WorldWideScience
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Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children. PMID:25472993

Jassal, Mandeep S

2015-01-01

2

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

3

A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., initions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

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Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group) from Ahvaz-Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-se...

Rafiei Masoud; Gadgil Alaka; Ghole Vikram; Gore Sharad; Jaafarzadeh Neemat; Mirkazemi Roksana

2009-01-01

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A recommended approach to completing the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environment Canada administers a facility-based inventory for national releases of pollutants. This document was prepared by the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Subcommittee of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to help its members meet reporting requirements of the NPRI. It is intended to be a supplement to Environment Canada's guides for reporting to the NPRI and provides CAPP members with specific oil, gas and oil sand examples and clarifies NPRI requirements as applied to oil, gas and oil sand facilities. Having all CAPP members use the procedures in the guide to determine their NPRI emissions contributes to consistent and comparable emissions reporting between upstream oil and gas companies. The NPRI was developed in the early 1990s. Owners and operators of facilities are required to report to the NPRI if they meet the reporting criteria determined by the Minister of the Environment. Criteria air contaminants (CAC) were reported for the first time in 2002 when all upstream oil and gas facilities with 20,000 employee-hours worked onsite had to report criteria air contaminants (CAC) releases. In 2003, the 20,000 man hours worked threshold exemption for the upstream oil and gas industry was removed for CAC reporting. There were no major changes to the NPRI for the 2004 reporting year. This report outlined the general reporting criteria to the NPRI with reference to all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items located on aructures and stationary items located on a single site, pipeline installations and offshore installations. The report addressed reporting exemptions and special considerations; generalized estimation methods; combustion sources and CAC; fugitive equipment leaks; process venting; hydrocarbon emissions from storage tanks; loading losses; spills and accidental releases; releases to underground injection; disposal and recycling; hydrogen sulphides; speciation of volatile organic compounds; particulate matter from cooling towers; in-situ oil sand operations; and common errors in reporting to the NPRI. 40 refs., 27 tabs., 4 figs

6

Industrial pollution prevention handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

7

Australian Government: National Pollutant Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Department of Environment and Heritage, the Australian Government has developed the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI), "...an Internet database designed to provide the community, industry and government with information on the types and amounts of certain substances being emitted to the environment." Visitors to the Web site can search for emissions by location, substance, source or facility. The NPI requires industries to report on their emissions to air, land and water on 90 NPI substances including Benzene, Carbon Monoxide, Cyanide (inorganic) compounds, Methanol, and Sulfuric Acid. The Web site contains detailed information on which industrial facilities must report their emissions and how to do so. The site also provides tools for people to map emissions data or download data.

8

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

Rafiei Masoud

2009-01-01

9

Physico-chemical studies of industrial pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution problem industrial estates in more acute in some areas and district Haripur is one of those places. Industrial wastewater generated form various industries is drained into the natural streams / nallahs, which ultimately join river Indus through river Haro. Effluent of different industries were collected periodically and analysed for pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids, ammonia and chlorine. cations like calcium, magnesium and iron, anions like phosphate, chlorides, sulphates and sulphides were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Trace metals like arsenic cadmium, chromium cobalt copper lead manganese, nickel, tin and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. These results were evaluated and compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Effluent of the fertilizer industries in Haripur, (both phosphatic and nitrogenous) are producing pollution and causing damage to the flora and fauna in the area. Effluent of the phosphatic fertilizer is acidic, having pH 1.5-3.0 due to acid, while effluent of nitrogenous fertilizer is alkaline having pH 9.0 -10.5 due to ammonia. Suggestion for useful remedial measures and the effective control of the pollutants are discussed. (author)

10

Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and suspended solids above the maximum permissible limits. While the chemical and paints industries could be a potential source of lead pollution in Gaborone. Temperature and acidity generally were not a problem for industrial effluents. The pharmaceutical industries met all the maximum and minimum guidelines for wastewater discharge. COD, BOD, suspended solids and heavy metal levels should be monitored strictly by the Gaborone City Council in order to prevent environmental pollution and reduce health hazards caused by pollutants.

V. Emongor

2005-01-01

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Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and sus...

Emongor, V.; Nkegbe, E.; Kealotswe, B.; Koorapetse, I.; Sankwasa, S.; Keikanetswe, S.

2005-01-01

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Description of industrial pollution in Spain  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo

2007-01-01

13

National pollutants emission limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

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Description of industrial pollution in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two-thirds of all such substances. Information obtained through publication of EPER data means that the possible consequences of reported pollutant foci on the health of neighbouring populations can now be studied.

Aragonés Nuria

2007-03-01

15

the role of industry in air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

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Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

1996-12-31

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

18

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene?s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei Masoud

2008-01-01

19

Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installati...

López-Abente Gonzalo; García-Pérez Javier; Fernández-Navarro Pablo; Boldo Elena; Ramis Rebeca

2012-01-01

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Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

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Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group), Ahvaz, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of th...

Rafiei Masoud; Gadgil Alaka; Ghole Vikram; Jaafarzadeh Neemat; Gore Sharad; Aberomand Mohammad; Shabab Mitra

2008-01-01

22

Pollution, contamination and future land use at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists interested in contamination normally deal only with pollution itself, not with people's perceptions of pollution or the relationship between pollution and land use. The overall objective of this article was to examine the relationship between people's perceptions of pollution and their views on future land use. People were interviewed at an Earth Day Festival near the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on Long Island, New York. On an open-ended question, people thought that BNL should be left as it is, or maintained as a preserve, park or conservation area, or used for environmental research. Almost no one thought that it should be used for housing or industrial purposes. When asked to rate a list of possible future land uses, maintaining BNL as a National Environmental Research Park for research and for recreation were rated the highest (nuclear storage was rated the lowest). This was consistent with the subjects' views that pollution was the greatest concern about BNL. The congruence between perceptions about concerns or problems and future land use preferences suggests a unified view of management of contaminated sites, such as BNL, at least among a group of people whose environmental interests were evident by their presence at the event. PMID:18446260

Burger, J; Gochfeld, M; Shukla, S; Jeitner, C; Ramos, R; Tsipoura, Nellie; Donio, M

2008-10-01

23

Monitoring system for industrial gases pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system is designed for monitoring gas pollutants in air, in a chemical plant. It consists of gas detectors with transmitter and modules for environmental conditions measurement, data loggers and a central monitoring station which role is to collect data, generate alarms if pollutants concentration becomes over limit and create database. A dedicated software permits data collecting and processing in order to get solutions for minimising human and technological risks. The system role is monitoring the pollution sources and the surrounded areas that might be affected, for keeping gas pollutants concentration at an acceptable level and to minimise the pollution effects. (author)

24

Environmental pollution-effects on national development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

25

How to control the industry pollution in China optimally?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In this paper, we empirically examine the effectiveness of existed several economic instruments in 31 provinces in China and develop the ways that could control the industrial pollution effectively. Although the current pollution norms and the informal pressure have a positive effect on controlling the water pollution in China, there are still some tasks we are supposed to do to improve the water quality. In this paper, the author suggests testing the monitoring and enforcement effor...

Li, Hui

2006-01-01

26

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

2013-06-01

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76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), have determined...and it will not take effect. We will, as appropriate...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-05-24

28

Pollution measurement and control in the metallurgical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement and control of environmental pollution is a subject of increasing importance in industrial countries. The continual befouling of atmospheric air by combustion gases, by products of combustion or many other industrial processes is causing serious health problems particularly in urban environments. Technology exists today to provide accurate, automatic pollution control on the majority of industrial processes. The economics of such control varies with each plant and expert help should always be sought on the design of such equipment. This article attempts to summarise the equipment which can be used to monitor and detect toxic gases and effluents

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Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility

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Greening Industry: New Ideas in Pollution Regulation (NIPR)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greening Industry report, from New Ideas in Pollution Regulation (discussed in the January 24, 1997 Scout Report, is now available online. The culmination of six years of research, Greening Industry has found surprisingly positive results. Contrary to popular belief, factories in developing countries are actually cleaner and more environmentally aware than they were ten years ago, and emissions levels of pollution have also dropped. The report is available in html and .pdf formats and must be downloaded by chapter. In the html version, use the arrows in the top left corner of the screen to turn pages and move about the report.

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INDUSTRIAL GUIDE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is intended as a set of guidelines for companies that are not yet fully involved in a corporate program of environmental control. The information is presented for plant managers, engineers, and other industrial personnel responsible for plant compliance with air pollu...

32

MANUAL: POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE PAINTS AND COATINGS INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paints and coatings industry represents a significant source of multimedia pollution through the wide use of solvent-based process materials and the extensive amounts of wastewater generated by the operations. This manual presents recommended practices for minimizing the gene...

33

Industrial Sources of Pollution by Vibrations – Causes and Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution by vibrations caused by industrial sources is extremely unpleasant if in their proximity are build areas. The authors present a classification of this kind of sources and the way how the vibrations are produced and propagated. Parameters of vibrations, their attenuation trough the ground and impact on the build structures is also illustrated.

Gilbert-Rainer Gillich

2006-10-01

34

Influence of industrial air pollution on crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an industrial area several varieties of tulips were injured by gases; other varieties were injured to a much lesser extent. This experience in the field has been tested in fumigation chambers with HF and SO2. The air in the chambers (+/- 280 cubic feet) was replaced every one or two minutes. It was found that Parrot-tulips, injured by the gases in that industrial area, were also injured by a very low concentration of HF in the chambers, whereas another variety (Preludium), which was less sensitive to the gases in the field, was not injured in the same experiments with HF. Fumigating with SO2 resulted in the same sensitivity to SO2 of both varieties of tulips. The sensitivity of these tulip varieties has been compared with that of tomato and cucumber plants; at 13 ppb (0.013 ppm) Hf in 7 hours the Parrot-tulip was the only one which was injured (injury 1 cm down from the tip). With a higher concentration (0.2 ppm in 6 hours) Preludium was also injured, tomato and cucumber plants were not. In some areas, where the possibility of gas damage to crops exists, indicator plants for HF injury (Snowprincess-gladiolus), and indicator plants for SO2 injury (alfalfa) were used in experimental fields at different distances from the factories. Near some of these fields a HF and a SO2 absorption apparatus were placed, which absorb the HF resp. SO2 from the air. After one month exposure to the air the absorbent from each apparatus is replaced, and the HF- resp. SO2 content of the absorbent analyzed in the laboratory. Together with the analysis of the leaf samples from the trial plots for HF and SO2 content and the extent of injury of the gladiolus and alfalfa on the different fields it gives an impression of the contamination of the air with HF or SO2.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.

1957-01-01

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ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

36

77 FR 66783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, to acknowledge advancements...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), to...

2012-11-07

37

78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) to broaden the...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision to...

2013-03-18

38

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

39

Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

Vaz, N.

1995-12-31

40

2001 national overview of the National Pollutant Release Inventory : recycling and energy recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) was established in 1992 as a national, legislated, publicly accessible inventory in Canada that provides information to Canadians on industrial pollution and their communities. Companies are required to report annually to Environment Canada any information on releases and transfers of pollutants. A list of substances for which reports are required is published each year along with reporting requirements and thresholds for each substance. Changes to the NPRI are considered on an annual basis. The NPRI covers about 100 sectors of industrial and commercial activity ranging from electric power generation to leather tanneries. In 2001, 2618 facilities reported to the NPRI. This report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001. A total of 857 facilities submitted data on off-site transfers for recycling and energy recovery totalling 1,126,461 tonnes, a decrease of 3,911 tonnes from 2000. The report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001 with reference to recycling activities (80.8 per cent); metals and metal compounds (10.2 per cent); acids or bases (5.6 per cent); solvents (1.0 per cent); catalysts (1.0 per cent); energy recovery (0.8 per cent); organic substances (0.3 per cent); inorganic materials (0.2 per cent); pollution abatement residues (0.1 per cent); and, used oil (less than 0.1 per cent). The report also includes a summary of the 25 NPRI-listed substancesa summary of the 25 NPRI-listed substances transferred off-site in the largest quantities for recycling and energy recovery in 2001. The substances that accounted for nearly 1,077,306 tonnes were hydrogen sulphide, sulphuric acid, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese. 2 tabs., 6 figs

41

75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 3095-AB63 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY...NARA), has amended National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1...Order established a National Industrial Security Program (NISP) to...

2010-04-06

42

Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns, over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR of towns situated at a distance of less than 2?km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463, paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140, food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111, metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123 and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099. Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of the differences between men and women observed in the analyses of the industrial groups suggest that there may be a component of occupational exposure, little-studied in the case of cancers of the digestive system.

López-Abente Gonzalo

2012-08-01

43

Control of air pollution in the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the measures to control air pollution in the nuclear industry. The existence of a universal quantitative standard namely radiation dose limit, simplifies the control of airpollution in the nuclear industry. Internationally prescribed radiation dose limits are determined and this may not be exceeded. The radiation dose must not only be under the limit, but be kept as low as possible in consideration with economical and social factors. Radiation doses are measured in units of rem. No nuclear installation is allowed to exceed this limit. An optimization process is followed to ensure that cost effectiveness of the desired effluence is optimal

44

A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

45

Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the industrial sectors included in the E-PRTR pollutant register, emissions from the power generating sector contribute the largest share of the damage costs (estimated at EUR 66-112 billion). Excluding CO{sub 2}, the estimated damage costs from this sector are EUR 26-71 billion. Sectors involving production processes and combustion used in manufacturing are responsible for most of the remaining estimated damage costs. (LN)

Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

2011-11-15

46

Evaluation of Historical Industrial Pollution in urban sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of new tools and policies on urban management and planning have led to significant changes in land use in cities in the last decades. Better planning means that polluting industrial activities that once integrated urban scenario are now placed well outside city limits, where their impacts on the population are reduced. Relocating these activities has opened new possibilitiesfor urban refurbishing, and the vacant spaces previously occupied by these industries are now being taken over for other uses, such as housing, leisure and services. However, the impact of these industries in the urban environment is far from over. In fact, it is expected that previously released pollutants from these activities are still hidden within the city, and might pose a risk to the unaware city dweller and the environment in general. One of the possible reservoirs for pollutants within city limits are sediments in the bottom of streams. In this work a survey is made of the sediments from 4 streams running through the city of Coimbra(Portugal) in an attempt to evaluate contamination due to previous industrial activities, now relocated. For comparison purposes and whenever possible,samples were taken before and after historic industrial areas, at four depths (0-20 cm; 20-40 cm; 40-60 cm; 60-80 cm). Characterization of the sediments involved measurements of pH, organic matter and metal content: iron, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, lead, cadmium, nickel and mercury. Preliminary results (on-going work) show that levels of Cadmium and Lead largely exceed the lowest effect levels for the protection and management of aquatic sediment quality (Ontario Guidelines). Additionally, metal content is not consistently higher in the deeper layers of the sediment, as would be expected if it was the case of historic contamination.

Pato, R. L.; Dias-Ferreira, C.; Tavares, A. O.; Magalhães, M. C.

2012-04-01

47

Materials of 3. national symposium on air protection in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material contents 52 papers presented in the course of 3. National symposium on Air Protection in Industry. Their subject concerns the most important problems connected with the industry impact on the environment. The assessment of the atmosphere pollution in chosen local areas and regions in Poland has been performed. The broad spectrum of methods for off-gas cleaning including the electron beam use for SO2 and NOx removal from combustion flue gases have been presented. The monitoring system and the radiometric gages for air quality control have been shown. The utilization methods for different type of industrial wastes have been discussed. Some legal aspects and actual state of Polish law and regulations in related subjects have been presented as well

48

Air pollution control measures of the electricity industry in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pollution of air with SO2 and NOx constitutes a problem which can be regionally delimited and can be solved by a harmonization of pollution control standards at the highest possible level. The growing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, however, has possibly a strong impact on the global climate. In this context it has to be borne in mind in particular that it will be impossible to undo environmental damage once it has arisen. Once lasting changes of the world climate have been caused by the increased CO2 concentration, all the pollution control efforts will not achieve any short-term success but will produce desired effects only with a time-lag of decades at the earliest. All measures by a country to contain CO2 emissions on a national level are almost ineffective if a reduction of CO2 emissions is not aimed at by international agreements at the same time. All nations are therefore called upon to help solve the CO2 problem. National single-handed approaches are equally inappropriate as the oft-heard reference to the just marginal contribution by the respective countries to global CO2 emissions. In light of their possibilities and the magnitude of the problem, it is precisely the industrial nations that have the duty not only to cut CO2 emissions in their own countries but also to give the developing countries the assistance required to keep the CO2 content of the atmosphere from rising further. (author). 9 figs

49

Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (?g/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 ?g/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the ru> and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

50

A new personal dosimeter for the monitoring of industrial pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new passive sampling device (GASBADGE dosimeter) has been developed for personal/ambient monitoring of industrial air pollutants. Compact and convenient to use (no pump, wet chemicals, or length of stain estimation required, etc.), it may be either worn or used for area monitoring. The operating principle is based upon Fick's first law of diffusion. Analysis of the collection element after exposure yields the time-weighted (TWA) exposure concentration. Promising results have been obtained to date in controlled exposures with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Preliminary data also indicate the applicability of the GASBADGE dosimeter to the monitoring of a wide variety of organic vapors. PMID:900023

Tompkins, F C; Goldsmith, R L

1977-08-01

51

Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer. PMID:22444064

López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

2012-05-01

52

Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

1972-01-01

53

Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6) nuclear sources until the year 2005. Each module was analyzed separately and the result from each module was transferred into the Air Quality Impact model. The model assesses the changes in electricity generation within each module due to deregulation and these changes can then be correlated to the emission of air pollutants in the United States.

Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

54

Air pollution perceptions and their impacts on the coal industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Perceptions of disaster caused by burning fossil fuels have reached such a pitch that they seriously threaten the very future of the industry. Coal is a dirty word. A leader in Business Day (January 19 2009) claimed 'There is no disputing that renewable and non-polluting energy sources are preferabl [...] e to the country-the true cost of so-called cheap coal-fired power stations is neither reflected nor accounted for by Eskom-the true and immediate but unacknowledged cost of continued coal mining is apparent in the catastrophic level of acidification from mining runoff of all significant natural water resources in the country-and their waters have been rendered unfit for human consumption. Air quality is in a similar state with-increases in pulmonary disease causing workforce absenteeism and compromised childhood development, among many other health problems recorded in areas polluted by coal mining.' The upshot is that our latest coal-fired power station, Kusile, is being required to use flue gas desulphurization. The costs are considerable, and the benefits minimal. Meanwhile, exports are being threatened by EU directives and an assumption that South African coal gives off excessive quantities of SOx and NOx when burned. The industry needs to arm itself with clear responses to these and similar misconceptions, and to communicate those responses loudly and clearly, if it is to survive.

P., Lloyd.

2011-08-01

55

A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh water sources; drying of wells, reduction on ground water level, livestock productivity and loss of scenic beauty of the place. The agriculture crop yield has also decreased vastly and the area is gradually converting into dry land, the top soils have been eroding and crop plants are being covered with pollutants which are effecting directly or indirectly to the local people. In this paper, health impact of local people, environmental and economic impact of locality by mining industries are examined and evaluated considering questionnaire and available data from several sources such as government publications, related researches, websites and other references. This paper concludes with recommendations in order to control environment pollution, to reduce the impact of gravel, sand and stone mines.

Deshar Bashu Dev

2013-08-01

56

The coevolution of industries and national institutions: Theory and evidence  

OpenAIRE

A survey across space and time reveals that leading firms operating in global industries often cluster in one or a few countries. The paper argues that nations differ in how successful they are in a particular industry because coevolutionary processes linking a particular industry and national institutions powerfully shape the path of an industry.s development. Across a wide range of contexts, scientific progress and industrial leadership reinforce each other in spirals of cumulative national...

