameroon Development Corporation - Rubber Factories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The introduction of best environmental practices (in this study it implies adoption of cleaner technology in varying degrees) among industrial enterprises in Cameroon remains a serious challenge to environmental policy makers. Whilst research has shown that the rubber industry can play an important role in strengthening a nation’s economic development; its negative environmental impacts, due to poor effluent treatments and the lack of research to generate more knowledge on oppor...

Napi Wouapi; Tamo Maimo

2007-01-01

219

Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER. Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. Conclusion The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.

Pollán Marina

2008-08-01

220

Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area  

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Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

Alma Shehu

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

2003-03-28

222

76 FR 58404 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...County, Colorado, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the Comprehensive...units 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12 will remain on the NPL and are not being considered for deletion as part of...

2011-09-21

223

76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...County, New Mexico, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the Comprehensive...part of the Site. The other 27 acres will remain on the NPL and are not being considered for deletion as part of...

2011-03-02

224

78 FR 66325 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site AGENCY...issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site (Site...direct final Notice of Deletion of the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site without...

2013-11-05

225

Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39, which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92, residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38. In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76, whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

Aragonés Nuria

2011-01-01

226

Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

2013-12-01

227

Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

2010-05-01

228

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?polluted soils R2 and R3. Reduced diversity accompanied by apparent community shifts of both AOB and AOA populations was detected in R2 and R3 soils. AOB were dominated with Nitrosospira-like sequences, whereas AOA were dominated by Thaumarchaeal "group 1.1b (Nitrososphaera clusters)." We suggest that the significant reduction in abundance and diversity AOA and AOB could serve as relevant bioindicators for soil quality monitoring of polluted sites. These results could be further useful for better understanding of AOB and AOA communities in polluted soils. PMID:24554021

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

229

The Federal Entrepreneur: The Nation's Implicit Industries Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examines the forms of federal assistance to the private sector, their industry and firm targets, and the cost effectiveness of alternative forms of incentives. In the aggregate, federal industry policies appear to be heavily weighted to equity c...

P. Levinson M. Bendick L. Ledebur D. Rasmussen

1982-01-01

230

Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

2009-01-01

231

Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca2+, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

2007-02-15

232

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. Also the topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the north-west contribute to the influence of the industries located in the north onto this region. The region selected in this work includes a oil-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centred in a oil powered station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hung. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For a 9 month period and every three months, one transplant of each set was collected. We have no knowledge of any other study on differentiation elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata where the component wind direction is taken into account. Some information on local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The transplants were analysed by INAA. Contents on Cl, Na, Ca, V and Zn are mapped and discussed. (author)

2000-03-20

233

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND HEAVY METALS PROFILE OF CHALLAWA RIVER IN KANO, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study analyzed the effect of heavy metals discharge, from industrial effluents, on River Challawa in Kano, Nigeria. The Challawa River is used for many purposes including irrigation, fishing and water supply. Sampling was conducted during wet (September and dry (May season. Wastewater samples at the point of discharge into the river were collected and analyzed. The mean level of Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn discharged into the river, during dry season, were 2.297, 1.290, 1.051, 2.986, 9.408 and 2.054 mg L-1 respectively. Similarly, the mean discharge of these metals, during wet season, was 1.634, 0.727, 1.252, 22.230, 8.911, and 2.013mg L-1 respectively. The discharge Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn into the river, for both seasons, has exceeded the maximum permissible limit given by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA and WHO. The Challawa River is also sampled at points along its length and the presence of some of these pollutants was evident at the various points. Level of Cr, Pb, Mn and Fe in the river, for both seasons, were found to be higher than the maximum limits given by FEPA and WHO, and this calls for a caution. The need to bring to an end the indiscriminate discharge of untreated effluent into the river through the enforcement of FEPA guidelines is also highlighted.

M.H. BICHI

2010-03-01

234

Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the floodplain area in which the rivers Rhine and Meuse join. They contained high loads of heavy metals in the 1960s and 1970s, and polluted sediments were deposited in the floodplains. These polluted la...

Notten, M. J. M.

2005-01-01

235

The Polluter Pays Principle under WTO law: The case of national energy policy instruments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study addresses the compatibility of the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) with obligations under world trade law as administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO). In particular we look at the instruments of German domestic and international energy policy, analysing the relationship between those instruments, the PPP and WTO rules. The main finding is that German national environmental policy instruments for the implementation of the PPP generally do not infringe upon WTO rules if properly designed and applied. In particular, German energy laws, which aim at reducing greenhouse gases, are compatible with international trade law. Command and control policies as well as labels do not discriminate against foreign suppliers. Aspects of possible incompatibility of national energy policy measures with specific WTO rules are discussed. (orig./CB)

Biermann, F.; Boehm, F.; Brohm, R.; Droege, S.; Trabold, H.

2003-07-01

236

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

1997-01-01

237

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

NONE

1997-06-01

238

Rise of air pollution control as a national political issue: a study of issue development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is concerned with a description and analysis of the rise of air pollution control as a national political issue. The focus is on the process of issue development at the federal level during the 12 year period from 1948 to 1960 when the framework for contemporary national policy was established. The study examines the efforts of a small group of scientists within US Public Health Service to define an issue for federal policy making, expand the scope of conflict, and mobilize a supportive constituency. Particular attention is paid to analyzing the strategies and techniques by which support was generated, and the profound changes that took place regarding what the conflict was about, the participants involved, and the resources the parties were willing to commit to the conflict as the issue expanded in scope, intensity, and visibility. An important objective of the analysis is to identify the elements in the conflict that led to the expansion of the dispute beyond those parties initially involved. The resources and strategies of opponents seeking to contain issue expansion and keep the issue off the agenda are also examined. An assessment is made of the determinants of political change and the effect which the process of issue development had on subsequent government action regarding pollution control.

Bernstein, S.

1982-01-01

239

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

1995-07-01

240

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

2011-05-26

242

76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

2011-07-18

243

Atmospheric Pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a biomonitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio aborda la aplicación de técnicas nucleares para analizar elementos traza en el monitor biológico Tillandsia usneoides (heno). El uso de monitores biológicos proporciona una alternativa ventajosa en el muestreo de material particulado en estudios de contaminación del aire, ya que no requ [...] iere dispositivos especiales de muestreo y el tiempo de monitoreo puede ser tan largo como se desee. T. usneoides que crece en todo el país, se utilizo para estudiar la calidad del aire del corredor Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) en el estado de Hidalgo. Esta área es considerada zona crítica debido a la alta concentración de contaminantes atmosféricos. Las plantas fueron trasplantadas desde un entorno limpio a cuatro sitios en el corredor de TVA y expuestas durante 12 semanas de febrero a abril de 2008. La acumulación de elementos traza en plantas sin lavar y secas se determino por PIXE y NAA. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diferencias en la distribución de elementos traza entre los sitios del corredor TVA y muestran que el monitoreo con T. usneoides permite establecer una primera aproximación de fuentes de contaminantes atmosféricos. Abstract in english This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sam [...] pling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout México, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central México. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by Particle induced X ray Emission PIXE and Neutron Activa-tion Analysis (NAA). Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor.

Martínez-Carrillo, M.A.; Solís, C.; Andrade, E.; Beltrán-Hernández, R.I.; Isaac-Olivé, K.; Lucho-Constantino, C.A.; López Reyes, M.C.; Longoria, L.C..

244

77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

2012-06-21

245

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... more vulnerable to die from ozone air pollution? Epidemiology. 2008; 19: 672-679. 4 . Thaller EI, Petronell ... the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Epidemiology. 2005; 16:436-445. Levy JI, Chermerynski SM, ...

246

Air Pollution and 'Dirty' Industries. How and Why Does the Composition of Manufacturing Output Change with Economic Development?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the impact on air pollution of changes in the composition of manufacturing output in developed and developing countries. Pollution emissions from manufacturing output are estimated in a manner which holds constant the effect of technology and regulations allowing the impact of compositional changes alone on pollution to be estimated. The paper has three main findings; (1) the inverted-U estimated between per capita income and the pollution intensity of GDP arises due to both the composition of manufacturing becoming cleaner and the share of manufacturing output in GDP falling. Compositional changes alone are not responsible for the inverted-U between per capita income and per capita emissions; (2) changes to the composition of manufacturing output are consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis, however there is clear evidence that rising per capita incomes are associated with a failing income elasticity of demand for 'dirty' products. This fact may explain the compositional changes that occur with development; (3) in addition to the income elasticity effect, the analysis suggests that land prices and to a lesser extent the prices of labour and capital, determine the proportion of dirty industry within a country's manufacturing sector. 27 refs

2000-09-01

247

Detoxication of industrial pollutants by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase system in the liver of Anabas testudineus (Bloch)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interrelationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of a freshwater climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch) exposed to common industrial pollutants has been studied. In both short- and long-term treatments there was a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione profile and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity. It may be surmised that the majority of xenobiotics of industrial origin are detoxicated by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase pathways enabling the fish to survive exposure to the additive and/or synergistic toxicity of mixtures of poisons.

Chatterjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

1984-08-01

248

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

1998-10-01

249

Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to strengthen potential market share, which is the focus of this article. What may at first appear in the Danish case as an absurd and non-productive relationship is actually significant, I would argue, despite its complexity. It has the potential to stimulate critical fashion design practice and give fashion designers a voice, allowing them to take an active part in contemporary public debates on important issues such as nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization.

Marie Riegels Melchior

2011-04-01

250

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

Gerard, Morgan Evan

2011-12-01

251

Shuffled pack comes up trumps. [National gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review is given of the performance of the world's gas industry in 1991. Topics covered include commercial production, reserves and investment, particularly in Russia. A regional analysis is also presented. (UK).

Heren, P.

1992-08-01

252

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. A compilation as of December 31, 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document is a compilation of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP's) promulgated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, represented in full as amended. Section I is an introduction to the standards, explaining their purpose and interpreting the working concepts that have developed through their implementation. Section II contains a 'quick-look' summary of each standard, including the dates of proposal, promulgation, and any subsequent revisions. Section III is the complete standards with all amendments incorporated into the material. Section IV contains the full text of all revisions, including the preamble which explains the rationale behind each revision. Section V is all proposed amendments to the standards.

1985-01-01

253

The implications of Australia's carbon pollution reduction scheme for its National Electricity Market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the major implications for the National Electricity Market of the introduction of a domestic cap-and-trade carbon pollution reduction scheme in Australia. The electricity sector is the largest source of emissions in the Australian economy, and it is this sector, therefore, that will bear the brunt of the impact of the proposed scheme. The paper addresses core issues for the electricity market up to 2020 operating under the scheme. It focuses specifically on its impact on electricity prices and generation technology mix. These two variables have been assessed using a number of models, each applying different assumptions about key impact factors. In this paper we present a comparative summary of the results of the three highest-profile models and compare their assumptions in order to explain differences in projected outcomes. This comparison will give an indication of the likely range of impacts on the market of the current design of the scheme.