Murmann, J. Peter

2002-01-01

57

STUDIES ON THE POLLUTION OF WATERBODY BY TEXTILE INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Water pollution arises from introduction of foreign materials capable of deteriorating water quality into a waterbody, hence, posing negative effects on aquatic lives and human health. Industrial effluents accounts for several point sources of water pollution. To quantify the impacts of these industrial discharges on water bodies, water samples from a stream polluted by a textile industry were collected at twelve sampling points with sampling intervals of 50 m. Samples were analyzed using s...

Adenowo, J. A.; Gbadebo, A. M.; Taiwo, A. M.; Awomeso, J. A.

2010-01-01

58

Green Design and Planning Resolutions for an Eco-Industrial Town: A Case Study of Polluted Industrial Estate in Rayong Province, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Map Ta Phut was designated for development in national policy as an Eastern Seaboard Industrial Port. It is located in Rayong Province with growing demand from Eastern Seaboard industries and is heavily affected by serious environmental problems as a"pollution control zone". While the Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry and Banking, representing the national business sector, claimed that the area generated total revenues of 1.1 trillion baht per year, or 11% of Thailand’s gross domestic product, and employed more than 100,000 workers, the declaration of the area as a pollution control zone severely limited investment and business operations. Thus, controversies arose among the investment business sectors, the residential sector (residents have been affected by a decrease in their quality of life and health and environmental concern sectors. This paper aims to find an efficient and practical mitigation practice to balance the purposes of the industrial port with protection of surrounding communities and natural resources. The author will apply physical design and planning such as the application of “buffer zones”, “greenbelts”, “set-back”, “green corridor”, “green wall” and “protection strips” along with environmental measurements such as the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI, which can be adapted for pollution protection as best practices of landscape architecture.

Ariya Aruninta

2012-11-01

59

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

2006-09-15

60

Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-05-01

61

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

62

Industrial pollution and its impacts on public health in the Chekka area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial development in the region of Chekka - North Lebanon, has caused a serious industrial pollution.This is mainly due to the presence of multiple industrial plants such as cement industries, chemical industry and others... The article describes pollution of air, water and soil by effluents, dusts and chemicals emitted by industries. Many studies were done to analyze the rate of pollution in water, dusts, petroleum coke and results showed that industrial plants were the primary source of environmental pollution. Three kinds of gases are considered to be the main cause of pulmonary cancer: black smog, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide and NO2. Safety procedures were taken within industries to assure public safety of workers

63

75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Science.gov (United States)

...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part...NARA-09-0005] RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY...2009, regarding the National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1....

2010-01-12

64

Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

1996-06-01

65

Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

Solimar Garcia

2014-07-01

66

MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

M. LUCA

2011-03-01

67

Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in...

Marie Kondo; Sangchan Limjirakan

2013-01-01

68

GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a model monitoring network providing public administration, private subject, and general public information about air pollution by POPs that had not been previously regularly monitored and whose measurement is further required by global monitoring plan of the Stockholm Convention. The MONET network is international project with many participants. Monitoring in the MONET-CZ network started in 2004 with the pilot project and continues to the current days, MONET CEEC started in 2006 and continues nowadays, MONET Africa started in 2008. The database of the GENASIS systems currently covers MONET-CZ data until the year 2008. The MONET network currently covers 37 countries in the Europe, Asia and Africa with more than 350 sampling sites. The paper will discuss about following topics * Data Fusion in GENASIS: how can GENASIS maximize the value and accuracy of the information gathered from heterogeneous data sources? * Sensor types in GENASIS: which POPs can be measured; what are the physical limitations to achievable accuracy, reliability, and long-term stability of miniaturized sensors; which applications can (not) be realized within these limitations?

Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; H?ebí?ek, Ji?í; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

2010-05-01

69

National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

1998-09-01

70

Environmental geochemistry and pollution studies of Aliaga metal industry district.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aliaga metal industry district located 50 km northwest of Izmir City, in Turkey, includes many metal factories. The geology of the area is represented by Mesozoic flysch deposits and Cenozoic volcano sedimentary rocks. Tectonic elements are NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults and a W-NW trending fault direction that is important for water supply. Rock, soil, stream sediment, and water samples taken at various distances from the industrial area were analyzed for Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo. According to the results, the elements in rocks are reasonable for the range of "Clarke" values, but in the soils and stream sediment, they comprise higher values than are acceptable for agricultural activities. Toxicity analyses were carried out in the drinking artesian water of Cakmakli village and wastewater samples of the factories and river water both of which are used for irrigation of the agricultural areas in and around the investigated area. The people should, however be made aware that this waste and river water is unacceptable for agriculture. Additionally, the contamination of seawater in Nemrut Bay is probably caused by contaminated river and underground water running to the sea. The chemical and toxicity analysis of drinking water samples show that they are above accepted standards and harmful. Previous air pollution studies (funnel gas emission analyses) also show that gas emission contains high amount of dust particles with high Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu concentrations. As a result, all elements analyzed are of great importance relative to problems concerning contamination of the soil, stream sediment, ground surface water, and air by individual metals from uncontrolled processing of some metal factories. PMID:11868663

Sponza, Delya; Karaoglu, Nevin

2002-02-01

71

Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources. Highlights and achievements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of industries to national development is well recognized. However, for sustainable national development, the environmental impacts (particularly as it affects human health) of these industries must also be well monitored. Ingestion through food and water is one of the two major routes for these toxic pollutants to accumulate in man and thereby impact his health. The other major route being inhalation from the air

72

Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

73

Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

AbdulFatai JIMOH

2006-07-01

74

Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

75

Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This empirical study confirms that the proposed approach is useful in both guiding regional planning and developing a sustainable society. It is easily envisioned that the proposed approach is useful for not only Japan but also the other industrial and developing nations. - Highlights: • Japan effectively reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances. • Japan needs to allocate capital in regions with high investment effectiveness. • Technology innovation makes it possible to balance economic growth and pollution prevention. • The proposed approach is useful in guiding regional development of a sustainable society

76

Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

Marie Kondo

2013-01-01

77

Oil industry and the problems with radioactive pollution on Absheron Peninsula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'Sustainable development' accepted by the international community as a basis of co-operation among countries envisages the necessity of rational national resource management that will minimize the damage to the future generations. As a fundamental guide towards this goal, a document identifying the principles of the global environmental security - 'Agenda 21 century'- was approved by the majority of states at the 1992 Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. Based on the principles of Agenda-21 century, Azerbaijan developed its National Environmental Concept, and passed a number of laws in support of environmental protection and sustainable development. At this stage of the country's development, the issue of national resource management is of paramount importance for the nation. The disastrous environmental situation inherited from the former Soviet Union is affecting every aspect of the country's life and presenting a clear threat to the health and well-being of the population. Considering the problem with the radioactive contamination and radioactive wastes we have to identify the primary reason of it existence on the territory of Azerbaijan, and particularly Apsheron Peninsula. The main contributor to intensive environment pollution is the technogenic and industrial wastes

78

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU), tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU), textile: Dying Unit (DU) and textile: Finishing Unit (FU) in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivi...

Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Nadeem Zafar

2005-01-01

79

Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.

Lope Virginia

2009-01-01

80

Multisource model for generating concentration distribution of industrial pollutants for nuclear fuel complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While generating pollutant distribution for an industrial complex having multi source and multiple releases it becomes important to consider the distribution of sources. This paper describes such a computer program which is used for assessing the pollutant distribution for nuclear fuel complex. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

81

Air pollution modeling for an industrial complex and model performance evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jamshedpur, the steel city of India situated in the eastern part of India is affected by increasing air pollution levels as a result of concentrated industrial activities. The impact of NOx emissions resulting from various air pollution sources, viz. industries, vehicles and domestic, was estimated using Industrial Source Complex Short-Term gaussian dispersion model. The contribution of NOx concentration from industrial, vehicular and domestic sources was found to be 53, 40 and 7%. Further statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the model performance by comparing measured and predicted NOx concentrations. The model performance was found good with an accuracy of about 68%. (Author)

82

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

OpenAIRE

The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, s...

Houria Chettibi; Noureddine Bouzerna; Boutefnouchet Nafissa

2005-01-01

83

Analysis of Pollution Industrial Transfer Based on Environmental Regulation and Public Participation: China’s Case  

OpenAIRE

Referring to 1995-2011 China's provincial panel data, this paper constructs an econometric model consisting of environmental regulation, public participation and pollution industrial transfer, and mainly focuses on the role of environmental regulation and public participation in the pollution industries transfer using panel data unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test and panel regression analysis method. The results show that environmental regulation and public participat...

Wen-bin Peng; Wei-ping Wu

2013-01-01

84

Effect of industrial pollution on behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate how and to what extent industrial pollution affects the behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems, studies were conducted in the vicinity of two Cu-Ni smelters: one in a pine forest at Harjavalta, Finland, and the other in a spruce forest at Monchegorsk, Russia. Industrial pollution had significant effects on the distribution of radionuclides in soil horizons. With the increase in pollution towards the smelter, radionuclides were accumulated more in the litter layer because the conversion of litter into organic material was diminished due to inhibited microbial activity. As a result, the organic layer contained less radionuclides towards the smelter. The effect of industrial pollution on soil-to-plant transfer was complex. The effect varied with radionuclide, plant species and also on forest type. For 137Cs, soil-to-plant transfer decreased significantly as industrial pollution increased in pine forest, whereas the decrease was less pronounced in spruce forest. Root uptake of 239,240Pu by plants is extremely small, and plant contamination by resuspended soil is an important factor in considering the soil-to-plant transfer of this radionuclide. In spruce forest, more plutonium was transferred into plants when pollution load increased due to resuspension of litter particles, which contained higher concentrations of plutonium in the vicinity of the smelter. Soil-to-plant transfer of plutonium was much less affected in pine foresonium was much less affected in pine forests contaminated with industrial pollution. This research clearly indicates the sensitivity of the northern forest ecosystem to inorganic pollutants. Prediction of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in industrially polluted forest ecosystems requires detailed information on the total deposition, vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil, soil microbiological factors, other soil parameters as well as the rooting depths of the plants. (LN)

85

STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL POLLUTANTS IN KANO INDUSTRIAL AREAS, KANO STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physicochemical pollutant indicators in Kano industrial area of Kano State Nigeria were determined. Effluents from tannery and textile industries and surface water samples were collected from the industrial areas on quarterly basis from June 2007 to May 2008 to reflect the seasonal factors. Effluents from ten industrial and water sample from eight sampling points in River Challawa were sampled to determined physicochemical pollutants. The physicochemical pollutant determined include pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour, total suspended solid and oil and grease. The levels pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour, oil and grease and total suspended solid (TSS in the effluent and surface water samples were higher than the WHO limits. Statistical analysis shows that the concentrations of the above parameters were significant (p<0.05 between industries, but not significant between seasons. The above parameters measured for River Challawa are potential for profound effect on the water body itself and resident aquatic life.

K. D. REUBEN

2009-08-01

86

A national day with near zero emissions and its effect on primary and secondary pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Traffic related air pollution is a major health concern in many countries. The potential costs and benefits of different abatement policies are usually estimated by either models, case studies or previously implemented intervention measures. Such estimations have, however, limited ability to predict the effect of a reduction in primary pollutants' emissions on secondary pollutants such as ozone, because of the nonlinear nature of the photochemical reactions. This study examines the short term effects of a drastic change in emissions on a national scale during the Jewish holiday of Day of Atonement (DA) in Israel. During the holiday nearly all anthropogenic emission sources are ceased for a period of 25 h, including all vehicles, commercial, industrial and recreational activities. DAs during the 15 years period of 1998-2012 are analyzed at three sites with respect to primary and secondary air pollutants, and in greater details for 2001. A dramatic decrease in primary pollutants emissions (83-98% in NO) causes an 8 ppbv increase in ozone at the urban core. Downwind (27 km), ozone decreases by only 5 ppbv. Nighttime O3 is shown to increase to 20 ppbv at the urban sites and 30 ppbv downwind. In spite of the striking reduction in emissions, changes in ozone are not greater than what is reported in the literature about less significant events like the ozone weekend effect. Changes in ambient pollution levels observed during DA provide some indication to the possible outcomes of a major change in anthropogenic emissions. These may be considered as the best case scenario for emissions reduction intervention measures and thus aid policy makers in evaluating potential benefits of such measures.

Levy, Ilan

2013-10-01

87

Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

88

Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

2014-09-01

89

Comparative bases of industry pollution abatement and commercial innovation: implications for water resources management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adoption, maintenance, and operation of pollution control technology by manufacturing firms is essential to effective water resource management. In this study of 102 industries, the authors find that company adoption of pollution control technology and practices is primarily associated with two factors: the overall company capacity for innovation in its production technology; and company relationships with state and federal pollution control agencies, local government officials and professionals. Managerial attitudes about pollution and government regulation are not associated with either pollution control or commercial innovation, but are seen as basic to industry-government relationships. The data suggest an important regulatory dilemma, the problem of regulating a large number of small companies with a low capacity for innovation, but which when taken together account for large volumes of toxic effluent.

Rickson, R.E.; Ramsey, C.E.

1985-02-01

90

Industrial competitiveness and diffusion of new pollution abatement technology – a new look at the Porter-hypothesis  

OpenAIRE

We study the relationship between industrial competitiveness, adaption of cleanerproduction techniques and environmental policy. While other contributions have analyzedenvironmental innovations with point of departure in the polluting firm, we introduce an upstreammarket for new pollution abatement technology. A strong environmental policy maythen benefit industrial competitiveness through its effect on the price on pollution abatement.However, the incentive for a stringent policy partly disa...

Greaker, Mads

2004-01-01

91

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

92

Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was the key soil characteristics determining the Cu removal rate.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina

2006-01-01

93

[Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].  

Science.gov (United States)

Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of environmental pollution in Pan-Yangtze River Delta, especially in the transition period. PMID:25639121

Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

2014-11-01

94

Acid mine-water and agricultural pollution in a river skirting the Donana National Park (Guadiamar river, south west Spain)  

OpenAIRE

An inventory of the pollution originated by a mining industry in its first stages of development and by a highly developed agriculture is carried out in a river skirting the Donana National Park. The pathway along the Guadiamar river basin was studied for heavy metals derived from the opencast-worked polymetallic sulphide deposits and from the mine spoil heaps. The dynamics of N, P and herbicides in waters of urban and/or agricultural origin was also discussed. | An inventory of the pollution...

Cabrera, Francisco; Toca, C. G.; Di?az Barrientos, Encarnacio?n; Arambarri, Pablo

1984-01-01

95

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

1988-07-01

96

[Relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou: how about the EKC?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the study of the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou City in 1991-2005, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of the City was estimated by several kinds of function, with the cause analyzed. The results showed that the EKC of Suzhou was not a typical one. The industrial pollution of the City increased dramatically by scale effect of economic growth and the clear environmental benefit of industrial structure adjustment was not received obviously, while generalized discharge reduction technologies showed great results. In general terms, the pollution increase was comparatively slower than the GDP growth. As a whole, the environmental policy of Suzhou was in effect. However, the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge had not been a benign development yet. In order to achieve win-win situation of economic growth and pollution reduction, Suzhou needed to optimize its industry structure, push the energy conservation and discharge reduction policy deeply, increase environmental investment, and enforce the strictest environmental and industrial policy. In doing these, Suzhou could turn the traditional omega-shaped EKC into delta-shaped EKC. PMID:19565781

Ling, Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yin, Rong-Yao; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Jun

2009-04-01

97

Risk of Cancer Mortality in Spanish Towns Lying in the Vicinity of Pollutant Industries  

OpenAIRE

Spatial aggregation of different industrial facilities leads to simultaneous release of pollutant emissions. Our objective is to study cancer mortality risk associated with residence in the vicinity of pollutant factories. We used data on industries for year 2007 (3458 facilities). For the 8,098 Spanish towns, we defined a factor with 4 levels based on the number of factories in a radius of 2.5?km from the centroid of each town (industrial factor). We also used data of land cover use to app...

Rebeca Ramis; Pablo Fernandez-Navarro; Javier Garcia-Perez; Elena Boldo; Diana Gomez-Barroso; Gonzalo Lopez-Abente

2012-01-01

98

Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China. Estimation and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10-6 for TSP, and 4.2x10-6 for SO2, with standard deviations of 8.15x10-6 and 9.16x10-6, respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10-7 to 10-5. Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most importanllutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts. (author)

99

Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

100

UST-IDRC national symposium on the mining industry and the environment: programme and abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Symposium on the mining industry and the environment was organized by the UST/IDRC Environmental Research Group in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The symposium generally covered strategies for the development of the mining industry as well as solutions to the environmental problems associated with the industry in Ghana. The publication contains the programme and abstracts of scientific sessions of the Symposium. The abstracts covered the following topics among others: multi-element analysis of mineral ores samples, review of environmental studies related to gold mining in Ghana, local sulphooxidizing bacteria for environmentally friendly gold mining, arsenic pollution in streams and sediments, rainfall erositivity and soil loss from degraded lands and mine spoils, the impact of surface mining on forest structure and environment, current environmental practices in the mining industry, and the role of the mining industry in the economy of Ghana

101

1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

1999-06-01

102

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU, tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU, textile: Dying Unit (DU and textile: Finishing Unit (FU in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

Muhammad Asif Hanif

2005-01-01

103

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T2O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

104

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

1998-06-01

105

Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

106

Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

Manea, D.; Dorina, S.; Popescu, L.; Stoian, P.

2009-07-01

107

Environmental policy and industrial competitiveness: The pollution haven hypothesis reconsidered  

OpenAIRE

The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis suggests that tight environmental standards reduce domestic producers' competitiveness and give rise to their relocating to countries with more lenient standards. This paper questions that relocation is always caused by reduced competitiveness at home. By using a signaling approach, I show that relocation can be undertaken for purely strategic reasons. Relocation is the producer's tool to convince the policy maker to refrain from a further tightening of environm...

Bommer, Rolf

1995-01-01

108

ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES FOR FIVE INDUSTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes the emissions inventory, market survey, product categorization, product characteristics, potential product reformulation, new product research, and alternate application methods for processes involved in printing, graphic arts, architectural and industrial m...

109

POLLUTION PREVENTION METHODS IN THE SURFACE COATING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface coating industry is rapidly changing to meet environmental and economic pressures. ome of the changes include new formulations which meet environmental regulations, higher performance finishes with improved properties, continued development of solventless technologies...

110

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

2008-03-15

111

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

112

[Characteristics of organic pollutants in the sediments from a typical electronics industrial zone].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the contamination status of organic pollutants in a river of a typical electrical equipment industrial area, Ronggui, Foshan, the sediments were sampled for the composition, concentration and occurrence analysis of organic pollutants. The polar and non-polar fractionation methods were employed for the fingerprint establishment of organic pollutants. One hundred and seventy-one of organic chemicals including ten categories of alkanes, alkenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, heterocyclic compounds, phthalate esters, aldehydes, ketones, polar compounds, silicon-containing material as well as alkyl esters were examined. The number of different categories of the detected organic pollutants in a descending order was: alkanes > polar compounds > polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons > aldehydes and ketones > heterocyclic compounds > benzene homologues, phthalate ester > alkyl esters > silicon material > olefins. The abundance of detected organic pollutants in a descending order was: alkanes > polar compounds > alkyl esters > olefins > polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons > phthalates > silicon material > aldehydes and ketones > heterocyclic compounds > benzene homologues. Among the 51 kinds of alkanes detected, nonadecane accounted for 14.83%, and the persistent organic pollutants accounted for 2.33% of the total organic matter. Compared to similar studies, there were 51 kinds of alkanes and they accounted for 55.5% of the total organic chemicals, showing high diversity and abundance. In addition, some electronics industry-related organic pollutants such as silicone materials were also detected in high frequency. PMID:23745426

Liu, Jin; Deng, Dai-Yong; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

2013-03-01

113

Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

114

Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored

115

Monitoring of heavy pollutants from industrial emissions and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental facilities of internal beam PIXE, tube-excited ED-XRF, NAA, electrothermal AAS and DPASV have been established. The development of analytical procedures based on these principles is in progress for multielement trace analysis in different matrices including solid and liquid wastes. An intercomparison study of trace and minor element analysis in IAEA Soil and lake sediment standards was performed with source-excited ED-XRF method and good agreements were observed. Using the existing standard analytical techniques of source-excited ED-XRF and flame AAS, 34 effluent samples from paper, tannery and fertilizer industries were analyzed for about 15 elements with Z > 19 to obtain baseline information. Future studies will be directed to industrial emissions and effluents from fertilizer factories, paper mills, chemical industries, power plants and steel mills. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

116

32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1...Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

2010-07-01

117

75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2010-03-08

118

75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2010-07-09

119

Industrial Applications of E-Beam Plasma to Air Pollution Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel combustion creates a the treat to environment. Waste quantities of SO2, NOx and VOC (volatile organic compounds) are emitted in to atmosphere. Municipal wastes incineration is another air pollution potential problem. New technologies for simultaneous removal of different pollutants are searched for. Electron beam process is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. The laboratory unit (400 Nm3/h) and industrial pilot plant (20000 Nm3/h) have been constructed in Poland. Full scale industrial project is under development (270000 Nm3/h). New developments, connected mostly with energy consumption reduction, made this process very competitive in comparison with conventional technologies. (author)

120

Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

121

Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India  

OpenAIRE

Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry). Changes in chlorophyll ...