2010-09-01

254

The implications of Australia's carbon pollution reduction scheme for its National Electricity Market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the major implications for the National Electricity Market of the introduction of a domestic cap-and-trade carbon pollution reduction scheme in Australia. The electricity sector is the largest source of emissions in the Australian economy, and it is this sector, therefore, that will bear the brunt of the impact of the proposed scheme. The paper addresses core issues for the electricity market up to 2020 operating under the scheme. It focuses specifically on its impact on electricity prices and generation technology mix. These two variables have been assessed using a number of models, each applying different assumptions about key impact factors. In this paper we present a comparative summary of the results of the three highest-profile models and compare their assumptions in order to explain differences in projected outcomes. This comparison will give an indication of the likely range of impacts on the market of the current design of the scheme. (author)

2010-09-01

255

air pollution: temporal and spatial distribution of delta /sup 13/C in plants of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of sigma-/sup 13/C in Eucalyptus (Safeda) plants from Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate and its surroundings. The leaves of the Eucalyptus plants were collected from four locations of the Gadoon Amazai area at regular intervals during January 1993 to June 1996. The greenish, old and whole leaf samples were air dried, homogeneously ground (40 mesh) and converted into CO/sub 2/ for SIGMA-13 analysis on isotope ratio mass spectrometer. /sup 13/C depletion in the plant leaves is more in industrial estate than its surroundings. This can be attributed to the depletion of /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased 13 of the ambient air CO/sub 2/ in the industrial area. These, in turn, influenced the plant /sup 13/C during photosynthesis. Temporal variation shows that CO/sub 2/ pollution is increasing in industrial zone with time. Furthermore, the pollution is less in plains side than the mountain side, which is proved by the Sigma-/sup 13/C results of the surroundings. (author)

1997-01-01

256

[Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil. PMID:24720220

Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

2014-01-01

257

Industrial grand challenges: A competitiveness strategy for the DOE national laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Cold War has been won; won in part by superior technology; superior technology such as that found in the DOE national laboratories. However, new challenges face the country, for it is clear that our historic notions of national security have changed to include economic security as well as defense. Economic security means that our industries are able to successfully compete in international markets in order to provide a high domestic standard of living. It is also recognized that US industries must achieve and maintain a leadership in technology and that the technology base of the DOE national laboratories must now be mobilized to support US industry. Once again the laboratories are called upon to support the country in a time of need. Because of this need we are seeing a significant change in mission for the Department of Energy national laboratories in their role as problem solvers for the nation. In particular, the Defense Programs (DP) national labs (Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia National Laboratories, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems Y-12) are moving from dosed institutions to open centers with significant resources ready to support US industry more vigorously than ever before. The DP laboratories are enthusiastic about their new mission and are reaching out to industry in an effort to understand industries` needs and find applications for Laboratory skills and technologies.

Werne, R.W.

1993-10-14

258

Influence of industry on pollution of the environment and human population with natural radionuclides and heavy metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of fallout of 226Ra depending on the distance from industrial emission sources has been evaluated. Contamination of soil with natural radionuclides in industrial and rural regions of Poland has been compared with the concentration of radionuclides in ash of aerophytic plants. An increase of airborne pollutants in precipitation in Southern Poland has been compared with an increase of the concentration of pollutants in pine trees. Samples of human bones from Southern Poland have been checked for contents of lead. It has been found that in 20th century concentration of lead decreased to a level not much higher than natural. The level of 226Ra in Polish population had been decreasing during the last 100 years. This points to the conclusion that human skeleton is well protected as the level of radionuclides was not related to the level of environmental pollution. The concentration of 226Ra in air is steadily increasing and an upward transport leads to its wide distribution. (E.G.M.)

1982-01-01

259

Nuclear-physical methods in complex biomonitoring of pollution in the copper-molybdenum non-ferrous industrial region 'Erdenet' (Mongolia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop a system of complex monitoring of heavy metals in the areas affected by hazardous industrial impact of Erdenet Mining Corporation of the environment of Mongolia the biomonitoring techniques were applied in combination with nuclear and related analytical methods. The moss (Paltegera) was used to assess the atmospheric deposition patterns of heavy metals and other toxic elements over a large territory affected by non-ferrous industry in the town of Erdenet. Its impact on pasture animals (goats and sheet) was studied through analysis of such inner organs as lung, spleen, liver, kidney and heart. A total of 40 elemental concentrations in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP (Frank Lab. of Neutron Physics), JINR, Dubna.The distribution of 14 biogenic elements and heavy metals in water samples was investigated by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescent analysis (TXRF) at Nuclear Research Centre of the National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar. The results obtained evidence for strong accumulation of element-pollutants typical of non-ferrous industry in the town of Erdenet: Cu, Cr, Fe, Ba, etc., along with other trace elements and rare earths for the first time determined in these environmental objects. The results can be used for integrated assessment of ecological situation near the city of Erdenet, and planning for the protection of the environment and public health

2009-01-01

260

Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

75 FR 57271 - Creating an Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A National Vision  

Science.gov (United States)

...States: A Strategic Work Plan for the United States Department of Energy, Fiscal Years 2011-2015...offshore_wind_strategic_plan.pdf. DATES: Comments...Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A National Vision and Call to...

2010-09-20

262

Pollution Prevention and Control Permitted Processes  

...HomeAbout UsLinksContact UsSpeech EnabledSite MapConsultationsPollution ControlPollutionWater PollutionPollution Prevention & ControlPollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions)Pollution...

263

An investigation of the impact of inorganic air pollutants on soils in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental data related to the evaluation of inorganic air pollution input to the Saguaro National Monument ecosystem were collected over four years. The data specific to soils are presented in this document. The enrichment factor approach is employed to provide a framework for simplified interpretation of this large collection of data.

Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Duriscoe, D.M. [USDI National Park Service, Three Rivers, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

264

Sector Model of Development of the National Economy of Ukraine under Post-industrial Society Conditions ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discloses provisions of the sector model of development of the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. It improves and expands theoretical foundations of the sector model of the national economy. It identifies specific features of the structure of the sector model of the national economy depending on the stage of country development. It provides results of this model modelling for the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. The offered sector model of the national economy of Ukraine provides achievement of the level of development of the developed world countries (EU-27 and takes into account structural and technological requirements of the post-industrial society.? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????. ????????????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? (??-27 ? ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????.

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.

2013-07-01

265

Does increasing energy or electricity consumption improve quality of life in industrial nations?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the world's nations, per capita energy and electricity consumption is highly correlated with diverse indicators of quality of life. This is often interpreted to mean that additional energy and electricity consumption causes improvements in life quality. Prior analyses of cross-sectional data question this interpretation for industrial nations that already have high per capita energy consumption. The present analysis with longitudinal data shows that among industrial nations, increases in per capita energy and electricity consumption over the past three decades are not associated with corresponding improvements in quality of life. - Research highlights: ? Increased energy and electricity use is essential for poor nations to improve wellbeing. ? This analysis is limited to industrial nations, already high in energy consumption. ? Changes in per capita energy/electricity use are not associated with improved wellbeing.

2011-05-01

266

The role of the space industry in building capacity in emerging space nations  

Science.gov (United States)

The space industry in established space-faring nations is playing an increasingly important role in the development of capacity in emerging space nations. The role of industry ranges from provision of turn-key systems, to provision of training and joint development of satellites in partnership with emerging space countries. Ranked number 1 worldwide in terms of satellites ordered in 2006, Thales Alenia Space is at the heart of the most high performance satellite technologies in both civil and defense sectors. The company has been involved in parterships with a number of emerging space nations. This paper discusses several key factors for successful interaction of industry with national space programmes in emerging space nations.

Esterhazy, David

2009-11-01

267

Does increasing energy or electricity consumption improve quality of life in industrial nations?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the world's nations, per capita energy and electricity consumption is highly correlated with diverse indicators of quality of life. This is often interpreted to mean that additional energy and electricity consumption causes improvements in life quality. Prior analyses of cross-sectional data question this interpretation for industrial nations that already have high per capita energy consumption. The present analysis with longitudinal data shows that among industrial nations, increases in per capita energy and electricity consumption over the past three decades are not associated with corresponding improvements in quality of life. - Research highlights: {yields} Increased energy and electricity use is essential for poor nations to improve wellbeing. {yields} This analysis is limited to industrial nations, already high in energy consumption. {yields} Changes in per capita energy/electricity use are not associated with improved wellbeing.

Mazur, Allan, E-mail: amazur@syr.ed [Center for Environmental Policy and Administration, 435 Crouse-Hinds Hall, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

2011-05-15

268

Effects of air and soil pollution by industrial waste on the fructification of Scotch pine in the Urals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pollution of aerial environment with smoke gases gives rise to heavy weakening of the forest stands and to reduction of their increment. This was demonstrated convincingly enough, especially in the works of numerous German, Czech, Polish, and Soviet foresters and physiologists. There is far less information on the change of the forest species reproductive capacity in the conditions of heavy pollution. The authors do not have enough observations, showing the effects of smoke gases on characteristics of the forest tree fructification. Therefore, in essence, it is not known until now, how great is the degree of these effects. It is obscure, too, what are the characteristics of quality changes of the seeds of trees suffering from smoke gases. In the present paper are given the results of the investigations carried out in the pine forests growing near industrial centers in the Urals. The main task of the investigations was the establishing of smoke gas effects on the seeding intensity and quality.

Mamaev, S.A.; Shkarlet, O.D.

1972-01-01

269

Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities

2008-01-01

270

Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

2008-01-15

271

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

2002-01-01

272

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

Guy, K. [Wise Guys Ltd., Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Boekholt, P. [Technopolis, Innovation Policy Research Associates, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaellen, E. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Norway); Downing, T. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Verbruggen, A. [University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

2002-02-01

273

[The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'. PMID:22372007

Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

2011-01-01

274

[Industrial preventive medicine for gas-extractors of Far North in realization of "Health" national project].  

Science.gov (United States)

Elaborated and tested in JSC "Nadymgazprom", system of industrial prophylactic medicine considers peculiarities of gas extracting industry and extreme climate conditions of high northern latitudes, enables purposeful diseases prevention and workers rehabilitation, longer occupational length of service, corresponds with strategy to better public health in Russia according to "Health" priority national project. PMID:18767218

Kononov, V I; Babkin, V P; Shishkina, T N; Golubkin, V K; Zinaidova, T I; Penkin, V V; Bogun, I A; Petropavlov, E A; Pisarenko, A A; Gerelishin, I Ia; Konovalov, M G

2008-01-01

275

An Employer Survey on Industrial Sector Involvement in Malaysian National Dual Training System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this survey is to get industrial employers’ feedback on the reasons for their lack of involvement in National Dual Training System (NDTS) organized by the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. Industrial employers’ involvement and support is very important in ensuring NDTS implementation success. Therefore, it is very critical to identify factors and barriers that hinder industrial sectors from participating in NDTS program. A survey q...

Baba Md. Deros; Suzana Mohammed Zohdi; Darliana Mohamad; Nor Kamaliana Khamis; Nizaroyani Saibani

2012-01-01

276

76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is...the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production...

2011-07-19

277

Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

278

National industry's interest in colorectal cancer screening programmes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interest of the largest 200 British industries in developing and financing colorectal screening services for employees was determined. A standard questionnaire asked if the company would advertise screening supply names of employees to local hospitals and finance faecal occult blood testing. The reasons for rejection were noted. Eighty-six companies returned the questionnaire (43% response rate) of which 78 firms (39% of the total mailed) were prepared to advertise screening programmes at...

1994-01-01

279

Nutrition in industrial health at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nutritional status of an individual plays a key role in the reduction and prevention of illness. This involves maintenance of ideal body weight by using a diet that economically optimizes nutrients. The achievement and maintenance of good health in the industrial population helps us to avoid resource losses. The ORNL nutritional counseling program's major emphasis is to correct and control diet related risk factors to cardiovascular disease.

Casey, B.J.

1981-01-01

280

Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

Haiyuan Qiu

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

2011-01-01

282

The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex coastal industrial site nearby populated areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and coastal terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a site already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at site. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and diffusion of pollutants emitted in the area of the industrial complex. All effects studied, although influenced by local conditions, characterize not only this industrial area but all areas located along the coastline. This location is highly frequent in Italy and the World, as most industrial complexes in the World occur at coastal sites, where access to harbors and transport networks are facilitated. The Valle del Biferno case may then yield important data to many industrial sites.

Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.

2010-09-01

283

Loyalty (The National Principles): Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2) that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP) on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second N...

Romzi A.; Ahmad Tarmizi A. R.; Mansur T.; Anna Lynn A. B.; Budi Anto M. T.; Nordin, M.

2011-01-01

284

Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (>100 ?g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. PMID:22047737

Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

2011-12-15

285

Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

Michael Sandvig

2011-01-01

286

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-10-15

287

The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, paper and energy and many other fields. Historically the industry started up in 1874 based on empiric knowledge on use of rennet in production of cheese from Switzerland and Germany and later enriched by scientific knowledge produced in the company and institutions all over the world. Important for the company was resources of calve stomachs from which the active stuff can be extracted. The private university, The Carlsberg Laboratory, established nearly at the same time, became after First World War a world leader in research of enzymes. And inspiration from here to the pharmaceutical company in insulin production, Novo, resulted in extraction of valuable enzymes from porcine pancreases used in production of insulin. Thethird company, Danisco, started its enzyme business up in the 1930s and is today one of the important players. An important question in the paper is about the future of the companies in Denmark. There is no definitive answer to this question. But a combination of raw materials, growing markets and a good understanding of production based on science based engineering seem to be a strong argument in this discussion.

Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard Technical University of Denmark,

288

Raised mortality from lung cancer and high sex ratios of births associated with industrial pollution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geographical and temporal associations were shown between high mortality from lung cancer and a high sex ratio of births both in the town of Bathgate (Scotland) and in the area of that town which was most exposed to polluted air from a local steel foundry. These findings constituted a replication of a similar association in an adjacent town.

Lloyd, O. L.; Smith, G.; Lloyd, M. M.; Holland, Y.; Gailey, F.

1985-01-01

289

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

290

Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

291

Bioaccumulation of pollutants in the zebra mussel from hazardous industrial waste and evaluation of spatial distribution using GAMs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Flix Reservoir (Ebro River, Spain), ca. 300,000tons of industrial waste were dumped because of the activity of a factory plant in Flix. Within the recovery program implemented, this exceptional situation provides a unique opportunity to test the value of zebra mussel as sentinel organism. Ten metal concentrations were measured in mussels from different sites to assess spatial redistribution of metals and bioavailability to the food web. Our results showed an important metal uptake by mussels; metal concentrations (except As) measured in impacted sites were up to 10 times higher than in control sites, and Mn and Hg exceeded several times the levels previously reported for polluted waters. Concentrations increased downstream showing the metal mobilization from polluted sediments in Flix Reservoir. The higher metal concentrations measured in zebra mussel individuals clearly indicated their bioavailability to the food web, allowing the toxics transfer to predators and occasionally to humans. Thus, zebra mussel is a valuable sentinel organism to identify highly polluted waters, transport routes and trophic transfer. PMID:21176943

Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

2011-02-01

292

Study of Metallic Pollutants in Water and Food Items of an Industrial City by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the base line levels of potentially toxic and essential trace metals namely, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn in water, locally grown vegetables, cereals and vegetable ghee-oil samples of a highly industrial city `Gujranwala` have been measured after wet digestion by employing AAS technique. Sampling was made from selected sites in and around the city over a period of three months. The concentration of Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb was found significantly higher in vegetables ranging from 3-63, 2-81, 5-92, 7-70 and 6-60 ppm respectively. Nickel and Cu concentration was found higher in cereals whereas, Cd was found at ppb level in all variety of samples studied. Tap water, vegetable ghee-oil have recorded lower concentration of these metals. Vegetables collected from urban area have shown elevated level of contamination than those of taken from canal irrigated farms. The overall level of trace metals with few exceptions of vegetable samples was found within the permissible limits fixed by WHO. The analytical method was checked by applying on SRM of wheat and spinach. The results were found in agreement with the certified values within experimental error. The major polluting sources of the city such as automobile, man made activities, soil and road dust, metallic corrosion and industrial activities have been indicated. The environmental impacts of pollutants on water and food quality of an industrial and non-industrial city are briefly discussed in the light of their adverse effects on human health.

Muhammad Haleem Khan

2003-01-01

293

Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750–1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 ?g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: ? Natural sources dominated trace element input in large perialpine lakes before the European industrial revolution. ? WWTP implementation in the 1970s significantly decreased the metal pollution at the deepwater sites. ? Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva is heavily contaminated by heavy metals due to WWTP emissions after 1964. ? Lead isotopic composition highlights industrial pollution sources over the last 200 years.

2011-12-15

294

Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 {mu}g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural sources dominated trace element input in large perialpine lakes before the European industrial revolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WWTP implementation in the 1970s significantly decreased the metal pollution at the deepwater sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva is heavily contaminated by heavy metals due to WWTP emissions after 1964. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead isotopic composition highlights industrial pollution sources over the last 200 years.

Thevenon, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Thevenon@yahoo.fr [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Graham, Neil D. [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Pote, John [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland)

2011-12-15

295

Activities of the National Institutes of Health relating to energy efficiency and pollution prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is one of the world's premier biomedical research centers. Although NIH owns and operates more than 1,300 acres and 197 buildings across the country, the main campus is in Bethesda, Maryland. This campus consists of over 312 acres and 75 laboratories and other buildings, which consume vast amounts of energy. Aware of the NIH role in setting biomedical research agendas and priorities, its administrators strive to set good examples in energy efficiency and pollution prevention. Three current projects are presented as "best practices" examples of meeting the stated commitment of NIH to leadership in environmental stewardship: a) design and current construction of a 250-bed clinical research hospital designed to allow conversion of patient care units to research laboratories and vice-versa; b) design and construction of a six-story research laboratory that combines energy-saving innovations with breakthroughs in research technologies; and c) a massive, $200-million modernization of the campus utility infrastructure that involves generation systems for steam and chilled water and distribution systems for chilled water, steam, potable water, electricity, communications and computer networking, compressed air, and natural gas. Based on introduction of energy-efficiency measures, millions of dollars in savings for energy needs are projected; already the local electric utility has granted several million dollars in rebates. The guiding principles of NIH environmental stewardship help to ensure that energy conservation measures maximize benefits versus cost and also balance expediency with efficiency within available funding resources. This is a committee report for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. PMID:11121359

Ficca, S A; Chyun, Y D; Ebrahimi, M; Kutlak, F; Memarzadeh, F

2000-12-01

296

Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research: provision against climate change and environmental pollution (Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research (KNLTER was initiated in 2004 by the Korean Ministry of Environment. This project entered its third and final phase in 2010. Committee members have suggested that the project needs to be assessed in terms of its achievement and advised regarding its refinement. In this review, we recapitulated the last 7 years of KNLTER progress for developing further program improvements. We reviewed ecological research before the existing LTER, project initiation, the increase in the number of research sites, and research topics. Then, we briefly examine the status of KNLTER and discuss areas for improvement and avenues for further research. The KNLTER established 20 research sites covering 80 topics related to terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, and animal ecology. To strengthen its role in LTER research, KNLTER participants need to confirm standard protocols and data formats for an efficient interaction with other LTER programs. All participants should enhance communication at both the domestic and international levels to reach out and collaborate on research and multidisciplinary studies. Climate change and environmental pollution issues will be solved with a global research network and long-term research projects focusing on this issue.