Sadhana Chaurasia; Ashwani Karwariya; Anand Dev Gupta

2013-01-01

122

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

Islam Mir Sujaul

2013-01-01

123

STUDIES ON THE POLLUTION OF WATERBODY BY TEXTILE INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution arises from introduction of foreign materials capable of deteriorating water quality into a waterbody, hence, posing negative effects on aquatic lives and human health. Industrial effluents accounts for several point sources of water pollution. To quantify the impacts of these industrial discharges on water bodies, water samples from a stream polluted by a textile industry were collected at twelve sampling points with sampling intervals of 50 m. Samples were analyzed using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: temperature, turbidity, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC, color, total dissolved solids (TDS, suspended solids (SS, total solids (TS dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, metals (Chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, potassium (K and total coliform. Results showed that parameters: (colour, EC, SS, TDS, TSS, nitrate, phosphate, COD and TC recorded high values at the discharge point (0 m and points 50 m, 100 m after the discharge point respectively. Zero values of DO observed at these sampling points showed that the stream was heavily polluted and may not likely support aquatic lives. Metal values of the stream were generally low. This study also revealed that the values of most water parameters were higher than international permissible standards in drinking water, thereby, rendering the stream useless for domestic, agriculture and industrial purposes. This study, therefore, recommends that wastewater from the textile industry should be treated before being discharge into the water body.

ADENOWO, J.A.

2010-12-01

124

Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of industrial cities in developed countries use automatic station networks for monitoring of Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), and the tremendous amount of data acquired are often used to verify that the concentrations are within safety levels and to warn the population in the other case. Furthermore, these data can be used to investigate the source-receptor relationship. In this study, the data were collected from automatic monitoring stations in Ulsan, the most industrialized city in South Korea. The dataset consists of hourly concentrations of five CAPs (SO2, CO, O3, NO2, and PM10) recorded at 13 monitoring stations in the city during a full year (March 2011-February 2012). Different types of sources were identified by studying the temporal (daily and seasonal) trends and spatial distributions of CAPs with wind directions. It was confirmed that SO2 pollution in Ulsan originated mostly from local industrial areas, whereas CO and NO2 were also substantially influenced by mobile sources. The high PM10 levels resulted from both local industries and traffic sources as well as from remote sources. The originality of this work comes from the study of the high episodes of pollutions on a case by case basis as well as on average data. Moreover, rather simple statistical tools developed in this study can be used for a real-time diagnosis of the local pollution in large urban and industrial areas.

Clarke, Kevin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

2014-10-01

125

GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: METAL CASTING AND HEAT TREATING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide provides an overview of the major waste generating process of metal casting and heat treating operations and presents options for reducing this waste through source reduction and recycling. ost waste generated by the metal casting, or foundry, industry is from melting ...

126

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

127

Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

1977-02-01

128

Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ? A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ? Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ? Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ? Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ? It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

129

76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2011-11-01

130

78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2013-02-08

131

78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2013-06-25

132

76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2011-05-13

133

75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2010-10-25

134

78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2013-10-25

135

77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2012-10-17

136

76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2011-02-07

137

THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and carbon (CO and CO2. The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches; percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA

2013-03-01

138

Effect of CO2 capture on the emissions of air pollutants from industrial processes  

OpenAIRE

This study assesses whether the deployment of CO2 capture technologies in the European industrial sector would result in significant changes in the emissions of air pollutants (NOx, SO2, PM, and NH3) in the short term. The industrial sectors investigated were: cement, petroleum refineries, and iron and steel. The analysis included onsite emissions and changes associated with grid electricity consumption due to CO2 capture. Post-combustion capture using monoethanolamine (MEA) was c...

Kuramochi, T.; Ramirez, C. A.; Faaij, A. P. C.; Turkenburg, W. C.

2012-01-01

139

Industrial energy economy, national and international aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

VDI-report 1061 contains the papers given on the Conference of the same name in Essen on the 22 and 23.6.1993. German industry suffers not only from high wage and on-cost but high, energy costs as well. Waste disposal problems and impending taxes on wages are the cause of these difficulties. The EC believes that competition between energy supplies may help to reduce energy costs. This report deals with cost-efficient energy supply for the German industry and books at the background of this scenario. This industry puts forward its wishes and demands to politicians and energy economy. Representatives of energy suppliers discuss energy supplies, demand, availability, safety of supplies, competitiveness, quality and environmental aspects. The influence of energy costs and environmental taxation on the industrial and economic future of Germany and the situation in the Eastern States of Germany are a further subject of discussion. The views of the EC commission, the industry and the energy suppliers on energy transports across the EC are discussed as well. (orig./UA)

140

Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton  

OpenAIRE

Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in th...

Solimar Garcia; Irenilza Alencar Nääs

2014-01-01

141

Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. PMID:24576652

Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

2014-08-01

142

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

1995-06-01

143

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides lists of figures and tables related to the NTS and includes a Site Description. The Source Description includes current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The Site has been the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. since 1951. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950`s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. At the North Las Vegas Facility, operated for DOE/NV by EG&G Energy Measurements, there was an Unusual Occurrence that led to an insignificant potential exposure to an offsite person. The incident involved the release of tritiated water (HTO), and a description of the incident and the method of calculating the effective dose equivalent for offsite exposure are described. The Source Description further describes Ground Seepage of Noble Gases, Radioactive Waste Management Sites, and Plutonium Contaminated Surface Areas.

Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E. [ed.

1996-06-01

144

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

145

Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

2014-11-01

146

Storm runoff quality and pollutant loading from commercial, residential, and industrial catchments in the tropic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on the pollution level and the influence of hydrologic regime on the stormwater pollutant loading in tropical urban areas are still scarce. More local data are still required because rainfall and runoff generation processes in tropical environment are very different from the temperate regions. This study investigated the extent of urban runoff pollution in residential, commercial, and industrial catchments in the south of Peninsular Malaysia. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected from 51 storm events. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease (O&G), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus (TP), and zinc (Zn). It was found that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants varied greatly between storm characteristics and land uses. The results revealed that site EMCs for residential catchment were lower than the published data but higher for the commercial and industrial catchments. All rainfall variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants except for antecedent dry days (ADD). This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of ADD for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for O&G, NO3-N, TP, and Zn. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by rainfall depth, mean intensity, and max 5-min intensity in all the three catchments. Overall, ADD is an important variable in multiple linear regression models for predicting the EMC values in the tropical urban catchments. PMID:23591675

Chow, M F; Yusop, Z; Shirazi, S M

2013-10-01

147

Cracks in the Dutch national wind industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1998 has been a turbulent year for the wind turbine industry in the Netherlands. NedWind was taken over by the Danish NEG Micon, parts of WindMaster were taken over by Lagerwey, and blade manufacturer Rotorline was also taken over by a Danish firm (LM Glasfiber). Some consider those developments as a proof for the decline of a once promising industry in the Netherlands, others see it as an excellent chance to improve the position of the Dutch market in the world. 11 refs

148

Profiles of the National Industry Skills Standards Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to develop a more uniform and comprehensive system of national skill standards, the U.S. Departments of Education and Labor have awarded grants to 22 technical committees, composed of representatives from business, labor, and education, in a variety of industries and occupations. These projects will begin proposing national standards…

Rahn, Mikala L., Comp.

149

Wastewater Pollution Abatement in China: A Comparative Study of Fifteen Industrial Sectors from 1998 to 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the management of wastewater pollutants in a number of Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2010. We use decomposition analysis to calculate changes in wastewater pollutant emissions that result from cleaner production processes, end-of-pipe treatment, structural changes in industry, and changes in the scale of production. We focus on one indicator of water quality and three pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD, petroleum, cyanide, and volatile phenols. We find that until 2002, COD emissions were mainly reduced through end-of-pipe treatments. Cleaner production processes didn’t begin contributing to COD emissions reductions until the introduction of a 2003 law that enforced their implementation. Petroleum emissions were primarily lowered through cleaner production mechanisms, which have the added benefit of reducing the input cost of intermediate petroleum. Diverse and effective pollution abatement strategies for cyanide and volatile phenols are emerging among industries in China. It will be important for the government to consider differences between industries should they choose to regulate the emissions of specific chemical substances.

Shinji Kaneko

2013-03-01

150

Risk of cancer mortality in spanish towns lying in the vicinity of pollutant industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial aggregation of different industrial facilities leads to simultaneous release of pollutant emissions. Our objective is to study cancer mortality risk associated with residence in the vicinity of pollutant factories. We used data on industries for year 2007 (3458 facilities). For the 8,098 Spanish towns, we defined a factor with 4 levels based on the number of factories in a radius of 2.5?km from the centroid of each town (industrial factor). We also used data of land cover use to approximate the percentage of municipal land used for industrial activities in each Spanish town (land-used variable). For both variables we fitted Poisson models with random terms to account for spatial variation. We estimated risk trends related with increasing number of factories or percentage of land used for industrial activities. We studied 33 cancer causes. For the industrial factor, 11 causes showed trend associated with increasing factor level. For the land use variable, 8 causes showed statistically significant risks. Almost all tumours related to the digestive system and the respiratory system showed increased risks. Thus mortality by these tumours could be associated to residence in towns nearby industrial areas with positive trend linked to increasing levels of industrial activity. PMID:23193486

Ramis, Rebeca; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Garcia-Perez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo

2012-01-01

151

Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure that's why man is bent on industrializing his domain from earlier. The environment acts like a source to supply raw materials for production processes. The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE, Peshawar, to investigate the individual industrial effluent load. All the industries were divided into five categories like Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical and Paper and three industry from each category were selected. The samples were collected from end-up-pipe of individual industrial process and were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Effluent of Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical, and Paper industries were analyzed for pH, Temperature, DO, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cu were investigated in the effluents of selected industries. The concentrations of BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Pb, Cr and Ni were found higher than NEQS for industrial discharges. The wastewater flow rate was also calculated for industrial effluent. Wastewater treatment facilities are not present in the industrial estate. The study suggests that huge quantities of wastewater is generating in industrial estate can be minimized through process modification, change in existing equipment, installation of recycling plants and selection of proper trained employees.

Sardar Khan

2002-01-01

152

Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

153

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved “critical receptor” stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

Bechtel Nevada

2006-06-01

154

The Evaluation of Industrial Cement Production Plant on the Environmental Pollution Using Magnetic Susceptibility Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different pollutants in soil, water, and other parts of the environment are so important in portraying environmental pollution, and could come from different source of pollutions including industrial activities. Entering metals into the soil by human activities is an important process in the geochemical cycling of heavy metals. Among the potentially toxic metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, selenium and chromium could be named as the most toxic. Each of these elements is used in industrial activities and most of them are considered as by-products of mining, refining and similar industrial activities. Although the establishment of cement factories is usually associated with job creation and other economic aspects, the purpose of economic interests, is inevitable environmental damage caused by cement factories. Therefore, research on pollution originated from factories appears to be necessary. In order to determine the effect of cement production on farmland around Shahrood cement factory, soil samples were taken from surface soils from depth of 0-30 cm. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer instrument after samples preparation using standard frequently used methods. Soil magnetic susceptibility of the samples was also measured using Saskopto meters MFK1-FA. The results showed that among the parameters studied, the element of Zinc has shown the lowest mean value equal to 0.31 mg·kg-1 and iron has shown the highest mean value equal to 6.36 mg·kg-1.

Hadi Ghorbani

2013-12-01

155

Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

Uffia, I. Dan

2013-01-01

156

76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Background The EPA published final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources (CMAS) on October 29, 2009. 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVVVV (74 FR 56008). Included in the final rule was a new provision...

2011-03-14

157

75 FR 76984 - Notice Regarding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General Permit for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0055; FRL-9233-9] Notice Regarding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General Permit for...November 17, 2010. Karen Flournoy, Acting Director, Water, Wetlands, and Pesticides Division, EPA Region 7. [FR Doc....

2010-12-10

158

Large scale Air pollution and deposition in the National Environmental Outlook 5. Background information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods, as applied in the fifth National Environmental Outlook (NMP5), to calculate acidification, eutrophication (1900-2030), transboundary air pollution (1980-2030) and effect indicators climate change (1950-2030)

159

Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

160

Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based...

Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; García-Pérez Javier; López-Cima María; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

2011-01-01

161

Pollution prevention/waste minimization program applications to the commercial nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Programs have been established for new facilities to encompass design, construction, operation and decommissioning of process and power plants, research and government facilities. With respect to Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization, operating nuclear facilities must consider ongoing operations; modifications to processes, systems or components; changes in operating practices; and eventual decommissioning. The primary emphasis of the programs, consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) definition of pollution prevention/waste minimization, is waste elimination, source reduction and/or recycling to minimize the quantity and toxicity of material before it enters the waste stream for treatment or disposal. The 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and 1990 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) passed by Congress have driven commercial nuclear utilities to consider formal pollution prevention/waste minimization programs. These programs typically contain four distinct phases in accordance with guidance from the US EPA: planning, assessment, feasibility, and implementation. Certain utilities, such as the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) have taken pro-active steps to provide the baseline for pollution prevention/waste minimization programs through waste characterization and assessment. In addition, the nuclear industry's efforts in evaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reavaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reactor core hardware storage and disposal also provide directly applicable baseline information

162

75 FR 54821 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List; Intent...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Public Health and Environment, have determined...Health and the Environment, 4300 Cherry...it will not take effect. We will, as...protection, Air pollution control,...

2010-09-09

163

76 FR 45432 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...also called the Intercoastal Waterway. The canal was constructed...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2011-07-29

164

76 FR 76048 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...also called the Intercoastal Waterway. The canal was constructed...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2011-12-06

165

77 FR 64748 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...Northern Portage Lake, Keweenaw Waterway, Lake Superior, Boston Pond...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2012-10-23

166

76 FR 76314 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...also called the Intercoastal Waterway. The canal was constructed...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2011-12-07

167

76 FR 45428 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...also called the Intercoastal Waterway. The canal was constructed...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2011-07-29

168

The HORUS model--inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions from industrial combustion in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explains a methodology for a low-cost air pollution emissions inventory, focusing on fuel combustion processes in industries and based on the identification and refinement of connections among existing databases. The first bottom-up approach allowed by the HORUS model is especially suitable for developing countries, where there are limited resources for air emission monitoring. It starts from adapting and connecting databases and statistics, providing a top-down inventory that establishes the boundaries for the bottom-up assessment. The latter is based on a proxy distribution of the numbers of employees in each industry for each sector. Some results are presented for the case of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, with three different fuels submitted to three main combustion processes, producing three pollutants under two scenarios (plus carbon dioxide). From a universe of 157,304 industries, the model covered 46,283 (up to 54% of total fuel consumption). With a high spatial and temporal resolution, the model is extremely flexible and transparent, an approach that can be adapted to other regions in the world. This is particularly important in developing countries, with energy intensive industries and severe episodes of urban air pollution. Further developments can refine the model, by substituting the calculated outputs by real scale measurements or by providing upgrades in the available statistical databases, demonstrating the value of such a tool for an integting the value of such a tool for an integrated energy and environmental planning

169

THE BUILDING INDUSTRY- A FLOURISHING SECTOR OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY  

OpenAIRE

The building industry has been one of the most dynamic fields of theRomanian economy over the last years. The increase in the number of builders, the penetrationon the Romanian market of a large number of branches of the multinational companies, themajor investments in large projects, they all give the coordinates of an intensely competitiveconstruction market. In this paper we wanted to point out the fact that the building industry is asignificant branch of the national economy, as it plays ...

CRISTINA PLOSCARU; BOGDAN BUDIC?

2009-01-01

170

Evaluation of Indoor Air Pollution of Polyurethane Industries with Emphasis on Exposure with Methylene Diphenyle Diisocyanate (MDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diisocyanates are used as a initial chemical material in different factories such as surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders and sealants. In the polyurethane workplace there are aerosols of diisocyanates which has important to effect on workers. They can also be exposed to partial reaction of isocyanate-containing intermediates formed during polyurethane production. The main objective of this study pointed on assessment of exposure risk factors with MDI in the workplace, determination of MDI concentration and biomonitoring of MDA in polyurethane industries. NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 5522 sampling and analysis method was used by midget impinger contained dimethyl sulfoxide with tryptamine. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography was employed for air sampling analysis and GC (Gas Chromatography for urine analysis. Getting personality data was carried out by Health Surveillance Questionnaire and multiple linear regression models with ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis. The result of study showed that there was a diisocyanate pollution (MDI > 96.6?g/m³ and it have seen in the workers' urine. A new approach to assess isocyanate pollution in the workplace is risk factor assessment simultaneously with indoor air pollution and biological monitoring.

Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi

2010-01-01

171

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

Harris, Janet S.

2011-04-01

172

Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2007-04-01

173

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2010-03-01

174

Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

175

77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY...following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting...

2012-06-11

176

Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations. But since the inception of the oil industry in Nigeria, more than twenty-five years ago, there has been no concerned and effective effort on the part of the government, let alone the oil operators, to control environmental problems associated with the industry'. The article reviews the meaning of water pollution, water pollution categories, point source pollution, non-point source pollution, ground water pollution, causes of water pollution, pathogens, chemicals and other contaminants, thermal pollution, transport and chemical reactions of pollution, measurement of pollution, sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, biological testing, control of water pollution, domestic sewage, industrial waste water, agricultural waste water, construction site storm water urban runoff (storm water, radiation pollution, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, The National Policy on Environment, The national environmental reference laboratory, Water resources management, Strategies under the National Policy on Environment, Industrial water pollution control programme, Industrial effluent standards to provide some information on the Nigeria situation.

A.T. Ekubo

2011-11-01

177

Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam totexture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

178

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

2012-05-01

179

Assessment of the petrochemical industry pollution on the Skikda bay, Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO[2], Ca(+2) and Mg(+2), chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites. PMID:16819102

Nafissa, Boutefnouchet; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Chettibi, Houria

2005-12-01

180

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

Houria Chettibi

2005-12-01

181

An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refossible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

182

Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

2014-11-01

183

Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

2013-01-01

184

Integrating Market Based Instruments for Pollution Control - Strategic Option for Enhancing Competitiveness within Energy Industry  

OpenAIRE

The paper aims to emphasize the efficiency of using market based instruments for both reducing pollution and enhancing competitiveness within the energy industry. Given the previous experience of European countries, as well as the characteristics of the main market based instruments, the paper is focused on developing two alternatives for combining green certificates schemes, white certificates schemes and emissions trading schemes (black certificates schemes) in strategic options, aiming to ...