Gea-Jae Joo

2011-03-01

297

Oxidant air pollution effects on plants of Joshua Tree National Monument.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joshua Tree National Monument (JOTR) is located about 100 km east of the Los Angeles Basin, site of the heaviest concentration of photochemical oxidant (O(3)) air pollution in the US. This investigation was conducted to measure O(3) concentrations in JOTR and to determine the effects of O(3) on vegetation in the park. Potentially phytotoxic concentrations of O(3) were recorded in JOTR in 1984 and 1985, but peak concentration occurred at night, when most plant species would be less sensitive to O(3). No O(3) effects were observed on permanent vegetation observation plots in JOTR in 1984 or 1985. Controlled exposures of native summer annual and woody perennial species to O(3) showed that most did not develop visible O(3) injury symptoms except at concentrations higher than those expected in the park. However, Rhus trilobata Nutt. was injured at 0.10 ppm O(3), 4 h per day for 4 days. This species would be a useful bioindicator to assess the effects of O(3) on native desert plants. PMID:15092465

Temple, P J

1989-01-01

298

First report of the National Pollutant Release Inventory multi-stakeholder work group on substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through consultations with Canadian stakeholders, and especially the members of the previous multi-stakeholder National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Ad Hoc Work Group on Substances, Environment Canada has established a permanent process for modifying the NPRI. The public is to be notified yearly of proposed changes by Environment Canada, and input on the proposed changes is to be obtained via an appropriate consultation process. Three major topics are addressed in this report: Integration of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) into the NPRI for the 2002 reporting year, other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year, and future agenda items for the Work Group. Specifically, the CACs to be added are nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter including total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers an particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers. Following an introduction, the document presents the addition of criteria air contaminants - proposed substance definitions and thresholds in section 2, as well as other data elements in section 3. A review of existing exemptions is presented in section 4. Other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year are discussed in section 5 and the future agenda items for the work group relevant to the 2003 reporting year appear in section 6. tabs

2001-01-01

299

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

300

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

302

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

303

Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

2011-07-15

304

Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

2011-07-01

305

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY (IE), POLLUTION PREVENTION (P2) AND THE NY/NJ HARBOR  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA Region 2 initiated a cooperative agreement with the New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS) to convene a multi-stakeholder Consortium of representatives from industry, labor, academia, the non-profit sector, and government to utilize the tool of Industrial Ecology (IE) to structu...

306

A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20?km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Helene; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Verene

2013-01-01

307

Association between Source-Specific Particulate Matter Air Pollution and hs-CRP: Local Traffic and Industrial Emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Long-term exposures to particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) and high traffic load have been associated with markers of systemic inflammation. Epidemiological investigations have focused primarily on total PM, which represents a mixture of pollutants originating from different sources.Objective: We investigated associations between source-specific PM and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease.Methods: We used data from the first (2000-2003) and second examination (2006-2008) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a prospective population-based German cohort of initially 4,814 participants (45-75 years of age). We estimated residential long-term exposure to local traffic- and industry-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at participants' residences using a chemistry transport model. We used a linear mixed model with a random participant intercept to estimate associations of source-specific PM and natural log-transformed hs-CRP, controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking variables, physical activity, season, humidity, and city (8,204 total observations).Results: A 1-?g/m3 increase in total PM2.5 was associated with a 4.53% increase in hs-CRP concentration (95% CI: 2.76, 6.33%). hs-CRP was 17.89% (95% CI: 7.66, 29.09%) and 7.96% (95% CI: 3.45, 12.67%) higher in association with 1-?g/m3 increases in traffic- and industry-specific PM2.5, respectively. Results for PM10 were similar.Conclusions: Long-term exposure to local traffic-specific PM (PM2.5, PM10) was more strongly associated with systemic inflammation than total PM. Associations of local industry-specific PM were slightly stronger but not significantly different from associations with total PM.Citation: Hennig F, Fuks K, Moebus S, Weinmayr G, Memmesheimer M, Jakobs H, Bröcker-Preuss M, Führer-Sakel D, Möhlenkamp S, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Hoffmann B, Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group. 2014. Association between source-specific particulate matter air pollution and hs-CRP: local traffic and industrial emissions. Environ Health Perspect 122:703-710;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307081. PMID:24755038

Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Moebus, Susanne; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Memmesheimer, Michael; Jakobs, Hermann; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

2014-07-01

308

Impacts of air pollutants emitted from the oil shale industry on conifers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the emission quantities from chemical and power plants located in the town of Kohtla-Jaerve, and the results of atmospheric air quality calculations as well as monitoring data demonstrate that the role of acid deposition precursors among different air pollutants increased essentially during the period 1988-1995. Precipitation and soil analyses and morphometric al characteristics of Norway spruce and Scots pine on open land and in forest sites indicated serious changes in the morphology of conifers. A drastic aggravation of their state under the influence of the multicomponential air pollution complex was fixed in northern or northeastern areas at a distance of 2-3 km (Saka region ) from Kohtla-Jaerve. (author)

1996-01-01

309

Industrial Measuring of Pollution Effects on the Operation of High Voltage Insulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High voltage insulators are exposed to different ambient and climate conditions the interactions of ambient condition and insulator contamination led the insulators themselves become a proper medium for conduction of current, leaving their effects on the power system. Presently, approximate and empirical numbers are used to determine the level of contamination of the insulation. As a result ,creep internals in some area do not accord to ambient conditions and are below the design level. In this power by periodic ESDD and NSDD measurements, two method direction dust gauge DGG are used to measure the intensity of the ambient pollution on the insulator and OLCA to display and record the leaking current as appropriate criteria for the degree and type of pollution.

Mohammad Mehdi Ghanbarian

2010-01-01

310

Administrative networks and implementation effectiveness: industrial air pollution control policy in Italy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper researchers briefly summarize the line of reasoning and the principal findings drawn from the examination of air pollution control policy in three northern Italian regions. Researchers found evidence of a lack of interest on the part of political parties in the administrative activities connected with pollution control programs; widespread informality and bargaining in the relationships between the actors involved; and a substantive degree of effective integration of the various agencies involved. In light of these findings, the message for future research is that many general pictures drawn of the administrative system as a whole overemphasize structural characteristics which are of little explanatory, not to mention descriptive, value for understanding administrative action at the bottom level.

Dente, B.; Lewanski, R.

1982-09-01

311

Performing technologies in industrial health for measuring diffusion and pollution in multiple places  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of occupational exposure is generally conducted by 2 methods: by atmospheric sampling on the work site and after analysis; by dosing metabolites when it is possible. The Service d'Hygiene Industrielle (SHI) has developed sampling monitors for measuring the local concentration of 4 pollutants near the machine tools and measurement by tracer in the work cell. The simultaneous utilization of tracer and mapping give possible the optimization of filtration in the work cell and reduce the exposure for workers

1987-01-01

312

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At ...

Rodri?guez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-pe?rez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; La Rosa, J.

2011-01-01

313

Mobile lidar system for monitoring of gaseous pollutants in atmosphere over industrial and urban area  

Science.gov (United States)

The lidar remote sensing techniques are powerful for monitoring of gaseous toxic species in atmosphere over wide areas. The paper presented describes design, development and field testing of Mobile Lidar System (MLS) based on utilization of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. The activity is performed by Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' and Research Institute of Pulse Technique within the project 'Mobile Remote SEnsing System Based on Tunable Laser Transmitter for Environmental Monitoring' under funding of International Scientific and Technology Center Moscow. A brief description of MLS is presented including narrowband transmitter, receiver, system steering, data acquisition subsystem and software. MLS is housed in a mobile truck and is able to provide 3D mapping of gaseous species. Sulfur dioxide and elemental mercury were chosen as basic atmospheric pollutants for field test of MLS. The problem of anthropogenic ozone detection attracts attention due to increase traffic in Moscow. The experimental sites for field testing are located in Moscow Region. Examples of field DIAL measurements will be presented. Application of remote sensing to toxic species near-real time measurements is now under consideration. The objective is comparison of pollution level in working zone with maximum permissible concentration of hazardous pollutant.

Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shecheglov, Djolinard A.; Rogachev, Aleksei P.; Avdonin, Aleksandr A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

1999-01-01

314

National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

Losh, Charles

315

Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types

1997-01-01

316

A New Biological Model System for the Determination of Industrial and Agricultural Effluents Polluted the Aquatic Environment In vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial and agricultural effluents represent wide spread contaminants of the aquatic environment. In a trial to assess the toxic effects of these pollutants, primary liver cell`s culture of Spot fish (Leiostomus xanthurus was used as an alternative new biological model of the whole organisms. The obtained results indicated that some cytotoxic effects such as lysosomes (NR, mitochondria (MTT dysfunction and cell wall integrity (CV were observed on the liver cells at the lower concentrations of this toxic chemicals. For NR, MTT and CV assays, the absorbance measurements (as a percent of control were ranged 36.2-115.8, 37.8-104.2, and 22.6 -109.2 ; 41.7-126.3, 44.3-124.1 and 25.7-126.5 ; and 53.2-132.7, 57.7-137.3 and 32.6-133.2 for paper, petroleum industries and agricultural effluents, respectively. Consequently, CV is more sensitive to industrial and agricultural effluents when compared with other assays. On the other side, the influence of such effluents on the biochemical assays such as growth assay (GA, as determined by protein analysis, protease activity (PA and lactic dehydrogenase activity (LDH of isolated liver cells were determined in a trial to make a comparison between biochemical and cytotoxicity assays. The present data demonstrated that all of cytotoxic assays i.e. NR, MTT and CV corresponded well to those with GA, PA and LDH assays. The results of this study can constitute a milestone toward application of the simple inexpensive laboratory biological-model system for screening of the acute toxicities of aquatic pollutants.

Yousif A. Elhassaneen

2000-01-01

317

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

2003-06-01

318

Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Particulate air pollution is widespread, yet we have little understanding of the long-term health implications associated with exposure. We investigated DNA damage, mutation, and methylation in gametes of male mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an industrial/urban environment. C57BL/CBA mice were exposed in situ to ambient air near two integrated steel mills and a major highway, alongside control mice breathing high-efficiency air particulate (HEPA) filtered ambient air. PCR analysi...

Yauk, Carole; Polyzos, Aris; Rowan-carroll, Andrea; Somers, Christopher M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Schooten, Frederik J.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Pogribny, Igor P.; Koturbash, Igor; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Kovalchuk, Olga

2008-01-01

319

The problem of land pollution. Sanitation of the brown coal industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of the East German brown coal industry has been assured by the privatisation of Laubag and Mibrag and by the continuation of production, but the revegetation of abandoned mines is still problematic. (orig.)

1994-01-01

320

CARTELS OR FAIR COMPETITION? THE ECONOMICS OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the heart of the Great Depression, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) suspended U.S. antitrust laws and helped coordinate government sponsored cartels in most manufacturing industries in the American economy. The potential effect, detrimental or beneficial, of cartels is a topic of debate in the recent theoretical literature of cartels, though few historical examples of large-scale, economy-wide cartels exist. This study uses the NIRA cartel experience to test the competing hy...

Jason Taylor

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Water pollution: its management and control in the South African gold mining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The South African mining industry is subjected to pressure from the authorities, the media and the public regarding the impact of mining operations on the water environment. In order to respond to these developments the mining industry needs to have a good understanding of water quality management issues which apply to its operations. Important issues in this regard are discussed. 40 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs

1992-02-01

322

Spatial Patterns in Antibiotic Resistance among Stream Bacteria: Effects of Industrial Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The spatial distribution of antibiotic resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was examined in natural bacterial communities of two streams. The proportion of resistant bacteria was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in the midreaches of an industrially perturbed stream, but no such pattern was apparent in an undisturbed reference stream. The highest relative frequency of resistance was found at the confluence of a tributary draining a nuclear reactor and industrial complex. Antibiotic resistan...