T?a?purica?, Oana-ca?ta?lina

2011-01-01

185

Pollution prevention and wastewater treatment in fish canning industries of Northern Portugal  

OpenAIRE

The main environmental problems of fish canning industries are high water consumption and high organic matter, oil and grease and salt content in their wastewaters. This work aims to analyze the situation (water consumption, wastewater production, wastewater characterization, etc.) of different plants located north of Douro river, in Portugal, in order to propose various solutions to their problems. Thus, initially it was made an identification and implementation of prevent and control pollut...

Cristova?o, Raquel; Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui

2012-01-01

186

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mean horizontal wind velocity is defined and it is calculated that it varies little with height so that it may be considered as constant up to the reference level which corresponds to the height of the source of industrial pollution. The formula is given for the calculation of the mean dispersion values of the diffusion coefficient and of the dispersion factor. (J.P.)

187

A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from 210Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ? 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our 14C and 210Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ? 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ? 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, ttrace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 ?g g-1. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution

188

Full automatic system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the full automatic monitoring system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds is presented. Continual preparation of samples and their analysis ensure the instrument PROSPEKT and liquid chromatograph/diode array detector UV (LC/DAD UV) in 'on-line' connection. Function of the PROSPEKT instrument is described. This system works at levels ?g dm-3 - mg dm-3 and it is programmed for detecting of 18 compounds

189

Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m{sup 2}/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

2002-12-01

190

[Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

2014-11-01

191

Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m2/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

192

Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

193

Industrial pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption by atomization process is based on the drying by atomization and is recommended for the incinerators or thermal power plants fumes processing. This paper presents the different processes for the fumes scrubbing and the dioxines reduction process for old plants. (A.L.B.)

194

Industrial Pollution and Economic Compensation : A  Study of Down Stream Villages in Noyyal River, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, South India  

OpenAIRE

Tirupur is an Indian textile town which constitutes many dyeing and bleaching units situated in the upstream. Tirupur serves as one of the major exporters of textiles. The industrial pollution have affected not only the surface water but also the soils and ground water. This thesis studies the impacts of industrial pollution on agriculture and livestock. It also explores the implicated problems involved in putting an economic compensation mechanism into practise. The impact study was made on ...

Santhi Kanna, Dorai Kannan

2008-01-01

195

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-07-01

196

75 FR 53222 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Science.gov (United States)

...Substances Pollution Contingency...the Georgia Environmental Protection...or the environment. Sites...that could cause damage to...health and the environment. The third...health and the environment, and...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

2010-08-31

197

69 FR 57649 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Science.gov (United States)

...in College Township, Centre County, Pennsylvania...together with source control measures for surface...protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated...column in the entry for Centre County Kepone,...

2004-09-27

198

77 FR 43529 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...performed by the U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. VOCs and heavy...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated:...

2012-07-25

199

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?-T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants. PMID:23313891

Zhu, Zongmin; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Han, Zhixuan; Yu, Genhua

2013-02-15

200

Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

201

Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

202

Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

203

Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:20734618

Rai, Prabhat Kumar

2010-03-01

204

Air pollution control arising from waste incineration. Status of the amendment of the 17th BImSchV within the national implementation of the European industry emission guideline; Luftreinhaltung bei der Abfallverbrennung. Stand der Novelle der 17. BImSchV im Rahmen der nationalen Umsetzung der Europaeischen Industrieemissionsrichtlinie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its publication in December 2010, the new Directive 2010/75/EU (abbreviated IED) is a trigger in the national laws of the Member States of the European Union. For Germany and other member states a two-year period results from this in order to implement the requirements of the IED into national law. IED is more than a mere amendment to the 'old IVU Directive' in which several European sectorial guidelines are summarized. The implementation has a major impact on a number of regulations in Germany. Not only the Federal Pollution Control Act has to be changed, but also numerous minor set of rules such as the 4th, 13th, and 17th Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance.

Gleis, Markus; Wiechmann, Benjamin [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

2012-06-15

205

Nineteenth century flooding and pollutant loadings from the first industrial city  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1750 and 1900 the city of Manchester was transformed. In the city and surrounding towns enormous volumes of fine-grained sediments (clays, silts and sands) were generated and much of this material, contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants, ended up in urban river channels that became choked with sediments. Water quality was dire. Urban channels were then periodically scoured by large floods from steep headwater catchments that evacuated sediments and deposited them on the wide rural floodplain downstream. The nature and extent of sediment pollution in the city and the volume of material transported by rivers can be established by studying floodplain deposits, a vital aspect of the history of the first industrial city that is now being explored. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Manchester Ship Canal (MSC) destroyed much of the valley floor of the Mersey-Irwell system downstream of the city. When the MSC opened at the beginning of 1894 it was the largest inland navigation of its kind in the world. We have identified well-preserved sedimentary records - that were not excavated or buried during the construction of the ship canal - that span this crucial period. High-resolution sampling of sediments has allowed reconstruction of large flood events, pollution history, and contaminant flux using detailed grain size and X-ray fluorescence analyses for the period up to 1887 when the construction of the MSC began. These constitute a geological archive of natural and anthropogenic environmental change before and during the Industrial Revolution. This paper presents natural baseline conditions for the Mersey-Irwell system, contaminant profiles for sediment-bound heavy metals, a record of exceptionally large floods for the nineteenth century, and the trajectory of change following the Industrial Revolution. This forms part of a larger project to establish the nature and extent of sediment pollution over the period of the Industrial Revolution in the Mersey-Irwell catchment, an important new proxy for the evolving quality of the river environment in the world's first industrial city.

Woodward, Jamie; Rothwell, James; Hurley, Rachel; Lewin, John

2014-05-01

206

Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winnersder themselves winners

207

Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copºa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 -1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery.Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reductionof industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health andagriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlatedwith noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentrationlevel in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure ofpollution sources, continuing ecological reconstruction works, already carried out on about 500 hectares of degraded land, unfortunately unsuitable for other uses-only for forestry fields, followed by vigorous action of soils decontamination, based on extensive interdisciplinary research.

Marian Ianculescu

2009-11-01

208

Air pollution caused by industrial smoke and its effect on agriculture and horticulture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the rapidly increasing industrialization after the second world war in some areas in the Netherlands, damage caused by air pollution occurred. Some gladiolus varieties are particularly susceptible while others did not show any symptoms. Near Pernis fruit trees were damaged. Some pear varieties showed irregular black margins along the leaves and finally all leaves blackened entirely and dropped. Need for further investigation is stressed. Some foreign literature is cited and a description of the author's experiences in this field during a visit through USA is given. Symptoms caused by SO/sub 2/, HF, oxidized unsaturated hydrocarbons and growth substances (2,4-D) are described and the methods in use are discussed including some for determining the chemical constituents in air pollutants responsible for damage in plants.

Ten Houten, J.G.

1953-01-01

209

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ? Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ? Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ? Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants

210

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ? Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ? Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ? Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants.

Zhu, Zongmin, E-mail: zhumin@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Bi, Xiangyang [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Langfang 065000 (China); Yu, Genhua [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2013-02-15

211

EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. The joint EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook supports the reporting of emissions data under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. It provides expert guidance on how to compile an atmospheric emissions inventory. The Guidebook is published by the EEA with the CLRTAP Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections responsible for the technical content of the chapters. The present edition replaces all earlier versions. (Author)

Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

2013-08-15

212

Survey of risk reduction and pollution prevention practices in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1996 a survey of pollution prevention, environmental control, and occupational health and safety practices was conducted in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry sector. In conjunction with project partners, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management developed a multidimensional survey instrument to identify risk reduction opportunities. Investigators sought to characterize the range of environmental and industrial hygiene control employed by Rhode Island facilities for the purposes of focusing state technical and compliance assistance efforts. Data were collected on a diverse range of subject areas including work force demographics; source reduction; potential health hazards; worker protection and safety; solid and hazardous waste management; and air pollution control. Nearly one-half of the shops employ three or fewer people, and in many cases, spray painters double as body repair technicians thereby increasing their potential exposure to workplace contaminants. While nearly all of the shops reported that they use spray painting booths, only 38% own booths the more effective downdraft design. Based on the self-reported data, recently promulgated state air pollution control regulations (requiring the use of compliant coatings, enclosed or modified spray gun cleaners, and high-volume, low-pressure, spray guns) appear to be effective at motivating companies toward source reduction. A range of risk reduction opportunities were identified as input material changes, technology changes, and improved operating practices. Better methods of risk communication; a professional licensing requirement; and targeted training, compliance, and technical assistance would help to achieve greater levels of risk reduction in this mature, high-hazard industry. PMID:9697296

Enander, R T; Gute, D M; Missaghian, R

1998-07-01

213

Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and setive non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

214

Analysis of nickel industrial wastes by nuclear techniques and its pollution assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of some heavy metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in nickel industrial wastes from Moa, northeastern Cuba, is determined. The analysis was performed by External Standard method of ED-XRF, using 238Pu (1.11 GBq) excitation source and laterite certified reference material as standards. The capability of INAA using neutrons from a Pu-Be (107 n/s) source and Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC is studied. The determined concentration values for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn shows a different pollution degree according to Dutch regulations and US NOAA guidelines. (Author)

215

Control and prevention of industrial air pollution: Special issue; Bestrijding en preventie van industriele luchtverontreiniging: Thema  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In four articles in this special issue of the magazine attention is paid to new techniques by which emissions to the air from the industry can be controlled and/or prevented. In the first article an overview is given of sources of air pollution, caused by dust. In the second article intermediate results of the KWS 2000 program (aimed at 50% reduction of the emission of volatile organic matter for the year 2000) are outlined. In the third article a cooperative biological (flue) gas desulfurization pilot plant project is discussed. In the fourth and last article the most important possible techniques to reduce the emission of volatile organic matter are highlighted

Waque, W.P.G.M. [Bureau Vergunningen en Bedrijven, DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Schiedam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, W.M. [Bureau Milieu en Ruimtelijke Ordening, VNO/NCW, The Hague (Netherlands); Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [Paques, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar Development, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Corporate Research Laboratorium, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Jol, A. [Sector Milieutechnologie, DHV Milieu en Infrastructuur, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Van Ham, J. [ed.

1994-12-01

216

[Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

2013-12-01

217

Trace metal content in airborne particulate matter measured at a polluted industrial site in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Many epidemiological studies have implicated the association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse human health effects, especially metal content as a possible harmful component of PM. Twenty four-hour samples of PM10 were collected on cellulose filters at a polluted industrial monitoring site for one month and analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The method was used to quantify airborne concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn. The results were compared with Croatian and European legislation. (author)

218

Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry  

OpenAIRE

This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order t...

Marie Riegels Melchior

2011-01-01

219

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-02-01

220

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

OpenAIRE

The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

221

A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major contributors to air pollution and are also desired when estimating source-specific health effects. However, researchers often lack direct observations of the emissions at the source level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate receptor model to infer information about source contributions from ambient air pollution measurements. The proposed model incorporates information from national databases containing data on both the composition of source emissions and the amount of emissions from known sources of air pollution. The proposed model is used to perform source apportionment analyses for two distinct locations in the United States (Boston, Massachusetts and Phoenix, Arizona). Our results mirror previous source apportionment analyses that did not utilize the information from national databases and provide additional information about uncertainty that is relevant to the estimation of health effects. PMID:25309119

Hackstadt, Amber J; Peng, Roger D

2014-11-01

222

Nevada National Security Site Industrial Sites Project Closeout - 12498  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is responsible for environmental restoration (ER) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This includes remediation at Industrial Sites where past nuclear testing activities and activities that supported nuclear testing may have or are known to have resulted in the release of contaminants into the environment. Industrial Sites at the NNSS have included nuclear facilities that supported the nuclear rocket/missile development programs, gas stations, landfills, spill sites, ordnance sites, and numerous other waste disposal and release sites. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities neared completion at the end of fiscal year 2011 while other activities required under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and part of the same NNSS ER Project are forecasted to extend to 2027 or beyond. With the majority of Industrial Sites corrective action units (CAUs) completed (more than 250 CAUs and over 1,800 corrective action sites), it was determined that an activity closeout process should be implemented to ensure that the work completed over the past 15 years is well documented in a comprehensive and concise summary. While the process used to close each individual CAU is described in approved documents, no single document describes in summary fashion the work completed to close the many individual Industrial Sites. The activity closeout process will be used to develop an Industrial Sites closeout document that describes these years of work. This document will summarize the number of Industrial Sites closed under the FFACO and provide general descriptions of projects, contaminants removed, and sites closed in place with corresponding Use Restrictions. Other pertinent information related to Industrial Sites work such as the project history, closure decisions, historical declarations, remediation strategies, and final CAU status will be included in the closeout document, along with a table listing each CAU and corresponding corrective action sites within each CAU. Using this process of conducting the activity closeout and developing a closeout document may prove useful for other ER projects within the DOE complex in describing how a long period of ER can be summarized in a single document. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities were completed over the span of 15 years and involved the investigation, cleanup or Use Restriction, and closure of more than 260 CAUs and over 1,800 sites. These activities will conclude in FY 2012 (with the exception of one CAU). In order to capture the work completed over this length of time and document decisions made during the activities, a closeout effort was initiated. The closeout will review the work conducted during the Industrial Sites activities and produce a single document that summarizes Industrial Sites activities. This closeout is being conducted at an interim stage in the overall NNSA/NSO ER Project since the Soils and UGTA activities will continue for a number of years, but the completion of the Industrial Sites project warrants conducting a closeout now while personnel are available and information is still current. The process followed by NNSA/NSO in conducing project closeout for the Industrial Sites portion of the ER program may prove useful within the DOE complex in demonstrating how a large ER project can be summarized. (authors)

223

Effect of Industrial Effluents Polluting the River Nile on Growth, Metabolism and Productivity of Triticum aestivum and Vicia faba Plants  

OpenAIRE

The effect of irrigation with industrial effluents was evaluated on growth, uptake of nutrients and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum Giza 164) and faba beans (Vicia faba Giza 461) plants. Also, irrigation by industrial effluents in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was used as biological control to overcome the harmful effects of pollution with heavy metals. Irrigation of plants with industrial effluents led to marked changes in growth criteria depending on plant and the...

Wafaa Mohamed Shukry

2001-01-01

224

Evaluation of Stakeholder Involvement towards a Comprehensive Reduction of Industrial Land Pollution around the Douala Metropolis, Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

The protection of the land from Industrial pollution continues to be an environmental onus for the Cameroonian society today. This is evidenced in urban areas with relatively high industrial concentration. This work sought to critically identify and present a detail analysis of the efforts made by the government and all relevant stakeholders towards reducing the emission of industrial effluents on the local terrestrial environment. A case study was conducted in Douala the largest metropolis i...

Cyprian Nkem, Billa

2009-01-01

225

A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

226

Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in thnsights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

227

78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch...Space, seeks industry views and perspectives...strategic National Security Space Launch...launch national security space payloads...capabilities or aid industry in lowering...

2013-05-29

228

CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (3RD) HELD AT ORLANDO HYATT HOUSE, KISSIMMEE, FLORIDA ON APRIL 14-16, 1980  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary points of the gathering were: The status of EPA's wastewater and solid waste regulations, and both EPA's and industry's research efforts to effectively address the ramifications of these regulations. Air pollution and energy recovery, financial pollution control alter...

229

Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. PMID:25063882

Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

2014-10-01

230

Radiation-induced oxidation of biologically resistent organic pollutants in industrial waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidative ?-radiation-induced degradation of organic pollutants in industrial waste water is demonstrated with the biologically resistant chlorinated phenols as well as with a waste water containing organic dyes. Complete dechlorination of the chlorinated phenols is achieved with an absorbed dose of 6 Mrad. The organic chlorine is completely converted to chloride. In average 1 Mrad degrades 200 ppm of organic substrate. The final products of the radiation induced oxidation are degraded by activated sludge bacteria. The red coloured waste waters of biologically resistant anthraquinone dyes are completely decolourized after absorption of a ?-dose of 2.5 Mrad. With increasing irradiation time the TOC and COD values decrease. The irradiated decolourized solutions are not at all toxic for fish. - The radiation-induced oxidation of refractory industrial waste waters with non-biodegradable organic pollutants is discussed as a pretreatment to the activated-sludge process. The potential application of the Cs fission products or solified radioactive waste as radiation sources is briefly outlined. (orig.)

231

Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ?240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history. PMID:25675506

Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

2015-02-24

232

76 FR 70057 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...deletion will not take effect. ADDRESSES: Submit...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...welfare, or the environment. Sites on the...deletion will not take effect. EPA will, as...it will not take effect. EPA will prepare...protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-11-10

233

1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.'' Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL

234

Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

Timur, Emre

2014-05-01

235

Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry  

OpenAIRE

Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failu...

Roma?n-sa?nchez, I. M.; Irene Carra

2013-01-01

236

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2011-06-01

237

Reduction of environmental pollution through optimization of energy use in cement industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial development has lead to higher energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, as well as air pollutants. Cement factories play an important role in overall greenhouse emissions. This study aims to investigate the role of Iranian cement industries and their contribution of greenhouse gases contribution. The measured emission factors for oil and fuel gas shows that carbon dioxide contribution from fuel oil based cement industries is almost 2.7 times higher than gas based cement factories. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat technique analysis showed that the best strategy to combat greenhouse gases from Iranian cement factory is to implement energy efficiency measures. Further, strategic position and action evaluation matrix analysis indicates that Iranian cement industries fall within invasive category. Therefore, exploitation of opportunities must carefully be used. One of these opportunities is the utilization of financial assistance provided by clean development mechanism. The results show that replacement of ball mills with vertical roller mill can reduce the electricity consumption from 44.6 to 28 kWh/ton. As a result of such substitution about 720 million kWh/y of electricity would be saved (almost a power plant of 125 MW capacities). Though implementation of new mills may not be economic for the cement industries' owner, but the overall gain for the government of Iran will be about US$ 304 million. If the duration of such efficiency measure is considered as about 12 y, then the overall carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reduction/phase-out would be around 4.3 million tons.

Karbassi, A.R.; Jafari, H.R.; Yavari, A.R.; Hoveidi, H. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran). Graduate Faculty of the Environment; Sid Kalal, H. [J.I.H. Research Laboratories, Tehran (Iran). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst.

2010-01-01

238

Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. PMID:19268409

Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

2009-07-01

239

Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

2015-01-01

240

The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

241

78 FR 60721 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Utica. The Ludlow Sand & Gravel property...bounded by a designated wetland and an unnamed stream...including septage, waste oils, coolants, and...where the ponded wetland discharges beneath...Natural resources, Oil pollution, Penalties...Ludlow Sand &...

2013-10-02

242

76 FR 51266 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...landfill cap(s) will further reduce infiltration of precipitation water into the landfill...management improvements at the Site to reduce infiltration of storm water into the Landfill and...CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

2011-08-18

243

76 FR 77388 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to facilitate sampling under the floor...manganese, mercury, and nickel...representative soil sampling in the area...areas with ``passive'' exposure...active'' and ``passive'' areas were...and ecological sampling. The results...protection, Air pollution...

2011-12-13

244

69 FR 57664 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Science.gov (United States)

...for partial deletion of the Centre County Kepone Superfund Site...to delete a portion of the Centre County Kepone Superfund Site...Administration Parcel of the Centre County Kepone Superfund Site...protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

2004-09-27

245

76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Vittal; and, New Mexico Environment Department...Drive, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...Bernalillo County, New Mexico. A Notice of Intent...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-03-02

246

Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

247

Diode laser spectroscopy for gas monitoring of environmental pollution and for industrial process and emission control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis, in situ measurements of industrial gas emission were performed with diode laser sensors. Field measurements of the ammonia emission from a power plant, a fertilizer plant and from agricultural activities are reported. Further, measurements of the oxygen concentration in an anode baking furnace were performed to demonstrate the potential of using such sensors for combustion control. NO{sub 2} and CO are measured in the laboratory. The diode laser sensors are based on a wavelength modulation technique with second harmonic detection. By tuning the laser frequency over an absorption line, the direct absorption measured can be used for quantitative gas monitoring. High sensitivity is achieved by modulating the diode laser with a high frequency injection current when the laser frequency is tuned over the absorption line. Using a second harmonic of the modulation frequency, a minimum detectable absorption of about 10{sup -5} was achieved. The measurements performed with the diode laser sensors, demonstrate the potential of this spectroscopic measurement technique for in situ, real time monitoring of environmental pollution and for industrial process and emission control. The basic advantages of diode laser spectroscopic techniques compared to gas sensors in use today are high sensitivity, fast time response, long term stability resulting in a stable instrument calibration, negligible interference with other gases, high reliability and the potential of low instrument cost and maintenance. This technique is attractive for gas measurements in rough, industrial environments. 53 refs., 65 figs., 14 tabs.

Ballangrud, Aa.M.

1993-06-01

248

Magnetic record of industrial pollution in forest soils of Upper Silesia, Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

The organic top horizons of forest soils in the vicinity of industrial centers in Upper Silesia, Poland, are characterized by remarkably high magnetic susceptibility. The unusually strong soil susceptibility does not result from weathering or pedogenesis or from deposition of natural detrital ferrimagnetic minerals but is due rather to the influx of anthropogenic magnetic particles contained in industrial dusts and fly ashes. The magnetic particles are iron oxide spherules which originate during the combustion of fossil fuels (brown and hard coals) and during iron or steel production. Heavy metals, such as zinc, lead, or cadmium which stem from the same pollution sources, are often associated with the magnetic and other dust particles and cause soil contamination, which is potentially hazardous for plants, animals, and humans. Because the regional magnetic susceptibility distribution pattern is closely correlated to measured dust fall and largely parallels the distribution of heavy metals, measurements of magnetic susceptibility, which can be conducted easily both in the laboratory and in the field, can be used as a fast and sensitive tool to trace and monitor soil contamination in industrialized regions.

Heller, Friedrich; Strzyszcz, Zygmunt; Magiera, Tadeusz

1998-08-01

249

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

2007-07-01

250

Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Maelaren - Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. - Pollution in Sweden during AD 900-1900 was often greater than modern industrial pollution.

251

Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Maelaren - Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. - Pollution in Sweden during AD 900-1900 was often greater than modern industrial pollution.

Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@emg.umu.s [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Andren, Thomas [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University, SE-141 89 Huddinge (Sweden)

2009-07-15

252

[Depression and anxiety in mothers of children who grow up in an area with industrial pollution].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effects of chemical pollution with hexavalent chromium on the mental health of mothers with school/pre-school age children, residents of the area of the Asopos basin in Eastern Central Greece. The people of this area have been experiencing great threat regarding their health each and every day, as a result of the well-documented pollution by hexavalent chromium in drinking and ground-water, which is related to the widespread industrial activity, the usage of hexavalent chromium in various processes and the discharges of Cr-bearing wastes. The environmental impact of hexavalent chromium is a controversial issue critical to the protection of groundwater resources, as it affects the soil and the products from local cultivations used in daily food. This condition has been documented scientifically and was published in the mass media as a serious threat to human and animal life in the specific area. Although in Greece serious environmental-technological disasters have occurred during the last decades, there is a lack of studies on the possible consequences, including the psychological impact on the local population. The sample of this study included eighty-eight mothers of young children, residents of the area of Asopos, who were compared with eighty-eight mothers living in a non-polluted area - the area of Kiato in Northern Peloponnese, as a control group. They were assessed by the CES-D scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI I-II), which have been standardized for the Greek population. Results indicated that depression and anxiety were significantly correlated with the place of residence [CES-D: t(169,496)=3.45, p=0.001; STAI I-II: A-state: t(174)=10,131, p=0.000; A-trait: t(174)=8,728, p=0.000]. Mothers from the Asopos basin reported more symptoms of depression (Mean=24,14, SD=11,345) than the control group (Mean=18,68, SD=9,625). Similarly, they have scored higher in both subscales of STAI I-II, measuring state and trait anxiety (A-state: Mean=49,66, SD=12,345; A-trait: Mean=46,76, SD=11,458) than the control group (A-state: Mean=32,24, SD=10,383; A-trait: Mean=32,32, SD=10,474). Regarding the anxiety as a personality trait (STAI-II), mothers in Asopos Area reported higher levels of stress that is likely to be associated with the long-term stressful situation of pollution. It could be assumed that mothers from Asopos Area scored higher in both anxiety scales, as a result of the environmental disaster that has been occurred in the area and the high risk that this poses to life. These results confirm relevant literature findings on depression and feelings of anger in regions that have suffered industrial or physical disasters, and suggest that fighting against chemical pollution in Asopos area also needs additional implementation with psychological support to mothers of children growing in the area. Up to date, no psychosocial support has been provided to the residents at the community level. Further research should be carried out in order to measure the impact of chemical pollution on the psychological well-being and health of all members of the local community. PMID:24200540

Nika, S; Ploumpidis, D; Zervas, J; Papadimitriou, G N; Tzinieri-Kokkosi, M

2013-01-01

253

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

254

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

255

Growth of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Mimosaceae in Polluted Soils of Landhi and Korangi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth of Albizia lebbeck was observed in the polluted soils from towel, garment, rubber and ply board factories in the vicinity of Landhi and Korangi industrial areas of Karachi. Growth of A. lebbeck was reduced in most of the industrial area soils as compared to the control soil from Karachi University campus. The rubber factory soil reduced all the growth parameters as compared to the control soil. Percentage of soil pollutants (total soluble salts and available sulfate in all of the industrial area soils was higher than in the control area soil. Percentage of coarse sand, calcium carbonate, total soluble salts, available sulfate, and chromium was higher in soil of rubber factory then in the control area soil whereas percentage of water holding capacity, organic matter and zinc was lower in soil from rubber factory than in the control area soil. This showed that the soil of industrial areas of Landhi and Korangi particularly from rubber factory and ply board factory was contaminated by the pollutants in the area and drastically affected the plant growth. The findings of this research could be helpful in monitoring and controlling the pollutant levels in soils of the industrial areas. Such information could also be useful for landscaping and urban planning.

Syed Atiq-ur- Rehman

2011-06-01

256

Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

257

Proactive pollution prevention and safety solutions for the upstream oil and gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the development of zero spill technology which has provided a new standard in pollution prevention and health and safety for the upstream petroleum industry. The paper also outlines safety solutions for service rig floors, drill rig substructures, and well sites. Proactive oil field environmental protection solutions were also reviewed along with the associated tangible and intangible benefits. The 3 main problems that need to be continually addressed include workplace health and safety, environmental contamination, and economic losses resulting from personnel injury claims, drilling fluid costs, and environmental reclamation costs. Some of the solutions developed by Katch Kan were described, including: a new style mud bucket composed of polymers; tong hand protectors; lego-style floor mats; drilling fluid splash guards; and, a new style tray composed of polymers. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Holtby, Q.; Rondeau, E. [Katch Kan Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

258

Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2011-02-15

259

Heavy metals as stressing factors in the red wood ants (Formica polyctena) from industrially polluted forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relations between metal contaminations in social groups of ants from colonies of Formica polyctena, from 5 localities variously contaminated by industrial pollution, and their metabolic and detoxifying strategies have been investigated. Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu levels have been measured in social groups of workers and pupae throughout the season. Patterns of metabolic, transport and detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and phosphoadenine nucleotides and the energy charge (AEC) have been determined. The metal content is a measure of the level of contamination and has been the highest in foragers returning to the nest. Body burdens of Cd, Pb and Zn diminished progressively from the surface workers to those from the inner part of the hill. The concentration of total adenylates was slightly lower than stated in Finnish ants poisoned with Cd, but the AEC index was always above 0.8, with high variations between the social groups. Carboxylesterases showed a positive correlation of activity pattern with the metal load in foraging workers, with the highest value for cadmium load in ants from a locality in the middle of a pollution gradient. The pattern of superoxide dismutase activity has been site-dependent, but it did not correlate well with the metal load in workers. PMID:15067465

Migula, P; G?owacka, E

1996-03-01

260

Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale. PMID:23416485

Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

2013-03-15

261

Air pollution studies by plants growing near some industrial objects of Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaves and seeds of many popular kinds of plants in Uzbekistan was used to study atmospheric pollution near such industrial objects as Tadjik aluminum factory (TadAF), Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent institute of nuclear physics (INP). Leaves of fruit plants: vineyard, tomato and apple, apricot, quince, peach, persimmon, pomegranate, mulberry trees as well as leaves of technical crops: cotton, corn, mint and clover, which grow near above specified objects and also seeds of water-melon, tomato, aubergine, bulgarian pepper, pumpkin, grapes, cherry and persimmon from areas near aluminum factory were sampled. The purpose of choice of so much investigated vegetation was to select plants which can be used as biomonitors and which best accumulate in themselves the most harmful pollution from soil and air in order to subsequent destruction of these collector plants will be made. Investigations were conducted by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical methods. Tashkent State Agrarian University has used the alternative methods. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant leaves and seeds have been developed. (author)

262

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility.

Y. E. Townsend

2002-06-01

263

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility

264

The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

265

The British National Museum of Science and Industry: Ingenious  

Science.gov (United States)

The British National Museum of Science and Industry (NMSI) hosts the Ingenious website, which "brings together images and viewpoints to create insights into science and culture." Visitors can read articles covering over 30 topics, including travelling, communication, and the environment. The entries are organized so you can explore topics further. For example, the section on Understanding our World includes a discussion of "the beauty and utility of maths," which then leads to three other articles on mathematics. The image or "See" section, which includes over 30,000 images from the Science Museum, the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, the National Railway Museum, the Science & Society Picture Library and the Science Museum Library, can be searched or browsed by topic area. By completing the free registration form, you can join in the Debate on questions such as "Has technology given us a home life filled with opportunities?" Registered users can also go to the Create section to set up personalized links, saved images, e-cards, and web galleries.

266

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT –THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DÂMBOVI?A COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat, knows no frontiers, which makes it absolutely necessary to unite our efforts and energies in order to assure the maintenance within normal limits of the ecological balance, both for the present and for future generations. Environmental protection is a relatively recent notion, the bad consequences on certain factors considered “destructive agents” (acid rains, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, escape gases, chemical fertilizers based on nitrogen, sulphur used in agriculture, pesticides, insecticides, insecto-fungicides, industrial waste, non-recyclable wrappers have led to major environmental misbalances, which triggered the prompt reaction of most of the world’s states. The complexity of environmental factors that influence and determine environmental balance justifies the need and opportunity of a environmental management system, organized as a component of the global system of public and private.

Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?

2009-10-01

267

Hygiene definition of a gamma - background, in ground by pollution solid industrial oil waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of protection environments from pollution by oil waste is actual in many sphere of science, including and hygiene. During industrial production of oil, its transportation, storage and processing objects of an environment (air, ground, water and etc.) both crude oil, and its different fractions (Kazimov M.A., and the co- author, 2000; Ivanov A.V. and co-author, 2001; Shor E.L., Hurshudov A.G.,2000; Zalesov S.V. and co - author,2000).As it is visible, despite of the rather vast literature about reglamentization pollution of environments oil by maximum deflections, about influencing some solid waste of oil, specially in aspect of hygiene, on an ecology is studied unsufficiently. Among these waste of oil the special place takes slime. The slime is a withdrawal, which one during industrial crude oil separates first of all on an incipient state, and on final, and consists of rather high-gravity chemical agents, mechanical sediment and small amount with groundwaters. At storage of hundreds tons preliminary clearing of oil in special tanks the slime will be derivated in a great many. During many years, on refineries and tanks of republic the accumulated slime without surveillance was rejected on nearly sites above-stated objects and on around of city. It is known, that the radioactive members (uranium - 238, radium-226, thorium- 232 and ets.) as both other stable member and their natural radionuclides. (potassium- 40, rubidium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samadium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samarium -147 and ets) (Kazimov M.A., Samedov Sh. Kh., 2001). It is necessary to take into account, that in due course, sojourning in ground, changes which are included in its structure metals and metalloids will derivate different mineral connections the set of radioactive matters, is transformed into more than 30 different members (polonium -218, bismuth - 214, thallium - 218, iodine - 131, strontium - 89, zirconium - 95, niobium - 95 and ets). The present research was conducted on the basis of former, dismantle of shop OOGE - of Surakhani region on the first of petroleum refining (desalting and dehydration) and sites around of oil of the tanks (pollution by oil the slime) fathomed a level a gamma of a background and is compared to the hygienic standards. The researches were conducted both on sites rather contaminated by slime, and on sites contaminated by slime almost completely unmixed from 10-15 of limitation of ground. In a course research was clarified, that on sites fresh pollution oil by slime natural exceeds a background a gamma - irradiation at the altitude 0,5 m from a surface of ground (8-15 micro R/hours) in 3,5-4,5 times and reaches an abnormal background (60 - 120 micro R/hours) and from time to time reaches a level of radiological contamination (> 120 micro R/hours) On sites 10-15 years limitations of pollution oil by slime a level a gamma - background exceeds a natural background in 1,5-2,0 times, reaches 25-30 micro R/hours. As it is visible in second matter a level of a gamma of a background below, but in too time the radionuclides, creating it completely displaced with ground and occur rather deeper and consequently it is possible to suspect about migration these impurity through a vegetative cover and groundwaters. It is in case of the former clearing from oil of slime the contaminated sites is considerably more lighter, than in the second case. Extending above-stated, it is possible to reach such concluding that oil the slime which has accumulated on oil producing, objects, and also in oil tanks, cleaning, should be expose the analyses on an elemental composition and radioactivity and in case of indispensable is neutralized in places, specially retracted for it

268

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

1990-07-01

269

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms

270

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ , that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

Barrera-Díaz, C.; Ureña-Nuñez, F.; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.

2003-07-01

271

Designation of sulfur dioxide and Acid Rain Pollution Control Zones and its impacts on energy industry in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the data of SO{sub 2} emission, urban air quality, and acid precipitation, the status and characteristics of acid rain and SO{sub 2} pollution in China were analyzed. To prevent the further deterioration by acid rain and SO{sub 2}, pollution, the Acid Rain Control Zones and SO{sub 2} Pollution Control Zones (Two Control Zones called for short) were designated. The range of Two Control Zones was 1.09 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2}, 11.4% of the whole territory of China, with SO{sub 2} emissions of 14 million tons in 1995. The Acid Rain Control Zone involves 14 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities, with total area of 0.806 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2}. The SO{sub 2} Pollution Control Zone includes 63 cities with total area of 0.29 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2}. The control policies to be implemented in the Two Control Zones were formulated by the method of life cycle analysis on sulfur-in-coal. The impacts of the policy implementation on energy industry, including coal industry and power industry, were calculated and analyzed. It was proved that the policy implementation would improve the thermal power mix and promote the sustainable development of energy industry. The paper also analyzed the decrease of SO{sub 2} emission and the improvement of air quality in the cities in recent years, which were achieved by the control efforts.

Hao, J.M.; Wang, S.X.; Liu, B.J.; He, K.B. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

2001-09-01

272

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

273

EFFECTS OF HEAVY INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN THE CHILDREN OF CUBATAO, BRAZIL; A PRELIMINARY REPORT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cubatao is located on the coast of Brazil 44 km from Sao Paulo. ts geography and wind patterns limit dispersion of air pollutants which result from heavy industrial activity within the city. ew York University and EPA in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo are conducti...

274

FATE OF TOXIC AND NONCONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS WITHIN THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies were undertaken to determine the fate of toxic and nonconventional pollutants present in the wastewaters discharged from the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. A sampling and analysis program was conducted at two deink mills and a groundwood fine paper mill. Each...

275

Towards a comprehensive analysis of cleaner technology potentials to address industrial pollution arising from natural rubber processing industry: A case study of Cameroon Development Corporation - Rubber Factories  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The introduction of best environmental practices (in this study it implies adoption of cleaner technology in varying degrees) among industrial enterprises in Cameroon remains a serious challenge to environmental policy makers. Whilst research has shown that the rubber industry can play an important role in strengthening a nation’s economic development; its negative environmental impacts, due to poor effluent treatments and the lack of research to generate more knowledge on oppor...

Napi Wouapi; Tamo Maimo

2007-01-01

276

Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

277

Recommended integrated monitoring system for pollutants on US national parks designated as biosphere reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere reserves and that can produce data that are comparable between reserves. This report discusses the design of a pollutant monitoring system that has been successfully used in the United States and provides detailed instructions for its application and use. Mathematical models were applied to help determine the optimum monitoring system design. The modeling technique is briefly described, and results are shown using lead as an example. Analytical procedures were chosen for sample analyses because of their ability to detect suspected pollutants and for their cost effectiveness. Multielemental analytical techniques were used whenever possible, and multiorganic analytical techniques were used when available. Samples of air, water, soil, vegetation, and forest litter were collected. The sampling design is discussed, including the layout of sampling blocks, subsampling, sample handling, and sample preservation. Detailed instructions are provided for obtaining samples and operating the necessary equipment. Finally, the maintenance of field log books and the timing of sample collections are discussed, and conclusions regarding the use of an integrated pollutant monitoring system for biosphere reserves are presented. 27 referencephere reserves are presented. 27 references, 25 figures

278

Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dietary intakes of essential and toxic trace elements in various groups of the population consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollutants will be assessed. Industries with clear-cut marker elemental pollutants and which have been in operation for many years are selected. For the first year of study, the tin and lead smelting industry in Jos, Plateau state of Nigeria will be the focus. The common food products (and total diets) that are grown within the locality will be surveyed, sampled and analysed for the marker elemental pollutants. Other essential trace elements which could influence the absorption and metabolism of the marker pollutants will also be studied. Trace element analysis will be carried out mainly by the IAEA-donated TR-XRF system in our laboratory. Afterwards, food frequency questionnaires will be administered to 30 subjects each from 16 sub-groups of the population and their dietary intakes of the various elements of interest will be assessed. The sub-groups are chosen to take care of sociological differences in feeding habits as well as possible variation in the biological tolerance of toxic trace elements. For 5 subjects from each group, blood and headhair samples will be collected and analysed for the elements of interest. Previously obtained results from preliminary studies are presented. (author)

279

Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Shorea robusta (9.78 +/- 0.095), Alstonia scholaris (8.76 +/- 0.084), Peltophorum pterocarpum (8.99 +/- 0.13) and Albizia lebbeck (7.71 +/- 0.012) were found to be more tolerant with higher Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas. PMID:22324147

Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

2011-01-01

280

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

281

Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN), flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predic...

Jimoh, Abdulfatai; Alhassan, Mohammed

2006-01-01

282

Biomonitoring the Spatial and Historical Variations of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in an Industrial Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in needle, branch, bark, and tree ring samples in pine samples collected at 27 sites (21 industrial, 6 background) in Aliaga industrial region in Turkey. Soil, litter, and air samples were also collected to investigate the relationships between the air and soil, litter, and tree components. Concentrations decreased with distance from the sources and the lowest ones were measured at background sites. The spatial distribution of POPs indicated that the major sources in the region are the iron-steel, ship-breaking, petrochemical plants and the petroleum refinery. Significant correlations between the air concentrations and, soil, litter, and tree components indicated the interaction of these compartments with air. Observed increasing trends of POPs in the tree-ring samples were representative for the variations in anthropogenic emissions and resulting atmospheric concentrations in Aliaga region. These results indicated that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial variations while tree rings could be used to investigate the historical trends of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP amounts (mg/ha) stored in different tree components, litter, and soil were also inventoried. Among the tree components, generally, the highest amounts were stored in the stem followed by needles. For the overall inventory, the highest amounts were stored in soil for PCNs, PBDEs, and PCBs while highest PAH amounts were stored in trees, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is also an important reservoir for POPs. PMID:25629885

Odabasi, Mustafa; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

2015-02-17

283

Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

284

76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Spiegelberg Landfill Superfund Site (Site) located in Green Oak Township, Michigan from the National Priorities List...comment. If you send an e-mail comment directly to EPA without going through http://www.regulations.gov, your...