Mcarthur, J. Vaun; Tuckfield, R. Cary

2000-01-01

323

Respiratory Health Effects Caused by the Proximity to an Industrially Polluted Area of the Aries River Basin, Transylvania, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study represents the efforts in identifying a possible connection between the close proximity of one village, Mihai Viteazu, Transylvania, Romania, to the former industrial platform of the Turda city and the causes of the population’s respiratory health condition, study based on survey data. Consequently, 150 health face-to-face interviews were undertaken in Mihai Viteazu in August 2009 (out of which only 117 were relevant and 50 from the control area, in search for indicators of significant respiratory symptoms due to exposure to chemical compounds and/or conditioned by periods of employment in one or more of the polluting industrial plants. The two main objectives were to first determine whether there was a significant difference between the health of the population living in the exposed area as compared to the control population represented by the Mice?ti village, situated on the other side of the two towns, out of the exposed area’s influence, and second, to identify whether those involved in industrial activities would be the most affected. The results concluded that close proximity to the industrial area and employment at the former plants can be associated with higher risk for chronic respiratory diseases, the exposed village registering a 57% of its surveyed population manifesting at least one sign of acute and/or chronic respiratory disease (tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis asthma, pulmonary emphysema and/or higher incidence of irritant respiratory symptoms. From discussions, it also seems that the population is generally aware of the possible effects, but would still prefer being employed and working for the former plants, the industry representing for most of them employment stability and better living conditions.

Camelia-Maria KANTOR

2010-06-01

324

The offshore industry and pollution. Will nature restore itself over time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More oil and gas is produced on the Norwegian continental shelf than ever before with its concomitant risk of disturbing the environment. Stricter and more comprehensive instructions are imposed on treating the drilling fluids, cuts and produced water etc. Aspects on this are discussed in the article covering accidental discharges, precautions, waste water containing hydrocarbons, cuts and drilling fluids, chemicals in pipes, current trends, a discharge of 186.000 tonnes of chemicals, reduced content of oil in sediments, outlook, air pollution, and nature restoration. 4 figs

1995-01-01

325

Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

2011-01-01

326

Biomonitoring of air pollutants from traffic and industries employing Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng.) Mey. and Flot. in Córdoba, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lichen Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng.) Mey. and Flot. was transplanted to 29 biomonitoring sites in the southeastern area of Córdoba, Argentina and tested for chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a, conjugated dienes concentration, malondialdehyde, soluble protein content and sulfur accumulation. The biomonitoring sites were determined according to (i) vehicular traffic levels, and (ii) industrial density, i.e. number and type of industries (small and medium) close to each of the sites. Each of the two groups were then broken down into three categories which provided a basis for performance analysis and quantification of the chemical parameters in the biomonitor. A pollution index (P.I.) was calculated based on the ratio of phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a and ratio of sulfur, malonaldehyde and conjugated dienes in transplanted specimens to sulfur, malonaldehyde and conjugated dienes in the freshly picked specimens. Significant differences were observed in sulfur content and P.I. in lichen samples that had been transplanted to sites with different vehicular traffic levels. At the same time, significant differences in the phaeophytin a concentration, phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio and P.I. were observed at sites characterized by different levels of industrial density (all with low-to-medium traffic). PMID:15091418

González, C M; Casanovas, S S; Pignata, M L

1996-01-01

327

Environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.)

1982-01-01

328

Record of national stakeholder meeting of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment on Canadian fossil fuel electric power generation sector multi-pollutant emission reduction strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The industrial multi-pollutant emission reduction strategy (MERS) is an input to the jurisdictional plans to outline actions to achieve Canada-wide standards for particulate matter (PM) and ozone in Canada by 2010. This workshop was held to update stakeholders on jurisdictional plans, seek feedback on national MERS information, and seek the views of stakeholders on MERS approaches and promising options. Participants focused on the electric power generation sector, health and environmental concerns, electricity market trends, and energy policy perspectives. Climate change considerations and Aboriginal perspectives were also discussed. It is expected that Canada will require 200 TWh of electricity by 2020. Some of the complex problems facing power producers regarding air issues are: (1) emission of pollutants are not independent, (2) environmental domains are not independent, (3) the need for policy instruments, (4) the need for consistency between instruments that are being developed within various jurisdictions, and (5) acknowledging that there are significant differences. It was recognized that these problems require time and resources to produce sustainable solutions. The initial need will be to develop low emission technologies and maintain a diverse generation mix.

NONE

2002-07-01

329

Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Znâ??>â??Cuâ??>â??Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments. It was evident that Cu, Pb, and Zn started to desorb at a higher pH from calcareous soils than from soils with low carbonate content. The mechanism responsible for this is co-precipitation of heavy metals in the carbonates. When the carbonates are dissolved at a relatively high pH of about 5, the co-precipitated heavy metals are released. The sequential extraction pattern for Cr differed generally much from the other heavy metals since the majority of Cr was extracted in the last two steps. Cr was also the heavy metal that desorbed the least at high acidification.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.

2009-01-01

330

A long term projection of relationships between the energy industry and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Documentation Francaise has published a 580 page report by a group of experts concerning the long term evolution of energy and its effects on the environment, at the request of the Ministries of Industry, and Quality of life. A summary of this important work covers: long term energy needs and resources (the year 2000) - impact on the environment, in highly industrialized areas such as Fos, Le Havre, Lyon, or in densely populated zones, such as the Greater Parisian Area - recommendations for avoiding harmful situations - new sources of energy and their impact upon the environment

1975-01-01

331

Bioaccumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Maize, Oat and Sorghum Plants, grown in industrially polluted region  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) by maize, oat and sorghum plants cultivated, under field conditions, in industrially polluted soils was studied. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness the crops were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts - roots, stems, leaves and grains, were determined after dry ashing. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A clearly distinguished species peculiarity existed in the accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied crops. Sorghum plants accumulated larger heavy metal quantities compared to maize and oat plants, as the major part of heavy metals was retained by roots and a very small part was translocated to epigeous parts. The studied crops may be considered as metal-tolerant crops and may be cultivated on soils which are low, medium or highly contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium, as they do not show a tendency of accumulating these elements in epigeous parts and grains above the maximum permissible concentrations. The possible use of aboveground mass and grains for animal food guarantees the economic expedience upon the selection of these crops. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, Project DO-02-87/08.

Angelova, Violina; Ivanova, Radka; Ivanov, Krasimir

2010-05-01

332

The study of Nickel Resistant Bacteria (NiRB) isolated from wastewaters polluted with different industrial sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pollution due to the heavy metals is a problem that may have negative consequences on the hydrosphere. One of the best procedures in removing the toxic metals from the environment is using metal resistant bacteria. Results In the present study eight nickel resistant bacteria were isolated from industrial wastewaters. Three of them were selected as the most resistant based on their Maximum tolerable concentration (8, 16 and 24 mM Ni2+). Their identification was done according to morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA gene sequencing and they were identified as Cupriavidus sp ATHA3, Klebsiella oxytoca ATHA6 and Methylobacterium sp ATHA7. The accession numbers assigned to ATHA3, ATHA6 and ATHA7 strains are JX120152, JX196648 and JX457333 respectively. The Growth rate of the most resistant isolate, Klebsiella oxytoca strain ATHA6, in the presence of Ni2+ and the reduction in Ni2+ concentration was revealed that K oxytoca ATHA6 could decrease 83 mg/mL of nickel from the medium after 3 days. Conclusion It can be concluded that the identified Ni resistant bacteria could be valuable for the bioremediation of Ni polluted waste water and sewage.

2014-01-01

333

The effect of air pollution on pine trees in industrialized northern Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main part of industry and energy production in Estonia is concentrated in Northern and Northeastern Estonia.The effects of cement-kiln dust on pine was detected around the city of Kunda. No clear damages were found around cities of Aser and Rakvere

1992-01-01

334

Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

2008-12-01

335

Health risk from exposure to industrial air pollution for a point source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health risk to a population exposed to toxic air emissions from industrial sources was evaluated, in order to suggest mitigation strategies according to the social and economic situation. We estimate the chronic noncancer risk due to SO2 emissions using the EPA-validated Health Risk Assessment methodology. The concentration distribution around the source was simulated with the Gaussian ISCST model using real meteorological data for seven consecutive days. The area with the highest concentration of SO2 was found in the south to southwest direction. For exposure evaluation, two Reference Doses were considered, one strong and the other attenuated. Exposure was evaluated for industrial workers inside the facility containing the emission source, for residents in the neighborhood of the source, and for children under twelve years old. The groups with the higher risk from the Reference Doses were children and industrial workers. The area with the highest risk and impact was towards the south-southwest from the reference source. The estimated Noncancer Hazard Rates indicate risk for the industrial workers exposed to average concentrations for a thirty-year period. In the case of children the period is twelve years, and seventy-five years in residents.

Hugo W. Valera D.

2003-01-01

336

Study of environmental pollution in some industrial area in A.R.E. by nuclear and radiological techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to a wide range of lead compounds can involve inhalation and ingestion, and has been shown to effect memory and other mental function in industrial workers at and above a blood level of around 30 ?g / d I. This level is commonly exceeded among the majority of workers in lead - using industries such as smelters and battery factories. In our study, the aerosol samples were collected from a factory of battery manufacture in Giza sector, produces batteries for automobile and trucks. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the spatial distribution of atmospheric lead in the factory area. Nine sites ib four major processes (indoor) and three sites (outdoor) were selected for air lead pollution study. Also, three sites were studied 10 m away from the factory to study the air lead levels affecting the population living nearby this area. The accuracy of XRF technique was checked in comparison with AAS as a reference analytical procedure. Also precision precision and MDC for Pb was determined. The air lead levels determined in all sites inside the departments at the factory range from 128 to 1077 ?g /m3 which exceed the occupational permissible limits (50 ?g/m3). The outdoor sites showed also high Pb level due to their location in the vicinity of strong pollution sources. High concentrations of Pb were detected in the residential area around the factory 10 ? g/m3 . This concentration is more than 10 times the air quality standard exceed the quality limits recommended by WHO.3.8 tabs.,3.30 figs.,40 refs

1996-01-01

337

A Study on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain- A Comparative Analysis between Small Scale Industries in India and Developed Nations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental pollution is the major problem that mankind faces in present state, the major emission of toxic gases is from vehicles and manufacturing industries. The thesis study focuses on three different types of Small Scale Industries (SSI) in India that are bumper manufacturing industry, dyeing industry and food processing industry. The product life cycles of the process for each industry are identified and their final green waste disposal methods are investigated. The industries are ide...

Selvaraj, Ranjith Karthick

2011-01-01

338

National Inspection Program of Conventional Industries: implement, results and evaluation- 1981 to 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology adopted by the Instutute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry to implement the National Inspection Program of Conventional Industries is present. This methodology is being efficient because of many technical and administrative problems about radiation protection could be identified, analysed and solved gradually. Many workplaces of gammagraphy are analysed in relation to radiation safety, geographyc localization and social-economics aspects. (Author)

1986-01-01

339

National Marine Pollution Program: Summary of Federal Programs and Projects FY 1986 Update.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is published annually by NOPPO to provide information on Federal marine pollution programs. It contains a discussion of agency missions and mandates, Federal personnel and facilities, program descriptions, and a listing of all Federal ocean pol...

1987-01-01

340

76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories  

Science.gov (United States)

...pollutants as phenol or formaldehyde) has been applied...of this subpart, emissions of carbon monoxide...known as a baghouse. Formaldehyde means, for the purposes of this subpart, emissions of formaldehyde that, in...

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Industrial pollution in the region of Paripe-Salvador: effects on the distribution of electric power and possible damages to human health; Poluicao industrial na regiao de Paripe-Salvador: efeitos sob a distribuicao de energia eletrica e possiveis danos a saude humana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the area of Paripe, in the suburb of Salvador, Bahia, the distribution of electric power of the Company of Electricity of the State of Bahia (COELBA) is facing serious problems with the industrial pollution. That pollution affects the whole distribution net, causing fortuitous lack of energy, in many cases even daily in their feeders. The problem happens due to the accumulation of material associated along the net and more precisely in the distribution insulators, generating a type of dirt, no removable for normal procedures, in the surface of that insulator and it will cause escape currents, causing the lack of energy of the whole distribution electric net. The subject presented in that paper refers to the project of Research and Development (P and D), about Atmospheric Pollution in Insulators of Distribution. The results of the research showed that the atmospheric pollution could cause problems to the population that lives close the polluted area. The purpose of that article is to present relevant data related to the distribution net of COELBA, where there are many lacks of energy and the possibility of do not respect the criterion of quality of the National Agency of Electric power (ANEEL), besides the damages caused the population. (author)

Chaves, Cleuber Sobreira da Silva; Bomfim, Mario Antonio Duarte; Pereira, Osvaldo Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Regulacao da Industria de Energia], e-mail: cchaves@coelba.com.br, e-mail: osoliano@unifacs.br

2008-07-01

342

Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

1998-03-31

343

Inter graded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700-3100 ty-1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The co composting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32%) by the application of Fenton and another 10-28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final co composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

2011-01-01

344

Sandia National Laboratories, California pollution prevention annual program report for calendar year 2005.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the ''SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual''. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Farren, Laurie J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-07-01

345

Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. There are six critical receptor locations on the NTS that are actually pseudocritical receptor locations because they are hypothetical receptor locations; no person actually resides at these onsite locations. Annual average concentrations of detected radionuclides are compared with Concentration Levels (CL) for Environmental Compliance values listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. Compliance is demonstrated if the sum of fractions (CL/measured concentrations) of all detected radionuclides at each pseudo-critical receptor location is less than one. In 2007, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the NTS has demonstrated that the potential dose to the public from radiological emissions to air from current and past NTS activities is well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected onsite at each of the six pseudo-critical receptor stations on the NTS had average concentrations of nuclear test-related radioactivity that were a fraction of the limits listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. They ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 20 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS.

Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

2008-06-01

346

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

347

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

348

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2013-06-10

349

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2012-06-19

350

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2011-06-30

351

Targets and criteria for the effective participation of national industry in a domestic nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interest in maximum use of national resource is common to all countries, the highly industrialized as well as the developing ones. Although benefits can be expected from national participation in a domestic nuclear power programme and may not be limited to this programme, such national participation is restricted by constraining factors: economic, financial, technical and political. Considering the various natures of activities - design, procurement, manufacturing, erection -, their technical difficulties, their potential spin-off effects on the overall industrial development of a country, the paper reviews the materials and components of a nuclear power plants which can be selected as targets for domestic production. The paper also reviews criteria which must be considered in setting these Target materials and components in order to overcome restricting factors to national participation such as cost of national products, financing, investment capability, adequate market size, availability of qualified manpower, industrial capability and quality standards, availability of technology and know-how, conflicts of interests. Some concrete examples drawn from previous experience will illustrate France efforts to overcome these limiting factors

1986-04-14

352

Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pan?evo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pan?evo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

Vukmirovi?, Zorka B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Lazi?, Lazar; Toši?, Ivana

353

Terrestrial Fungi from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted by the Industrial Effluents (Aswan, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty-four species in addition to one variety representing 31 genera of terrestrial fungi were recovered from surface water and submerged mud collected monthly (12 months from five successive water sites exposed to the industrial effluents of Kima factory for fertilizers at Aswan. The monitored physico-chemical characteristics varied depending upon the site and time of sampling. There are variations in diversity and abundance of isolated fungi depending upon the employed nutritive media (glucose or cellulose, tested sample (water or mud, site and the time of sampling. The poorest samples in fungi were generally those collected during higher temperature months and from sites exposed directly to the industrial effluents. Aspergillus and Trichoderma were the most prevalent genera.

Mortada S. M. Nassar

2002-01-01

354

Investigating the Electro-Fenton (EF) Process Performance in Treating Highly Formaldehyde-Polluted Industrial Wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Formaldehyde is a toxic substance and harmful to human beings and the environmental health. Therefore, the effluents containing formaldehyde have to be efficiently treated before discharging into the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the efficiency of Electro-Fenton (EF) Process in pre-treating industrial wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde.Materia...

Amir Bagheri; Gholamreza Moussavi; Ali Khavanin

2012-01-01

355

STUDY ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTED INDUSTRIAL AREAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waterways are contaminated with industrial waste containing different concentrations of heavy metals, solvents and various other organic substances. All these waste products reach the people after they have accumulated in the food chain for decades. Even worse, they gather in the groundwater from which most of the drinking water is sourced. In order to determine the contents of heavy metals - arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, zinc - from various sources of drinking wa...

2012-01-01

356

Evidence given by the National Radiological Protection Board to the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March of 1976 The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution informed the Board that they had decided to enquire into the organisation for radiological safety in this country, with particular regard to the environmental hazards from radioactivity that might arise from the increasing use of nuclear energy for the generation of electrical power. The Board was invited to submit evidence on any aspects with which it was concerned and, in particular, on its powers and responsibilities and relationships with other bodies; the Board was also asked to discuss the assessment of radiation hazards and the application in practice of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This is the Board's response. The constitution, functions and responsibilities of the Board are discussed in Chapter 1 as is the involvement of its staff in national and international affairs in the field of radiological protection. Chapter consists of a short statement of the various sources of radiation to which the people of the UK are exposed. The Board does not claim any special experience or expertise in one of the matters referred to in the third area of concern, namely, the criteria used for the siting of nuclear power stations. But in the related field of assessing the environmental consequences of reactor accidents, the Board has been actively involved with the Medical Research Council in their latest review of Emergency Reference Levels - a report on which is shortly to be published. This subject is referred to in Chapter 3 which deals with the methods by which the basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are translated into values that can be applied to particular forms of practice. Chapter 4 discusses the current position of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes arising from nuclear power cycles. It also briefly discusses the way in which this position may change in future and touches on the problems of decommissioning obsolete nuclear plants. Chapter 5 outlines problems arising from the need to protect workers and the public from the biological effects of plutonium. The evidence concludes with Chapter 6 which consists of a short statement on the position regarding the transport of radioactive materials

1976-01-01

357

Transuranium radionuclide pollution in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the grounding and subsequent explosion, in October 2003, of a nuclear submarine in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park, fears arose of possible radioactive leakages. However, isotopic analyses on algae showed that the gamma-ray emitting artificial radionuclides that one might expect to leak from a damaged nuclear reactor (such as U-235, I-131, Cs-137) were absent, and that U-238/U-234 activities were in equilibrium with values typical of sea water; this excluded any direct anthropogenic contamination as a result of the accident. We used alpha autoradiographic techniques to detect possible traces of transuranium radionuclides; 160 samples of algae, granites, sea urchins, gastropods, limpets, cuttlefish and jellyfish were collected from the area, as well as from other Mediterranean coastlines and the Baltic Sea. All samples were autoradiographed, and selected samples further analysed by alpha spectrometry. There were no alpha track concentrations above background levels in our control Mediterranean specimens. In the samples from the La Maddalena and Baltic areas two different track distributions were observed: --those homogeneously distributed over the surfaces examined; --groups (10 to over 500) of radially distributed alpha tracks (forming "star" bursts, or "hot spots") emanating from point sources. By comparing radionuclide activities measured by alpha spectroscopy with alpha track densities, we extrapolated Pu activities for all samples. About 74% of algae had Pu activities of less than 1 Bq/kg and 0.25 Bq/kg, 16% had accumulated Pu to levels between 1 and 2 Bq/kg, and a very few specimens had concentrations between 2 and 6 Bq/kg. Plots showed that alpha tracks and stars concentrate around the northern and eastern margins of the Rada (Basin) di Santo Stefano, sites facing the nuclear submarine base on the eastern shore of the island of Santo Stefano. What is the source of these nuclides: last century's atmospheric nuclear testing, Chernobyl or a local source? Their concentrated, extremely localised occurrence seems difficult to explain in terms of left-over worldwide nuclear pollution. A local source seems more plausible. PMID:15829338

Aumento, F; Le Donne, K; Eroe, K

2005-01-01

358

76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration  

Science.gov (United States)

...industrial solid waste incinerators. In...and area sources boilers rules, and the commercial and industrial solid waste incineration rule...the major source boilers rule. Establishment...of standards for biomass and oil-fired...

2011-03-21

359

Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. PMID:23995021

Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

2013-11-01

360

Degreasing-system pollution-prevention modification verses industrial-hygiene concerns. Rept. for Nov 89-Sep 90  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes using a vapor degreaser at Wright-Patterson AFB to evaluate various modifications to reduce 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) emissions. The modifications included freeboard extension, refrigeratedchiller, lip vent removal, covers, and combinations of each. The evaluation was aimed at maintaining a safe industrial hygiene environment. The lip vent, installed to maintain the breathing zone concentration of solvent at below the OSHA PEL (permissible exposure limit), also enhanced the discharge of solvent to the atmosphere. The solvent concentration of the discharge duct averaged 300 ppm solvent during normal operation. Freeboard extension reduced emissions by up to 50%, but at the expense of increased breathing zone concentration when the lip vent was off. Using extended freeboard combined with a below-zero freeboard chiller reduced the discharge of solvent by more than 75%, while keeping the breathing zone solvent concentration at 10 ppm and below, although the freeboard fan was turned off. Study results show that both industrial hygiene and air pollution concerns can be satisfied with proper engineering and operation of the degreasing system. The involved degreaser was a 26 sq ft (2.4 sq m), open-top vapor system. Approximately 93,000 lb (42,222 kg) of TCA solvent is used each year in the system. Premodification breathing zone solvent concentration averaged 10 ppm.

Darvin, C.H.; Wander, J.D.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nanofiltration system has many potential uses in removing chemical and biological contaminants from water. - During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed

2003-04-01

362

ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (1ST), HELD AT LAKE BUENA VISTA, FLORIDA ON JANUARY 17-19, 1978  

Science.gov (United States)

Subject report contains technical research papers given at the First Annual Conference on Advanced Pollution Control for the Metal Finishing Industry. This conference was held in January, 1978 and was co-sponsored by the USEPA and the American Electroplaters' Society (AES). Repor...

363

CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (4TH), PRESENTED AT DUTCH INN, LAKE BUENA VISTA, FLORIDA - JANUARY 18-20, 1982  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Fourth Conference on Advanced Pollution Control for the Metal Finishing Industry' was held in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, January 18-20, 1982. This broad-scoped colloquium was jointly designed by the American Electroplaters' Society and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

364

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

2010-01-01

365

Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2008a). At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2008, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.9 mrem/yr; well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six pseudo-critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61 (CFR, 2008a). Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 19 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. Potential dose to the public from NLVF was also very low at 0.00006 mrem/yr; more than 160,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

2009-06-30

366

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2010-06-11

367

Survey of Dissolved Air Flotation System Efficiency for Reduce of Pollution of Vegetable Oil Industry Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD , total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L-1 in this research. Mean removal for the parameters of oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced , but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

H. Keramati

2008-01-01

368

The industrial organization is the key to a national self-reliant program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has developed a unique industrial model that is the root cause of the success of the French Nuclear Program. This model relies on the strong relations between: the design, the procurement and the operation feedback. Doing so, France has developed a self reliant industry. EDF has built its nuclear fleet at the average pace of 5 units per year, between 1979 and 1990, 50000 MWe representing 80% of the nuclear fleet, have been brought on line. In terms of technical and economic performance, the French nuclear fleet has achieved the following: 1. a high standard of nuclear safety management; 2. an efficient and competitive KWh; 3. an environmental protection; 4. a powerful national industry. The success of the French nuclear program is based on an efficient industrial organization that EDF has set up, in order to realize a standardization effect and a permanent improvement thanks to the feedback from the operation experiment. It is called the industrial control. In this article, the principles of the industrial control and the means of the industrial control are introduced in detail

2005-05-16

369

Contamination of New Jersey beach sand with magnetite spherules from industrial air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spherical particles composed of magnetite, typically 120 [mu]m to 2,450 [mu]m in diameter, are accumulating in the beach sands of New Jersey. Most magnetite spherule surfaces are highly polished but some are corroded or abraded. Their interiors are typically vesicular. Magnetite spherules from 213 New Jersey beach sand samples collected during May 1991 are chemically and morphologically the same as those filtered from industrial smokestacks and the air supplied of Newark, New Jersey and Philadelphia. The average concentration of spherules in New Jersey beach sand is 35 per kg throughout the northern 43 km of beach south of Newark (from Sandy Hook to Belmar Beach). They are rare to absent in the central 86 km stretch of beach but average 34 per kg of sand throughout the southern 91 km of beach east of Philadelphia (from Ventnor City to Villas Beach). The distribution of magnetite spherules in New Jersey beach sand is consistent with a transport pathway model that involves: (1) Prevailing wind dispersal from industrial sources, (2) erosion of spherules that have settled out of the air into the surface drainage system that flows toward the New Jersey coast and (3) longshore transport of spherule contaminated sand away from inlets identified as locations where most of the spherules enter the beach system. The spherules, therefore, are useful tracers indicating how industrial airborne fallout is transported to and along shorelines. The distribution pattern is consistent with generally northward longshore currents north of the Manasquan inlet and generally southward longshore currents south of the Abescon inlet.

Hassinan, W.T.; Puffer, J.H. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Geology Dept.)

1992-01-01

370

75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commercial Wood/Wood Residue Combustion'' are listed...limitations, for ``solid waste incineration units...not limited to, wood residue, and wood products...materials, such as logging residues (slash), nut and grain...materials are or are not solid waste. Blast...

2010-06-04

371

76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...boilers. Clarifying that the particulate matter emission limits do not include condensable particulate matter. Table 2 to subpart JJJJJJ...coal-fired boiler with heat a. Particulate Matter 0.03 lb per MMBtu of...

2011-12-23

372

78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SW-846-5050), Bomb Preparation Method for Solid Waste, Revision 0, September...Conventional feed water economizer...and report preparation. (ii) Familiarity...load data (fuel feed rate or steam...f)''. The revisions read as...

2013-02-01

373

77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

...i)(1). The revisions read as follows...description of feed streams and control...test; record of preparation of standards...paragraph (o). The revisions read as follows...The test plan preparation and implementation...ii). The revisions read as...

2012-09-11

374

76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

...We request that all data revision comments be submitted...including a description of feed streams and control devices...during the test; record of preparation of standards; record of...met. (A) The test plan preparation and implementation in...

2011-12-27

375

75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...attributable to these sources among different socio-demographic...close proximity of these source categories to people...near these types of sources. (Please refer to...will reduce potential exposures due to the atmospheric...ozone precursors which contribute to ``smog.''...

2010-06-04

376

75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0119; EPA- HQ-RCRA-2008-0329; FRL-9160-8] RIN 2060-AG69, RIN...Incineration Units), or EPA-HQ-RCRA-2008-0329 (Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary...EPA-HQ-OAR-2003- 0119, or EPA-HQ-RCRA-2008-0329. EPA's policy is that all...

2010-06-09

377

76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...that the EPA clarify that waste heat process heaters, like waste heat boilers...the EPA intended to exempt waste heat process heaters from the rule, and the...process heater to exclude waste heat process heaters. We also are...

2011-12-23

378

76 FR 15607 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...generators.'' Similarly, the waste heat process heater definition was revised to read as follows: ``Waste heat process heater means an enclosed device...converts it to usable heat. Waste heat process heaters are also referred to...

2011-03-21

379

78 FR 7137 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...serving as control devices, waste heat process heaters, units firing comparable...Waste heat boiler,'' ``Waste heat process heater.'' 0 c. Removing the...consumption, or autoclaves. Waste heat process heaters are excluded from...

2013-01-31

380

Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, chemical, 210Pb dating, and microscopic methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminated mudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data, metal contents, and the (210)Pb dating technique. The 1.8 m vertical section at Airoli (Navi Mumbai) reveals an increase of magnetic susceptibility (?) from background values of (20-50) to (75-100) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] in the anthropogenically affected zone above ?93 cm. A sharp rise of ? from (75-100) to (130-215) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] subdivides the anthropogenically affected zone at a depth of ?63 cm. Characterization with rock magnetic parameters (SIRM, Soft IRM, and S-ratio) reveals a significant contribution of ferri(o)magnetic phases in the upper zone. Based on the magnetic classification sampling intervals for cost-intensive PAH and metal analyses were determined. Steadily increasing contents of PAH and metals of anthropogenic origin are observed above the boundary depth at ?93 cm. A sediment accumulation rate of 1.2 ± 0.3 cm/yr provided by (210)Pb dating dates the ?63 cm boundary to 1951. Increasing industrial activity, including the establishment of a coal-fired power plant in 1956, and refineries between 1955 and 1960, correlates well with the substantial increase of ?, PAH, and metal contents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation on magnetic extracts from the contaminated zone reveals the presence of magnetic spherules derived from industrial high-temperature processes. PMID:21138292

Blaha, U; Basavaiah, N; Deenadayalan, K; Borole, D V; Mohite, R D

2011-01-15

 
 
 
 
381

Risk-based assessment of multimetallic soil pollution in the industrialized peri-urban area of Huelva, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peri-urban soils of Huelva, one of the first industrial cities in Spain, are subject to severe pollution problems primarily due to past poor management of industrial wastes and effluents. In this study, soil cores were collected in seven sites potentially contaminated with toxic chemicals arising from multiple anthropogenic sources, in order to identify trace elements of concern and to assess human health risks associated with them. In most soil core samples, total concentrations of As (up to 4,390 mg kg(-1)), Cd (up to 12.9 mg kg(-1)), Cu (up to 3,162 mg kg(-1)), Pb (up to 6,385 mg kg(-1)), Sb (up to 589 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (up to 4,874 mg kg(-1)) were by more than one order of magnitude greater than the site-specific reference levels calculated on the basis of regional soil geochemical baselines. These chemicals are transferred from the hazardous wastes, mainly crude pyrite and roasted pyrite cinders, to the surrounding soils by acid drainage and atmospheric deposition of wind-blown dust. Locally, elevated concentrations of U (up to 96.3 mg kg(-1)) were detected in soils affected by releases of radionuclides from phosphogypsum wastes. The results of the human health risk-based assessment for the hypothetical exposure of an industrial worker to the surface soils indicate that, in four of the seven sites monitored, cancer risk due to As (up to 4.4 × 10(-5)) is slightly above the target health risk limit adopted by the Spanish legislation (1 × 10(-5)). The cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard index ranged from 2.0 to 12.2 indicating that there is also a concern for chronic toxic effects from dermal contact with soil. PMID:21604196

Fernández-Caliani, J C

2012-02-01

382

NO2 pollution of the atmosphere and the influence of industrial processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, the concentration of N2O is the highest (about 306 ppm and due to the high global warming potential (GWP = 320 nitrous oxide belongs to important greenhouse gases. Moreover, N2O contributes also to the ozone layer depletion. Nitrous oxide is produced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, where combustion plays an important role. Two analytical methods ( IR spectrophotometry and gas chromatography have been used for the analysis of N2O emissions from various industrial sources. Carbon monooxide at the concentration above 500 ppm interferes the IR analysis. The emission factors for combustion processes typical for Czech Republic have been calculated. Emission concentrations depend on the type of the combustion process (the highest is for the fluid-bed combustion as well as on the output of the combustion unit. In an identical unit, the emission factor increases when the output decreases. A high concentration of nitrous oxide have been found in emissions from the chemical industry where catalytic denitrification is used.

Kula Petr

1998-09-01

383

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Air Agencies U. S. Environmental Protection Agency sites: Clean School Bus USA Information for Citizens and Communities National ... Methodology City Rankings Cleanest Cities Most Polluted Cities View State Map Compare Your Air Compare Your Air ...

384

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Air Agencies U. S. Environmental Protection Agency sites: Clean School Bus USA Information for Citizens and Communities National ... Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People ...

385

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... nation to install an air quality warning flag system on the beach. 8 How Ozone Pollution Harms ... failure) May cause harm to the central nervous system May cause reproductive and developmental harm —U.S. Environmental ...

386

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... chemicals, like solvents, evaporate. NOx is emitted from power plants, motor vehicles and other sources of high- ... nation to install an air quality warning flag system on the beach. 8 How Ozone Pollution Harms ...

387

Alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluição industrial em moradores e industriários de Cubatão, SP (Brasil) / Hematological changes induced by industrial pollution in residents and industrial workers in Cubatão, SP (Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados 496 indivíduos de Cubatão, SP (Brasil), cidade com alto teor de poluição industrial, com o objetivo de verificar alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluentes industriais. Dos estudos citológicos dos eritrócitos dessa população estudada, foram observadas 188 (38%) com alterações, [...] isoladas ou combinadas em um único indivíduo, das quais 26% apresentaram policromatofilia, 24% com pontilhados basófilos, 15% com corpos de Heinz, e 8% com reticulocitose. As freqüências de metahemoglobinemia e sulfohemoglobinemia foram,respectivamente, de 35% e 32% em moradores da vila Parisi - um bairro cercado pela maioria das indústrias de Cubatão - 15% e 5% em operários das indústrias, e 12% e 4% em habitantes de áreas distantes entre 3 e 8 km do polo industrial. Esses resultados indicam que as alterações são causadas por poluentes tóxico-oxidantes e que as conseqüências fisio-patológicas no sangue dos moradores de Cubatão parecem indicar que estão relacionadas com o tempo de exposição e com a proximidade dos focos emissores de poluentes. Abstract in english Blood samples from 496 people living or working in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, a city with high levels of industrial pollution, were analysed in order to verify hematological changes induced by industrial pollution. Citological studies of erythrocytes showed that 188 people (38%) had hematological changes, [...] single or compound. Of the total sample 26% had polychromatophilic red cells, 24% had basophilic stippling, 15% had Heinz bodies, and 8% had reticulocytosis. The frequencies of methemoglobinemia and sulfohemoglobinemia were; respectively, 35% and 32% in inhabitants of vila Parisi a township in the neighbourhood of Cubatão surrounded by various industries; 15% and 5% in industrial workers, and 12% and 4% inhabitants that live between 3 and 8 km from the industrial complex. These results indicate that the hematological changes are caused by toxi-oxidant polluents and that the physio-pathological consequences in the blood of the population of Cubatão show a direct relationship to exposure time and to proximity to the sites of origin of the polluents.

Naoum, Paulo Cesar; Mourão, Celso Abbade; Ruiz, Milton Artur.

388

Alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluição industrial em moradores e industriários de Cubatão, SP (Brasil) / Hematological changes induced by industrial pollution in residents and industrial workers in Cubatão, SP (Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados 496 indivíduos de Cubatão, SP (Brasil), cidade com alto teor de poluição industrial, com o objetivo de verificar alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluentes industriais. Dos estudos citológicos dos eritrócitos dessa população estudada, foram observadas 188 (38%) com alterações, [...] isoladas ou combinadas em um único indivíduo, das quais 26% apresentaram policromatofilia, 24% com pontilhados basófilos, 15% com corpos de Heinz, e 8% com reticulocitose. As freqüências de metahemoglobinemia e sulfohemoglobinemia foram,respectivamente, de 35% e 32% em moradores da vila Parisi - um bairro cercado pela maioria das indústrias de Cubatão - 15% e 5% em operários das indústrias, e 12% e 4% em habitantes de áreas distantes entre 3 e 8 km do polo industrial. Esses resultados indicam que as alterações são causadas por poluentes tóxico-oxidantes e que as conseqüências fisio-patológicas no sangue dos moradores de Cubatão parecem indicar que estão relacionadas com o tempo de exposição e com a proximidade dos focos emissores de poluentes. Abstract in english Blood samples from 496 people living or working in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, a city with high levels of industrial pollution, were analysed in order to verify hematological changes induced by industrial pollution. Citological studies of erythrocytes showed that 188 people (38%) had hematological changes, [...] single or compound. Of the total sample 26% had polychromatophilic red cells, 24% had basophilic stippling, 15% had Heinz bodies, and 8% had reticulocytosis. The frequencies of methemoglobinemia and sulfohemoglobinemia were; respectively, 35% and 32% in inhabitants of vila Parisi a township in the neighbourhood of Cubatão surrounded by various industries; 15% and 5% in industrial workers, and 12% and 4% inhabitants that live between 3 and 8 km from the industrial complex. These results indicate that the hematological changes are caused by toxi-oxidant polluents and that the physio-pathological consequences in the blood of the population of Cubatão show a direct relationship to exposure time and to proximity to the sites of origin of the polluents.

Naoum, Paulo Cesar; Mourão, Celso Abbade; Ruiz, Milton Artur.

389

Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (RI) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with RI value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza

2014-02-01

390

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

391

Distribution and mobility of the heavy metals cadmium, copper and zinc in industrially polluted, calcareous soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a region that had been polluted with heavy metal emissions by a brass foundry for decades the chemical aspects of the mobility of cadmium, copper and zinc in calcareous soils were investigated. This was done by analysing the distribution of the heavy metals in the soil profile and the amount sorbed at the different binding sites. Adsorption and desorption experiments were performed under varying environmental conditions. The soil water of the affected area was analysed. This data was then related to investigations of plant availability, transport and mass balance. In the top soil of the area close to foundry the heavy metal contents are 37.5 nmol g-1 cadmium, 23.6 ?mol g-1 copper, and 24.9 ?mol g-1 zinc (extracted with 2M HNO3). These contents are more than 70% of cadmium, and more than 90% of copper and of zinc of the amounts in the soil body with a thickness of 1 m. The mobility of the examined heavy metals is dominated by the high sorption capacity of the soil that is rich in lime and clay. Sorption experiments with unpolluted fine subsoil material in 0.001 M Mg(NO3)2 at 25o C resulted in a sorption coefficient Kf of 900 ml g-1 for cadmium and 3300 ml g-1 for zinc. Additional examinations of the binding forms showed that less than 5% of the accumulated copper and zinc, but up to 45% of cadmium are bound in an exchangeable form. The sorption of cadmium and zinc on the unpolluted calcareous material of the subsoil can be described by two-step Freundlich-isotherms. The first step is dominated by adsorption processes combined with calcium-ions exchange. The second step is dominated by the precipitation of cadmium- and zinc-carbonates or hydroxide-carbonate mixed crystals, respectively, together with a decrease in pH. (author) figs., tabs., 102 refs

1993-01-01

392

National conference on speed of development in the Bulgarian mining industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outlines conclusions of the National conference on the development of the mining industry, geological exploration and construction of mining enterprises in Bulgaria, held at Madan on 20. Nov. 1987. Recent achievements of the Bulgarian mining industry in the period 1981-1987, which were satisfactory only in the field of geological exploration, were described. Road drivage and shaft sinking outputs did not improve owing to increasing depth of mining operations, ever worsening mining conditions, and lack of modern machinery and equipment. Spare parts are particularly lacking.

1988-01-01

393

Physical parameters of groundwater as indicators of pollution in industrial areas of Taxila, Wah and Hasanabdal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Wah area historically famous for having sweet aquifer system is greatly effected due to environmental activities, such as industrialization and poor sewage system in the recent past. Thirty water samples have been collected from dug wells penetrating to shallow two layers in a multi layered aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is located at a depth of 45-85 feet and composed of very fine grained sand to silt in two layers separated by silty clay. To assess the contamination problems, physical parameters of groundwater such as temperature, color, turbidity, odour and taste have been estimated fifty percent of the dug wells have been found as contaminated and not fit for human consumption according 10 WHO standards. High values of electrical conductance determined in fifty percent of wells show trends of chemical contamination and their probable sources near by these wells against the general recharge pattern prevailing in the area can be located. (author)

2004-01-01

394

76 FR 33753 - Modification of the Expiration Date for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to a numeric effluent limitation of 280 NTU for the pollutant turbidity starting in...examination of the dataset underlying the 280 NTU limit, EPA concluded that it improperly...are no longer adequate to support the 280 NTU numeric effluent limitation. In...

2011-06-09

395

76 FR 22891 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to a numeric effluent limitation of 280 NTU for the pollutant turbidity starting in...examination of the dataset underlying the 280 NTU limit, EPA concluded that it improperly...are no longer adequate to support the 280 NTU numeric effluent limitation. In...

2011-04-25

396

75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and Allied...text of the ``Revision of Source Category List for Standards...Products Manufacturing Area Source Standards'' which was issued...corrections will not change the level of health protection the...

2010-03-05

397

The defense matrix national preparedness and the military-industrial complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author prefaces this detailed book on national defense by pointing out that most Americans face their economic responsibilities diligently - doing their job, buying goods and services, and making investments, and periodically they become involved in the political process. But the defense of the country - a critical civic responsibility - is somehow abrogated to other people ''who do that kind of thing''. Topics considered include risk assessment, nuclear weapons, government policies, national security, political aspects, military strategy, industry, and economic growth.

Mullins, J.P.

1986-01-01

398

78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...American Industrial Hygiene Association's ERP Committee document titled, ERPGS Procedures...GuidelineDevelopment/ERPG/Documents/ERP-SOPs2006.pdf), which states that...9\\ ERP Committee Procedures and...

2013-11-04

399

An indicator for national systems of innovation: Methodology and application to 17 industrialized countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop a composite indicator measuring the performance of national innovation systems. The indicator takes into account both 'hard' factors that are quantifiable (such as R&D spending, number of patents) and 'soft' factors like the assessment of preconditions for innovation by managers. We apply the methodology to a set of 17 industrialized countries on a yearly basis between 2007 and 2009. The indicator combines results from public opinion surveys on the process of change, social capital...

Belitz, Heike; Clemens, Marius; Von Hirschhausen, Christian; Schmidt-ehmcke, Jens; Werwatz, Axel; Zloczysti, Petra

2011-01-01

400