2011-04-13

285

Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

Mantecon Pascual, R.

2005-07-01

286

[Acute-phase proteins in children from industrially polluted regions: influence of treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results of observation and treatment of 440 children aged 8-10 years coming from a region of heavy industrial pollution around Legnica. The majority of children from the investigated group presented signs of chronic inflammation of the upper airways (at the beginning of their stay in Rabka the entire group had an average 16.6 +/- 15.7 mm/1h ESR-Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and their whole-blood lead level ranged from 5 to 15 micrograms%, averaging was 9.1 +/- 2.7 micrograms%). At the beginning of their stay in Rabka, acute-phase proteins levels of the Legnica children were compared to those of children from health-resort region of Rabka and were found to differ significantly in respect to ferritin (p < 0.001) and transferrin (p < 0.01) serum levels. Treatment with propolis significantly modified the climatic effects on ESR, on some electrophoretical fractions of serum proteins and on some A-PhP involved in iron metabolism. There was no individual correlation between the whole blood lead level and acute-phase proteins levels and the intensity of their changes after treatment. PMID:8966075

Sojka, L; Tomalak, W; Gawe?, J

1996-02-01

287

Phytoplankton as index of water quality with reference to industrial pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper Shannon-Weaver (SI-3.58-4.07, SII-3.1-3.72, SIII-1.64-2.25, SIV-2.54-2.95 and SV-3.09-3.23) diversity index was applied to surface phytoplankton to study the water quality status of river Bhadra receiving Mysore paper mill and Iron and steel mill effluent. A total of 45 species of phytoplankton belonging to 5 classes were recorded and study indicated that the phytoplankton diversity (Chlorophyceae-19 species, Bacillanophyceae-16 species, Cyanophyceae-07 species, Euglenophyceae-2 species and Chrysophyceae-1 species) did not reveal the same type of water quality (water temperature 24.62-27.32 degrees C, pH-7.08-7.25, electrical conductivity-67.49-201.94 micromhos/cm, dissolved oxygen-4.13-5.98 mgl(-1), chloride-12.30-40.85 mgl(-1), calcium-6.49-23.74 mgl(-1), total hardness 28.98-76.65 mgl(1), magnesium-4.69-15.92 mgl(-1), total alkalinity-77.26-86.53 mgl(-1), BOD-1.88-4.01 mgl(-1), COD - 16.53-45 mgl(-1), phosphate-0.001-0.53 mgl(-1), sodium-2.70-7.46 mgl(-1) and potassium-2.37-7.88 mgl(-1)). The investigation emphasized the need of phytoplankton community as index of water quality polluted by industrial effluents at the downstream stretch of the Bhadra river. PMID:18831381

Shekhar, T R Shashi; Kiran, B R; Puttaiah, E T; Shivaraj, Y; Mahadevan, K M

2008-03-01

288

Pollutant Monitoring of a Drainage Canal Receiving Industrial and Agricultural Wastewater Incukurova Plain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The TD-7 drainage channel has been exposed to wastewater discharges of different characteristics from multiple sources, due to industrial establishments and dense settlement in the vicinity. In this study, seasonal changes of the characterization of the water carried by the channel, which is also used for agricultural irrigation purposes, was examined for biological, physical and chemical characteristics in water samples, taken from five selected observation points along the channel. The observation points were decided, so as to demonstrate characteristic changes in water and sludge quality, reflecting the effects of wastewater discharge points and hydraulic profile. According to the result of monthly analyses performed on water of the drainage channel, maximum and minimum values of quality and pollution parameters were; suspended solids (SS, 30-210 mg L-1; electrical conductivity (EC, 734-1937 ?S; 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 97-305 mg L-1; chemical oxygen demand (COD, 174-429 mg L-1; total coliform, 250- >1100 EMS mL-1. Accumulations in the sediments were also observed for some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, sampled from the same observation points. The sets of analysis demonstrated that, with the present wastewater discharges the water drawn from the TD-7 drainage channel cannot be used for agricultural purposes according to existing regulations.

Zeynep Zaimoglu

2006-01-01

289

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND HEAVY METALS PROFILE OF CHALLAWA RIVER IN KANO, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study analyzed the effect of heavy metals discharge, from industrial effluents, on River Challawa in Kano, Nigeria. The Challawa River is used for many purposes including irrigation, fishing and water supply. Sampling was conducted during wet (September and dry (May season. Wastewater samples at the point of discharge into the river were collected and analyzed. The mean level of Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn discharged into the river, during dry season, were 2.297, 1.290, 1.051, 2.986, 9.408 and 2.054 mg L-1 respectively. Similarly, the mean discharge of these metals, during wet season, was 1.634, 0.727, 1.252, 22.230, 8.911, and 2.013mg L-1 respectively. The discharge Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn into the river, for both seasons, has exceeded the maximum permissible limit given by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA and WHO. The Challawa River is also sampled at points along its length and the presence of some of these pollutants was evident at the various points. Level of Cr, Pb, Mn and Fe in the river, for both seasons, were found to be higher than the maximum limits given by FEPA and WHO, and this calls for a caution. The need to bring to an end the indiscriminate discharge of untreated effluent into the river through the enforcement of FEPA guidelines is also highlighted.

M.H. BICHI

2010-03-01

290

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. Also the topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the north-west contribute to the influence of the industries located in the north onto this region. The region selected in this work includes a oil-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centred in a oil powered station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hung. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For a 9 month period and every three months, one transplant of each set was collected. We have no knowledge of any other study on differentiation elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata where the component wind direction is taken into account. Some information on local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The transplants were analysed by INAA. Contents on Cl, Na, Ca, V and Zn are mapped and discussed. (author)

291

Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca2+, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

292

Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. PMID:24413251

Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-04-01

293

Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

2003-03-28

294

Procuring the regional urbanization and industrialization effect on ozone pollution in Pearl River Delta of Guangdong, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The decade before 2006 was a period of growing regional urbanization and industrialization. Also, the 5-year plan period (2001-2005) is a half decade of fast regional urban expansion with high population growth within the PRD city clusters, At the same time, the PRD region becomes a leading manufacturing center of the world. Industrial expansion in this region of GD was characterized by the spread of industrial activities from hot spots in GZ city and around Foshan and Dongguan to widely distributed patches of industrial active districts, mostly in the seven newly agglomerate formed and urbanizing prefectural municipalities. To provide transportation communication between GZ city and the municipal cities, a system of highways was built and a region road-network surfaced for the connection of the expanding municipal cities and their sub-urban areas as well as the patches of industrial districts, within their municipalities Also, a network of power plants was built at its periphery. As a result, the ozone precursors, NO x and VOC emission from vehicles, industries and power plants increased region wide, and in particular in the newly formed prefectural municipalities. Hence, the whole region was undergoing a redistribution of O 3 precursors and ozone pollution, following the path of redistribution of population and industrial activity in the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong. Study and report on O 3 pollution before 2000 is rare and there were only a few case studies in 2000 and 2004. By 2006, O 3 data supplied by the newly established PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring Network become available for the study of regional O 3 pollution. Also relevant information on the new dimension of regional urbanization and industrialization for the PRD region of GD, as well as a highly resolved temporal and spatial PRD region NO x and VOC emission inventory surfaced. Thus, 2006 is a good year to procure the regional urbanization and industrial effect, and to produce a snapshot of the regional and area specific ozone pollution in the PRD region of GD. Patterns of annual ozone variation and seasonal ozone diurnal cycles for urban/sub-urban areas, for metropolitan city, for rural areas and for special area in the PRD region of Guangdong are presented for future reference.

Zhang, Y. N.; Xiang, Y. R.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Sang, X. F.; Wang, R.; Fu, H. X.

2011-09-01

295

Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

296

Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater. PMID:24578265

Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

2014-05-01

297

76 FR 41751 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental...issuing a Notice of Intent To Delete the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site (Site) located...direct final Notice of Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site without...

2011-07-15

298

76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental...issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site (Site) located...direct final Notice of Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site without...

2011-12-29

299

75 FR 47521 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent To Delete the Peter Cooper Corporation...EPA), Region 2 is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Peter Cooper Corporation...requests public comments on this notice of intent. The NPL, promulgated pursuant to...

2010-08-06

300

76 FR 71500 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund Site AGENCY...issued a Notice of Intent to Delete the Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund Site from...completed. The rationale for deleting the Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund Site...

2011-11-18

301

77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund Site AGENCY...Region 4 announces the deletion of the Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund Site...The site to be deleted from the NPL is: Martin-Marietta/Sodyeco Superfund...

2012-01-20

302

Place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the national economy of Ukraine ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine. It gives an estimate of the contribution of the fat-and-oil industry into dynamics and structure of volumes of production and sales of products of the food industry. It substantiates an exclusive role of the fat-and-oil industry in formation of the consumption fund, solution of problems of internal food supply security and increase of the export potential of the country and tax proceeds to the budget. It considers social significance of the fat-and-oil industry, products of which are included into a set of food products of the consumer basket. It substantiates a necessity of state support of the fat-and-oil industry on the basis of its place and role in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? «??????????????? ???????». ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????.

Manoylenko Aleksandr V.

2013-01-01

303

Pollutant impacts to Cape Hatteras National Seashore from urban runoff and septic leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sandy barrier islands of Cape Hatteras National Seashore, USA, attract large seasonal influxes of tourists, and are host to numerous motels, rentals and second homes. To investigate the impacts of nearby urbanization on public trust waters, sampling was conducted in nine brackish water bodies within this coastal national park. A large tidal urban ditch delivered runoff-driven fecal-contaminated water directly into public beach waters. At all sites except the control, ammonium, phosphorus and fecal bacteria concentrations were high, strongly seasonal and significantly correlated with community water usage, indicating that increased septic tank usage led to increased pollutant concentrations in area waterways. Nutrients from septic systems caused ecosystem-level problems from algal blooms, BOD, and hypoxia while fecal microbes created potential human health problems. Septic system usage is widespread in sensitive coastal areas with high water tables and sandy soils and alternatives to standard septic systems must be required to protect human health and the environment. PMID:22647645

Mallin, Michael A; McIver, Matthew R

2012-07-01

304

Air pollution and associated human mortality: The role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (? 2.5?m aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-hour daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8±0.16 ?g/m3 and 30±0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5±0.19 ?g/m3 (+25±0.30 ppbv), +0.4±0.17 ?g/m3 (+0.5±0.28 ppbv), and -0.02±0.01 ?g/m3 (+4.3±0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

2012-12-01

305

Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increases in surface ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter (?2.5 ?m} aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5 are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860 times and the global present-day (2000 premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4 concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year have increased by 8 ± 0.16 ?g m?3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS, climate (CLIM and CH4 concentrations (TCH4. EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5(O3 to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 ?g m?3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv, +0.4 ± 0.17 ?g m?3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv, and ?0.02 ± 0.01 ?g m?3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv, respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0–2.5 million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592 thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3, respectively. However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

Y. Fang

2012-09-01

306

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

307

Thirty Years’ Financial Support for Chinese Industry Reform of National Defense Science  

OpenAIRE

The year of 2008 is the 30th anniversary of Chinese reform and opening-up. In thirty years, the defense science industry of China has achieved great accomplishments, and the practice and experience of defense science industry reform deserve retrospection. Financial support is one of necessary conditions for the reform and development of national defense science industry. In this article, we will review 30 years’ financial support of defense science industry from three stages including the p...

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

308

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

309

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

NONE

1997-06-01

310

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

311

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

1995-07-01

312

Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in marine sediment from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of parent and alkyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediment samples collected from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah were determined by using GC-MS. The ratio of anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene, fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene, benz[a]anthracene to benz[a]anthracene plus chrysene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene plus benzo[g,h,i]perylene, compounds were used to identify the sources of PAHs pollution. The total concentration of parent and alkyl PAHs are ranged from 121.7 to 191.5 ng/ g dry weight. The concentrations of PAHs pollution in sediments were categorised as a moderate polluted. The ratio values of PAHs compound indicate the origin source of PAHs pollutions in marine sediment sample of Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park were originated from fossil fuel combustion (pyrolytic). (author)

313

La prevención de la contaminación industrial como asignatura para la formación ambiental universitaria / Prevention of industrial pollution as a course for environmental development at university level  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Es generalmente aceptado que la actividad industrial es la principal responsable de las emisiones atmosféricas, la producción de los desechos peligrosos, la generación de efluentes líquidos, así como de producir contaminación térmica y sónica. Siendo el hombre el principal modificador de su [...] entorno, es necesario generar en él una actitud responsable respecto al tema de la contaminación. El curso “Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial”, asignatura electiva enmarcada en los programas de estudio de las diferentes carreras de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, busca suministrar a los futuros profesionales, las herramientas para entender y generar cambios en las políticas industriales de sus futuros centros de trabajo en relación con el ambiente. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar el curso “Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial” como una propuesta a nivel universitario que conduce a la formación y sensibilización del futuro profesional en el problema de contaminación generado por los procesos industriales de los cuales formará parte en su futuro laboral. Incluye los principales objetivos que se pretenden obtener con este curso, los contenidos programáticos incluidos, así como las estrategias enseñanza-aprendizaje y de evaluación que se aplican. De igual modo, se presentan dos casos de estudio desarrollados por dos participantes del curso en su última edición del período abril-julio-2005. Abstract in english Abstract It is generally accepted that the industrial activity is the main responsible for atmospheric emissions, production of dangerous wastes, generation of liquid effluents, as well as to produce thermal and sonic pollution. Man is the principal modifier of his environment, and it is necessary t [...] o generate a responsible attitude with respect to the environment. The course “Prevention of Industrial Pollution”, an elective course in the curricula of various programs of Universidad Simón Bolívar, seeks to offer to the future professionals the tools to understand and generate changes in the environmental policies of their future work centers in connection with the environment. The objective of this paper is to present the course “Prevention of Industrial Pollution” as a proposal at university level to lead to the development and self-consciousness regarding the contamination problem generated by the industrial processes that he will encounter in his professional future. It includes the main objectives that are intended to cover in this course, including the program contents, as well as the teaching-learning and assessment strategies that are applied. Also included are two case studies by two participants in the last issue of the course for the term April-July, 2005.

Rosa, Reyes Gil; Andrea, De Souza; Jan, Petersen.

2006-09-01

314

The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

Krystyna Czy?ewska

1992-12-01

315

Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to strengthen potential market share, which is the focus of this article. What may at first appear in the Danish case as an absurd and non-productive relationship is actually significant, I would argue, despite its complexity. It has the potential to stimulate critical fashion design practice and give fashion designers a voice, allowing them to take an active part in contemporary public debates on important issues such as nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization.

Marie Riegels Melchior

2011-04-01

316

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT –THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DÂMBOVI?A COUNTY  

OpenAIRE

Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat), knows no frontiers, which makes it ...

Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?; Ovidiu Mur?rescu

2009-01-01

317

New storm water regulations impact industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 1990, new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations aimed at governing the discharge of storm water from industrial facilities became effective. Because some industrial runoff contains toxics and other pollutants, the EPA considers storm water a major source of water contamination. The new regulations will have a profound impact on the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for industry. This paper summarizes the new storm water regulations, focusing on the requirements for industrial facilities. It also presents suggestions for compliance

318

Nuclear-physical methods in complex biomonitoring of pollution in the copper-molybdenum non-ferrous industrial region 'Erdenet' (Mongolia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop a system of complex monitoring of heavy metals in the areas affected by hazardous industrial impact of Erdenet Mining Corporation of the environment of Mongolia the biomonitoring techniques were applied in combination with nuclear and related analytical methods. The moss (Paltegera) was used to assess the atmospheric deposition patterns of heavy metals and other toxic elements over a large territory affected by non-ferrous industry in the town of Erdenet. Its impact on pasture animals (goats and sheet) was studied through analysis of such inner organs as lung, spleen, liver, kidney and heart. A total of 40 elemental concentrations in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP (Frank Lab. of Neutron Physics), JINR, Dubna.The distribution of 14 biogenic elements and heavy metals in water samples was investigated by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescent analysis (TXRF) at Nuclear Research Centre of the National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar. The results obtained evidence for strong accumulation of element-pollutants typical of non-ferrous industry in the town of Erdenet: Cu, Cr, Fe, Ba, etc., along with other trace elements and rare earths for the first time determined in these environmental objects. The results can be used for integrated assessment of ecological situation near the city of Erdenet, and planning for the protection of the environment and public health

319

78 FR 4333 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public Availability of the Administrative...Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision to Increase Public Availability of the Administrative...Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision to Increase Public Availability of the...

2013-01-22

320

76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

2011-04-18

321

76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

2011-03-17

322

Turning industry visions into reality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This brochure outlines the activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the Department of Energy. OIT activities are aimed at industry adoption of energy-efficient, pollution-reducing technologies and include research and development on advanced technologies, financing, technical assistance, information dissemination, education, and bringing together industry groups, universities, National Laboratories, states, and environmentalists. OIT`s core initiative is to facilitate partnerships within seven materials and process industries: aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries.

NONE

1997-01-01

323

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

Hall, L.; Biermann, A

2000-06-27

324

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

Gerard, Morgan Evan

2011-12-01

325

Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

None

1999-09-01

326

CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS FROM PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY USING OZONE  

Science.gov (United States)

Major pollutants from pulp and paper mills include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as methanol and total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS) such as dimethyl sulfide. The conventional treatment technologies including incineration or catalytic thermal oxidation are energy intens...

327

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

OpenAIRE

Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb S...

Lin, Henry W.; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

328

The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges [Updated  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is an update to "The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges." It provides statistics on the welding workforce, projections and future educational needs.

Kim, Jongyum

329

Stratigraphic and geochemical evidence for industrial pollutants in alpine and subalpine soils of the Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A stratigraphic and geochemical study of alpine soils, which formed in later Pleistocene (late glacial) and Neoglacial deposits in the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming, indicates that these soils are affected by air-fall in flux of inorganic pollutants. Arsenic, bromine and antimony appear to have been deposited in surface soils by incorporation of aeolian materials which were presumably transported by winds from industrial sources, including coal-burning operations. As vanadium was not found in surface soils at concentrations above site-specific background levels, oil-fired energy generating stations were not found to be significant sources of surface soil pollution in the region. Acid-rain effects were not observed in the soils. (author) 32 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

330

Distribution profiles of selected organic pollutants in soils and sediments of industrial, residential and agricultural areas of South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently very little data exists on the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the South African environment. To address this data gap a preliminary study of a highly industrialised area of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle, was done. Soil and sediment samples from the Vaal Triangle, as well as other areas in central South Africa, were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the presence of PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like chemicals and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Results showed that these chemicals are present in the South African environment with concentrations ranging between 39,000 ng g(-1) for SigmaPAHs and 0.01 ng g(-1) for dicofol. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated different pollution sources in industrial and agricultural areas. PMID:19724835

Quinn, Laura; Pieters, Rialet; Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Borgen, Anders Røsrud; Kylin, Henrik; Bouwman, Henk

2009-09-01

331

Assessment of heavy metal pollution from the industrial dust on the reforestation of pine (Pinus halipensis Mill in the Tell Setif  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze heavy metals in the cones, bark and needles of Aleppo pine in 05 stations in the area of Ain El Kebira in order to evaluate pollution level and impact on reforestation. Analysis of heavy metals showed that the concentration of lead rose to 1.61 mg/l at the station of the BCR which is above the accepted international standards of 1mg / l. Fe concentrations are at the upper limit of the WHO standards of 1.5 mg / l at the station on the edge of the forest ranging from 1.03 to 1.65mg/l against the cement between 1.36 and 2.21 mg / l and the BCR between 1.31 and 2.19 mg / l are the most polluted. It is noted that with the exception of the BCR is to say that the industrial zone where the values found on analysis of copper are too high between 1.11 and 2.59 mg/l and far exceed the required standards set 1 mg / l. The levels of zinc at the station of the BCR and are highest between 3.05 and 6.47 mg / l where the required standards are 5 mg / l. We can infer from our results that urgent care should be initiated to preserve the national park above the Babors bordering our study area and is ranked world reserve.

Tedjar Lamri

2012-04-01

332

Microsatellite DNA mutations in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with exposure to PAH-containing industrial air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations. PMID:25153941

King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

2014-10-01

333

Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

2014-12-01

334

Light pollution in Beijing and effects on Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

A night-sky luminance survey was carried on in Beijing to assess the level of light pollution. The luminance of the zenith night sky and skies in four directions at six sites with different distances from the city center was measured by using a photometric luminance meter. The Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory was included to study the impacts of city lights on an astronomical observatory. The survey shows that the night-sky luminance decreases with increasing distance from the city center. Measurement results indicate that outdoor lighting in the Xinglong county town which is close to the observatory has non-negligible influence on the night sky at Xinglong Station.

Lu, Ligen; Zhang, Baozhou; Liu, Jian; Zeng, Shanshan

2015-03-01

335

Does increasing energy or electricity consumption improve quality of life in industrial nations?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the world's nations, per capita energy and electricity consumption is highly correlated with diverse indicators of quality of life. This is often interpreted to mean that additional energy and electricity consumption causes improvements in life quality. Prior analyses of cross-sectional data question this interpretation for industrial nations that already have high per capita energy consumption. The present analysis with longitudinal data shows that among industrial nations, increases in per capita energy and electricity consumption over the past three decades are not associated with corresponding improvements in quality of life. - Research highlights: ? Increased energy and electricity use is essential for poor nations to improve wellbeing. ? This analysis is limited to industrial nations, already high in energy consumption. ? Changes in per capita energy/electricity use are not associated with improved wellbeing.

336

Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leukaemia risk in adult populations exposed to environmental air pollution is poorly investigated. We have carried out a population-based case-control study in an area that included a fossil fuel power plant, a coke oven and two big chemical industries. Information on residential history and several risk factors for leukaemia was obtained from 164 cases, diagnosed between 2002 and 2005, and 279 controls. A higher risk for subjects residing in polluted areas was observed, but statistical significance was not reached (adjusted OR = 1.11 and 1.56 for subjects living in moderately and in heavily polluted zones, respectively, p = 0.190). Results suggest a possible aetiological role of residential air pollution from industrial sites on the risk of developing leukaemia in adult populations. However, the proportion of eligible subjects excluded from the study and the lack of any measure of air pollution prevent definitive conclusions from being drawn. PMID:25245102

Parodi, Stefano; Santi, Irene; Casella, Claudia; Puppo, Antonella; Montanaro, Fabio; Fontana, Vincenzo; Pescetto, Massimiliano; Stagnaro, Emanuele

2014-09-23

337

National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network : annual data summary for 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarized the measurements from the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network for the year 2002. The NAPS network is coordinated by the Analysis and Air Quality Division of Environment Canada. The monitoring stations are operated by agencies at the federal, provincial, territorial and municipal governments. The first part of the report summarizes hourly gaseous ambient air quality data for 2002 for sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and ozone. Data concerning particulate matter (PM) was obtained from several instruments. The use of high-volume samplers allowed for the reporting of suspended particulate matter over 24-hour periods. Also reported for 24-hour periods was PM{sub 10} and PM {sub 2}.{sub 5} mass data for size-selective inlet samplers. Data for volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,3-butadiene was included. Section 1 of the report listed all the pollutants measured or analyzed in laboratories, and data can be obtained by special request. The second part of the report includes a comparison of 2002 data with the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives (NAAQO). The comparison involved 2002 data with the desirable and acceptable NAAQO for sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and suspended particulate matter. The third part of the report lists the new Canada-Wide Standards (CWS) and presents data for ozone and PM{sub 2}.{sub 5} for the current year and the two previous years, based on the statistical approach detailed in CWS. The results are preliminary. 10 refs., tabs., 7 figs.

NONE

2003-12-01

338

Investigation of a solvent polluted industrial site on a deep sandstone-mudstone sequence in the UK. Part 2. Contaminant sources, distributions, transport and retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

A single industrial site has been investigated in detail to gain information on sources and movement of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent (CHS) pollutants in groundwater under the industrialized city of Conventry in the UK. A soil gas survey identified the most polluted area of the site where two types of investigation borehole were drilled; open boreholes lined with plain and slotted casing, and a single dedicated borehole incorporating gas samplers and gas-driven water samplers. Specially designed sampling techniques using pumps and packers were employed to determine vertical pollution profiles in the open boreholes. Core material was collected for sorption and diffusion experiments. An assessment of field investigation procedures suggests that soil gas sampling is a useful method for reconnaissance surveying of pollution by volatile organic compounds, but the results reflect only shallow pollution in the vertical profile. Open boreholes were found not to be satisfactory for accurate groundwater profile sampling and dedicated boreholes are recommended for such studies. Many uncertainties are involved in such a study of solvent pollution owing to the limited number of boreholes drilled and the complex spatial and temporal variations of pollutants. Despite the limitations of the investigation, several useful conclusions are drawn concerning sources and movement of solvent pollution. The main pollution source at the site is identified as the solvent storage tanks and pollution has resulted from poor use practices. Vertical pollution profiles indicate that the downward migration of 1,1,1-trichloroethane is following that of trichloroethene, reflecting their history of use on the site. The overall quality of groundwater abstracted in the system is set to deteriorate, as high pollution loads, presently at shallow levels in the system penetrate deeper, little attenuated by sorption or degradation. Diffusion of pollutants between mobile fissure and immobile pore waters will result in poor quality groundwater under this site for the foreseeable future. This trend is expected to be reflected throughout the urban area as a whole, with most groundwaters falling below drinking water standards for CHSs.

Bishop, Philip Keith; Lerner, David Nicholas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Gosk, Edmund; Burston, Mark William; Chen, Tong

1993-08-01

339

The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex coastal industrial site nearby populated areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and coastal terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a site already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at site. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and diffusion of pollutants emitted in the area of the industrial complex. All effects studied, although influenced by local conditions, characterize not only this industrial area but all areas located along the coastline. This location is highly frequent in Italy and the World, as most industrial complexes in the World occur at coastal sites, where access to harbors and transport networks are facilitated. The Valle del Biferno case may then yield important data to many industrial sites.

Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.

2010-09-01

340

An Employer Survey on Industrial Sector Involvement in Malaysian National Dual Training System  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this survey is to get industrial employers’ feedback on the reasons for their lack of involvement in National Dual Training System (NDTS) organized by the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. Industrial employers’ involvement and support is very important in ensuring NDTS implementation success. Therefore, it is very critical to identify factors and barriers that hinder industrial sectors from participating in NDTS program. A survey q...

Baba Md. Deros; Suzana Mohammed Zohdi; Darliana Mohamad; Nor Kamaliana Khamis; Nizaroyani Saibani

2012-01-01

341

Estimation of flashover voltage probability of overhead line insulators under industrial pollution, based on maximum likelihood method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of transmission line insulator is greatly affected by dust, fumes from industrial areas and saline deposit near the coast. Such pollutants in the presence of moisture form a coating on the surface of the insulator, which in turn allows the passage of leakage current. This leakage builds up to a point where flashover develops. The flashover is often followed by permanent failure of insulation resulting in prolong outages. With the increase in system voltage owing to the greater demand of electrical energy over the past few decades, the importance of flashover due to pollution has received special attention. The objective of the present work was to study the performance of overhead line insulators in the presence of contaminants such as induced salts. A detailed review of the literature and the mechanisms of insulator flashover due to the pollution are presented. Experimental investigations on the behavior of overhead line insulators under industrial salt contamination are carried out. A special fog chamber was designed in which the contamination testing of insulators was carried out. Flashover behavior under various degrees of contamination of insulators with the most common industrial fume components such as Nitrate and Sulphate compounds was studied. Substituting the normal distribution parameter in the probability distribution function based on maximum likelihood develops a statistical method. The method gives a high accuracy in the estimation of thes a high accuracy in the estimation of the 50% flashover voltage, which is then used to evaluate the critical flashover index at various contamination levels. The critical flashover index is a valuable parameter in insulation design for numerous applications. (author)

342

Anew applied approach for dynamic air quality simulation in industrial and nuclear polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution transport and diffusion and diffusion models are the only tools for inferring a quantitative deterministic relation between pollutant emissions and ambient air quality. This study deals with the simulation of pollutants transport and diffusion at shobra El-Khemia, where this site is considered the most public and polluted area in greater cairo city. The results of such a model matches to a great extent with the measured ones because it takes into consideration dry and wet deposition and first-order reaction chemistry. Specified time period was chosen to simulate the pollutant of sulphur dioxide over the studied area. The meteorological parameters were measured to calculate the hourly stability classes and height of mixing layer. Also, the concentration of sulphur dioxide was continuously measured at the faculty of agriculture to compare between its values and the estimated results. Yen's factory was taken to be the source of pollutant, thus, the emission rate and concentration of sulphur dioxide were measured at the top of their stacks. The analysis of estimated results provided that, at neutral condition, there was only one maximum concentration while at unstable conditions, there were more than one maximum concentration. The maximum estimated average hourly concentration and the average daily measuring concentration at shoubra Elkheima were within the air quality limit of egyptian law no. 4 (1994). The measured values are greater than the estimated one values are greater than the estimated ones by 15 to 30 % . This could be attributed to the effect of transportation, which was neglected during the application of model

343

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

344

An investigation of the impact of inorganic air pollutants on soils in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental data related to the evaluation of inorganic air pollution input to the Saguaro National Monument ecosystem were collected over four years. The data specific to soils are presented in this document. The enrichment factor approach is employed to provide a framework for simplified interpretation of this large collection of data.

Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Duriscoe, D.M. [USDI National Park Service, Three Rivers, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

345

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-10-15

346

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

347

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new ction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

348

Studying the pollution of Barada river environment with poisonous elements resulting from leather industry (i.e. tanning industry)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada river environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of chrome in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring. (Author)

349

Reception and treatment facilities for waste oils and oil-polluted waters from marine and industrial activities in Gothenburg, Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the beginning of the 1980s, comprehensive solutions were found to problems associated with the handling of oil-polluted water from marine and industrial sources in the Gothenburg area. The treatment plant in the oil harbour has permission to treat 700,000 m3/yr of sludge, ballast, slops and other oil-contaminated waters. Following treatment by chemical flocculation, flotation and dual-media filtration, the treated water must not contain more than 5 ppm of oil. Work to improve treatment results has been carried out from the start, in close co-operation with environmental authorities and with the waste generators themselves. Through increased consciousness, improvements in control, and greater source separation, it will be possible to bring about a significantly lower concentration of pollutants in the incoming waste streams. Recent plans include separate treatment of waste streams containing aromatic compounds and heavily polluted waters. Complementary treatment methods, such as activated carbon and air stripping, are under evaluation. (author). 10 figs

350

Bioaccumulation of pollutants in the zebra mussel from hazardous industrial waste and evaluation of spatial distribution using GAMs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Flix Reservoir (Ebro River, Spain), ca. 300,000tons of industrial waste were dumped because of the activity of a factory plant in Flix. Within the recovery program implemented, this exceptional situation provides a unique opportunity to test the value of zebra mussel as sentinel organism. Ten metal concentrations were measured in mussels from different sites to assess spatial redistribution of metals and bioavailability to the food web. Our results showed an important metal uptake by mussels; metal concentrations (except As) measured in impacted sites were up to 10 times higher than in control sites, and Mn and Hg exceeded several times the levels previously reported for polluted waters. Concentrations increased downstream showing the metal mobilization from polluted sediments in Flix Reservoir. The higher metal concentrations measured in zebra mussel individuals clearly indicated their bioavailability to the food web, allowing the toxics transfer to predators and occasionally to humans. Thus, zebra mussel is a valuable sentinel organism to identify highly polluted waters, transport routes and trophic transfer. PMID:21176943

Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

2011-02-01

351

Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

352

Development of Electronic Nose and Program for Monitoring Air Pollutions and Alarm in Industrial Area  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the development of electronicnose and program for monitoring air pollutions and alarm inindustrial area. The design of electronic nose depends onphysical connectivity of the sensors, relating to the datamanagement, computing management and informationmanagement. Therefore, the sampling, filtering and sensorsmodule, signal transducers and acquisition, data preprocessing,feature extraction and feature classification are applied in thedesign of an electronic nose. There are...

Srinonchat, J.

2013-01-01

353

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

354

Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

355

Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750–1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contamipollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 ?g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: ? Natural sources dominated trace element input in large perialpine lakes before the European industrial revolution. ? WWTP implementation in the 1970s significantly decreased the metal pollution at the deepwater sites. ? Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva is heavily contaminated by heavy metals due to WWTP emissions after 1964. ? Lead isotopic composition highlights industrial pollution sources over the last 200 years.

356

Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 {mu}g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural sources dominated trace element input in large perialpine lakes before the European industrial revolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WWTP implementation in the 1970s significantly decreased the metal pollution at the deepwater sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva is heavily contaminated by heavy metals due to WWTP emissions after 1964. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead isotopic composition highlights industrial pollution sources over the last 200 years.

Thevenon, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Thevenon@yahoo.fr [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Graham, Neil D. [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Pote, John [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland)

2011-12-15

357

Heavy metals in aquatic macrophytes from two small rivers polluted by urban, agricultural and textile industry sewages SW Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the results from a study of the comparison of 2 lowland rivers: the Olobok and the Pilawa in southwest Poland polluted by urban, agricultural, and textile industry sewages. pH and concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, and sulfate were measured in water samples and concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, and Zn were measured in stream bottom sediments and in the aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Callitriche verna, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton natans, and Ceratophyllum demersum from the river Olobok and Elodea canadensis, Polygonum amphibium, Potamogeton crispus, and Veronica beccabunga from the river Pilawa. The matrix of concentrations of 16 elements in 27 plant samples of 7 species from 15 sampling sites of 2 rivers and concentrations of 15 elements and pH in water samples and 16 elements and pH in bottom sediment samples of these sites was submitted to numerical classification, which revealed that sampling sites from the rivers were differentiated by the value of factor 1 of principal component analysis (PCA), which was related to the pH of water, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Ni in water and Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, P, and S in bottom sediments. More polluted parts of both rivers were differentiated from less polluted parts by the value of factor 2 of PCA, which was related to Pb, Zn, and sulfates in water and Ca and Zn in bottom sediments. Macrophytes from the Olobok and Pilawa rivers were differentiated by the value of factor 1, which was related to Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, N, Na, Pb, and S. Groups of macrophytes of more and less polluted parts of both rivers differed by the value of factor 2, which was related to P, K, and Mn. Downstream of the sewage outputs in both rivers, a significantly increased level of pollution occurs with elements correlated with factor 1: Among others were Cu and Cr, typical for the textile industry along the river Pilawa, and among others were Mn and Ni, typical for the urban and agricultural activities in the river Olobok. PMID:17549539

Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

2007-08-01

358

Investigation and analysis of NORM source term in the phosphate industry based on the first nationwide pollution source survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents in all factories and mines nationwide in relation to phosphate, rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore and solid waste produced by the phosphate industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) investigation. It is concluded that the averages of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore are 396 Bq/kg, 26 Bq/kg and 403.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U and 226Ra contents in solid waste produced by the phosphate industry are both less than 200 Bq/kg, mostly. The range of U and 226Ra are 22.7-723.6 Bq/kg and 5.6-1042.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The 232Th content is very low. It is suggested that the phosphate industrial solid waste should be subject to sort management, and some phosphate industry factories and mines should carry out relevant investigation, radiation evaluation and research. (authors)

359

Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollutant emissions. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents recorded reductions in values compared to control plant, and the lowest values of chlorophyll A, B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total pigments were 0.431, 0.169, 0.60, 0.343 and 0.943 mg/g respectively at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory in fruiting stage. These changes in values may be attributed to a probable deceleration of the biosynthetic process rather than degradation of pigments. Further D. innoxia showed a significant (P cement factory. The peroxidase activity of shoot and root systems of the studied plant was also significantly higher than those of control plant. Thus a highest value of (29.616 units/g f. wt.) peroxidase activity was recorded in vegetative stage of shoot system at a distance 1-5 m from the cement factory. Results of the study indicated that cement industry emission strongly influence the physiology and morphology of date palm D. innoxia which contribute date fruits, a staple food in the Arab world. PMID:23961129

Salama, Hediat M H; Al-Rumaih, M M; Al-Dosary, M A

2011-07-01

360

Resource conservation and pollution prevention through process optimization at Sandia National Laboratories` Steam Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Steam Plant at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) supplies on average 680,000 kg/day (1.5 x 10{sup 6} lb/day) of saturated steam for space heating and laboratory processes for SNL/NM, Technical Area 1, the eastern portion of Kirtland Air Force Base, the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Office, and the KAFB Coronado Club. The primary fuel is natural gas (740 mscf/yr); the secondary fuel in the event of a natural gas interruption is diesel fuel. Two storage tanks provide a diesel fuel reserve of 1.5 million gallons. The Steam Plant has been in continuous operation since 1949, and some of the boilers are past their design life. Each of the boilers is controlled through a central Digital Control System (DCS). The DCS design is based on the stoichiometric equation, where the O{sub 2} stack concentration and load rate are set points and the combustion air and gas flow are adjusted based on the equation. The DCS was installed and programmed in 1992, but has not been updated since. Long range studies are being conducted to determine the fate of the steam plant, but implementation of any of these options is at least 5 years in the future. Because it is a major source of air emissions, water and chemical use, and waste water at SNL/NM, the steam plant pursued immediate solutions to reduce costs and pollutant releases, while still providing uninterrupted, quality service to its customers. This paper will summarize the ongoing efforts to conserve water, and reduce air and wastewater discharges at the SNL/NM Steam Plant. These improvements were identified through a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment, an Emissions Reduction Study.

Evans, C.; Chavez, C.

1997-10-01

361

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

362

Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

Haiyuan Qiu

2011-08-01

363

Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

Michael Sandvig

2011-01-01

364

The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, paper and energy and many other fields. Historically the industry started up in 1874 based on empiric knowledge on use of rennet in production of cheese from Switzerland and Germany and later enriched by scientific knowledge produced in the company and institutions all over the world. Important for the company was resources of calve stomachs from which the active stuff can be extracted. The private university, The Carlsberg Laboratory, established nearly at the same time, became after First World War a world leader in research of enzymes. And inspiration from here to the pharmaceutical company in insulin production, Novo, resulted in extraction of valuable enzymes from porcine pancreases used in production of insulin. Thethird company, Danisco, started its enzyme business up in the 1930s and is today one of the important players. An important question in the paper is about the future of the companies in Denmark. There is no definitive answer to this question. But a combination of raw materials, growing markets and a good understanding of production based on science based engineering seem to be a strong argument in this discussion.

Pedersen, JØrgen Lindgaard Technical University of Denmark,

365

Detecting Industrial Pollution in the Atmospheres of Earth-like Exoplanets  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ~1.2 days (~1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ~10 times the current terrestrial level.

Lin, Henry W.; Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Loeb, Abraham

2014-09-01

366

Industrial Measuring of Pollution Effects on the Operation of High Voltage Insulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High voltage insulators are exposed to different ambient and climate conditions the interactions of ambient condition and insulator contamination led the insulators themselves become a proper medium for conduction of current, leaving their effects on the power system. Presently, approximate and empirical numbers are used to determine the level of contamination of the insulation. As a result ,creep internals in some area do not accord to ambient conditions and are below the design level. In this power by periodic ESDD and NSDD measurements, two method direction dust gauge DGG are used to measure the intensity of the ambient pollution on the insulator and OLCA to display and record the leaking current as appropriate criteria for the degree and type of pollution.

Mohammad Mehdi Ghanbarian

2010-01-01

367

Compliance, assurance, and pollution prevention at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) - process and operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is a multi-program laboratory operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ANL-E has incorporated its environmental compliance functions and pollution prevention (P2) activities into its processes. Examples of this include standard project and experimental reviews, targeted process analysis, and regulatory and oversight audits. ANL-E's implementation process has allowed them to meet regulatory drivers as well as internal goals with minimal resources. This paper reviews these processes and implementation of the environmental and pollution prevention requirements which have led to an award winning P2 program.

Kamiya, M. A.; Trychta, K.

2000-02-10

368

Microelemental composition of populations hair as an indicator of pollution of natural and industrial environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of investigation of microelement composition of hair for different age and professional groups of population, working at enterprises involved in melting and reprocessing of metals and other chemical substances and living in the vicinity of the pollution sources are presented. Microelement composition of hair is determined by neutron activation method and method of atomic absorption. More than 3000 samples were analyzed. Prior to the analysis the samples were treated by detergent (sodium lauryl sulfate). 2 tabs

369

A contemporary national nitrogen inventory as a benchmark for future progress in mitigating nitrogen pollution in the USA  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to land, air, and water in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory is currently being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed -- amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Alexander, R. B.

2011-12-01

370

Heavy duty gas turbines in Iran, India and China: Do national energy policies drive the industries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper for the first time systematically examines the heavy duty gas turbine (HDGT) industry in the context of developing countries. It provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. It contrasts their national strategies, the historical development of their technological capabilities, the similarities and differences in approach, the varying evolutionary paths and policy drivers and the reasons for their differing outcomes. This paper argues that a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature of HDGT industries in developing countries. It also argues that the development and evolution of the HDGT industries in these countries is closely interrelated with the countries’ national energy policies. It clarifies why such an advanced and sophisticated industry is a strategic choice in one country, while it is seen as an inferior choice in another. - Highlights: ? This paper for the first time systematically examines the HDGT industry in developing countries. ? This paper provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. ? The companies are state-owned and a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature. ? Due to national energy policies, HDGT is a strategic choice in Iran but an inferior choice in India and China. ? The policy drivers such as natural reserves and security of supply largely vary in these countries.

371

The problem of land pollution. Sanitation of the brown coal industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of the East German brown coal industry has been assured by the privatisation of Laubag and Mibrag and by the continuation of production, but the revegetation of abandoned mines is still problematic. (orig.)

372

A New Biological Model System for the Determination of Industrial and Agricultural Effluents Polluted the Aquatic Environment In vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial and agricultural effluents represent wide spread contaminants of the aquatic environment. In a trial to assess the toxic effects of these pollutants, primary liver cell`s culture of Spot fish (Leiostomus xanthurus was used as an alternative new biological model of the whole organisms. The obtained results indicated that some cytotoxic effects such as lysosomes (NR, mitochondria (MTT dysfunction and cell wall integrity (CV were observed on the liver cells at the lower concentrations of this toxic chemicals. For NR, MTT and CV assays, the absorbance measurements (as a percent of control were ranged 36.2-115.8, 37.8-104.2, and 22.6 -109.2 ; 41.7-126.3, 44.3-124.1 and 25.7-126.5 ; and 53.2-132.7, 57.7-137.3 and 32.6-133.2 for paper, petroleum industries and agricultural effluents, respectively. Consequently, CV is more sensitive to industrial and agricultural effluents when compared with other assays. On the other side, the influence of such effluents on the biochemical assays such as growth assay (GA, as determined by protein analysis, protease activity (PA and lactic dehydrogenase activity (LDH of isolated liver cells were determined in a trial to make a comparison between biochemical and cytotoxicity assays. The present data demonstrated that all of cytotoxic assays i.e. NR, MTT and CV corresponded well to those with GA, PA and LDH assays. The results of this study can constitute a milestone toward application of the simple inexpensive laboratory biological-model system for screening of the acute toxicities of aquatic pollutants.

Yousif A. Elhassaneen

2000-01-01

373

Computational and Experimental Biomonitoring Transboundary Pollution for Optimizing Industrial Effluent Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with monitoring transboundary pollution affecting a waterbody shared by two neighboring countries. The case under examination refers to a river crossing the borders between an upstream and a downstream country (UC and DC, respectively, by considering the borders as reference point), where the source of pollution is located in the UC but the downstream environmental impacts are manifested also in the DC. A methodology is presented, under the form of an algorithmic procedure including 20 activity stages and 10 decision nodes, for quantifying environmental impact, formulating the necessary knowledge framework for maximizing joint benefit and creating the suitable background for bilateral negotiations in order to reach a satisfactory agreement for both parts. The measure of pollution we introduce is the spatio-temporal oxygen deficit given as the area between a critical dissolved oxygen value and the corresponding oxygen sag curve. Based on this measure, we have determined the basic regimes that may appear in practice and we have highlighted the limiting cases that structure the domain where a quasi-optimal solution may be found. It is worthwhile noting that the presented approach can be extended to include water quality issues, especially suitable for dealing with extreme climatic changes (drought, flood, or other impacts of global warming), as well as the introduction of new technologies for improving water utility.

Batzias, Dimitrios F.; Giannias, Dimitrios A.; Siontorou, Christina G.

2009-08-01

374

Strategic regulation of a multi-national banking industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on the consequences of cross-border banking and entry of multi-national bank (MNB) subsidiaries for banking supervision and regulation. When a MNB expands internationally with subsidiaries, the MNB operates under the legislation of several countries - both the home country and the host countries. Although these countries have agreed upon minimum standards and supervisory principles, such as in the EU directives or the Basle Accords, substantial degrees of freedom are still ...

Dalen, Dag Morten; Olsen, Trond E.

2002-01-01

375

Water pollution: its management and control in the South African gold mining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The South African mining industry is subjected to pressure from the authorities, the media and the public regarding the impact of mining operations on the water environment. In order to respond to these developments the mining industry needs to have a good understanding of water quality management issues which apply to its operations. Important issues in this regard are discussed. 40 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs

376

Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge  

OpenAIRE

Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile ...

Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy; Bijjam Kotaiah; Nanaga Siva Prasad Reddy

2008-01-01

377

Respiratory Health Effects Caused by the Proximity to an Industrially Polluted Area of the Aries River Basin, Transylvania, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study represents the efforts in identifying a possible connection between the close proximity of one village, Mihai Viteazu, Transylvania, Romania, to the former industrial platform of the Turda city and the causes of the population’s respiratory health condition, study based on survey data. Consequently, 150 health face-to-face interviews were undertaken in Mihai Viteazu in August 2009 (out of which only 117 were relevant and 50 from the control area, in search for indicators of significant respiratory symptoms due to exposure to chemical compounds and/or conditioned by periods of employment in one or more of the polluting industrial plants. The two main objectives were to first determine whether there was a significant difference between the health of the population living in the exposed area as compared to the control population represented by the Mice?ti village, situated on the other side of the two towns, out of the exposed area’s influence, and second, to identify whether those involved in industrial activities would be the most affected. The results concluded that close proximity to the industrial area and employment at the former plants can be associated with higher risk for chronic respiratory diseases, the exposed village registering a 57% of its surveyed population manifesting at least one sign of acute and/or chronic respiratory disease (tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis asthma, pulmonary emphysema and/or higher incidence of irritant respiratory symptoms. From discussions, it also seems that the population is generally aware of the possible effects, but would still prefer being employed and working for the former plants, the industry representing for most of them employment stability and better living conditions.

Camelia-Maria KANTOR

2010-06-01

378

Monitoring Air Pollution In and Around the Premises of Industrial Parks Using Two Types of Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two types of electronic nose and GC-MS were used to monitor air pollution in the premises of seven industrial parks. Real-time analysis of air at the sites was performed using portable electronic noses. Air samples were analyzed from the up and down stream direction along the wind flow to investigate the effect or distribution of the pollutants on the surrounding environment. The advantage of multisensors in spatially resolved sensing for direct multicomponent analysis was explored to minimize tedious sample preparation procedure. Electronic nose could give characteristic odor fingerprints, which were correlated with the pollutants analyzed using GC-MS providing detailed diagnostic information such as the presence of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous benzenes, sulfur compounds, lipid-derived compounds, polysiloxanes, etc. Subsequent principal component analysis helped in identifying the source of pollutants. The applicability of the electronic nose was demonstrated confirming it to be a simple and rapid screening method for identifying the pollutant source.

Liu, Jen Yu; Ling, Yong Chien, Sr.

2004-03-31

379

Clean technology using cogeneration concepts for simultaneous production of electricity, steam, and industrial gases: a route to zero pollution discharge - A case study for enhanced oil recovery in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the most critical factor for the growth of a nation's economy. However, its use has a major impact on the environment, especially by discharging air pollutants into the atmosphere. In addition, energy production from fossil fuel, the world's most important fuel, is recently known to be the key contributor of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas) resulting in global warming problems. This article is an extension of our earlier research work to demonstrate how cogeneration concepts can be used to reduce production costs and simultaneously produce electricity, steam, as well as industrial gases such as CO2. With cogeneration, there is very little air pollution discharged into the atmosphere. We discuss a case study of an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. (author)

380

Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research: provision against climate change and environmental pollution (Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research (KNLTER was initiated in 2004 by the Korean Ministry of Environment. This project entered its third and final phase in 2010. Committee members have suggested that the project needs to be assessed in terms of its achievement and advised regarding its refinement. In this review, we recapitulated the last 7 years of KNLTER progress for developing further program improvements. We reviewed ecological research before the existing LTER, project initiation, the increase in the number of research sites, and research topics. Then, we briefly examine the status of KNLTER and discuss areas for improvement and avenues for further research. The KNLTER established 20 research sites covering 80 topics related to terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, and animal ecology. To strengthen its role in LTER research, KNLTER participants need to confirm standard protocols and data formats for an efficient interaction with other LTER programs. All participants should enhance communication at both the domestic and international levels to reach out and collaborate on research and multidisciplinary studies. Climate change and environmental pollution issues will be solved with a global research network and long-term research projects focusing on this issue.

Gea-Jae Joo

2011-03-01

381

First report of the National Pollutant Release Inventory multi-stakeholder work group on substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through consultations with Canadian stakeholders, and especially the members of the previous multi-stakeholder National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Ad Hoc Work Group on Substances, Environment Canada has established a permanent process for modifying the NPRI. The public is to be notified yearly of proposed changes by Environment Canada, and input on the proposed changes is to be obtained via an appropriate consultation process. Three major topics are addressed in this report: Integration of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) into the NPRI for the 2002 reporting year, other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year, and future agenda items for the Work Group. Specifically, the CACs to be added are nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter including total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers an particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers. Following an introduction, the document presents the addition of criteria air contaminants - proposed substance definitions and thresholds in section 2, as well as other data elements in section 3. A review of existing exemptions is presented in section 4. Other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year are discussed in section 5 and the future agenda items for the work group relevant to the 2003 reporting year appear in section 6. tabs

382

Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study

383

Response of stress indicators and growth parameters of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. exposed to air and soil pollution near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed in the vicinity of the industrial complex of Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response of 'manaca da serra' Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), a common species of secondary Atlantic Rain Forest vegetation, to the impact of complex air pollution. Emphasis was given to changes of biochemical parameters such as ascorbic acid concentration, peroxidase activity, contents of water-soluble thiols, pH of leaf extract and buffering capacity. These plant factors are often used as early indicators of air pollution stress. Field experiments included sampling of leaves from mature trees in areas with different air pollution load (passive monitoring), exposure of saplings cultivated in uniform soil at these areas (active monitoring) and a study on the combined effects of contaminated soil and air pollution. In general, metabolic response of saplings was more accentuated than that of mature trees. Leaf extract pH and buffering capacity showed no or only small alterations in plants exposed to industrial emissions. In contrast, air pollution resulted in a distinct decrease in ascorbic acid contents and an increase in peroxidase activity and thiol concentrations in leaves. Cultivation of saplings in soil types from contaminated regions frequently caused the same modifications or enhanced the effects produced by air pollution. Growth analysis of exposed saplings demonstrated that a change of the relationship between above-ground and below-ground plant parts was the most obvious effect of air pollution and soil contamination. The experiments showed that even T. pulchra, a species considered resistant to air pollution, suffers metabolic disturbances by the present ambient air and soil quality. Although biochemical and physiological alterations were not related to a certain air pollution type, they could be used to estimate the overall pollution load and to map zones with different air quality. PMID:10682379

Klumpp, G; Furlan, C M; Domingos, M; Klumpp, A

2000-01-31

384

Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

2011-07-15

385

The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

Sayeda M. Ali

2011-01-01

386

Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

387

Environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.)

388

The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive report, created by the National Center for Welding Education and Training, provides a quick look at the employment needs of the welding industry and the educational requirements needed to meet those demands. It looks at short-term, long-term, wage distribution, projected retirements, and the pipeline of new entrants back into the workforce. The report examines four industry occupations: welder, welding technicians, welding inspector and welding engineer. This report is a thorough examination of the welding industry and its future needs.

389

Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

2008-12-01

390

Health risk from exposure to industrial air pollution for a point source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health risk to a population exposed to toxic air emissions from industrial sources was evaluated, in order to suggest mitigation strategies according to the social and economic situation. We estimate the chronic noncancer risk due to SO2 emissions using the EPA-validated Health Risk Assessment methodology. The concentration distribution around the source was simulated with the Gaussian ISCST model using real meteorological data for seven consecutive days. The area with the highest concentration of SO2 was found in the south to southwest direction. For exposure evaluation, two Reference Doses were considered, one strong and the other attenuated. Exposure was evaluated for industrial workers inside the facility containing the emission source, for residents in the neighborhood of the source, and for children under twelve years old. The groups with the higher risk from the Reference Doses were children and industrial workers. The area with the highest risk and impact was towards the south-southwest from the reference source. The estimated Noncancer Hazard Rates indicate risk for the industrial workers exposed to average concentrations for a thirty-year period. In the case of children the period is twelve years, and seventy-five years in residents.

Hugo W. Valera D.

2003-01-01

391

Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn?>?Cu?>?Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments. It was evident that Cu, Pb, and Zn started to desorb at a higher pH from calcareous soils than from soils with low carbonate content. The mechanism responsible for this is co-precipitation of heavy metals in the carbonates. When the carbonates are dissolved at a relatively high pH of about 5, the co-precipitated heavy metals are released. The sequential extraction pattern for Cr differed generally much from the other heavy metals since the majority of Cr was extracted in the last two steps. Cr was also the heavy metal that desorbed the least at high acidification.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.

2009-01-01

392

Evaluation by chemical parameters of the pollution state of the agricultural-industrial settlement of the Fucino Plain.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work are reported the results of a monitoring on a vast scale, carried out through evaluation of opportune chemical parameters, of the pollution state of the agricultural-industrial settlement of the Fucino Plain. The parameters took into consideration have been the presence of wide consumption pesticides and of ionic species as Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, the quantification of the dissolved oxygen, of the temperature, of the conductivity, of pH and eH. Collected data are used for chemometric elaboration. The water systems examined, by means of drawing campaigns carried out at regular intervals in winter, spring, summer, and autumnal seasons, are represented by superficial waters constituting a network of irrigation canals fed by stratum and meteoric waters. In this work are reported the results relative to the drawing campaigns. PMID:16342733

Ruggieri, Fabrizio; Fanelli, Maria; Di Pasquale, Dorina; Burri, Ezio; Petitta, Marco; Mazzeo, Pietro

2005-01-01

393

Pollution Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop an understanding of modern industrial technologies that clean up and prevent air pollution, students build and observe a variety of simple models of engineering pollutant recovery methods: scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cyclone and baghouse. In an associated literacy activity, students become more aware of global environmental problems and play a part in their solution by writing environmental action campaign letters.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

394

Association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant level with respiratory problems among children in an industrial area of Delhi, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors conducted this prospective study at the Shahdara industrial area of Delhi, India. They examined the effects of indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels on respiratory health in 394 children aged 7 to 15 years. The majority of children had a history of respiratory problems, including cough (62.7%), sputum production (24.4%), shortness of breath (32.0%), wheezing (25.6%), common cold (44.4%), and throat congestion (43.1%). The association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels showed that outdoor SO2 and NO2 was significantly higher than indoor SO2 and NO2 levels, whereas the mean indoor level of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was significantly higher than outdoor SPM level. Indoor SPM level also was significantly higher in homes of children with a history of respiratory illness than homes of children having no history of respiratory illness. Results suggest that both indoor and outdoor particulate exposure may be important risk factors in the development of respiratory illness in children. PMID:18316264

Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Kumar, Harsh; Kushwah, Alka S; Meena, Mahesh; Kumar, Pawan; Raj, Neelima; Singhal, M K; Gaur, S N

2007-01-01

395

Bioaccumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Maize, Oat and Sorghum Plants, grown in industrially polluted region  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) by maize, oat and sorghum plants cultivated, under field conditions, in industrially polluted soils was studied. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness the crops were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts - roots, stems, leaves and grains, were determined after dry ashing. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A clearly distinguished species peculiarity existed in the accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied crops. Sorghum plants accumulated larger heavy metal quantities compared to maize and oat plants, as the major part of heavy metals was retained by roots and a very small part was translocated to epigeous parts. The studied crops may be considered as metal-tolerant crops and may be cultivated on soils which are low, medium or highly contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium, as they do not show a tendency of accumulating these elements in epigeous parts and grains above the maximum permissible concentrations. The possible use of aboveground mass and grains for animal food guarantees the economic expedience upon the selection of these crops. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, Project DO-02-87/08.

Angelova, Violina; Ivanova, Radka; Ivanov, Krasimir

2010-05-01

396

Loyalty (The National Principles: Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2 that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia. The data were collected through a self administered questionnaire and later analyzed using SPSS. In this study, 100 youth were selected as respondents with a mean age of 27. This study found that there is a positive influence but no negative influence of the second NP on the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. The factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia is ethical and moral values. In accordance, professional experience, and the use of a specific formula may provide a suitable basis for change in this industry when dealing with the local perception on their responsibility to make this industry develop in relation to their feeling of concern towards ‘loyalty to the king and country’.

Romzi A.

2011-04-01

397

Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative externntly separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

398

Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Relationships between chronic exposures to air pollution and respiratory health outcomes have yet to be clearly articulated for adults. Recent data from nationally representative surveys suggest increasing disparity by race/ethnicity regarding asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relationship between annual average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and respiratory outcomes for adults using modeled air...

Nachman Keeve E; Parker Jennifer D

2012-01-01

399

Development of Electronic Nose and Program for Monitoring Air Pollutions and Alarm in Industrial Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the development of electronicnose and program for monitoring air pollutions and alarm inindustrial area. The design of electronic nose depends onphysical connectivity of the sensors, relating to the datamanagement, computing management and informationmanagement. Therefore, the sampling, filtering and sensorsmodule, signal transducers and acquisition, data preprocessing,feature extraction and feature classification are applied in thedesign of an electronic nose. There are 4 sensors areinvestigated to use as electronic nose in this experiment whichconsist of TGS2620, TGS2620, TGS2442 and TGS832. Thesesensors are operated with LabVIEW program. The experimentresults show that these sensors can classify and sensitive to thedifferent gas such as Methanol n-Propanol, Hexane andDichloromethane. The PCA is also used to classify group of gassensor. The system also performs the warning and alarm systemwhen the gas is leak.

J. Srinonchat

2013-02-01

400

Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

1998-03-31

401

Inter graded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700-3100 ty-1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The co composting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32%) by the application of Fenton and another 10-28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final co composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural