WorldWideScience

Sample records for national industrial pollution

  1. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children. PMID:25472993

  2. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  3. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  4. THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshemaling S. Bhaskar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants given off by various industries and factories are often considered to be one of the prime factors contributing to air, water and soil pollution. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, it has been estimated that industrial pollution is responsible for almost 50 percent of the pollution present in the United States. There are various wideranging effects, as well as serious consequences, of industrial pollution on the ecological balance of the atmosphere.

  5. A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., initions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

  6. 76 FR 15607 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...Any industry using a boiler 211...Manufacturers of rubber and miscellaneous plastic...1\\ North American Industry Classification System...solving true health threats where limits are no...representatives of one industry estimated...

  7. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...human health or environmental effects on any...contributing to environmental and human health...exposed to levels of pollution that cause concern...titled Review of Environmental Justice Impacts: Pulp and Paper, a copy of...

  8. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...different from the process heaters used in other industries. The process heaters used in metal...gas-fired and include annealing furnaces, preheat...input basis. Metal process furnaces include natural gas-fired annealing furnaces,...

  9. A recommended approach to completing the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment Canada administers a facility-based inventory for national releases of pollutants. This document was prepared by the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Subcommittee of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to help its members meet reporting requirements of the NPRI. It is intended to be a supplement to Environment Canada's guides for reporting to the NPRI and provides CAPP members with specific oil, gas and oil sand examples and clarifies NPRI requirements as applied to oil, gas and oil sand facilities. Having all CAPP members use the procedures in the guide to determine their NPRI emissions contributes to consistent and comparable emissions reporting between upstream oil and gas companies. The NPRI was developed in the early 1990s. Owners and operators of facilities are required to report to the NPRI if they meet the reporting criteria determined by the Minister of the Environment. Criteria air contaminants (CAC) were reported for the first time in 2002 when all upstream oil and gas facilities with 20,000 employee-hours worked onsite had to report criteria air contaminants (CAC) releases. In 2003, the 20,000 man hours worked threshold exemption for the upstream oil and gas industry was removed for CAC reporting. There were no major changes to the NPRI for the 2004 reporting year. This report outlined the general reporting criteria to the NPRI with reference to all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items located on aructures and stationary items located on a single site, pipeline installations and offshore installations. The report addressed reporting exemptions and special considerations; generalized estimation methods; combustion sources and CAC; fugitive equipment leaks; process venting; hydrocarbon emissions from storage tanks; loading losses; spills and accidental releases; releases to underground injection; disposal and recycling; hydrogen sulphides; speciation of volatile organic compounds; particulate matter from cooling towers; in-situ oil sand operations; and common errors in reporting to the NPRI. 40 refs., 27 tabs., 4 figs

  10. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...Assessment Work Practice and Management Practice Standards F...Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National...Level 10, The Exchange Centre, 20 Bridge Street...Standardization (CEN CENELEC Management Centre Avenue Marnix 17...

  11. Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

  12. Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Emongor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and suspended solids above the maximum permissible limits. While the chemical and paints industries could be a potential source of lead pollution in Gaborone. Temperature and acidity generally were not a problem for industrial effluents. The pharmaceutical industries met all the maximum and minimum guidelines for wastewater discharge. COD, BOD, suspended solids and heavy metal levels should be monitored strictly by the Gaborone City Council in order to prevent environmental pollution and reduce health hazards caused by pollutants.

  13. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  14. Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    V. Emongor; E. Nkegbe; B. Kealotswe; I. Koorapetse; S. Sankwasa; S. Keikanetswe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and sus...

  15. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

  16. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two-thirds of all such substances. Information obtained through publication of EPER data means that the possible consequences of reported pollutant foci on the health of neighbouring populations can now be studied.

  17. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  18. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  19. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  1. Magnetic particles as tracers of industrial pollution.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Kapi?ka, Aleš; Jordanova, Neli; Fialová, Hana

    ?. 26 (2002), s. 131-132. ISSN 1590-2595. [Fundamental rock magnetism and environmental applications. Erice, 26.06.2002-01.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : magnetic particles * industrial pollution * fly ashes * magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. The nuclear industry - pollution and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike other power sources, the only pollution from the nuclear industry is radioactive pollution, which on average in Britain represents 0.2% of the annual dose due to natural background radiation. This 0.2% is not spread uniformly over the population and there is genuine concern about its effects where it is most concentrated. The only significant doses of radiation to the general public due to the nuclear industry are derived from the spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and in particular from the concentration of Caesium-134 and Caesium-137 in fish, Ruthenium-106 in edible seaweeds and plutonium in shellfish and in silt. The concern about the possible escape of high-level wastes stored at the Sellafield site is discussed, and the hazard compared with that dangerous chemicals stored at other industrial sites. The effects of pollution by the nuclear industry, based on the conventional and generally accepted view of radiation risks, add up to a few deaths per year in the 50 million population of England and Wales from an industry producing 15% of the electricity needs of those countries. When this is compared with the risk associated with other methods of electricity production, the author concludes that replacement by nuclear power of any major source of power using fossil fuel, with the possible exception of natural gas, would save lives

  3. Industrial ecology and the pollution potential hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Thomas Payson

    This dissertation describes the science of industrial ecology and its motivating hypotheses, contrasts the two most important analytical tools: life cycle assessment and systems analysis, establishes a taxonomy of sustainability metrics, and introduces a new environmental metric called pollution potential, which is a measure of the ideal thermodynamic work (of mixing) per mole required to remove chemicals from the polluted environment. Pollution potentials are computed for several chlorofluorocarbon replacements, for CFC-11 and for carbon dioxide, and employed in optimization of freezer insulation for minimal total environmental impact. The results suggest that substitution of hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) for hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) in accordance with the Montreal Protocol will have a modest ameliorative impact upon stratospheric ozone loss but risk greater climate forcing, which is counter to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. According to the pollution potential hypothesis, HFC's as a group are likely to have greater total environmental impact than the HCFC's they may replace. Among the pollutants studied, carbon dioxide is found to have the lowest pollution potential (or total atmospheric impact per mole), being on the order of 1/100th that of CFC-11. However, the comparatively long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide in the natural atmosphere allows rapid accumulation of carbon dioxide emissions; therefore, total atmospheric impacts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may be comparable in scale to some HCFC's for equivalent steady-state mass-flux releases.

  4. Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

    2013-01-01

    The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing...

  5. Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene?s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

  6. GUIDE TO INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents an overview of industrial assessments and the general framework for conducting an assessment. It describes combined assessments for pollution prevention and energy, "industrial assessments," providing guidance to those performing assessments at industrial o...

  7. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies, examination of pH-dependent desorption, distribution in grain-size fractions and sequential extraction. Our results show that the first factors determining the speciation of Pb in soil are: (1) the stability of the original speciation and (2) the contamination level, while soil characteristics are of secondary importance. In nine of ten soils Pb was concentrated strongly in the soil fines ( 50% extracted in step III (oxidizing) and IV (residual) of sequential extraction for all soils but one. A significant amount of exchangeable Pb existed only in severely contaminated soils, where the bonding capacity of organic matter and oxides was exceeded. Among soil constituents, Pb was observed to adsorb preferentially to feldspars and organic matter while presence of phosphate increased the strength of the Pb-bonding in phosphate-rich soils.

  8. Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López-Abente Gonzalo; García-Pérez Javier; Fernández-Navarro Pablo; Boldo Elena; Ramis Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installati...

  9. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

  10. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others

  11. Pollution and energy management in tanning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, hing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat in flue gases through a thermal wheel. Savings in the use of electrical and mechanical energy can carried out by using simple techniques. (author)

  12. Monitoring system for industrial gases pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system is designed for monitoring gas pollutants in air, in a chemical plant. It consists of gas detectors with transmitter and modules for environmental conditions measurement, data loggers and a central monitoring station which role is to collect data, generate alarms if pollutants concentration becomes over limit and create database. A dedicated software permits data collecting and processing in order to get solutions for minimising human and technological risks. The system role is monitoring the pollution sources and the surrounded areas that might be affected, for keeping gas pollutants concentration at an acceptable level and to minimise the pollution effects. (author)

  13. Environmental pollution-effects on national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

  14. 76 FR 50414 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...municipal solid wastes and some light industrial wastes. Reports...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

  15. How to control the industry pollution in China optimally?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we empirically examine the effectiveness of existed several economic instruments in 31 provinces in China and develop the ways that could control the industrial pollution effectively. Although the current pollution norms and the informal pressure have a positive effect on controlling the water pollution in China, there are still some tasks we are supposed to do to improve the water quality. In this paper, the author suggests testing the monitoring and enforcement effor...

  16. Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

  17. Globalization and Dirty Industries: Do Pollution Havens Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Jaime; Grether, Jean-marie

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews arguments and evidence on the impact of globalization on the environment, then presents evidence on production and international trade flows in five heavily polluting industries for 52 countries over the period 1981-98. A new decomposition of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) according to geographical origin reveals a delocalization to the South for all heavily polluting industries except non-ferrous metals that exhibits South-North delocalization in accordance with fact...

  18. UNIDO's work on pollution control and risk management in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of UNIDO's work is to learn from the experience of industrialized countries and to avoid severe health and environmental pollution problems through the transfer of appropriate technologies and pollution control mechanisms as an essential part of industrial development - which is UNIDO's main mandate. Moreover, UNIDO's role is to provide to the policy makers of developing countries a better understanding of environmental problems and appreciation of early remedial action. One way to achieve this is through the application of environmental impact assessment and risk assessment methodologies. Since 1972 UNIDO has developed and implemented about 172 projects related to industrial pollution control and management of environmental resources. Currently UNIDO implements about 60 projects in this area. This represents about 10 per cent of the total UNIDO technical assistance budget. Specifically, UNIDO's programme focuses attention on the following main areas: Developing Low- and Non-Waste Technologies, Reutilization and Recycling of Wastes, Energy Conservation and Promotion of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy; Control of Air, Waste and Solid Waste Pollution; Assistance in Environmental Planning, Environmental Impact Assessment, Elaboration of Integrated Planning Concepts for Industrial Areas; Industrial and Plant Safety and Emergency Planning Systems. Clearly toxic materials and waste management, energy resources development and conservation, low- and no development and conservation, low- and non-waste technology, risk assessment, industrial and plant safety and emergency planning, transboundary pollution, are foremost concerns of both industrial and industrializing countries at this time

  19. Sound Pollution Caused by the Industrial Activity in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz shams

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is the problem of the industrial world that along with noised induced by traffic has become a problem in human life.This is more problematic in Tehran because of the traffic and the accumulation of small or large industries. People are profoundly exposed to the high level noises and there are increasing demands to solve the problem of noise in Tehran or at least alleviate it.In the current article we will have a brief and quick look to the noise making industries, the reason behind the noise pollution and the strategies for facing the disturbing industries.

  20. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...all Site media (including soil and groundwater). DATES...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  1. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...to the surface media (soil, surface water, sediment...is the surface media (soil, surface water, sediment...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  2. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...partial deletion pertains to the soil and ground water associated...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  3. Pollution measurement and control in the metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement and control of environmental pollution is a subject of increasing importance in industrial countries. The continual befouling of atmospheric air by combustion gases, by products of combustion or many other industrial processes is causing serious health problems particularly in urban environments. Technology exists today to provide accurate, automatic pollution control on the majority of industrial processes. The economics of such control varies with each plant and expert help should always be sought on the design of such equipment. This article attempts to summarise the equipment which can be used to monitor and detect toxic gases and effluents

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A broad overview of the metal finishing processes in pollution prevention. The volume of hazardous/toxic waste streams produced from metal finishing operations is significant. It is common for product surfaces to undergo more than 10 finishing steps. The elimination of any of ...

  7. 77 FR 14717 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which...year 2015. Gateway Lake Ash Study Area Electromagnetic survey data from the August 2003...

  8. Green Design and Planning Resolutions for an Eco-Industrial Town: A Case Study of Polluted Industrial Estate in Rayong Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ariya Aruninta

    2012-01-01

    Map Ta Phut was designated for development in national policy as an Eastern Seaboard Industrial Port. It is located in Rayong Province with growing demand from Eastern Seaboard industries and is heavily affected by serious environmental problems as a"pollution control zone". While the Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry and Banking, representing the national business sector, claimed that the area generated total revenues of 1.1 trillion baht per year, or 11% of Thailand’s gross d...

  9. Treatment of Some Hazardous Industrial Pollutants by Simple Oxidation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central treatment of Industrial wastewater requires pretreatment of some specific pollutants which may be not effectively degraded in down stream processes in central treatment unit. Some of the hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewater including acrylonitrile, pesticides and some commonly used dyes (active and acid dyes) have been subjected individually to oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions in acidic solution. Treatment efficiency was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using a specially developed concentration/COD curves. Initial concentrations (in terms of COD) were 910 PPM, 1348 and 530 ppm and the respective COD reductions were 91, 98 and 99%, for the pesticide, acrylonitrile and the reactive dye. Oxidative degradation of polared and acid green also reduced COD by 99 and 100% respectively. The obtained results confirm the appropriateness of oxidative degradation as a pretreatment for some hazardous pollutants prior to treatment in central facilities or municipal activated sludge stations

  10. MANUAL: POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE PAINTS AND COATINGS INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paints and coatings industry represents a significant source of multimedia pollution through the wide use of solvent-based process materials and the extensive amounts of wastewater generated by the operations. This manual presents recommended practices for minimizing the gene...

  11. Treatability of priority pollutants in industrial wastewater by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    Based on analytical data from an EPA literature review on pollutant adsorption and experimental data from recent multicomponent analyses of wastewater treated with activated carbon, procedures were developed for predicting the performance and the cost of fixed-bed activated-carbon systems in wastewater treatment design and scale-up studies. Experimental breakthrough curves obtained with actual chemical industry wastewaters were used to obtain solutions of a ''lumped parameter'' adsorption model, in which the multicomponent interactive effects were accounted for by pseudo-component characterizing ''background pollutants''. The factors involved in cost evaluation are discussed, and a step-by-step ''treatability'' evaluation procedure is given; the results of numerical calculations for carbon regeneration rates and their cost at different pollutant concentrations are tabulated for 118 pollutants (mainly organic chemicals).

  12. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

  13. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers...emission standards for hazardous air pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV...

  14. Effect of industrial pollution on growth of paints (photosynthesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants need to do three functions: maintain their metabolic process; grow in size and reproduce. These processes depend on the photosynthesis that is directly or indirectly affected by man-made pollution that is Industrial discharge that include many toxic elements in air, water and land in Industrialized zones. To analyze the various pigments contained in chloroplast and to investigate the effect of industrial pollution on photosynthesis, sunny, semishady and shady leaves of different trees (30 samples) were collected at varying distances from the industrial area having power plants and other industries and the non-industrial area separately in Wah Cantt. The leaves were washed, dried and homogenized before undertaking analysis for different parameters. The result showed that average values of total chlorophyll varied in the range 21.6 - 35, chlorophyll a, 11-19, chlorophyll b, 15-17 and carotene content in the range of 13-33 mg/g of sample taken depending on the type of plant and distance from the industry. These values were in order of sunny> semishady>shady leaves and were comparatively lower as compared to the values in non-industrial area. The soil and water samples from different sites around the trees under study in industrial and non-industrial area were also analyzed for pH, EC, Cl/sup -1/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Pb, Na/sup +1/,K/sup +1/, turbidity and total alkalinity. Based on these analyses, the quality of water and soil samples of the industrial area were fooil samples of the industrial area were found to be satisfactory and within permissible limits. (author)

  15. Radiochemical studies on some industrial pollutants released to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the industrial pollutants that may be released from: Abu-Zaabal fertilizer company, arab ceramic industry, Egyptian alum company near the compass of Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas and petroleum pipelines company at the start of lsmailia canal. The work concentrates on soil or/and sediment pollution, the lsmailia canal water stream pollution and plant pollution. Type of the element and its content are major parameters that are traced in the traced in the experimental work. The work stresses on the analysis of the raw materials used in the chosen Factories, their products of current use as well as their wastes and drainage. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique and radiometric determination of elements are adopted through this work. The selection of the technique is based on less time consumption, high accuracy, reliability, selectivity as well as chemical processing and separation need not to applied. Together with INAA determination of natural radioactivity are also adopted for accessing certain specific elements of importance to the fertilizer industry. Beside the mentioned techniques several classical analytical techniques as atomic absorption, spectrophotometric determination and volumetric methods are handled. 25 tabs., 80 figs., 117 refs

  16. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

  17. Pollution control -- Recovery of uranium from phosphatic fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various uranium recovery processes, viz. Brazilian process (HCL leaching), selective extraction of U, Japanese process, ORNL process and the Indian methods, recently developed, pertaining to the fertilizer industry are reviewed and their relative merits are discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recovery of uranium from the Indian and imported phosphatic rocks, showing the advantages, both from the pollution control and nuclear energy aspects. (K.B.)

  18. Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Abente Gonzalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns, over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR of towns situated at a distance of less than 2?km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463, paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140, food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111, metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123 and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099. Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of the differences between men and women observed in the analyses of the industrial groups suggest that there may be a component of occupational exposure, little-studied in the case of cancers of the digestive system.

  19. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  20. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, P.G. [Science Applications International Corp., Olympia, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  1. Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the industrial sectors included in the E-PRTR pollutant register, emissions from the power generating sector contribute the largest share of the damage costs (estimated at EUR 66-112 billion). Excluding CO{sub 2}, the estimated damage costs from this sector are EUR 26-71 billion. Sectors involving production processes and combustion used in manufacturing are responsible for most of the remaining estimated damage costs. (LN)

  2. Pollution Sources Over the Grand Canyon and Canyonlands National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Popp, C. J.; Arimoto, R.; Martin, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    To investigate pollution sources that are degrading the visibility of two national parks, Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, and Canyonlands National Park, UT, daily samples of total suspended particulates (TSP), PM2.5, trace gases, and organic compounds were collected in the two parks in the summer (July) of 2001 and winter (December-January) of 2001-2002. Factor analysis results show a number of anthropogenic signals (e.g., smelters) in the summer air over the Grand Canyon. In winter, the Grand Canyon samples revealed an aged pollution signal, which was probably transported from long distance, and a local source. In contrast, Canyonlands has less distinctive pollution signals in summer compared with winter. Summer air there shows an aged pollution source, evidence for smelter impacts on the concentrations of rare-earth elements and other metals, and a titanium source. More individual pollution signals were identified from the winter samples at Canyonlands (e.g., coal combustion and smelters). Our chemical and meteorological data clearly indicate that the main long-range transport pathway for pollution in summer is via southwesterly winds at both national parks; this implicates western Arizona as a likely source region. In winter pollution comes from the Salt Lake area via northerlies or northwesterlies.

  3. Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, N.

    1995-12-31

    The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

  4. Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

  5. Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

  6. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (?g/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 ?g/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the ru> and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  7. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP...both the regulated industry...waste for non-hazardous...uncertainty for the regulated community...CISWI kilns Pollutant floor...14\\ Non-hazardous...four main pollutants regulated by the...

  8. 75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...NARA), has amended National Industrial Security Program Directive...published Part 2004, National Industrial Program Directive No. 1...Order established a National Industrial Security Program (NISP...and a technological systems design company. All the...

  9. Biomagnetic monitoring of industry-derived particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear association exists between ambient PM10 concentrations and adverse health outcomes. However, determination of the strength of associations between exposure and illness is limited by low spatial-resolution of particulate concentration measurements. Conventional fixed monitoring stations provide high temporal-resolution data, but cannot capture fine-scale spatial variations. Here we examine the utility of biomagnetic monitoring for spatial mapping of PM10 concentrations around a major industrial site. We combine leaf magnetic measurements with co-located PM10 measurements to achieve inter-calibration. Comparison of the leaf-calculated and measured PM10 concentrations with PM10 predictions from a widely-used atmospheric dispersion model indicates that modelling of stack emissions alone substantially under-predicts ambient PM10 concentrations in parts of the study area. Some of this discrepancy might be attributable to fugitive emissions from the industrial site. The composition of the magnetic particulates from vehicle and industry-derived sources differ, indicating the potential of magnetic techniques for source attribution. - Highlights: ? We use biomagnetic monitoring to map PM10 concentrations around an industrial site. ? SIRMs of tree leaves represent a quantitative proxy for PM10 around this site. ? Magnetically distinct proximal samples (10 levels in the prevailing wind direction from the site. ? Magnetic differences between vehicle and industry PM10 may enable source attribution. - Biomagnetic techniques are used for quantitative mapping of particulate pollution at uniquely high spatial resolution and to distinguish between differently-sourced PM10.

  10. Materials of 3. national symposium on air protection in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material contents 52 papers presented in the course of 3. National symposium on Air Protection in Industry. Their subject concerns the most important problems connected with the industry impact on the environment. The assessment of the atmosphere pollution in chosen local areas and regions in Poland has been performed. The broad spectrum of methods for off-gas cleaning including the electron beam use for SO2 and NOx removal from combustion flue gases have been presented. The monitoring system and the radiometric gages for air quality control have been shown. The utilization methods for different type of industrial wastes have been discussed. Some legal aspects and actual state of Polish law and regulations in related subjects have been presented as well

  11. The National Ignition Facility and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. The National Ignition Facility construction project will require the best of national construction industries and its success will depend on the best products offered by hundreds of the nation's high technology companies. Three-fourths of the construction costs will be invested in industry. This article reviews the design, cost and schedule, and required industrial involvement associated with the construction project

  12. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6) nuclear sources until the year 2005. Each module was analyzed separately and the result from each module was transferred into the Air Quality Impact model. The model assesses the changes in electricity generation within each module due to deregulation and these changes can then be correlated to the emission of air pollutants in the United States.

  13. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  14. Air pollution perceptions and their impacts on the coal industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Lloyd.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of disaster caused by burning fossil fuels have reached such a pitch that they seriously threaten the very future of the industry. Coal is a dirty word. A leader in Business Day (January 19 2009) claimed 'There is no disputing that renewable and non-polluting energy sources are preferabl [...] e to the country-the true cost of so-called cheap coal-fired power stations is neither reflected nor accounted for by Eskom-the true and immediate but unacknowledged cost of continued coal mining is apparent in the catastrophic level of acidification from mining runoff of all significant natural water resources in the country-and their waters have been rendered unfit for human consumption. Air quality is in a similar state with-increases in pulmonary disease causing workforce absenteeism and compromised childhood development, among many other health problems recorded in areas polluted by coal mining.' The upshot is that our latest coal-fired power station, Kusile, is being required to use flue gas desulphurization. The costs are considerable, and the benefits minimal. Meanwhile, exports are being threatened by EU directives and an assumption that South African coal gives off excessive quantities of SOx and NOx when burned. The industry needs to arm itself with clear responses to these and similar misconceptions, and to communicate those responses loudly and clearly, if it is to survive.

  15. A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshar Bashu Dev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh water sources; drying of wells, reduction on ground water level, livestock productivity and loss of scenic beauty of the place. The agriculture crop yield has also decreased vastly and the area is gradually converting into dry land, the top soils have been eroding and crop plants are being covered with pollutants which are effecting directly or indirectly to the local people. In this paper, health impact of local people, environmental and economic impact of locality by mining industries are examined and evaluated considering questionnaire and available data from several sources such as government publications, related researches, websites and other references. This paper concludes with recommendations in order to control environment pollution, to reduce the impact of gravel, sand and stone mines.

  16. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...FRL-9649-9] Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...part 61, subpart B, National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions from...

  17. STUDIES ON THE POLLUTION OF WATERBODY BY TEXTILE INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADENOWO, J.A.; A.M. Gbadebo; TAIWO, A.M.; Awomeso, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution arises from introduction of foreign materials capable of deteriorating water quality into a waterbody, hence, posing negative effects on aquatic lives and human health. Industrial effluents accounts for several point sources of water pollution. To quantify the impacts of these industrial discharges on water bodies, water samples from a stream polluted by a textile industry were collected at twelve sampling points with sampling intervals of 50 m. Samples were analyzed using s...

  18. Industrial Pollution Control and Efficient Licensing Processes: The Case of Swedish Regulatory Design

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pettersson; Patrik Söderholm

    2014-01-01

    Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT) requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED). In this paper, we review and a...

  19. Occupational Noise Pollution and Hearing protection in selected industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of technology in industries is ever increasing. With the introduction of this technology come new safety and human performance concerns. Hearing loss caused by industrial noise has been recognized for many years, and protection of employee hearing has been made mandatory by governmental agencies. This paper presents an investigation of occupational noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD in selected industries in the south-eastern Iran. A questionnaire has been used to collect data for workers with high noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD. The subjects were 354 industrial workers expose to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in Iranian legislation (85dB (A 8h/d. The results of this study indicated that only younger workers with minor professional experience and with high educational background are used PHPD to protect and preserve their hearing. The finding of this study shows that approximately 75% of the workers with age 18-36 reported the use of personal protective Devices at all the time, and 73% of workers with age more than 46 years old reported that they had never used them PHPD, even though it was mandatory in their workplaces. Statistical data show that, the percentage of male workers (82 with age more than 37 years old having headaches at workplace are higher than female (3.4 with the same age groups. A noise training and education program must be developed for industrial employees in order to protect them from hazardous noise pollution. Employers must play an important role in promoting the regular use of Personal hearing protective devices. Noise level in work areas must be considered in the early design of Hearing Conservation Program.

  20. 76 FR 22891 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...issuance of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...used to minimize pollutants discharged from...federal numeric and non-numeric effluent limitations on regulated construction sites...280 NTU for the pollutant turbidity...

  1. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

    2006-09-15

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR THE COMPOSITE WOOD INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Information was gathered during a literature search that included trade association publicatio...

  3. Industrial air pollution: British progress—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, G.

    Recent Annual Reports on industrial air pollution issued by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive show that considerable progress has been made. Further "Presumptive Limits of Emission" and "Notes on Best Practicable Means" have been published by H.M. Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate. The lists given in this journal [9, 709 (1975)] are extended in the Appendices. An abstract is given of BPM for oil refineries. Heavy smoke from blue brick manufacture and from shaft lime kilns has been eliminated by gas firing. Steps have been taken to reduce emissions of vinyl chloride, PCBs, compounds of fluorine and of toxic metals, As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn and radioactives. Reduction of low-level emissions is a continuing problem in improving local amenity. Considerable attention has been paid to continuous monitoring of massive emissions and of concentrations of pollutants outside factories, including odours. Arrestment equipment supplied to small firms has given trouble through poor design of components and monitors, inadequate help by suppliers during commissioning, and by lack of training and correct maintenance by management; tight specifications requiring quality engineering should be prepared by purchasers. Lectures to workers, backed by booklets, are assisting in making difficult works better neighbours. The Inspectorate has six sampling teams, mainly for dust, and nine task groups for special programmes. A computer programme for calculation of ground concentrations from multiple sources is assisting inspectors to assess complex situations. It is the author's opinion that research workers on environmental problems should examine these Reports to find more industrial subjects for study.

  4. Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

  5. Compliance plan for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). The facility is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio, on a 16.2-km2 (6.3-mile2) site about 1.6 km (1 mile) east of the Scioto River Valley at an elevation approximately 36.6 m (120 ft) above the Scioto River floodplain. The terrain surrounding the plant, except for the Scioto River floodplain, consists of marginal farmland and densely forested hills. The principal site process is the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. Support operations include the feed and withdrawal of material from the primary process, treatment of water for both potable and cooling purposes, steam generation for heating purposes, decontamination of equipment removed from the process for maintenance or replacement, recovery of uranium from various waste materials, and treatment of industrial wastes generated on-site. PORTS will comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations as a single facility as specified under ''Discussion of Source Categories, VI.A.4.d Definition of a Facility'' in Volume 54, No. 240 p. 51665 of the Federal Register. Continuous vent stack monitoring and dose modeling as specified in 40 CFR 61.93 of Subpart H will be used to demonstrate compliance with radionuclide NESHAP regulations. Ambient air monitoring stations near rec. Ambient air monitoring stations near receptor sites and Health Physics monitoring in plant process buildings will be used to give assurance that unmonitored sources, or fugitive emission sources, are not emitting sufficient radionuclides to add a significant contribution to total plant emissions

  6. MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LUCA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

  7. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Wastewater Pollution Abatement in China: A Comparative Study of Fifteen Industrial Sectors from 1998 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Kaneko; Shunsuke Managi; Hidemichi Fujii

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the management of wastewater pollutants in a number of Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2010. We use decomposition analysis to calculate changes in wastewater pollutant emissions that result from cleaner production processes, end-of-pipe treatment, structural changes in industry, and changes in the scale of production. We focus on one indicator of water quality and three pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD), petroleum, cyanide, and volatile phenols. We find that...

  9. 76 FR 81903 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production'' is being extended for 22 days. DATES:...

  10. National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

  11. Environmental geochemistry and pollution studies of Aliaga metal industry district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delya; Karaoglu, Nevin

    2002-02-01

    The Aliaga metal industry district located 50 km northwest of Izmir City, in Turkey, includes many metal factories. The geology of the area is represented by Mesozoic flysch deposits and Cenozoic volcano sedimentary rocks. Tectonic elements are NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults and a W-NW trending fault direction that is important for water supply. Rock, soil, stream sediment, and water samples taken at various distances from the industrial area were analyzed for Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo. According to the results, the elements in rocks are reasonable for the range of "Clarke" values, but in the soils and stream sediment, they comprise higher values than are acceptable for agricultural activities. Toxicity analyses were carried out in the drinking artesian water of Cakmakli village and wastewater samples of the factories and river water both of which are used for irrigation of the agricultural areas in and around the investigated area. The people should, however be made aware that this waste and river water is unacceptable for agriculture. Additionally, the contamination of seawater in Nemrut Bay is probably caused by contaminated river and underground water running to the sea. The chemical and toxicity analysis of drinking water samples show that they are above accepted standards and harmful. Previous air pollution studies (funnel gas emission analyses) also show that gas emission contains high amount of dust particles with high Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu concentrations. As a result, all elements analyzed are of great importance relative to problems concerning contamination of the soil, stream sediment, ground surface water, and air by individual metals from uncontrolled processing of some metal factories. PMID:11868663

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulFatai JIMOH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

  13. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive soint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  14. Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

  15. 75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part...NARA-09-0005] RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY...2009, regarding the National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1....

  16. 75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is affirming...establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...consistent with the Food, Conservation,...

  17. 75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 63...AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...consistent with the Food, Conservation,...

  18. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  19. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  20. The Evaluation of Industrial Cement Production Plant on the Environmental Pollution Using Magnetic Susceptibility Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Ghorbani; Ali Aghababaei; Hamid Reza Mirkarimi

    2013-01-01

    Different pollutants in soil, water, and other parts of the environment are so important in portraying environmental pollution, and could come from different source of pollutions including industrial activities. Entering metals into the soil by human activities is an important process in the geochemical cycling of heavy metals. Among the potentially toxic metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, selenium and chromium could be named as the most toxic. Each of these elements is use...

  1. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Ianculescu; Monica Ionescu; Dora Lucaci; Stegan Neagu; Cristina Mihaela Macarescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney ...

  2. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Salnikov, Vitaliy G.; Karatayev, Marat A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negativ...

  3. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, G.; Vega, E.; E. González-Avalos; V Mora; D. López-Veneroni

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100?m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000?m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10...

  4. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This empirical study confirms that the proposed approach is useful in both guiding regional planning and developing a sustainable society. It is easily envisioned that the proposed approach is useful for not only Japan but also the other industrial and developing nations. - Highlights: • Japan effectively reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances. • Japan needs to allocate capital in regions with high investment effectiveness. • Technology innovation makes it possible to balance economic growth and pollution prevention. • The proposed approach is useful in guiding regional development of a sustainable society

  5. Multisource model for generating concentration distribution of industrial pollutants for nuclear fuel complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While generating pollutant distribution for an industrial complex having multi source and multiple releases it becomes important to consider the distribution of sources. This paper describes such a computer program which is used for assessing the pollutant distribution for nuclear fuel complex. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.

  7. Relationship between technological progress, capital elasticity and emissions of industrial pollutants for the production sectors in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As is known, the Kyoto protocol proposes to reinforce national policies for emission reduction and, furthermore, to cooperate with other contracting parties. In this context, it would be necessary to assess these emissions, both in general and specifically, by pollutants and/or among productive sectors. The objective of this paper is precisely to estimate the polluting emissions of industrial origin in Catalonia in the year 2001, in a multivariate context that explicitly allows a distinction to be made between the polluter and/or the productive sector causing this emission. Six pollutants are considered, four directly related to greenhouse effect. A multi-level model, with two levels, pollutants and productive sectors, was specified. Both technological progress and elasticity of capital were introduced as random effects. Hence, it has been permitted that these coefficients vary according to one or the other level. The most important finding in this paper is that elasticity of capital has been estimated as very non-elastic, with a range that varies between 0.162 (the paper industry) and 0.556 (commerce). In fact, and generally speaking, greater the capital in the sector, lower the elasticity of capital estimated

  8. 76 FR 33753 - Modification of the Expiration Date for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...used to minimize pollutants discharged from...Region 4, will be regulated under the new National...Federal numeric and non-numeric effluent limitations on regulated construction sites...280 NTU for the pollutant turbidity...

  9. Analysis of Pollution Industrial Transfer Based on Environmental Regulation and Public Participation: China’s Case

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-bin Peng; Wei-ping Wu

    2013-01-01

    Referring to 1995-2011 China's provincial panel data, this paper constructs an econometric model consisting of environmental regulation, public participation and pollution industrial transfer, and mainly focuses on the role of environmental regulation and public participation in the pollution industries transfer using panel data unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test and panel regression analysis method. The results show that environmental regulation and public participat...

  10. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  11. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  12. Oil industry and the problems with radioactive pollution on Absheron Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of 'Sustainable development' accepted by the international community as a basis of co-operation among countries envisages the necessity of rational national resource management that will minimize the damage to the future generations. As a fundamental guide towards this goal, a document identifying the principles of the global environmental security - 'Agenda 21 century'- was approved by the majority of states at the 1992 Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. Based on the principles of Agenda-21 century, Azerbaijan developed its National Environmental Concept, and passed a number of laws in support of environmental protection and sustainable development. At this stage of the country's development, the issue of national resource management is of paramount importance for the nation. The disastrous environmental situation inherited from the former Soviet Union is affecting every aspect of the country's life and presenting a clear threat to the health and well-being of the population. Considering the problem with the radioactive contamination and radioactive wastes we have to identify the primary reason of it existence on the territory of Azerbaijan, and particularly Apsheron Peninsula. The main contributor to intensive environment pollution is the technogenic and industrial wastes

  13. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...2060-AM37 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous air...proposing to amend the national emission standards for control of hazardous...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

  15. Effect of Sulphurdioxide Pollution on Immunoglobulins of the Industrial Workers and the Residents of the Vicinity

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Syed; Khan, K M; Rehman, K; S. Siddiqui

    2000-01-01

    Air pollution is caused by the increased concentration of any of its constituent above the normal value and this type of situation prevails in highly industrialized areas. SO2 is among the air pollutants which produces bad effects on human health. The value of IgG in industrial workers were high and IgM was low which might be due to repeated exposure to SO2 pollutant, IgM production was switched over to IgG which results in high level of IgG and low level of IgM. IgA level was low, which migh...

  16. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  17. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of environmental pollution in Pan-Yangtze River Delta, especially in the transition period. PMID:25639121

  18. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was the key soil characteristics determining the Cu removal rate.

  19. Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Study of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide pollution from an industrial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robe-Naudy, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Three chapters are included: (1) Operation of a Mobile Laboratory with a Remote Sensing System and Ground-Level Analyzer for Investigation of Smoke Plume Dispersion and Fall-out; (2) Review of Atmospheric Dispersion Factors for Industrial Smoke Plumes and Various Telemeasurement Methods for Determination of Atmospheric Pollution at Industrial Sites; and (3) Exploration of the Cordemais Site.

  1. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  2. Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China. Estimation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10-6 for TSP, and 4.2x10-6 for SO2, with standard deviations of 8.15x10-6 and 9.16x10-6, respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10-7 to 10-5. Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most importanllutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts. (author)

  3. Risk of Cancer Mortality in Spanish Towns Lying in the Vicinity of Pollutant Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Pablo Fernandez-Navarro; Javier Garcia-Perez; Elena Boldo; Diana Gomez-Barroso; Gonzalo Lopez-Abente

    2012-01-01

    Spatial aggregation of different industrial facilities leads to simultaneous release of pollutant emissions. Our objective is to study cancer mortality risk associated with residence in the vicinity of pollutant factories. We used data on industries for year 2007 (3458 facilities). For the 8,098 Spanish towns, we defined a factor with 4 levels based on the number of factories in a radius of 2.5?km from the centroid of each town (industrial factor). We also used data of land cover use to app...

  4. Acid mine-water and agricultural pollution in a river skirting the Donana National Park (Guadiamar river, south west Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Francisco; Toca, C. G.; Di?az Barrientos, Encarnacio?n; Arambarri, Pablo

    1984-01-01

    An inventory of the pollution originated by a mining industry in its first stages of development and by a highly developed agriculture is carried out in a river skirting the Donana National Park. The pathway along the Guadiamar river basin was studied for heavy metals derived from the opencast-worked polymetallic sulphide deposits and from the mine spoil heaps. The dynamics of N, P and herbicides in waters of urban and/or agricultural origin was also discussed. | An inventory of the pollution...

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T2O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  6. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Hanif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU, tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU, textile: Dying Unit (DU and textile: Finishing Unit (FU in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

  8. Air pollution causes health effects and net national product of a country decreases: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with green accounting and accounts the health effects of air pollution. It shows that due to air pollution human capital can not be utilized properly and net national product of a country decreases. The willing to pay system among workers is beneficial to the government, factory owners and workers of a country. The marginal cost-benefit rule for an optimal level of air pollution creates negative health effects. The air pollution cause both direct disutility and indirect welfar...

  9. Environmental policy and industrial competitiveness: The pollution haven hypothesis reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Bommer, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis suggests that tight environmental standards reduce domestic producers' competitiveness and give rise to their relocating to countries with more lenient standards. This paper questions that relocation is always caused by reduced competitiveness at home. By using a signaling approach, I show that relocation can be undertaken for purely strategic reasons. Relocation is the producer's tool to convince the policy maker to refrain from a further tightening of environm...

  10. Environmental pollution and policies in China's Township and Village Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Taketoshi, Kazuki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze economic and policy factors affecting pollution by Township and Village Industrial Enterprises (TVIEs) in China and to discuss problems and directions in environmental policies for them. With the rapid growth of TVIEs since the early 1980s, pollution has been spreading into the rural areas. The large number and small size of TVIEs makes it difficult for TVIEs themselves and the government to implement environmental measures. The econometric ...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES FOR FIVE INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the emissions inventory, market survey, product categorization, product characteristics, potential product reformulation, new product research, and alternate application methods for processes involved in printing, graphic arts, architectural and industrial m...

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION METHODS IN THE SURFACE COATING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface coating industry is rapidly changing to meet environmental and economic pressures. ome of the changes include new formulations which meet environmental regulations, higher performance finishes with improved properties, continued development of solventless technologies...

  13. Modeling of Ambient Air Pollutants through Artificial Neural Network in Industrial Area of Ujjain City

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Srivastava*

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was modeling of ambient air pollutants through ANN, in industrial area of Ujjain city in India and the study was carried out on modeling of air pollutants like Sox, Nox, SPM and RSPM using Artificial Neural Network. The ANN system was run by giving the inputs of meteorological data’s and giving the outputs of concentration of various pollutants and accordingly the estimation of Errors was done by this study. The monthly data’s in year from 2006 -2012 ...

  14. Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

  15. The method of acidic pollutants removal from industrial flue gas stream and device for acidic pollutants removal from industrial flue gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation method and the device for acidic pollutants removal from the industrial combustion flue gas stream have been proposed. The flue gas has been cooled and wetted by the water contact. Also the ammonia or other base substance have been added before the electron beam irradiation in a reaction chamber. The obtained nitrates and sulfates aerosol have been separated from the flue gas by passing through condensation electromagnetic filter

  16. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  17. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  18. Problems of privatization of national power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After introduction and general description of privatization processes the following problems: a controvation whether power industry should be privatized, specificity of power industry, aims and expectations of privatization, restructurization of power industry due to privatization program, privatization strategy, convergency and crossing of capitals, privatization advisement etc. are discussed in detail. Many conclusions are given

  19. UST-IDRC national symposium on the mining industry and the environment: programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Symposium on the mining industry and the environment was organized by the UST/IDRC Environmental Research Group in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The symposium generally covered strategies for the development of the mining industry as well as solutions to the environmental problems associated with the industry in Ghana. The publication contains the programme and abstracts of scientific sessions of the Symposium. The abstracts covered the following topics among others: multi-element analysis of mineral ores samples, review of environmental studies related to gold mining in Ghana, local sulphooxidizing bacteria for environmentally friendly gold mining, arsenic pollution in streams and sediments, rainfall erositivity and soil loss from degraded lands and mine spoils, the impact of surface mining on forest structure and environment, current environmental practices in the mining industry, and the role of the mining industry in the economy of Ghana

  20. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  1. Industrial Applications of E-Beam Plasma to Air Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel combustion creates a the treat to environment. Waste quantities of SO2, NOx and VOC (volatile organic compounds) are emitted in to atmosphere. Municipal wastes incineration is another air pollution potential problem. New technologies for simultaneous removal of different pollutants are searched for. Electron beam process is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. The laboratory unit (400 Nm3/h) and industrial pilot plant (20000 Nm3/h) have been constructed in Poland. Full scale industrial project is under development (270000 Nm3/h). New developments, connected mostly with energy consumption reduction, made this process very competitive in comparison with conventional technologies. (author)

  2. Evaluation of industrial wastewater pollutants from soap factories and breweries in the Bafoussam city vicinity and contribution to the reduction of this pollution (Western highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gouafo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The discharges of wastewaters of industries in the Bafoussam city vicinity deteriorate the quality of surface and underground water and soils. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of ecotoxicity in the different industries and ways to fight against pollution. The following physico-chemical parameters were determined: COD, BOD5, OM, TP, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe, Al, EC, Turbidity, NH4+ and NO3- from wastewaters from all the two soap factories (SWC and SCS and one breweries (ASCB industries in Bafoussam. Statistical analysis, we determined the correlation efficient R and Covariance. R varies from 0.715 to 0.897. These coefficients indicate a positive correlation different from 1, hence, we can not predict the parameters of an industry based on the parameters of the other. Total heavy metals contents range from 118.66 mg /l for SCS; 39.58 mg /l for the SWC and 2.45 mg /l for the ASCB. COD ranges from 122 mg /l to 959 mg /l, the highest value was obtained in the SCS. These results indicate that the SCS is the most polluting industry. To reduce the pollution we recommended that each industry recycle its wastewater and put in place specific treatment plants because pollutants to eliminate vary depending on the industry. The Municipal community also advised to institute sensitization meeting with the promoters of these industries on proper wastewater handling treatment. Penalties for pollution should be proportional to the degree of pollution.

  3. Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhana Chaurasia; Ashwani Karwariya; Anand Dev Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry). Changes in chlorophyll ...

  4. Monitoring of heavy pollutants from industrial emissions and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental facilities of internal beam PIXE, tube-excited ED-XRF, NAA, electrothermal AAS and DPASV have been established. The development of analytical procedures based on these principles is in progress for multielement trace analysis in different matrices including solid and liquid wastes. An intercomparison study of trace and minor element analysis in IAEA Soil and lake sediment standards was performed with source-excited ED-XRF method and good agreements were observed. Using the existing standard analytical techniques of source-excited ED-XRF and flame AAS, 34 effluent samples from paper, tannery and fertilizer industries were analyzed for about 15 elements with Z > 19 to obtain baseline information. Future studies will be directed to industrial emissions and effluents from fertilizer factories, paper mills, chemical industries, power plants and steel mills. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mir Sujaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

  6. Air pollution aspects of the atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorology is important to the atomic energy industry for engineering and operational applications common to industry generally, but, in particular, it is important because of its usefulness when dealing with radioactivity in the atmosphere. Meteorology must be used in estimating environmental exposure risks if radioactivity is released through tall stacks and laboratory type vents as part of a routine waste disposal procedure or when it is necessary to consider accidental releases under a variety of circumstances. An outstanding use of meteorology is in the estimation of the spread of contaminants from a reactor disaster. The nature of radioactive materials and their sources are discussed. 7 figures

  7. Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution during implementation of pro-environmental policy in Silesia region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensu?a, Barbara; Wilczy?ski, Slawomir; Opa?a, Magdalena; Pawe?czyk, S?awomira; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of research conducted within the project entitled "Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollutants during the implementation of pro-environmental policies in the area of Silesia" (acronym BIOPOL) is the reconstruction of climate changes and anthropogenic effects and monitoring of the influence of human activities related to industrial development and the introduction of pro-environmental policy. The analysis will concern the climatic and anthropogenic signals recorded in annual tree rings width of Scots pine and in the isotopic composition of wood and its compenents (such as alpha-cellulose and glucose). Only a few studies made a complex multiproxies analysis of the influence of industrial air pollutants on changes in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition in any selected region. In addition, research is usually for a period of industrial development, is a lack of analysis for the period of implementation of EU law and standards on air quality to Polish law. The research area are the forests close to 3 different industrial plants (chemical- nitrogen plants, steel mills, power plants), in Silesia, where operating companies have strategic importance for the region and country. By analyzing the structure of land in Silesia noted a significant advantage of forest land and agricultural land. A large percentage of forest land providing protection for residents in case of failure in any of the plants. A cloud of noxious fumes is possible in large part retained in the trees. Waste generated by the chemical industry, metallurgy and energy represent the largest proportion of waste generated in the region. Already in the beginning of 21stcentury, the Waste Management Plans for various cities in Silesia are set out various strategic objectives to 2015, including in the economic sector: the implementation of non-waste technology and less and the best available techniques (BAT), the introduction of the principles of "cleaner production". The BIOPOL innovation is: a) multiproxy spatio-temporal analysis of the effects of climate changes and emission of air industrial pollution on trees during the development of industry and the implementation of pro-environmental policies in Silesia: - Analysis of the width of annual tree rings (since 1975) - Analysis of underestimation of the 14C concentration during the implementation of European standards (since 2000) - Analysis of the recorded signals of environmental changes in the composition of stable isotopes in annual tree rings - wood and its components b) modeling of the influence of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere on the width of annual growth of trees and C,O,N stable isotopes and radiocarbon - Spatio-temporal model of environmental change in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition close to each of the selected plants - comparison to the impact of climate change and industrial pollution for 3 different industries (steel mills, power plants, nitrogen plants) in the period from 1975 to present - Space model of environmental changes in the isotopic composition of trees near each of the selected plants (at varying distances from the chosen site) based on analysis of isotopic composition of annual shoots of pine trees in three consecutive years: from 2012 to 2014) - Estimation of emission components originating from industrial pollution for individual plants This project was funded by the National Science Centre allocated on the basis of the decision number DEC-2011/03/D/ST10/05251

  8. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ? A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ? Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ? Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ? Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ? It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  9. THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and carbon (CO and CO2. The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches; percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

  10. Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

    1977-02-01

    An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  12. Mortality analysis by neighbourhood in a city with high levels of industrial air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Vigotti, Maria Angela; Mataloni, Francesca; Bruni, Antonella; Minniti, Caterina; Gianicolo, Emilio A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Taranto, a city in south-eastern Italy, suffers serious environmental pollution from industrial sources. A previous cohort analysis found mortality excesses among neighbourhoods closest to industrial areas. Aim of this study was to investigate whether mortality also increased in other neighbourhoods compared to Apulia region. Methods Standardized mortality ratios were computed. Number of deaths and of person-years at risk by neighbourhood came from the previous cohort study for 199...

  13. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

  14. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Solimar Garcia; Irenilza Alencar Nääs

    2014-01-01

    Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in th...

  15. Iron (III) Removal from Industrially Polluted Waters by Electrocoagulation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krystyník, Pavel; Kluso?, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    Trnava : Trnavská univerzita sv.Cyrila a Metod?je, 2013 - (Ondrejovi?, M.; Neme?ek, P.), s. 39 ISBN 978-80-8105-501-0. [International Scientific Conference Applied Natural Sciences 2013 /4./. Nový Smokovec, High Tatras (SK), 02.10.2013-04.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA03010548; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/065 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : electrocoagulation * iron removal * water treatment Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

  17. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. PMID:24576652

  18. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  19. Wastewater Pollution Abatement in China: A Comparative Study of Fifteen Industrial Sectors from 1998 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kaneko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the management of wastewater pollutants in a number of Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2010. We use decomposition analysis to calculate changes in wastewater pollutant emissions that result from cleaner production processes, end-of-pipe treatment, structural changes in industry, and changes in the scale of production. We focus on one indicator of water quality and three pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD, petroleum, cyanide, and volatile phenols. We find that until 2002, COD emissions were mainly reduced through end-of-pipe treatments. Cleaner production processes didn’t begin contributing to COD emissions reductions until the introduction of a 2003 law that enforced their implementation. Petroleum emissions were primarily lowered through cleaner production mechanisms, which have the added benefit of reducing the input cost of intermediate petroleum. Diverse and effective pollution abatement strategies for cyanide and volatile phenols are emerging among industries in China. It will be important for the government to consider differences between industries should they choose to regulate the emissions of specific chemical substances.

  20. Construction of an environmental pollution map for some industrial sites using some bio-indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with an environmental pollution through determination of the heavy metal pollutants namely Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ni,Pb and Zn which are known to cause hazard to plants and animals in water, soil and plants at different sites in Helwan and El-Tibben as old industrial areas and Toshki as pre-industrial area. In addition to, study physico-parameters of water, major anions and major cations. The thesis is divided into four main chapters (introduction, experimental, results and discussion, and comparison between Toshki, Helwan and el-Tibben)in addition to summary and conclusion, references, abstract and arabic summary. The first chapter of the thesis comprises the general introduction, which gives introduction on the subject under investigation . Also contains a brief account on the environmental pollution of water, soil and plants in addition to the impact of industrial pollution in egypt , previous work on heavy metal pollutants then the characteristic of the investigated heavy metal pollutants and natural radioactivity for the soil of the investigated areas. The second chapter contains a description of selected areas, the methodology of sampling, sample preparation for water, soil and plant and method of analysis of the selected heavy metals. The third chapter involves the results and discussion . The results revealed physico-chemical parameters measured in water samples collected from investigated areas as temperature, ph, dissolved oxygen(DO), biochemirature, ph, dissolved oxygen(DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) , and total alkalinity as well as determination of the major anions and cations in water samples collected from investigated areas. Heavy metals determined in water, soil and plants in addition to natural radioactivity in soil samples for each of the studied industrial cities, Helwan, el-ti been and Toshki

  1. Monitoring of heavy metal pollutants in industrial emission and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE, ED-XRF, AAS and some other trace analysis techniques have been used to study trace elements in air particulates and other environmental samples. For the PIXE measurements, samples are collected with a 6-stage Batelle type cascade impactor using Nuclepore filters and MicroMatter calibration standards. Baseline measurements have been made in the laboratory environment, and field samples have been collected in a local tannery. Recent work has been mainly concerned with developing and testing the necessary analytical methodologies. Future studies will focus on industrial emissions from fertilizer factories, pulp and paper mills, a chemical complex, steel mills and an oil refinery. 2 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Industrial Pollution Control and Efficient Licensing Processes: The Case of Swedish Regulatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pettersson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED. In this paper, we review and assess the licensing of industrial plants in one of the Member States, namely Sweden. Specifically, we discuss how the existing regulations (including the IED manage to address potential trade-offs between important regulatory design issues, such as flexibility, predictability and the need to provide continuous incentives for environmental improvements. The analysis indicates that while the EU regulations provide flexibility in terms of the choice of compliance measures, in Sweden, it enters an existing regulatory framework that adds a lot of uncertainty with respect to the outcome of the licensing processes. An important challenge for the implementation of the IED is to implement performance standards that lead to continuous incentives to improve environmental performance in industrial sectors without, at the same time, adding new uncertainties. While standards ideally should be both flexible and predictable, achieving one of these criteria may often come at the expense of the other.

  3. Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Khan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure that's why man is bent on industrializing his domain from earlier. The environment acts like a source to supply raw materials for production processes. The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE, Peshawar, to investigate the individual industrial effluent load. All the industries were divided into five categories like Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical and Paper and three industry from each category were selected. The samples were collected from end-up-pipe of individual industrial process and were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Effluent of Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical, and Paper industries were analyzed for pH, Temperature, DO, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cu were investigated in the effluents of selected industries. The concentrations of BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Pb, Cr and Ni were found higher than NEQS for industrial discharges. The wastewater flow rate was also calculated for industrial effluent. Wastewater treatment facilities are not present in the industrial estate. The study suggests that huge quantities of wastewater is generating in industrial estate can be minimized through process modification, change in existing equipment, installation of recycling plants and selection of proper trained employees.

  4. 78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...The REF, operated by Lindsay Light and Chemical Company and...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

  5. 75 FR 54779 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...Illumination, Inc. and used for light-fixture fabrication. The...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

  6. 76 FR 32081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...primarily used for agricultural or light residential development...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

  7. 76 FR 49324 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...found in the Initial and Final Pollution Report dated September 10...current use of the area includes light recreational uses such as...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

  8. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...pertains to the surface soil, unsaturated subsurface soil, surface water and...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  9. Modeling of Ambient Air Pollutants through Artificial Neural Network in Industrial Area of Ujjain City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Srivastava*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was modeling of ambient air pollutants through ANN, in industrial area of Ujjain city in India and the study was carried out on modeling of air pollutants like Sox, Nox, SPM and RSPM using Artificial Neural Network. The ANN system was run by giving the inputs of meteorological data’s and giving the outputs of concentration of various pollutants and accordingly the estimation of Errors was done by this study. The monthly data’s in year from 2006 -2012 of meteorological data like Temperature, Humidity, wind pressure and rainfall and the pollutants concentration were collected from the State Pollution Control Board. The ANN system used as shown in figure 1 analyses all these data’s and find the error coming during the experiment. The study estimated the Mean Square Error (MSE from the inputs and outputs which were given to ANN in the industrial area of Ujjain City in India was found satisfactory being in the range of 0.01-0.03. The results shown here indicate that the neural network techniques can be useful tool in the hands of practitioners of air quality management and prediction. The models studied in this study are easily implemented, and they can deliver prediction in real time, unlike other modeling techniques.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved “critical receptor” stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

  11. The Evaluation of Industrial Cement Production Plant on the Environmental Pollution Using Magnetic Susceptibility Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghorbani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different pollutants in soil, water, and other parts of the environment are so important in portraying environmental pollution, and could come from different source of pollutions including industrial activities. Entering metals into the soil by human activities is an important process in the geochemical cycling of heavy metals. Among the potentially toxic metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, selenium and chromium could be named as the most toxic. Each of these elements is used in industrial activities and most of them are considered as by-products of mining, refining and similar industrial activities. Although the establishment of cement factories is usually associated with job creation and other economic aspects, the purpose of economic interests, is inevitable environmental damage caused by cement factories. Therefore, research on pollution originated from factories appears to be necessary. In order to determine the effect of cement production on farmland around Shahrood cement factory, soil samples were taken from surface soils from depth of 0-30 cm. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer instrument after samples preparation using standard frequently used methods. Soil magnetic susceptibility of the samples was also measured using Saskopto meters MFK1-FA. The results showed that among the parameters studied, the element of Zinc has shown the lowest mean value equal to 0.31 mg·kg-1 and iron has shown the highest mean value equal to 6.36 mg·kg-1.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2007-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  15. Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored

  16. Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

  17. Pollution prevention/waste minimization program applications to the commercial nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Programs have been established for new facilities to encompass design, construction, operation and decommissioning of process and power plants, research and government facilities. With respect to Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization, operating nuclear facilities must consider ongoing operations; modifications to processes, systems or components; changes in operating practices; and eventual decommissioning. The primary emphasis of the programs, consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) definition of pollution prevention/waste minimization, is waste elimination, source reduction and/or recycling to minimize the quantity and toxicity of material before it enters the waste stream for treatment or disposal. The 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and 1990 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) passed by Congress have driven commercial nuclear utilities to consider formal pollution prevention/waste minimization programs. These programs typically contain four distinct phases in accordance with guidance from the US EPA: planning, assessment, feasibility, and implementation. Certain utilities, such as the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) have taken pro-active steps to provide the baseline for pollution prevention/waste minimization programs through waste characterization and assessment. In addition, the nuclear industry's efforts in evaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reavaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reactor core hardware storage and disposal also provide directly applicable baseline information

  18. WASTE DISCHARGE MONITORING REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE NPDES (NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM) PERMITS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was prepared to provide a tool to aid the Equivalency staff of the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Cincinnati in evaluating applications for alternate analytical methods under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits Progra...

  19. Mortality Associations with Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in a National English Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Iain M.; Atkinson, Richard W; Kent, Andrew J.; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cook, Derek G.; Anderson, H Ross

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries.

  20. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages...

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved 'critical receptor' stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout)

  2. The HORUS model--inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions from industrial combustion in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains a methodology for a low-cost air pollution emissions inventory, focusing on fuel combustion processes in industries and based on the identification and refinement of connections among existing databases. The first bottom-up approach allowed by the HORUS model is especially suitable for developing countries, where there are limited resources for air emission monitoring. It starts from adapting and connecting databases and statistics, providing a top-down inventory that establishes the boundaries for the bottom-up assessment. The latter is based on a proxy distribution of the numbers of employees in each industry for each sector. Some results are presented for the case of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, with three different fuels submitted to three main combustion processes, producing three pollutants under two scenarios (plus carbon dioxide). From a universe of 157,304 industries, the model covered 46,283 (up to 54% of total fuel consumption). With a high spatial and temporal resolution, the model is extremely flexible and transparent, an approach that can be adapted to other regions in the world. This is particularly important in developing countries, with energy intensive industries and severe episodes of urban air pollution. Further developments can refine the model, by substituting the calculated outputs by real scale measurements or by providing upgrades in the available statistical databases, demonstrating the value of such a tool for an integting the value of such a tool for an integrated energy and environmental planning

  3. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general and technogenic hotspots. Airpollution- related health effects can be reduced through policies that curb emissions. Among measures that can be undertaken to achieve these reductions is the use technology in industry and programs to increase public awareness. However Kazakhstani society is more concerned about social problems; government does not want to disturb people, because environmental problems are far from a positive decision.

  4. Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Chaurasia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry. Changes in chlorophyll content were investigated in selected plant species exposed to dust emitted by the cement industry. The concentration of chlorophyll in all the selected plant species i.e. Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species were investigated and noted that amount of chlorophyll in all plants that are away from cement plant have more chlorophyll than that of near to the industry. Control plants were found always with higher chlorophyll content in comparison to dusted plants. Up to 74.69% reduction was observed in studied plants. In general, pollution by the cement dust has caused adverse effects on the photosynthetic pigments.

  5. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1...Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  6. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

  7. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

  8. HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION:NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The WHO report of ambient air pollution, 2014, ranks Delhi as the most polluted city in the world. There is now an increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environ- mental pollution. Many epidemio- logical studies have confirmed a link between air pollution and disease such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, immature births, Parkinson’s diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, lung cancer and even depression. There is also an economic cost of high levels of air pollution in Delhi in terms of medical expenses lost wages and averting expenditure to prevent exposure. This paper makes a modest attempt to analyse the health and economic impact of a pollution in National Capital Territory.

  9. Evaluation of Indoor Air Pollution of Polyurethane Industries with Emphasis on Exposure with Methylene Diphenyle Diisocyanate (MDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diisocyanates are used as a initial chemical material in different factories such as surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders and sealants. In the polyurethane workplace there are aerosols of diisocyanates which has important to effect on workers. They can also be exposed to partial reaction of isocyanate-containing intermediates formed during polyurethane production. The main objective of this study pointed on assessment of exposure risk factors with MDI in the workplace, determination of MDI concentration and biomonitoring of MDA in polyurethane industries. NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 5522 sampling and analysis method was used by midget impinger contained dimethyl sulfoxide with tryptamine. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography was employed for air sampling analysis and GC (Gas Chromatography for urine analysis. Getting personality data was carried out by Health Surveillance Questionnaire and multiple linear regression models with ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis. The result of study showed that there was a diisocyanate pollution (MDI > 96.6?g/m³ and it have seen in the workers' urine. A new approach to assess isocyanate pollution in the workplace is risk factor assessment simultaneously with indoor air pollution and biological monitoring.

  10. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009 Using the LMDI I Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beidou Xi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N, between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity, structure effects (caused by change in economic structure and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector, using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I decomposition method. Results showed that: (1 the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2 the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3 the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4 the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction.

  11. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam totexture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  12. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  13. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  14. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

  15. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  16. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  17. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  18. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

  19. Pollution prevention and wastewater treatment in fish canning industries of Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristovão, Raquel; Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui

    2012-01-01

    The main environmental problems of fish canning industries are high water consumption and high organic matter, oil and grease and salt content in their wastewaters. This work aims to analyze the situation (water consumption, wastewater production, wastewater characterization, etc.) of different plants located north of Douro river, in Portugal, in order to propose various solutions to their problems. Thus, initially it was made an identification and implementation of prevent and control pollut...

  20. Full automatic system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the full automatic monitoring system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds is presented. Continual preparation of samples and their analysis ensure the instrument PROSPEKT and liquid chromatograph/diode array detector UV (LC/DAD UV) in 'on-line' connection. Function of the PROSPEKT instrument is described. This system works at levels ?g dm-3 - mg dm-3 and it is programmed for detecting of 18 compounds

  1. Protecting the Groundwater Environment of Tulkarem City of Palestine from Industrial and Domestic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Amjad Aliewi; Najwan Imseih; Deeb Abdulghafour

    2013-01-01

    Domestic sewage, solid waste, industrial activities, and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides are the main sources of pollution that threaten the main groundwater aquifers of Tulkarem City of Palestine which add to the problem of water scarcity already experienced by the Palestinians in the West Bank. These aquifers are a vital groundwater resource that provides high quality water. This paper presents the findings of the “Pro Aquifer” project funded by the EU...

  2. Experimental systems for the study of bacterial degradation of pollutants from the oil industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wardell, J; Brown, C

    1984-01-01

    The release of pollutants into the environment, either during normal operations or due to accidental discharges, has focussed attention on the fate and effects of xenobiotic compounds in the marine environment. This interest has been heightened by the development of the off-shore industry with the subsequent discharge of biocides from platforms. This paper describes the results obtained from investigations into the fate of biocides in the marine environment using continuous-culture techniques.

  3. A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Colin A. [Department of Geology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E3 (Canada)], E-mail: cacooke@ualberta.ca; Abbott, Mark B. [Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E3 (Canada); Section of Anthropology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA 15206 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from {sup 210}Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning {approx} 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins {approx} 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after {approx} 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution.

  4. A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from 210Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ? 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our 14C and 210Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ? 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ? 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, ttrace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 ?g g-1. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution

  5. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refossible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m2/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

  7. Ecopetrol, motor of the national industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to the production of parts in the city of Barrancabermeja, on the part of Ecopetrol, becoming the motor for the development of the small and medium companies (pyme) that now have the capacity to built pieces and supplies, that it requires the refinery and that before they were bought in the exterior. An analysis of this market is made in the national and international environment

  8. Assessment of water pollution in different bleaching based paper manufacturing and textile dyeing industries in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, K; Jeyapaul, S; Sharma, D C

    2007-11-01

    Paper industries using different raw materials such as hard wood, bamboo, baggase, rice-straw and waste papers and bleaching chemicals like chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, sulphite and oxygen were studied to estimate organic pollution load and Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX) per ton of production. The hard wood based paper industries generate higher Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads (105-182 kg t(-1)) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loads (32.0-72 kg t(-1)) compared to the agro and waste paper based industrial effluents. The bleaching sequences such as C-EP-H-H, C-E-H-H, C-E-Do-D1 and O-Do-EOP-D1 are adopted in the paper industries and the molecular elemental chlorine free bleaching sequence discharges low AOX in the effluent. The range of AOX concentration in the final effluent from the paper industries was 0.08-0.99 kg t(-1) of production. Water consumption was in the range of 100-130 m(3) t(-1) of paper production for wood based industries and 30-50 m(3) for the waste paper based industries. Paper machine effluents are partially recycled after treatment and pulp mill black liquor are subject to chemical recovery after evaporation to reduce the water consumption and the total pollution loads. Hypochlorite bleaching units of textile bleaching processes generate more AOX (17.2-18.3 mg l(-1)) and are consuming more water (45-80 l kg(-1)) whereas alkali peroxide bleaching hardly generates the AOX in the effluents and water consumption was also comparatively less (40 l kg(-1) of yarn/cloth). PMID:17294270

  9. Decomposition of birch leaves in heavily polluted industrial barrens: relative importance of leaf quality and site of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-07-01

    The decrease in litter decomposition rate in polluted habitats is well documented, but the factors that explain the observed variation in the magnitude of this pollution effect on litter decomposition remain poorly understood. We explored effects of environmental conditions and leaf quality on decomposition rate of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) leaves in a heavily polluted industrial barren near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk. Litter bags filled with leaves collected from two heavily polluted barren sites and from two control forest sites were buried at 2.5-cm depth and exposed for 2 and 4 years at each of these four sites. The relative mass loss of native leaves in the industrial barren during 2 years of exposure was reduced to 49 % of the loss observed in the unpolluted forest. We found a similar reduction in mass loss when leaves from control sites were exposed to polluted sites and when leaves from polluted sites were exposed to control sites. We conclude that the reduction in leaf litter decomposition in an industrial barren is caused by pollution-induced changes in both environmental conditions and leaf quality. This reduction is much smaller than expected, given the four-fold decrease in soil microbial activity and nearly complete extinction of saprophagous invertebrates in the polluted soil. We suggest that a longer snowless period and higher spring and summer temperatures at the barren sites have partially counterbalanced the adverse effects caused by the toxicity of metal pollutants. PMID:25663340

  10. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure of pollution sources, continuing ecological reconstruction works, already carried out on about 500 hectares of degraded land, unfortunately unsuitable for other uses-only for forestry fields, followed by vigorous action of soils decontamination, based on extensive interdisciplinary research. 

  11. Mercury isotope signatures in contaminated sediments as a tracer for local industrial pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Jonsson, Sofi; Björn, Erik; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) may cause characteristic isotope signatures of different mercury (Hg) sources and help understand transformation processes at contaminated sites. Here, we present Hg isotope data of sediments collected near industrial pollution sources in Sweden contaminated with elemental liquid Hg (mainly chlor-alkali industry) or phenyl-Hg (paper industry). The sediments exhibited a wide range of total Hg concentrations from 0.86 to 99 ?g g(-1), consisting dominantly of organically-bound Hg and smaller amounts of sulfide-bound Hg. The three phenyl-Hg sites showed very similar Hg isotope signatures (MDF ?(202)Hg: -0.2‰ to -0.5‰; MIF ?(199)Hg: -0.05‰ to -0.10‰). In contrast, the four sites contaminated with elemental Hg displayed much greater variations (?(202)Hg: -2.1‰ to 0.6‰; ?(199)Hg: -0.19‰ to 0.03‰) but with distinct ranges for the different sites. Sequential extractions revealed that sulfide-bound Hg was in some samples up to 1‰ heavier in ?(202)Hg than organically-bound Hg. The selectivity of the sequential extraction was tested on standard materials prepared with enriched Hg isotopes, which also allowed assessing isotope exchange between different Hg pools. Our results demonstrate that different industrial pollution sources can be distinguished on the basis of Hg isotope signatures, which may additionally record fractionation processes between different Hg pools in the sediments. PMID:25437501

  12. Arsenic pollution at the industrial site of Reppel-Bocholt (north Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, V; Van Herreweghe, S; Swennen, R; Ottenburgs, R; Deckers, J

    2002-08-01

    An industrial site, polluted with As and heavy metals, was investigated by combining chemical (sequential extractions and pHstat leaching tests), physical and mineralogical characterization of soil samples and slag fragments, and by the analysis of soil porewater aimed at assessing the distribution, speciation and mobility of heavy metals and As. On the site itself, arsenic concentrations up to 3.6% in surficial soil samples and up to 22% in slag fragments were found, together with elevated concentrations (percentage level) of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn and Pb. High concentrations of arsenic (up to 38,000 microg/l) and heavy metals (up to 1700 microg/l Cu and 4700 microg/l Zn) were also found in the in situ sampled soil porewater, highlighting the considerable availability of As, Zn and Cu for uptake by plants and leaching to the ground water. Sequential extractions also indicated a high availability of arsenic and copper in most samples and slag fragments of the industrial site, although poorly reactive phases were encountered as well. pHstat leaching tests confirmed that the present leaching of contaminants is alarming. Moreover, soil acidification will enhance the leaching of contaminants, emphasizing that remediation of the industrial site is urgent. Small scale variability of total metal concentrations and metal speciation, both in the horizontal and vertical direction, and the occurrence of a camouflage layer underline the importance of elaborate sampling for pollution assessment on an industrial site. PMID:12186289

  13. Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation: A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Nelliyat, Prakash

    2006-01-01

    Industrial disposal of effluents on land and the subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands – is a relatively new area of research. The environmental and socioeconomic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domestic sewage based irrigation practices, at least for a developing country like India. The disposal of effluents on land has become a regular practice for some industries. Industries located in Mettupalaya...

  14. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  15. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

  17. Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 ? g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 ? g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. ?(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region. PMID:23484131

  18. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copºa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 -1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery.Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reductionof industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health andagriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlatedwith noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentrationlevel in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure ofpollution sources, continuing ecological reconstruction works, already carried out on about 500 hectares of degraded land, unfortunately unsuitable for other uses-only for forestry fields, followed by vigorous action of soils decontamination, based on extensive interdisciplinary research.

  19. Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances - overview and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) has operated since 1973. The objectives of the National Plan are based on Australia's obligations as a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 and a responsibility to protect natural and artificial (man made) environments from the adverse effects of oil pollution and minimise those effects where protection is not possible. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is the managing agency of the National Plan, working together with the States and Northern Territory governments, other Commonwealth agencies, ports, and the shipping, oil and exploration industries, to maximise Australia's marine pollution response capability. The 1990s have been a period of significant change for oil spill response arrangements in Australia. The National Plan was extended in 1998 to cover chemical spills and is currently in the process of implementing the oil spill response incident control systems (OSRICS). A fixed wing aerial dispersant spraying capability was implemented in 1996 and a research and development program has been put in place. The development of a computer-based National Oil Spill Response Atlas was a major project completed during 1999. (Author)

  20. Assimilative Capacity Analysis of Air Pollutants over the Dawai Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Thepanondh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The assimilative capacity of Dawai industrial complex, located in Mynamar has been evaluated by the AERMOD air dispersion model. Maximum emission loadings of PM-10, SO2 and NO2 are calculated and presented in the unit of amount per unit of time as well as amount per area per unit of time. Assimilative capacity concentration is determined by subtract the 90% of air pollution standard with the exiting measured air concentration in the study area. Then the maximum loading is calculated using those assimilative capacity values. It is found that assimilative capacity of PM-10, SO2 and NO2 in this area are0.0025, 0.0031 and 0.0075 kg/ha/day, respectively. By considering the modeled results of maximum ground level concentration, it is found that dispersions of air pollutants in this study are greatly affected by complex topographical characteristic of the area.

  1. Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and setive non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

  2. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

  3. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY...following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting...

  4. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  5. Trace metal content in airborne particulate matter measured at a polluted industrial site in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many epidemiological studies have implicated the association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse human health effects, especially metal content as a possible harmful component of PM. Twenty four-hour samples of PM10 were collected on cellulose filters at a polluted industrial monitoring site for one month and analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The method was used to quantify airborne concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn. The results were compared with Croatian and European legislation. (author)

  6. Analysis of nickel industrial wastes by nuclear techniques and its pollution assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of some heavy metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in nickel industrial wastes from Moa, northeastern Cuba, is determined. The analysis was performed by External Standard method of ED-XRF, using 238Pu (1.11 GBq) excitation source and laterite certified reference material as standards. The capability of INAA using neutrons from a Pu-Be (107 n/s) source and Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC is studied. The determined concentration values for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn shows a different pollution degree according to Dutch regulations and US NOAA guidelines. (Author)

  7. National implementation plan on reduction and elimination of persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Stockholm Convention' is to protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Currently the Convention lists twelve POPs. They have similar physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. They possess toxic properties, resist degradation, bio accumulate and are transported, through air, water and migratory species, across international boundaries and deposited far from their place of release, where they accumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To reach its objectives, the Convention groups POPs into three categories. Annex A lists those intentionally produced chemicals, whose production, use, import and export have to be eliminated. They are, on the one hand, organo chlorine pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, Dieldrin, Endrin, Hexachlorobenze, Heptachlor, Mirex, Toxaphene) and industrial chemicals (PCBs) on the other. Annex B of the Convention lists those chemicals, whose production, import, export and use are allowed but restricted. Currently only DDT is listed in Annex B. Annex C to the Convention details those chemicals which are formed and released unintentionally from anthropogenic sources. They are Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and di benzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Their releases should continuously be reduced, and where feasible, with the goal of their ultimate elimination. The Convention also aims to increase public awareness on POPs and on the rease public awareness on POPs and on the activities related to POPs. It also requests parties to develop a National Implementation Plan, which describes what measures the party will take, how much time and financial support would be required to meet the obligations of this treaty. Macedonia signed the Stockholm Convention on 23rd May 2001, and ratified it on March 19th 2004. With the fund from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and with the assistance of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning prepared the first NIP for Macedonia. The preparation took two years and the National POPs Office coordinated all the activities. The first part of this document summarizes the current status in Macedonia with regards to POPs. This is the baseline inventory. The second part of the NIP details all the actions which need to be undertaken in order to meet all the obligations of the Convention. (Original)

  8. Evaluation of Economic Development and Industrial Pollution in Chongqing in Recent Years Based on EKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Cun-dong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Chongqing has made rapid economic development. But it also faces an enormous pressure in energy-saving and carbon emission reduction especially in the industrial fields. This paper constructs the models of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC with time series data of Chongqing from 1995 to 2006. The basic data include the industrial waste discharge per unit GDP, industrial waste discharge per capita GDP and corresponding environmental data. The relationship between typical environmental indexes and increase of GDP is analyzed. The results show that the industrial waste discharge per unit GDP displays general downward trend, which indicates the technological progress and readjustment of industrial structure have yielded significant environmental benefit. Meanwhile, on the whole the relationship of economic development and environmental pollution in recent years donot conform with the obvious characteristics of EKC. The fitting EKC curves of all environmental indexes have no tuming point. So the efficient environmental policy and huge environmental investment of Chongqing have to make the economic and environment develop sustainable and healthily.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  10. 77 FR 50038 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...surrounded by several industrial facilities and property...monitoring wells); Industrial Protection Program...used for commercial or industrial use as long as designated, and long term engineering controls are employed...groundwater quality trends from the NAPL...

  11. A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

  12. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  13. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. PMID:25063882

  14. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Risk Assessment in Shenyang Industrial District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  15. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in thnsights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  16. Heavy metal pollutants released from abu-zaabal and 10 th of ramadan industrial regions in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    determination of some heavy metal pollutants (Cd,Co,Cr,Pb,Ni) released from selected industrial regions namely, Abu Zaabal-and the 10th of Ramadan was carried out . water, soil and plant samples were periodically collected from the selected areas during a period of one year. the samples were treated according to the standard operation procedure (SOP), digested and analyzed for the selected elements using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. the concentration of the studied heavy metal pollutants ws evaluated in both regions . the results showed that the levels of heavy metal pollutants released from Abu Zaabal region, in all collected samples , are higher than those released from the 10 th of Ramadan city except Cr in wastewater samples collected from the 10th of Ramadan city, which was two folds higher than that of Abu Zaabal region. this is due to construction of the new industrial cities according to the regulations and environmental laws. also ,the handling of the released pollutants at the 10th of Ramadan region is easier than that at Abu Zaabal region due to the governmental policy regarding collection of the different types of industrial wastes at the selected ares. the overall obtained results indicated that, although there are a lot of progresses regarding the handling of the released heavy metal pollutants in the 10th of Ramadan region, the requirements for more efforts to overcome the problem of indure efforts to overcome the problem of industrial pollutants at this region are still essential

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  18. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ?240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history. PMID:25675506

  19. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  20. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area. PMID:25503327

  1. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration positively correlated with distance from the smelter and the content of carbon and nitrogen and negatively correlated with the content of available nickel and copper in the soils. Remediation of technogenic barrens promoted intensification of soil biological activity. At the same time, the willow planting along with grass seeding into the new constructed fertile soil layer was much more effective for activation of soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration than the planting into the limed and fertilized polluted soils (chemo-phytostabilization). PMID:25898538

  2. Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winnersder themselves winners

  3. Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roma?n-sa?nchez, I. M.; Irene Carra

    2013-01-01

    Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failu...

  4. Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Román-Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failure.

  5. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Shehu; Alfred Mullai; Seit Shallari

    2013-01-01

    Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area u...

  6. Twentieth century shocks, trends and cycles in industrialized nations

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, H.K. van

    2004-01-01

    Using annual data on real Gross Domestic Product per capita of seventeen industrialized nations in the twentieth century the empirical relevance of shocks, trends and cycles is investigated. A class of neural network models is specified as an extension of the class of vector autoregressive models in order to capture complex data patterns for different countries and subperiods. Empirical evidence indicates nonlinear positive trends in the levels of real GDP per capita, time varying growth rat...

  7. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas. PMID:22324147

  8. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  9. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

  11. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility

  16. Nevada National Security Site Industrial Sites Project Closeout - 12498

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is responsible for environmental restoration (ER) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This includes remediation at Industrial Sites where past nuclear testing activities and activities that supported nuclear testing may have or are known to have resulted in the release of contaminants into the environment. Industrial Sites at the NNSS have included nuclear facilities that supported the nuclear rocket/missile development programs, gas stations, landfills, spill sites, ordnance sites, and numerous other waste disposal and release sites. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities neared completion at the end of fiscal year 2011 while other activities required under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and part of the same NNSS ER Project are forecasted to extend to 2027 or beyond. With the majority of Industrial Sites corrective action units (CAUs) completed (more than 250 CAUs and over 1,800 corrective action sites), it was determined that an activity closeout process should be implemented to ensure that the work completed over the past 15 years is well documented in a comprehensive and concise summary. While the process used to close each individual CAU is described in approved documents, no single document describes in summary fashion the work completed to close the many individual Industrial Sites. The activity closeout process will be used to develop an Industrial Sites closeout document that describes these years of work. This document will summarize the number of Industrial Sites closed under the FFACO and provide general descriptions of projects, contaminants removed, and sites closed in place with corresponding Use Restrictions. Other pertinent information related to Industrial Sites work such as the project history, closure decisions, historical declarations, remediation strategies, and final CAU status will be included in the closeout document, along with a table listing each CAU and corresponding corrective action sites within each CAU. Using this process of conducting the activity closeout and developing a closeout document may prove useful for other ER projects within the DOE complex in describing how a long period of ER can be summarized in a single document. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities were completed over the span of 15 years and involved the investigation, cleanup or Use Restriction, and closure of more than 260 CAUs and over 1,800 sites. These activities will conclude in FY 2012 (with the exception of one CAU). In order to capture the work completed over this length of time and document decisions made during the activities, a closeout effort was initiated. The closeout will review the work conducted during the Industrial Sites activities and produce a single document that summarizes Industrial Sites activities. This closeout is being conducted at an interim stage in the overall NNSA/NSO ER Project since the Soils and UGTA activities will continue for a number of years, but the completion of the Industrial Sites project warrants conducting a closeout now while personnel are available and information is still current. The process followed by NNSA/NSO in conducing project closeout for the Industrial Sites portion of the ER program may prove useful within the DOE complex in demonstrating how a large ER project can be summarized. (authors)

  17. Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

  18. 75 FR 57271 - Creating an Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A National Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ...Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A National Vision and Call to...Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A National Vision and Call...these activities will in no way influence any subsequent awards made...

  19. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  20. Impact of industrial pollution on recent dinoflagellate cysts in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hilal; Yürür, Emine Erdem; Uzar, Serdar; Küçüksezgin, Filiz

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of dinoflagellate cysts was studied to understand the impact of industrial pollution on the surface sediment of Izmir Bay, Turkey. Forty two dinoflagellate cyst morphotypes belonging to 12 genera were identified and qualified at 12 sampling points. The cyst of Gymnodinium nolleri dominated the bay and had the highest abundance in most of the stations, following Spiniferites bulloideus and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The highest cyst concentration was recorded in the inner part of the bay. Cyst concentration ranged between 384 and 9944cystg(-1) dry weight of sediment in the sampling area. Sediment metal concentrations were determined. Heavy metal levels in Izmir Inner Bay were higher than the Middle and Outer Bay. L. machaerophorum, Dubridinium caperatum and Polykrikos kofoidii showed significant positive correlation with some metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) and organic carbon content. However, there was no significant correlation between dinoflagellate cyst abundance and sediment type. PMID:25817312

  1. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  2. Air pollution studies by plants growing near some industrial objects of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves and seeds of many popular kinds of plants in Uzbekistan was used to study atmospheric pollution near such industrial objects as Tadjik aluminum factory (TadAF), Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent institute of nuclear physics (INP). Leaves of fruit plants: vineyard, tomato and apple, apricot, quince, peach, persimmon, pomegranate, mulberry trees as well as leaves of technical crops: cotton, corn, mint and clover, which grow near above specified objects and also seeds of water-melon, tomato, aubergine, bulgarian pepper, pumpkin, grapes, cherry and persimmon from areas near aluminum factory were sampled. The purpose of choice of so much investigated vegetation was to select plants which can be used as biomonitors and which best accumulate in themselves the most harmful pollution from soil and air in order to subsequent destruction of these collector plants will be made. Investigations were conducted by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical methods. Tashkent State Agrarian University has used the alternative methods. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant leaves and seeds have been developed. (author)

  3. Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order t...

  4. Assessment of responsibility for pollution from PM10 and Sulfur dioxide. Application to an industrial area on the northeastern coast of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Polo, Gladys; Cremades Oliver, Lázaro Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to determine the origin of industrial emissions in order to attribute responsibility to the industries that pollute nearby towns. The methodology has been applied to the industrial area on the northeastern coast of Venezuela. This area is close to six densely populated towns. The study also gives the estimated PM10 and SO2 levels in the towns adjacent to 11 industries, through modeling the dispersion of air pollutants from stationary sources. The mod...

  5. On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhen Fan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

  6. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Amp Xe Ne Sarter, H. Amp Xe L.; Morgane Stempfelet; Amandine Cochet; Marie-Laure Bidondo; Laurence Pascal; Mathilde Pascal; Amp Xe Ne Wagner, V. Amp Xe R.

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majori...

  7. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Marti?

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inici?...

  8. Hygiene definition of a gamma - background, in ground by pollution solid industrial oil waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of protection environments from pollution by oil waste is actual in many sphere of science, including and hygiene. During industrial production of oil, its transportation, storage and processing objects of an environment (air, ground, water and etc.) both crude oil, and its different fractions (Kazimov M.A., and the co- author, 2000; Ivanov A.V. and co-author, 2001; Shor E.L., Hurshudov A.G.,2000; Zalesov S.V. and co - author,2000).As it is visible, despite of the rather vast literature about reglamentization pollution of environments oil by maximum deflections, about influencing some solid waste of oil, specially in aspect of hygiene, on an ecology is studied unsufficiently. Among these waste of oil the special place takes slime. The slime is a withdrawal, which one during industrial crude oil separates first of all on an incipient state, and on final, and consists of rather high-gravity chemical agents, mechanical sediment and small amount with groundwaters. At storage of hundreds tons preliminary clearing of oil in special tanks the slime will be derivated in a great many. During many years, on refineries and tanks of republic the accumulated slime without surveillance was rejected on nearly sites above-stated objects and on around of city. It is known, that the radioactive members (uranium - 238, radium-226, thorium- 232 and ets.) as both other stable member and their natural radionuclides. (potassium- 40, rubidium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samadium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samarium -147 and ets) (Kazimov M.A., Samedov Sh. Kh., 2001). It is necessary to take into account, that in due course, sojourning in ground, changes which are included in its structure metals and metalloids will derivate different mineral connections the set of radioactive matters, is transformed into more than 30 different members (polonium -218, bismuth - 214, thallium - 218, iodine - 131, strontium - 89, zirconium - 95, niobium - 95 and ets). The present research was conducted on the basis of former, dismantle of shop OOGE - of Surakhani region on the first of petroleum refining (desalting and dehydration) and sites around of oil of the tanks (pollution by oil the slime) fathomed a level a gamma of a background and is compared to the hygienic standards. The researches were conducted both on sites rather contaminated by slime, and on sites contaminated by slime almost completely unmixed from 10-15 of limitation of ground. In a course research was clarified, that on sites fresh pollution oil by slime natural exceeds a background a gamma - irradiation at the altitude 0,5 m from a surface of ground (8-15 micro R/hours) in 3,5-4,5 times and reaches an abnormal background (60 - 120 micro R/hours) and from time to time reaches a level of radiological contamination (> 120 micro R/hours) On sites 10-15 years limitations of pollution oil by slime a level a gamma - background exceeds a natural background in 1,5-2,0 times, reaches 25-30 micro R/hours. As it is visible in second matter a level of a gamma of a background below, but in too time the radionuclides, creating it completely displaced with ground and occur rather deeper and consequently it is possible to suspect about migration these impurity through a vegetative cover and groundwaters. It is in case of the former clearing from oil of slime the contaminated sites is considerably more lighter, than in the second case. Extending above-stated, it is possible to reach such concluding that oil the slime which has accumulated on oil producing, objects, and also in oil tanks, cleaning, should be expose the analyses on an elemental composition and radioactivity and in case of indispensable is neutralized in places, specially retracted for it

  9. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  10. Chlorophyll and pheophytin content in needles of different age of trees growing under conditions of chronic industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gowin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll and pheophytin content was determined by means of Vernon method (Vernon, 1960 in needles of different age. Needles of Pinus strobus L., Pinus nigra Arnd., Pinus silvestris L., and Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco growing under conditions of chronic industrial pollution as well as under unpolluted conditions were examined. High pheophytin content was found in needles of trees growing under the conditions of chronic pollution. The youngest needles always showed the highest pheophytin content' as related to Chlorophyll content. The examined species showed different degree of Chlorophyll decomposition under the influence of polluted environment. Trees growing under control environment showed small and similar amounts of pheophytin in needles of different age. Pheophytin content does not seem to be a convenient indicator to test the effect of pollution before visual symptoms occur, since the method is very labourious and plant material very variable.

  11. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  12. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms

  13. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Díaz, C.; Ureña-Nuñez, F.; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ , that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  14. Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification

  15. 76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous...Automobiles and Light- Duty Trucks...Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. (12) Ventura County Air Pollution Control District....

  16. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT –THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DÂMBOVI?A COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat, knows no frontiers, which makes it absolutely necessary to unite our efforts and energies in order to assure the maintenance within normal limits of the ecological balance, both for the present and for future generations. Environmental protection is a relatively recent notion, the bad consequences on certain factors considered “destructive agents” (acid rains, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, escape gases, chemical fertilizers based on nitrogen, sulphur used in agriculture, pesticides, insecticides, insecto-fungicides, industrial waste, non-recyclable wrappers have led to major environmental misbalances, which triggered the prompt reaction of most of the world’s states. The complexity of environmental factors that influence and determine environmental balance justifies the need and opportunity of a environmental management system, organized as a component of the global system of public and private.

  17. 76 FR 60777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...has shown that the release poses no significant threat to public health or the environment and, therefore...electronic, lithographic, pigment, plastic, rubber and general chemical industries. Sodyeco Inc. purchased the plant from...

  18. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (?-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  19. Recommended integrated monitoring system for pollutants on US national parks designated as biosphere reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere reserves and that can produce data that are comparable between reserves. This report discusses the design of a pollutant monitoring system that has been successfully used in the United States and provides detailed instructions for its application and use. Mathematical models were applied to help determine the optimum monitoring system design. The modeling technique is briefly described, and results are shown using lead as an example. Analytical procedures were chosen for sample analyses because of their ability to detect suspected pollutants and for their cost effectiveness. Multielemental analytical techniques were used whenever possible, and multiorganic analytical techniques were used when available. Samples of air, water, soil, vegetation, and forest litter were collected. The sampling design is discussed, including the layout of sampling blocks, subsampling, sample handling, and sample preservation. Detailed instructions are provided for obtaining samples and operating the necessary equipment. Finally, the maintenance of field log books and the timing of sample collections are discussed, and conclusions regarding the use of an integrated pollutant monitoring system for biosphere reserves are presented. 27 referencephere reserves are presented. 27 references, 25 figures

  20. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Shehu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

  1. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  2. Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary intakes of essential and toxic trace elements in various groups of the population consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollutants will be assessed. Industries with clear-cut marker elemental pollutants and which have been in operation for many years are selected. For the first year of study, the tin and lead smelting industry in Jos, Plateau state of Nigeria will be the focus. The common food products (and total diets) that are grown within the locality will be surveyed, sampled and analysed for the marker elemental pollutants. Other essential trace elements which could influence the absorption and metabolism of the marker pollutants will also be studied. Trace element analysis will be carried out mainly by the IAEA-donated TR-XRF system in our laboratory. Afterwards, food frequency questionnaires will be administered to 30 subjects each from 16 sub-groups of the population and their dietary intakes of the various elements of interest will be assessed. The sub-groups are chosen to take care of sociological differences in feeding habits as well as possible variation in the biological tolerance of toxic trace elements. For 5 subjects from each group, blood and headhair samples will be collected and analysed for the elements of interest. Previously obtained results from preliminary studies are presented. (author)

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulfatai JIMOH; Mohammed ALHASSAN

    2006-01-01

    This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN), flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predic...

  4. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

  5. Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Hediat M.H.; M. M. Al-Rumaih; Al-Dosary, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollu...

  6. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  7. Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

  8. Biomonitoring the spatial and historical variations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in an industrial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Falay, Ezgi Ozgunerge; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2015-02-17

    Several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in needle, branch, bark, and tree ring samples in pine samples collected at 27 sites (21 industrial, 6 background) in Aliaga industrial region in Turkey. Soil, litter, and air samples were also collected to investigate the relationships between the air and soil, litter, and tree components. Concentrations decreased with distance from the sources and the lowest ones were measured at background sites. The spatial distribution of POPs indicated that the major sources in the region are the iron-steel, ship-breaking, petrochemical plants and the petroleum refinery. Significant correlations between the air concentrations and, soil, litter, and tree components indicated the interaction of these compartments with air. Observed increasing trends of POPs in the tree-ring samples were representative for the variations in anthropogenic emissions and resulting atmospheric concentrations in Aliaga region. These results indicated that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial variations while tree rings could be used to investigate the historical trends of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP amounts (mg/ha) stored in different tree components, litter, and soil were also inventoried. Among the tree components, generally, the highest amounts were stored in the stem followed by needles. For the overall inventory, the highest amounts were stored in soil for PCNs, PBDEs, and PCBs while highest PAH amounts were stored in trees, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is also an important reservoir for POPs. PMID:25629885

  9. 77 FR 67777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ...changed its name to Waste Management of Michigan...vegetable pickling waste, apple pulp, digester...spent extracts, brine, the dewatering of liquid industrial wastes, including aluminum...disposal of all liquid waste at the Site in 1980...to the expanded municipal water supply line by...

  10. 77 FR 21870 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...300, which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances...the NPL: Site Background and History The A & F Material Reclaiming...processed waste materials such as oil, sludge, caustics, and sulfuric acid into fuel oil and fire retardant...

  11. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca2+, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

  12. Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. Also the topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the north-west contribute to the influence of the industries located in the north onto this region. The region selected in this work includes a oil-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centred in a oil powered station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hung. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For a 9 month period and every three months, one transplant of each set was collected. We have no knowledge of any other study on differentiation elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata where the component wind direction is taken into account. Some information on local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The transplants were analysed by INAA. Contents on Cl, Na, Ca, V and Zn are mapped and discussed. (author)

  13. Pollutant Monitoring of a Drainage Canal Receiving Industrial and Agricultural Wastewater Incukurova Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Zaimoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The TD-7 drainage channel has been exposed to wastewater discharges of different characteristics from multiple sources, due to industrial establishments and dense settlement in the vicinity. In this study, seasonal changes of the characterization of the water carried by the channel, which is also used for agricultural irrigation purposes, was examined for biological, physical and chemical characteristics in water samples, taken from five selected observation points along the channel. The observation points were decided, so as to demonstrate characteristic changes in water and sludge quality, reflecting the effects of wastewater discharge points and hydraulic profile. According to the result of monthly analyses performed on water of the drainage channel, maximum and minimum values of quality and pollution parameters were; suspended solids (SS, 30-210 mg L-1; electrical conductivity (EC, 734-1937 ?S; 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 97-305 mg L-1; chemical oxygen demand (COD, 174-429 mg L-1; total coliform, 250- >1100 EMS mL-1. Accumulations in the sediments were also observed for some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, sampled from the same observation points. The sets of analysis demonstrated that, with the present wastewater discharges the water drawn from the TD-7 drainage channel cannot be used for agricultural purposes according to existing regulations.

  14. Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

  15. Atmospheric Pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a biomonitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A., Martínez-Carrillo; C., Solís; E., Andrade; R.I., Beltrán-Hernández; K., Isaac-Olivé; C.A., Lucho-Constantino; M.C., López Reyes; L.C., Longoria.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio aborda la aplicación de técnicas nucleares para analizar elementos traza en el monitor biológico Tillandsia usneoides (heno). El uso de monitores biológicos proporciona una alternativa ventajosa en el muestreo de material particulado en estudios de contaminación del aire, ya que no requ [...] iere dispositivos especiales de muestreo y el tiempo de monitoreo puede ser tan largo como se desee. T. usneoides que crece en todo el país, se utilizo para estudiar la calidad del aire del corredor Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) en el estado de Hidalgo. Esta área es considerada zona crítica debido a la alta concentración de contaminantes atmosféricos. Las plantas fueron trasplantadas desde un entorno limpio a cuatro sitios en el corredor de TVA y expuestas durante 12 semanas de febrero a abril de 2008. La acumulación de elementos traza en plantas sin lavar y secas se determino por PIXE y NAA. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diferencias en la distribución de elementos traza entre los sitios del corredor TVA y muestran que el monitoreo con T. usneoides permite establecer una primera aproximación de fuentes de contaminantes atmosféricos. Abstract in english This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sam [...] pling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout México, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central México. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by Particle induced X ray Emission PIXE and Neutron Activa-tion Analysis (NAA). Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor.

  16. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increases in surface ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter (?2.5 ?m} aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5 are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860 times and the global present-day (2000 premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4 concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year have increased by 8 ± 0.16 ?g m?3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS, climate (CLIM and CH4 concentrations (TCH4. EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5(O3 to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 ?g m?3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv, +0.4 ± 0.17 ?g m?3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv, and ?0.02 ± 0.01 ?g m?3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv, respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0–2.5 million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592 thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3, respectively. However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

  17. Air Pollution and 'Dirty' Industries. How and Why Does the Composition of Manufacturing Output Change with Economic Development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the impact on air pollution of changes in the composition of manufacturing output in developed and developing countries. Pollution emissions from manufacturing output are estimated in a manner which holds constant the effect of technology and regulations allowing the impact of compositional changes alone on pollution to be estimated. The paper has three main findings; (1) the inverted-U estimated between per capita income and the pollution intensity of GDP arises due to both the composition of manufacturing becoming cleaner and the share of manufacturing output in GDP falling. Compositional changes alone are not responsible for the inverted-U between per capita income and per capita emissions; (2) changes to the composition of manufacturing output are consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis, however there is clear evidence that rising per capita incomes are associated with a failing income elasticity of demand for 'dirty' products. This fact may explain the compositional changes that occur with development; (3) in addition to the income elasticity effect, the analysis suggests that land prices and to a lesser extent the prices of labour and capital, determine the proportion of dirty industry within a country's manufacturing sector. 27 refs

  18. 78 FR 24380 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...Program; Agricultural Marketing Service; U.S...National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...Title XI of the Food, Conservation...sheep and goat industries by strengthening...the production and marketing of sheep,...

  19. Heavy metal pollution status of sediment and liquid wastes from fertilizer industries, Hattar, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment and liquid waste samples of selected fertilizer industries were analyzed by flame atomic absorption method by employing the wet oxidation method. Concentrations of Cr, Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Mg and Pb were measured. Results obtained revealed that the concentrations of the most metals were higher than those laid down by the national environmental quality standards. Statistical parameters such as standard deviation, average concentration, t-value and correlation coefficients were used to investigating the distribution and correlaton pattern of metals in sediments and liquid wastes. For sediment and liquid wastes the measurements obtained showed the t-values were significant for Cr, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn and Pb, while for Cu and Mg were non-significant. The sediment Vs. sediment showed a strong positive correlation between Cu-Co (r=0.777). For the liquid waste Vs. liquid waste system a strong positive corrlation was found for Pb-Mn (r=0.810). (author)

  20. 77 FR 66783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...Substances Pollution Contingency...AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Substances Pollution Contingency...such as paper copies and...such as paper copies and...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  1. 78 FR 21938 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ...discharge of a pollutant''). This permit...such waters. Non-military, non-recreational...discharge of any pollutant, or combination of pollutants, notwithstanding...date when the regulated community was...and those other...

  2. The Polluter Pays Principle under WTO law: The case of national energy policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.; Boehm, F.; Brohm, R.; Droege, S.; Trabold, H.

    2003-07-01

    This study addresses the compatibility of the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) with obligations under world trade law as administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO). In particular we look at the instruments of German domestic and international energy policy, analysing the relationship between those instruments, the PPP and WTO rules. The main finding is that German national environmental policy instruments for the implementation of the PPP generally do not infringe upon WTO rules if properly designed and applied. In particular, German energy laws, which aim at reducing greenhouse gases, are compatible with international trade law. Command and control policies as well as labels do not discriminate against foreign suppliers. Aspects of possible incompatibility of national energy policy measures with specific WTO rules are discussed. (orig./CB)

  3. Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  5. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

  6. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  7. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility FEL industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, a $600 million US Department of Energy national laboratory, serves basic science by carrying out a primary mission of nuclear and particle physics research. A technologically related secondary mission now also exists for Jefferson Lab: applied research to develop superconducting radio-frequency (SRF)-based free-electron lasers as cost-effective new manufacturing capabilities for industry. A number of high-technology corporations and research universities, believing in the potential of SRF-driven FELs to overcome the constraints of cost, capacity, wavelength, and pulse-length, have formed the Laser Processing Consortium, and have joined with Jefferson Lab to develop the needed laser technology. Consortium members plan a range of industrial applications. In the area of polymer surface processing, they intend to develop amorphization to enhance adhesion, fabric surface texturing, enhanced food packaging, and induced surface conductivity. In micromachining, applications are ultrahigh-density CD-ROM technology, surface texturing; micro-optical components, and Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS). In metal surface processing proposed applications are laser glazing for corrosion resistance and adhesion pre-treatments. In electronic materials processing, the authors will investigate large-area processing (flat-panel displays) and a laser-based icluster tool for combined deposition, etching, and in situ diagnostics. Theion, etching, and in situ diagnostics. The potential commercial value of the technology is significant, impacting several multibillion dollar markets. Moreover, significant additional applications exist in basic and applied research. The FEL is laid out in a racetrack configuration to utilize energy recovery of the spent electron beam. The electrons are produced in a 350 kV DC photocathode gun and accelerated to 10 MeV in a superconducting accelerating unit with 1 meter of active length. The electrons are then accelerated in an SRF cryomodule up to an energy of 57 MeV. In order to minimize emittance-growth effects and to accelerate the commissioning process, the FEL is placed at the exit of the linac. The electron beam is deflected around two cavity mirrors in two magnetica chicanes with a path-length dispersion (M56) of 30 cm. After the FEL, the beam can be recirculated for energy recovery and dumped at the injection energy of 10 MeV. The recirculation loop is based on the isochronous achromat used in the MIT Bates accelerator but designed with an energy acceptance of 6%. They estimate that the power output at 3 ?m should be 980 W with a small signal gain of 46%. This paper will explore the technical and economic justification of the design and present the commissioning progress to date

  8. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National...discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES...ADDRESSES: Hilton Riverside Hotel, Two Poydras Street, Belle...submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO)...

  9. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  10. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  11. air pollution: temporal and spatial distribution of delta /sup 13/C in plants of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of sigma-/sup 13/C in Eucalyptus (Safeda) plants from Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate and its surroundings. The leaves of the Eucalyptus plants were collected from four locations of the Gadoon Amazai area at regular intervals during January 1993 to June 1996. The greenish, old and whole leaf samples were air dried, homogeneously ground (40 mesh) and converted into CO/sub 2/ for SIGMA-13 analysis on isotope ratio mass spectrometer. /sup 13/C depletion in the plant leaves is more in industrial estate than its surroundings. This can be attributed to the depletion of /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased 13 of the ambient air CO/sub 2/ in the industrial area. These, in turn, influenced the plant /sup 13/C during photosynthesis. Temporal variation shows that CO/sub 2/ pollution is increasing in industrial zone with time. Furthermore, the pollution is less in plains side than the mountain side, which is proved by the Sigma-/sup 13/C results of the surroundings. (author)

  12. La prevención de la contaminación industrial como asignatura para la formación ambiental universitaria / Prevention of industrial pollution as a course for environmental development at university level

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa, Reyes Gil; Andrea, De Souza; Jan, Petersen.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Es generalmente aceptado que la actividad industrial es la principal responsable de las emisiones atmosféricas, la producción de los desechos peligrosos, la generación de efluentes líquidos, así como de producir contaminación térmica y sónica. Siendo el hombre el principal modificador de su [...] entorno, es necesario generar en él una actitud responsable respecto al tema de la contaminación. El curso “Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial”, asignatura electiva enmarcada en los programas de estudio de las diferentes carreras de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, busca suministrar a los futuros profesionales, las herramientas para entender y generar cambios en las políticas industriales de sus futuros centros de trabajo en relación con el ambiente. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar el curso “Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial” como una propuesta a nivel universitario que conduce a la formación y sensibilización del futuro profesional en el problema de contaminación generado por los procesos industriales de los cuales formará parte en su futuro laboral. Incluye los principales objetivos que se pretenden obtener con este curso, los contenidos programáticos incluidos, así como las estrategias enseñanza-aprendizaje y de evaluación que se aplican. De igual modo, se presentan dos casos de estudio desarrollados por dos participantes del curso en su última edición del período abril-julio-2005. Abstract in english Abstract It is generally accepted that the industrial activity is the main responsible for atmospheric emissions, production of dangerous wastes, generation of liquid effluents, as well as to produce thermal and sonic pollution. Man is the principal modifier of his environment, and it is necessary t [...] o generate a responsible attitude with respect to the environment. The course “Prevention of Industrial Pollution”, an elective course in the curricula of various programs of Universidad Simón Bolívar, seeks to offer to the future professionals the tools to understand and generate changes in the environmental policies of their future work centers in connection with the environment. The objective of this paper is to present the course “Prevention of Industrial Pollution” as a proposal at university level to lead to the development and self-consciousness regarding the contamination problem generated by the industrial processes that he will encounter in his professional future. It includes the main objectives that are intended to cover in this course, including the program contents, as well as the teaching-learning and assessment strategies that are applied. Also included are two case studies by two participants in the last issue of the course for the term April-July, 2005.

  13. [Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil. PMID:24720220

  14. Influence of industry on pollution of the environment and human population with natural radionuclides and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of fallout of 226Ra depending on the distance from industrial emission sources has been evaluated. Contamination of soil with natural radionuclides in industrial and rural regions of Poland has been compared with the concentration of radionuclides in ash of aerophytic plants. An increase of airborne pollutants in precipitation in Southern Poland has been compared with an increase of the concentration of pollutants in pine trees. Samples of human bones from Southern Poland have been checked for contents of lead. It has been found that in 20th century concentration of lead decreased to a level not much higher than natural. The level of 226Ra in Polish population had been decreasing during the last 100 years. This points to the conclusion that human skeleton is well protected as the level of radionuclides was not related to the level of environmental pollution. The concentration of 226Ra in air is steadily increasing and an upward transport leads to its wide distribution. (E.G.M.)

  15. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT –THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DÂMBOVI?A COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?; Ovidiu Mur?rescu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat), knows no frontiers, which makes it ...

  16. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  18. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Henry W.; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb S...

  19. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Frances C.

    2009-01-01

    Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot) also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with miti...

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2011-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

  1. Stratigraphic and geochemical evidence for industrial pollutants in alpine and subalpine soils of the Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stratigraphic and geochemical study of alpine soils, which formed in later Pleistocene (late glacial) and Neoglacial deposits in the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming, indicates that these soils are affected by air-fall in flux of inorganic pollutants. Arsenic, bromine and antimony appear to have been deposited in surface soils by incorporation of aeolian materials which were presumably transported by winds from industrial sources, including coal-burning operations. As vanadium was not found in surface soils at concentrations above site-specific background levels, oil-fired energy generating stations were not found to be significant sources of surface soil pollution in the region. Acid-rain effects were not observed in the soils. (author) 32 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities

  3. Investigation of a solvent polluted industrial site on a deep sandstone-mudstone sequence in the UK. Part 2. Contaminant sources, distributions, transport and retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Philip Keith; Lerner, David Nicholas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Gosk, Edmund; Burston, Mark William; Chen, Tong

    1993-08-01

    A single industrial site has been investigated in detail to gain information on sources and movement of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent (CHS) pollutants in groundwater under the industrialized city of Conventry in the UK. A soil gas survey identified the most polluted area of the site where two types of investigation borehole were drilled; open boreholes lined with plain and slotted casing, and a single dedicated borehole incorporating gas samplers and gas-driven water samplers. Specially designed sampling techniques using pumps and packers were employed to determine vertical pollution profiles in the open boreholes. Core material was collected for sorption and diffusion experiments. An assessment of field investigation procedures suggests that soil gas sampling is a useful method for reconnaissance surveying of pollution by volatile organic compounds, but the results reflect only shallow pollution in the vertical profile. Open boreholes were found not to be satisfactory for accurate groundwater profile sampling and dedicated boreholes are recommended for such studies. Many uncertainties are involved in such a study of solvent pollution owing to the limited number of boreholes drilled and the complex spatial and temporal variations of pollutants. Despite the limitations of the investigation, several useful conclusions are drawn concerning sources and movement of solvent pollution. The main pollution source at the site is identified as the solvent storage tanks and pollution has resulted from poor use practices. Vertical pollution profiles indicate that the downward migration of 1,1,1-trichloroethane is following that of trichloroethene, reflecting their history of use on the site. The overall quality of groundwater abstracted in the system is set to deteriorate, as high pollution loads, presently at shallow levels in the system penetrate deeper, little attenuated by sorption or degradation. Diffusion of pollutants between mobile fissure and immobile pore waters will result in poor quality groundwater under this site for the foreseeable future. This trend is expected to be reflected throughout the urban area as a whole, with most groundwaters falling below drinking water standards for CHSs.

  4. Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Santi, Irene; Casella, Claudia; Puppo, Antonella; Montanaro, Fabio; Fontana, Vincenzo; Pescetto, Massimiliano; Stagnaro, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Leukaemia risk in adult populations exposed to environmental air pollution is poorly investigated. We have carried out a population-based case-control study in an area that included a fossil fuel power plant, a coke oven and two big chemical industries. Information on residential history and several risk factors for leukaemia was obtained from 164 cases, diagnosed between 2002 and 2005, and 279 controls. A higher risk for subjects residing in polluted areas was observed, but statistical significance was not reached (adjusted OR = 1.11 and 1.56 for subjects living in moderately and in heavily polluted zones, respectively, p = 0.190). Results suggest a possible aetiological role of residential air pollution from industrial sites on the risk of developing leukaemia in adult populations. However, the proportion of eligible subjects excluded from the study and the lack of any measure of air pollution prevent definitive conclusions from being drawn. PMID:25245102

  5. Light pollution in Beijing and effects on Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ligen; Zhang, Baozhou; Liu, Jian; Zeng, Shanshan

    2015-03-01

    A night-sky luminance survey was carried on in Beijing to assess the level of light pollution. The luminance of the zenith night sky and skies in four directions at six sites with different distances from the city center was measured by using a photometric luminance meter. The Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory was included to study the impacts of city lights on an astronomical observatory. The survey shows that the night-sky luminance decreases with increasing distance from the city center. Measurement results indicate that outdoor lighting in the Xinglong county town which is close to the observatory has non-negligible influence on the night sky at Xinglong Station.

  6. The implications of Australia's carbon pollution reduction scheme for its National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the major implications for the National Electricity Market of the introduction of a domestic cap-and-trade carbon pollution reduction scheme in Australia. The electricity sector is the largest source of emissions in the Australian economy, and it is this sector, therefore, that will bear the brunt of the impact of the proposed scheme. The paper addresses core issues for the electricity market up to 2020 operating under the scheme. It focuses specifically on its impact on electricity prices and generation technology mix. These two variables have been assessed using a number of models, each applying different assumptions about key impact factors. In this paper we present a comparative summary of the results of the three highest-profile models and compare their assumptions in order to explain differences in projected outcomes. This comparison will give an indication of the likely range of impacts on the market of the current design of the scheme.

  7. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  8. The Development of Financial and Industrial Groups in the National Economy ???????? ?????????-???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelombitko Tatiana V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the historical development of the first big integrated industrial and financial capitals was analyzed. The definition, the organizational structure of financial and industrial groups and the features of banking and industrial capitals integration in Ukraine were defined. The present state and foundation trends of financial and industrial groups were analyzed. The key problems of development, also the level of financial and industrial groups influence on the national economy and investing activities were determined. The principal directions of activating and raising the level of development of financial and industrial groups in Ukraine were defined.? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ?????????-???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????. ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ?????. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ? ???????.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution from the industrial dust on the reforestation of pine (Pinus halipensis Mill in the Tell Setif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjar Lamri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze heavy metals in the cones, bark and needles of Aleppo pine in 05 stations in the area of Ain El Kebira in order to evaluate pollution level and impact on reforestation. Analysis of heavy metals showed that the concentration of lead rose to 1.61 mg/l at the station of the BCR which is above the accepted international standards of 1mg / l. Fe concentrations are at the upper limit of the WHO standards of 1.5 mg / l at the station on the edge of the forest ranging from 1.03 to 1.65mg/l against the cement between 1.36 and 2.21 mg / l and the BCR between 1.31 and 2.19 mg / l are the most polluted. It is noted that with the exception of the BCR is to say that the industrial zone where the values found on analysis of copper are too high between 1.11 and 2.59 mg/l and far exceed the required standards set 1 mg / l. The levels of zinc at the station of the BCR and are highest between 3.05 and 6.47 mg / l where the required standards are 5 mg / l. We can infer from our results that urgent care should be initiated to preserve the national park above the Babors bordering our study area and is ranked world reserve.

  10. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  11. 75 FR 8807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...human health or environmental effects...CFR Part 63 Environmental protection...procedure, Air pollution control...Pulp and Paper...Paper and...Department of Environmental Quality...unchanged to the air pollution control...

  12. 77 FR 66729 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Record File AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...record file, such as paper copies and...

  13. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule Federal Register...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines that either are located at...

  14. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...Standards (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. EPA subsequently determined that...Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances,...

  15. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...327310 Portland cement plants. Federal Government...government Portland cement plants...exchange in various areas of air pollution control. D. When and where would...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Hazardous...

  16. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing; Technical Correction AGENCY...emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) from the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing...

  17. 63 FR 18754 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-15

    ...Pollutants From Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda...Pollutants From Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda...g., increased risk of spontaneous abortion); developmental...emitted from pulp and paper combustion sources have been...

  18. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...standards for hazardous air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue...

  19. Turning industry visions into reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This brochure outlines the activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the Department of Energy. OIT activities are aimed at industry adoption of energy-efficient, pollution-reducing technologies and include research and development on advanced technologies, financing, technical assistance, information dissemination, education, and bringing together industry groups, universities, National Laboratories, states, and environmentalists. OIT`s core initiative is to facilitate partnerships within seven materials and process industries: aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries.

  20. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  1. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  2. 77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...requiring additional pollutant control. EPA is issuing this construction...goals, the CWA requires EPA to control discharges of pollutants from...for the level of pollutant control that may be necessary in a...With this requirement in mind, the final CGP includes...

  3. Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Qiu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

  4. Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to strengthen potential market share, which is the focus of this article. What may at first appear in the Danish case as an absurd and non-productive relationship is actually significant, I would argue, despite its complexity. It has the potential to stimulate critical fashion design practice and give fashion designers a voice, allowing them to take an active part in contemporary public debates on important issues such as nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization.

  5. Study of Metallic Pollutants in Water and Food Items of an Industrial City by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haleem Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the base line levels of potentially toxic and essential trace metals namely, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn in water, locally grown vegetables, cereals and vegetable ghee-oil samples of a highly industrial city `Gujranwala` have been measured after wet digestion by employing AAS technique. Sampling was made from selected sites in and around the city over a period of three months. The concentration of Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb was found significantly higher in vegetables ranging from 3-63, 2-81, 5-92, 7-70 and 6-60 ppm respectively. Nickel and Cu concentration was found higher in cereals whereas, Cd was found at ppb level in all variety of samples studied. Tap water, vegetable ghee-oil have recorded lower concentration of these metals. Vegetables collected from urban area have shown elevated level of contamination than those of taken from canal irrigated farms. The overall level of trace metals with few exceptions of vegetable samples was found within the permissible limits fixed by WHO. The analytical method was checked by applying on SRM of wheat and spinach. The results were found in agreement with the certified values within experimental error. The major polluting sources of the city such as automobile, man made activities, soil and road dust, metallic corrosion and industrial activities have been indicated. The environmental impacts of pollutants on water and food quality of an industrial and non-industrial city are briefly discussed in the light of their adverse effects on human health.

  6. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750–1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contamipollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 ?g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: ? Natural sources dominated trace element input in large perialpine lakes before the European industrial revolution. ? WWTP implementation in the 1970s significantly decreased the metal pollution at the deepwater sites. ? Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva is heavily contaminated by heavy metals due to WWTP emissions after 1964. ? Lead isotopic composition highlights industrial pollution sources over the last 200 years.

  7. Noise pollution in textile, printing and publishing industries in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noweir, Madbuli H; Jamil, A T M

    2003-03-01

    A study of 20 factories belonging to textile, printing, publishing and paper products industries in Jeddah was conducted. Data on Leq, Maximum and Minimum SPL at different octave bands, as well as dBA, were collected. It has been found that textile, publishing and paper products industries are the most noisy industries. The paper is concluded with suitable recommendation for noise control and worker protection. PMID:12666724

  8. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Petroleum processes: oil refining and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, (HMIP) focuses on petroleum processes such as oil refining and other associated processes. The various industrial processes used, their associated pollution release routes into the environment and techniques for controlling these releases are all discussed. Environmental quality standards are related to national and international agreements on pollution control and abatement. HMIP's work on air, water and land pollution monitoring is also reported. (UK)

  9. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

  10. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  11. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  12. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  13. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; GLANTZ, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants Subject to Cooling Tower Monitoring Requirements in § 63.104

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry...Subpart F of Part 63—Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants...Acrylonitrile 107131 Allyl chloride 107051 Aniline...

  15. Studying the pollution of Barada river environment with poisonous elements resulting from leather industry (i.e. tanning industry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada river environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of chrome in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring. (Author)

  16. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20?km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined. PMID:23818910

  17. Investigation and analysis of NORM source term in the phosphate industry based on the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents in all factories and mines nationwide in relation to phosphate, rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore and solid waste produced by the phosphate industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) investigation. It is concluded that the averages of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore are 396 Bq/kg, 26 Bq/kg and 403.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U and 226Ra contents in solid waste produced by the phosphate industry are both less than 200 Bq/kg, mostly. The range of U and 226Ra are 22.7-723.6 Bq/kg and 5.6-1042.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The 232Th content is very low. It is suggested that the phosphate industrial solid waste should be subject to sort management, and some phosphate industry factories and mines should carry out relevant investigation, radiation evaluation and research. (authors)

  18. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.)

  19. Industrial Symbiosis and the Greening of the Industry in the UK: The Case of the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    Industrial Symbiosis is part of the emerging field of Industrial Ecology, a discipline that looks at natural ecosystems as models for the development of new industrial systems. As part of the recent efforts towards environmental sustainability, many scholars, policy-makers and organisations have turned to the concept for its promise of triple-bottom line benefits between social, environmental and economic performance. It is argued, however, that a certain level of disconnect exists between th...

  20. Detecting Industrial Pollution in the Atmospheres of Earth-like Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry W.; Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ~1.2 days (~1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ~10 times the current terrestrial level.

  1. Industrial Measuring of Pollution Effects on the Operation of High Voltage Insulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Ghanbarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High voltage insulators are exposed to different ambient and climate conditions the interactions of ambient condition and insulator contamination led the insulators themselves become a proper medium for conduction of current, leaving their effects on the power system. Presently, approximate and empirical numbers are used to determine the level of contamination of the insulation. As a result ,creep internals in some area do not accord to ambient conditions and are below the design level. In this power by periodic ESDD and NSDD measurements, two method direction dust gauge DGG are used to measure the intensity of the ambient pollution on the insulator and OLCA to display and record the leaking current as appropriate criteria for the degree and type of pollution.

  2. The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges [Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongyum

    This report is an update to "The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges." It provides statistics on the welding workforce, projections and future educational needs.

  3. Performing technologies in industrial health for measuring diffusion and pollution in multiple places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of occupational exposure is generally conducted by 2 methods: by atmospheric sampling on the work site and after analysis; by dosing metabolites when it is possible. The Service d'Hygiene Industrielle (SHI) has developed sampling monitors for measuring the local concentration of 4 pollutants near the machine tools and measurement by tracer in the work cell. The simultaneous utilization of tracer and mapping give possible the optimization of filtration in the work cell and reduce the exposure for workers

  4. SEM-EDX IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICLES FROM FOG IN AN INDUSTRIALLY POLLUTED REGION OF CZECH REPUBLIC.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanova, V.; Shoumkova, A.; Fišák, Jaroslav; Tsacheva, Ts.

    Vol. II - BUA32, ?. 1 (2010), s. 269-276. ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2010 /10./. Albena, 20.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : SEM-EDX * solid atmospheric pollutants * trace elements * heavy metals * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.ipc.bas.bg/PPages/Shoumkova/Publications/Articles/2010%20SEM-EDX%20identification%20of%20FP.pdf

  5. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rodríguez; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; J. Abreu-Afonso; M. Viana; M. Pandolfi; De la Rosa, J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At R...

  6. Pollution Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    To develop an understanding of modern industrial technologies that clean up and prevent air pollution, students build and observe a variety of simple models of engineering pollutant recovery methods: scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cyclone and baghouse. In an associated literacy activity, students become more aware of global environmental problems and play a part in their solution by writing environmental action campaign letters.

  7. A contemporary national nitrogen inventory as a benchmark for future progress in mitigating nitrogen pollution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Alexander, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to land, air, and water in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory is currently being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed -- amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

  8. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 ?g/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 ?g/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the ozone formation in Beijing urban area through reducing the VOCs transport from the industrial area to the urban area. PMID:26013656

  9. A New Biological Model System for the Determination of Industrial and Agricultural Effluents Polluted the Aquatic Environment In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif A. Elhassaneen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and agricultural effluents represent wide spread contaminants of the aquatic environment. In a trial to assess the toxic effects of these pollutants, primary liver cell`s culture of Spot fish (Leiostomus xanthurus was used as an alternative new biological model of the whole organisms. The obtained results indicated that some cytotoxic effects such as lysosomes (NR, mitochondria (MTT dysfunction and cell wall integrity (CV were observed on the liver cells at the lower concentrations of this toxic chemicals. For NR, MTT and CV assays, the absorbance measurements (as a percent of control were ranged 36.2-115.8, 37.8-104.2, and 22.6 -109.2 ; 41.7-126.3, 44.3-124.1 and 25.7-126.5 ; and 53.2-132.7, 57.7-137.3 and 32.6-133.2 for paper, petroleum industries and agricultural effluents, respectively. Consequently, CV is more sensitive to industrial and agricultural effluents when compared with other assays. On the other side, the influence of such effluents on the biochemical assays such as growth assay (GA, as determined by protein analysis, protease activity (PA and lactic dehydrogenase activity (LDH of isolated liver cells were determined in a trial to make a comparison between biochemical and cytotoxicity assays. The present data demonstrated that all of cytotoxic assays i.e. NR, MTT and CV corresponded well to those with GA, PA and LDH assays. The results of this study can constitute a milestone toward application of the simple inexpensive laboratory biological-model system for screening of the acute toxicities of aquatic pollutants.

  10. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'. PMID:22372007

  11. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  12. Alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluição industrial em moradores e industriários de Cubatão, SP (Brasil Hematological changes induced by industrial pollution in residents and industrial workers in Cubatão, SP (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Naoum

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 496 indivíduos de Cubatão, SP (Brasil, cidade com alto teor de poluição industrial, com o objetivo de verificar alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluentes industriais. Dos estudos citológicos dos eritrócitos dessa população estudada, foram observadas 188 (38% com alterações, isoladas ou combinadas em um único indivíduo, das quais 26% apresentaram policromatofilia, 24% com pontilhados basófilos, 15% com corpos de Heinz, e 8% com reticulocitose. As freqüências de metahemoglobinemia e sulfohemoglobinemia foram,respectivamente, de 35% e 32% em moradores da vila Parisi - um bairro cercado pela maioria das indústrias de Cubatão - 15% e 5% em operários das indústrias, e 12% e 4% em habitantes de áreas distantes entre 3 e 8 km do polo industrial. Esses resultados indicam que as alterações são causadas por poluentes tóxico-oxidantes e que as conseqüências fisio-patológicas no sangue dos moradores de Cubatão parecem indicar que estão relacionadas com o tempo de exposição e com a proximidade dos focos emissores de poluentes.Blood samples from 496 people living or working in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, a city with high levels of industrial pollution, were analysed in order to verify hematological changes induced by industrial pollution. Citological studies of erythrocytes showed that 188 people (38% had hematological changes, single or compound. Of the total sample 26% had polychromatophilic red cells, 24% had basophilic stippling, 15% had Heinz bodies, and 8% had reticulocytosis. The frequencies of methemoglobinemia and sulfohemoglobinemia were; respectively, 35% and 32% in inhabitants of vila Parisi a township in the neighbourhood of Cubatão surrounded by various industries; 15% and 5% in industrial workers, and 12% and 4% inhabitants that live between 3 and 8 km from the industrial complex. These results indicate that the hematological changes are caused by toxi-oxidant polluents and that the physio-pathological consequences in the blood of the population of Cubatão show a direct relationship to exposure time and to proximity to the sites of origin of the polluents.

  13. Alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluição industrial em moradores e industriários de Cubatão, SP (Brasil) / Hematological changes induced by industrial pollution in residents and industrial workers in Cubatão, SP (Brazil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Cesar, Naoum; Celso Abbade, Mourão; Milton Artur, Ruiz.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 496 indivíduos de Cubatão, SP (Brasil), cidade com alto teor de poluição industrial, com o objetivo de verificar alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluentes industriais. Dos estudos citológicos dos eritrócitos dessa população estudada, foram observadas 188 (38%) com alterações, [...] isoladas ou combinadas em um único indivíduo, das quais 26% apresentaram policromatofilia, 24% com pontilhados basófilos, 15% com corpos de Heinz, e 8% com reticulocitose. As freqüências de metahemoglobinemia e sulfohemoglobinemia foram,respectivamente, de 35% e 32% em moradores da vila Parisi - um bairro cercado pela maioria das indústrias de Cubatão - 15% e 5% em operários das indústrias, e 12% e 4% em habitantes de áreas distantes entre 3 e 8 km do polo industrial. Esses resultados indicam que as alterações são causadas por poluentes tóxico-oxidantes e que as conseqüências fisio-patológicas no sangue dos moradores de Cubatão parecem indicar que estão relacionadas com o tempo de exposição e com a proximidade dos focos emissores de poluentes. Abstract in english Blood samples from 496 people living or working in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, a city with high levels of industrial pollution, were analysed in order to verify hematological changes induced by industrial pollution. Citological studies of erythrocytes showed that 188 people (38%) had hematological changes, [...] single or compound. Of the total sample 26% had polychromatophilic red cells, 24% had basophilic stippling, 15% had Heinz bodies, and 8% had reticulocytosis. The frequencies of methemoglobinemia and sulfohemoglobinemia were; respectively, 35% and 32% in inhabitants of vila Parisi a township in the neighbourhood of Cubatão surrounded by various industries; 15% and 5% in industrial workers, and 12% and 4% inhabitants that live between 3 and 8 km from the industrial complex. These results indicate that the hematological changes are caused by toxi-oxidant polluents and that the physio-pathological consequences in the blood of the population of Cubatão show a direct relationship to exposure time and to proximity to the sites of origin of the polluents.

  14. An Employer Survey on Industrial Sector Involvement in Malaysian National Dual Training System

    OpenAIRE

    Baba Md Deros; Suzana Mohammed Zohdi; Darliana Mohamad; Nor Kamaliana Khamis; Nizaroyani Saibani

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this survey is to get industrial employers’ feedback on the reasons for their lack of involvement in National Dual Training System (NDTS) organized by the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. Industrial employers’ involvement and support is very important in ensuring NDTS implementation success. Therefore, it is very critical to identify factors and barriers that hinder industrial sectors from participating in NDTS program. A survey q...

  15. Mechanism of Social Vulnerability to Industrial Pollution in Peri-Urban Danang City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thi Bich Ngoc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial development has been defined as the key development paradigm in Vietnam which brings to the country both opportunity and challenge. Although economic growth has been introduced to Danang city since the Hoa Khanh Industrial Zone (HKIZ was set up, local communities around the HKIZ, such as Hong Phuoc village - the study sites have become more vulnerable due to the industrialization process. In the research, observations, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect primary data. The study founds that the community is vulnerable because the HKIZ has made them lack access to local resources, such as livable space, land resources, job and diversity sources of income. The community health is at risk while they lack access to the better healthcare systems. Therefore, the development of industrial activities has given little priority to the maintenance of local livelihoods.

  16. The effects of industrial soil pollution on prosopis juliflora swartz growth around karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the effect of soils of towel, garment, rubber and ply-wood factories of Korangi and Landhi industrial estates of Karachi and that of the University of Karachi on the growth of Prosopis juliflora Swartz plants growing in these areas demonstrated detrimental effect of industrial soils on the growth of plants of all the areas particularly on the plants growing at the University site. (author)

  17. First report of the National Pollutant Release Inventory multi-stakeholder work group on substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through consultations with Canadian stakeholders, and especially the members of the previous multi-stakeholder National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Ad Hoc Work Group on Substances, Environment Canada has established a permanent process for modifying the NPRI. The public is to be notified yearly of proposed changes by Environment Canada, and input on the proposed changes is to be obtained via an appropriate consultation process. Three major topics are addressed in this report: Integration of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) into the NPRI for the 2002 reporting year, other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year, and future agenda items for the Work Group. Specifically, the CACs to be added are nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter including total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers an particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers. Following an introduction, the document presents the addition of criteria air contaminants - proposed substance definitions and thresholds in section 2, as well as other data elements in section 3. A review of existing exemptions is presented in section 4. Other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year are discussed in section 5 and the future agenda items for the work group relevant to the 2003 reporting year appear in section 6. tabs

  18. Does increasing energy or electricity consumption improve quality of life in industrial nations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the world's nations, per capita energy and electricity consumption is highly correlated with diverse indicators of quality of life. This is often interpreted to mean that additional energy and electricity consumption causes improvements in life quality. Prior analyses of cross-sectional data question this interpretation for industrial nations that already have high per capita energy consumption. The present analysis with longitudinal data shows that among industrial nations, increases in per capita energy and electricity consumption over the past three decades are not associated with corresponding improvements in quality of life. - Research highlights: ? Increased energy and electricity use is essential for poor nations to improve wellbeing. ? This analysis is limited to industrial nations, already high in energy consumption. ? Changes in per capita energy/electricity use are not associated with improved wellbeing.

  19. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...ignition stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator...reciprocating internal generation, combustion engine. transmission, or...

  20. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on...

  1. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study

  2. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units published as final...and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration (CISWI) Units: Ms. Toni...issues that we believe may benefit from additional public involvement...and industrial solid waste incineration rule. The following...

  3. Loyalty (The National Principles): Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Romzi A.; Ahmad Tarmizi A. R.; Mansur T.; Anna Lynn A. B.; Budi Anto M. T.; Nordin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2) that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP) on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perc...

  4. 78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...U.S. Environmental Protection...Substances Pollution Contingency...forms such as paper and microform...U.S. Environmental Protection...e.g. paper copies; microform...Substances Pollution Contingency...such as paper copies and...Children from Environmental Health...

  5. 76 FR 22882 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...final CGP. With this in mind, EPA has included a...erosion and sediment control, pollution prevention...the level of pollutant control that may be necessary...With this requirement in mind, the draft CGP includes...permit's stormwater control requirements are...

  6. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn?>?Cu?>?Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments. It was evident that Cu, Pb, and Zn started to desorb at a higher pH from calcareous soils than from soils with low carbonate content. The mechanism responsible for this is co-precipitation of heavy metals in the carbonates. When the carbonates are dissolved at a relatively high pH of about 5, the co-precipitated heavy metals are released. The sequential extraction pattern for Cr differed generally much from the other heavy metals since the majority of Cr was extracted in the last two steps. Cr was also the heavy metal that desorbed the least at high acidification.

  7. A long term projection of relationships between the energy industry and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Documentation Francaise has published a 580 page report by a group of experts concerning the long term evolution of energy and its effects on the environment, at the request of the Ministries of Industry, and Quality of life. A summary of this important work covers: long term energy needs and resources (the year 2000) - impact on the environment, in highly industrialized areas such as Fos, Le Havre, Lyon, or in densely populated zones, such as the Greater Parisian Area - recommendations for avoiding harmful situations - new sources of energy and their impact upon the environment

  8. China's industrial growth spews pollution problems. Beekeepers stung by lead fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, J E

    1986-05-26

    Fast-paced economic growth in China's rural areas has created problems with water and air pollution. Rural townships have built tanneries, electroplating plants, and chemical factories, yet a network for monitoring environmental problems is not in place. In some local areas, the same official responsible for expanding the local economy is assigned to environmental work. Officers have had difficulty keeping up with community complaints of pollution. A related problem has been the deterioration in many areas of the water conservatory and flood control networks that enable farming. The same profit motive that has fueled China's dramatic economic growth has led to the pursuit at times of personal advantage rather than collective well-being. In addition, reservoirs, canals, and dikes have been damaged by neglect, misuse, and theft of building materials. Officials are endeavoring to devise ways to fit these facilities with the new economic theories predominant in China. In some cases, small reservoirs or hydroelectric dams have been parceled out to peasant managers to be run for profit under a contract responsibility system paralleling that by which land is parceled out to peasant families. PMID:12314566

  9. Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

  10. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative externntly separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  11. The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, JØrgen Lindgaard Technical University of Denmark,

    Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, paper and energy and many other fields. Historically the industry started up in 1874 based on empiric knowledge on use of rennet in production of cheese from Switzerland and Germany and later enriched by scientific knowledge produced in the company and institutions all over the world. Important for the company was resources of calve stomachs from which the active stuff can be extracted. The private university, The Carlsberg Laboratory, established nearly at the same time, became after First World War a world leader in research of enzymes. And inspiration from here to the pharmaceutical company in insulin production, Novo, resulted in extraction of valuable enzymes from porcine pancreases used in production of insulin. Thethird company, Danisco, started its enzyme business up in the 1930s and is today one of the important players. An important question in the paper is about the future of the companies in Denmark. There is no definitive answer to this question. But a combination of raw materials, growing markets and a good understanding of production based on science based engineering seem to be a strong argument in this discussion.

  12. The effect of air pollution on pine trees in industrialized northern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of industry and energy production in Estonia is concentrated in Northern and Northeastern Estonia.The effects of cement-kiln dust on pine was detected around the city of Kunda. No clear damages were found around cities of Aser and Rakvere

  13. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

  14. Waste minimization and pollution prevention in D ampersand D operations at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is implementing waste minimization and pollution prevention activities into its conduct of decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. Many of these activities are rather straight forward and simple approaches, yet they are often overlooked and not implemented as often as they should or could be. Specific activities involving recycling and reuse of materials and structures, which have proven useful in lowering decommissioning and disposal costs on D ampersand D projects at ANL are presented

  15. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  16. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  17. Development of Electronic Nose and Program for Monitoring Air Pollutions and Alarm in Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Srinonchat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of electronicnose and program for monitoring air pollutions and alarm inindustrial area. The design of electronic nose depends onphysical connectivity of the sensors, relating to the datamanagement, computing management and informationmanagement. Therefore, the sampling, filtering and sensorsmodule, signal transducers and acquisition, data preprocessing,feature extraction and feature classification are applied in thedesign of an electronic nose. There are 4 sensors areinvestigated to use as electronic nose in this experiment whichconsist of TGS2620, TGS2620, TGS2442 and TGS832. Thesesensors are operated with LabVIEW program. The experimentresults show that these sensors can classify and sensitive to thedifferent gas such as Methanol n-Propanol, Hexane andDichloromethane. The PCA is also used to classify group of gassensor. The system also performs the warning and alarm systemwhen the gas is leak.

  18. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  19. PIXE study on atmospheric pollution caused by indigenous zinc-smelting industry at MAGU region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric particulates were collected with a 8-stage cascade impactor in the spring of 1988 at MAGU region. The samples were analyzed by the PIXE technique. The mass concentrations and respective size distributions for 18 elements were determined. Size distribution parameters of mass concentrations for these elements were calculated with the numerical fitting method. From the point of view of effects on human health a new assessment of atmospheric quality was suggested, i.e., according to the deposit-retaining model the deposit amount in the lung during a whole day, as an index, was determined from the mass concentrations and size distribution parameters. On the basis of the assessment method mentioned above the pollution effects on atmospheric quality were assessed and discussed. (author)

  20. Inter graded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700-3100 ty-1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The co composting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32%) by the application of Fenton and another 10-28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final co composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  1. Strategic regulation of a multi-national banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Olsen, Trond E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the consequences of cross-border banking and entry of multi-national bank (MNB) subsidiaries for banking supervision and regulation. When a MNB expands internationally with subsidiaries, the MNB operates under the legislation of several countries - both the home country and the host countries. Although these countries have agreed upon minimum standards and supervisory principles, such as in the EU directives or the Basle Accords, substantial degrees of freedom are still ...

  2. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  3. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  4. Record of national stakeholder meeting of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment on Canadian fossil fuel electric power generation sector multi-pollutant emission reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The industrial multi-pollutant emission reduction strategy (MERS) is an input to the jurisdictional plans to outline actions to achieve Canada-wide standards for particulate matter (PM) and ozone in Canada by 2010. This workshop was held to update stakeholders on jurisdictional plans, seek feedback on national MERS information, and seek the views of stakeholders on MERS approaches and promising options. Participants focused on the electric power generation sector, health and environmental concerns, electricity market trends, and energy policy perspectives. Climate change considerations and Aboriginal perspectives were also discussed. It is expected that Canada will require 200 TWh of electricity by 2020. Some of the complex problems facing power producers regarding air issues are: (1) emission of pollutants are not independent, (2) environmental domains are not independent, (3) the need for policy instruments, (4) the need for consistency between instruments that are being developed within various jurisdictions, and (5) acknowledging that there are significant differences. It was recognized that these problems require time and resources to produce sustainable solutions. The initial need will be to develop low emission technologies and maintain a diverse generation mix.

  5. Terrestrial Fungi from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted by the Industrial Effluents (Aswan, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada S. M. Nassar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four species in addition to one variety representing 31 genera of terrestrial fungi were recovered from surface water and submerged mud collected monthly (12 months from five successive water sites exposed to the industrial effluents of Kima factory for fertilizers at Aswan. The monitored physico-chemical characteristics varied depending upon the site and time of sampling. There are variations in diversity and abundance of isolated fungi depending upon the employed nutritive media (glucose or cellulose, tested sample (water or mud, site and the time of sampling. The poorest samples in fungi were generally those collected during higher temperature months and from sites exposed directly to the industrial effluents. Aspergillus and Trichoderma were the most prevalent genera.

  6. Heavy duty gas turbines in Iran, India and China: Do national energy policies drive the industries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper for the first time systematically examines the heavy duty gas turbine (HDGT) industry in the context of developing countries. It provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. It contrasts their national strategies, the historical development of their technological capabilities, the similarities and differences in approach, the varying evolutionary paths and policy drivers and the reasons for their differing outcomes. This paper argues that a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature of HDGT industries in developing countries. It also argues that the development and evolution of the HDGT industries in these countries is closely interrelated with the countries’ national energy policies. It clarifies why such an advanced and sophisticated industry is a strategic choice in one country, while it is seen as an inferior choice in another. - Highlights: ? This paper for the first time systematically examines the HDGT industry in developing countries. ? This paper provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. ? The companies are state-owned and a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature. ? Due to national energy policies, HDGT is a strategic choice in Iran but an inferior choice in India and China. ? The policy drivers such as natural reserves and security of supply largely vary in these countries.

  7. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  8. Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

    2011-07-01

    In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

  9. Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanofiltration system has many potential uses in removing chemical and biological contaminants from water. - During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed

  10. Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, Bart; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed. PMID:12547533

  11. 75 FR 77760 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources on October...control device on a chemical manufacturing process unit after November...1\\ Chemical manufacturing process unit...Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR...

  12. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable...Subjects in 40 CFR Part 63 Environmental protection, Administrative...and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous...Pulp and Paper...Nevada Division of Environmental Protection....

  13. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule was published...for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Docket, Docket ID No....

  14. 78 FR 730 - State Program Requirements; Approval of Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...discharge of pollutants to waters of the United States...and discharges of storm water from agricultural activities...required to show among other things that it has authority...available on the EPA Region 6 Internet site:...

  15. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule was published...Electric power reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine....

  16. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The amendments inadvertently...compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was...

  17. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types

  18. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California pollution prevention annual program report for calendar year 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren, Laurie J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the ''SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual''. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2008-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. Assessment of air quality benefits from the national pollution control policy of thermal power plants in China: A numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Pan, Libo; Li, Yunting; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Jin; Sun, Feng; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Xingrun

    2015-04-01

    In 2010, an emission inventory of air pollutants in China was created using the Chinese Bulletin of the Environment, the INTEX-B program, the First National Pollution Source Census, the National Generator Set Manual, and domestic and international research studies. Two emission scenarios, the standard failed emission scenario (S1) and the standard successful emission scenario (S2), were constructed based upon the Instructions for the Preparation of Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants (second draft). The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were applied to China to study the air quality benefits from Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants GB13223-2011. The performance of MM5 and CMAQ was evaluated with meteorological data from Global Surface Data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and the daily Air Pollution Index (API) reported by Chinese local governments. The results showed that the implementation of the new standards could reduce the concentration of air pollutants and acid deposition in China by varying degrees. The new standards could reduce NO2 pollution in China. By 2020, for the scenario S2, the area with an NO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard, and the average NO2 concentration in 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 55.2% and 24.3%, respectively. The new standards could further reduce the concentration of declining SO2 in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with an SO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average SO2 concentration in the 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 40.0% and 31.6%, respectively. The new standards could also reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a PM2.5 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average concentration of PM2.5 in the 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 17.2% and 14.7%, respectively. The new standard could reduce nitrogen deposition pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a nitrogen deposition concentration >2.0 tons·km-2 and the total nitrogen deposition in China would be reduced by 28.6% and 16.8%, respectively. The new standards could reduce sulfur deposition pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a sulfur deposition >1.5 tons·km-2 and the total sulfur deposition in China would be reduced by 55.3% and 21.0%, respectively.

  2. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  3. Metabolic signatures associated with environmental pollution by metals in Doñana National Park using P. clarkii as bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Tinoco, Amanda; González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Blasco-Moreno, Julián; Bebianno, M J; Gómez-Ariza, José-Luis

    2014-12-01

    Bioindicators can reflect the effects of pollutants on their metabolism, being widely used to assess environmental stress. In this sense, the crab Procambarus clarkii has been previously proposed to monitor the contamination in Doñana National Park (southwest Spain) using conventional biomarkers. In this work, a metabolomic approach based on direct infusion mass spectrometry, which allows an easy and quick study of a large number of metabolites in a single run, was used for pollution assessment of this area, considering the biological response of this organism to contamination. In addition, metal accumulation in crab tissues was determined. Thus, the integrated analysis of metabolomic and metallomic data enabled the study of metabolic response of the organism against pollution. Several metabolites were discovered as potential biomarkers of pollution, such as decreased levels of carnosine, alanine, niacinamide, acetoacetate, pantothenic acid, ascorbate, glucose-6-phosphate, arginine, glucose, lactate, phospholipids, and tryglicerides, as well as elevated levels of acetyl carnitine, phosphocholine, choline, and uric acid. In this way, metal-induced toxicity could be related to metabolic impairments, principally oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. PMID:24756666

  4. A Study on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain- A Comparative Analysis between Small Scale Industries in India and Developed Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj, Ranjith Karthick

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution is the major problem that mankind faces in present state, the major emission of toxic gases is from vehicles and manufacturing industries. The thesis study focuses on three different types of Small Scale Industries (SSI) in India that are bumper manufacturing industry, dyeing industry and food processing industry. The product life cycles of the process for each industry are identified and their final green waste disposal methods are investigated. The industries are ide...

  5. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... State of the Air® app. Learn More » Trusted Links AirNow National Association of Clean Air Agencies U. S. ... Ozone Standards Will Save Lives, Protect Health Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round ...

  6. Intelligent algorithmic interpretation of pollutant discharges from multi-unit industrial complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, HM; Jesson, B; Sztandera, LM

    1997-01-01

    Groups of factories in which many units share a single site are common within the chemical industry. This clustering of a number of synthetic units leads to economies of scale through the sharing of resources, and minimization of direct costs such as those arising from the storage and transportation of chemicals. Among the resources usually shared is the system whose role is to dispose of liquid chemical waste. To control effectively the discharge of such waste from the plants on-site, a know...

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  10. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. There are six critical receptor locations on the NTS that are actually pseudocritical receptor locations because they are hypothetical receptor locations; no person actually resides at these onsite locations. Annual average concentrations of detected radionuclides are compared with Concentration Levels (CL) for Environmental Compliance values listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. Compliance is demonstrated if the sum of fractions (CL/measured concentrations) of all detected radionuclides at each pseudo-critical receptor location is less than one. In 2007, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the NTS has demonstrated that the potential dose to the public from radiological emissions to air from current and past NTS activities is well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected onsite at each of the six pseudo-critical receptor stations on the NTS had average concentrations of nuclear test-related radioactivity that were a fraction of the limits listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. They ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 20 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  14. 78 FR 59672 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...Sector Y--Rubber, Miscellaneous Plastic Products, and Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries. Sector Z--Leather Tanning and Finishing. Sector AA--Fabricated Metal Products. Sector AB--Transportation Equipment, Industrial or...

  15. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...NAICS Industry category Code \\1\\ Examples...1\\ North American Industry Classification System...Production and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing. CAA section...sources, pose the greatest threat to public health in the...greatest potential health threat in urban areas,...

  16. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I...The regulated industrial source categories...NESHAP and Industrial Source Categories...Regeneration Plants 3311, 3312...to a Weibull distribution and emissions for plants for which...

  17. Characterizing and locating air pollution sources in a complex industrial district using optical remote sensing technology and multivariate statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pao-Erh Paul; Yang, Jen-Chih Rena; Den, Walter; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are most frequent environmental nuisance complaints in urban areas, especially where industrial districts are nearby. Unfortunately, identifying the responsible emission sources of VOCs is essentially a difficult task. In this study, we proposed a dynamic approach to gradually confine the location of potential VOC emission sources in an industrial complex, by combining multi-path open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) measurement and the statistical method of principal component analysis (PCA). Close-cell FTIR was further used to verify the VOC emission source by measuring emitted VOCs from selected exhaust stacks at factories in the confined areas. Multiple open-path monitoring lines were deployed during a 3-month monitoring campaign in a complex industrial district. The emission patterns were identified and locations of emissions were confined by the wind data collected simultaneously. N,N-Dimethyl formamide (DMF), 2-butanone, toluene, and ethyl acetate with mean concentrations of 80.0?±?1.8, 34.5?±?0.8, 103.7?±?2.8, and 26.6?±?0.7 ppbv, respectively, were identified as the major VOC mixture at all times of the day around the receptor site. As the toxic air pollutant, the concentrations of DMF in air samples were found exceeding the ambient standard despite the path-average effect of OP-FTIR upon concentration levels. The PCA data identified three major emission sources, including PU coating, chemical packaging, and lithographic printing industries. Applying instrumental measurement and statistical modeling, this study has established a systematic approach for locating emission sources. Statistical modeling (PCA) plays an important role in reducing dimensionality of a large measured dataset and identifying underlying emission sources. Instrumental measurement, however, helps verify the outcomes of the statistical modeling. The field study has demonstrated the feasibility of using multi-path OP-FTIR measurement. The wind data incorporating with the statistical modeling (PCA) may successfully identify the major emission source in a complex industrial district. PMID:24878551

  18. NO2 pollution of the atmosphere and the influence of industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Petr

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Among nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, the concentration of N2O is the highest (about 306 ppm and due to the high global warming potential (GWP = 320 nitrous oxide belongs to important greenhouse gases. Moreover, N2O contributes also to the ozone layer depletion. Nitrous oxide is produced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, where combustion plays an important role. Two analytical methods ( IR spectrophotometry and gas chromatography have been used for the analysis of N2O emissions from various industrial sources. Carbon monooxide at the concentration above 500 ppm interferes the IR analysis. The emission factors for combustion processes typical for Czech Republic have been calculated. Emission concentrations depend on the type of the combustion process (the highest is for the fluid-bed combustion as well as on the output of the combustion unit. In an identical unit, the emission factor increases when the output decreases. A high concentration of nitrous oxide have been found in emissions from the chemical industry where catalytic denitrification is used.

  19. Quantifying ‘geographic proximity’: Experiences from the United Kingdom's National Industrial Symbiosis Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, PD; Basson, L.; Hellawell, E; Bailey; Leach, M

    2011-01-01

    Geographic proximity is said to be a key characteristic of the resource reuse and recycling practice known as industrial symbiosis. To date, however, proximity of symbiont companies has remained an abstract characteristic. By conducting a statistical analysis of synergies facilitated by the United Kingdom's National Industrial Symbiosis Programme during their first five years of operation, this article attempts to quantify geographic proximity and in the process provide practitioners with an ...

  20. Improving the National Cyber-security by Finding Vulnerable Industrial Control Systems from the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Tiilikainen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Industrial control systems (ICS), which are used to control critical elements of the society's maintenance such as power generation and electricity distribution, are exposed to the Internet as a result of insecure design, and installation faults. Securing critical industrial systems is important for national cyber-security; malfunctioning elements in the critical infrastructure can quickly cascade into wide range of problems in the society. In the recent years increasing amount of cyber-attac...

  1. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability. PMID:16121834

  2. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy. PMID:24520699

  3. Highlighting of pollutants elements of atmospheric air and industrial wastewater in Antananarivo and Analysis of a forest plants of the east coast of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has for objectives to determine the polluting elements of air, of the industrial waste waters of the urban environment (Antananarivo) and in the leaves of a plant forest called Noronhia of the rural environment (East Coast of Madagascar) and to identify the sources of these pollutants. The method of analysis by total refection X-ray fluorescence at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN) have been used for the measures of the present elements in the samples, the pHmeter and the conductimeter for the measures of pH and the electric conductivity. In 2000, the average concentrations of lead in the aerosols collected in Andrefan'Ambohijanahary in Antananarivo are 137±4 ng.m-3 during the day and 51±2 ng-m-3 during the night. They are lower than the guideline values adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average PM10 concentrations diurnal and nocturnal (equal to 194 ?g.m-3 and 145 ?g.m-3 respectively) in the aerosols are extensively superior to the guideline values 70 ?g.m-3 adopted by the WHO in Dakar (1999).Therefore, the site of Andrefan'Ambohijanahary is to be classified saturated zone according to canadian government rule. In 2002, the immobilization of nearly all cars in the capital show that the report of reduction of the concentration of lead in 2002 in relation to the peri lead in 2002 in relation to the period 2000 is equal to 38. The present work confirms the introduction of unleaded gasoline in Madagascar. Physico-chemical measures of the samples of waste waters in the different sites of Antananarivo are made. The chromium is a toxic metal for the environment associated to the tannery. Its concentration of 2712.1 ?g.L-1 is superior to the national norm of 2000 ?g.L-1. The presence of the chromium in the downstream samples is also noted. Regarding to the textile factories, the higher value of the conductivity (equal to 4 670 ?S.cm-1) of the waste water sample discharged by this factory exceeds extensively the national norm of 200 ?S.cm-1. The use of important quantity of chemical products in the cycle of production can contribute the origin of this elevation of conductivity. The basic pH (equal to 8.0) of waste water seems to come from the use of caustic sodium necessary to the production. Lead having a maximal concentration of 251.0 ?g.L-1 doesn't respect the national norm of 200 ?g.L-1 and Belgium norm (100 ?g.L-1). The analysis of the leaves of Noronhia of the East coast of Madagascar has been devoted to incite the promoters of the development of Madagascar to choose the orientation of the valorization of an endemic plant of Madagascar. The mineral elements, calcium and potassium, constitute the major elements having an average content superior to 1000 ?g of elements by gram of analyzed dry leaves. There is no lead in none part of leaf. The present study puts in inscription that by comparison to the rural environment, the urban environment is disrupted by the polluting elements of the environmental samples. Thus, Noronhia is a candidate presenting an interesting future like phyto-medicine.

  4. Transuranium radionuclide pollution in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the grounding and subsequent explosion, in October 2003, of a nuclear submarine in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park, fears arose of possible radioactive leakages. However, isotopic analyses on algae showed that the gamma-ray emitting artificial radionuclides that one might expect to leak from a damaged nuclear reactor (such as U-235, I-131, Cs-137) were absent, and that U-238/U-234 activities were in equilibrium with values typical of sea water; this excluded any direct anthropogenic contamination as a result of the accident. We used alpha autoradiographic techniques to detect possible traces of transuranium radionuclides; 160 samples of algae, granites, sea urchins, gastropods, limpets, cuttlefish and jellyfish were collected from the area, as well as from other Mediterranean coastlines and the Baltic Sea. All samples were autoradiographed, and selected samples further analysed by alpha spectrometry. There were no alpha track concentrations above background levels in our control Mediterranean specimens. In the samples from the La Maddalena and Baltic areas two different track distributions were observed:-those homogeneously distributed over the surfaces examined; -groups (10 to over 500) of radially distributed alpha tracks (forming 'star' bursts, or 'hot spots') emanating from point sources. By comparing radionuclide activities measured by alpha spectroscopy with alpha track densities, we extrapolated Pu activities for all samples. Aboutlated Pu activities for all samples. About 74% of algae had Pu activities of less than 1Bq/kg and 0.25Bq/kg, 16% had accumulated Pu to levels between 1 and 2Bq/kg, and a very few specimens had concentrations between 2 and 6Bq/kg. Plots showed that alpha tracks and stars concentrate around the northern and eastern margins of the Rada (Basin) di Santo Stefano, sites facing the nuclear submarine base on the eastern shore of the island of Santo Stefano. What is the source of these nuclides: last century's atmospheric nuclear testing, Chernobyl or a local source? Their concentrated, extremely localised occurrence seems difficult to explain in terms of left-over worldwide nuclear pollution. A local source seems more plausible

  5. Evidence given by the National Radiological Protection Board to the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 1976 The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution informed the Board that they had decided to enquire into the organisation for radiological safety in this country, with particular regard to the environmental hazards from radioactivity that might arise from the increasing use of nuclear energy for the generation of electrical power. The Board was invited to submit evidence on any aspects with which it was concerned and, in particular, on its powers and responsibilities and relationships with other bodies; the Board was also asked to discuss the assessment of radiation hazards and the application in practice of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This is the Board's response. The constitution, functions and responsibilities of the Board are discussed in Chapter 1 as is the involvement of its staff in national and international affairs in the field of radiological protection. Chapter consists of a short statement of the various sources of radiation to which the people of the UK are exposed. The Board does not claim any special experience or expertise in one of the matters referred to in the third area of concern, namely, the criteria used for the siting of nuclear power stations. But in the related field of assessing the environmental consequences of reactor accidents, the Board has been actively involved with the Medical Research Council in their latest review of Emergency Reference Levels - a report on which is shortly to be published. This subject is referred to in Chapter 3 which deals with the methods by which the basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are translated into values that can be applied to particular forms of practice. Chapter 4 discusses the current position of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes arising from nuclear power cycles. It also briefly discusses the way in which this position may change in future and touches on the problems of decommissioning obsolete nuclear plants. Chapter 5 outlines problems arising from the need to protect workers and the public from the biological effects of plutonium. The evidence concludes with Chapter 6 which consists of a short statement on the position regarding the transport of radioactive materials

  6. Aerosols Analysis by LIBS for Monitoring of Air Pollution by Industrial Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the air quality improvement, there is an increasing need to monitor gas and particle emissions originating from exhaust stacks (incinerators, foundries, etc.) for regulation enforcement purposes. Lots of pollutants are targeted; among them, heavy metals are mostly found in particulate forms. Hence, there is a need to promote the development of suitable on line analytical techniques. To that end, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a good technique. Indeed, it is quantitative, fast (?1 min), requires no sample preparation, and can be performed at remote distance. The instrumentation is compact and offers the possibility to be used for continuous and in-situ monitoring. Two different approaches have been tested by several authors to analyze aerosols by LIBS, by focusing the laser either on particles collected on a filter or directly into the aerosol. In this work, these two approaches, aiming at measuring the mass concentration of micrometer metallic particles in air, are investigated and compared. The experimental setup includes an aerosol source (an ultrasonic nebuliser producing a diluted aerosol of CuSO4 particles); two sampling lines for particle sizes and, for reference concentration measurements, a line for direct LIBS analysis; and a fourth one devoted to filter sampling for subsequent LIBS measurements. Calibration curves were obtained with those two experimental approaches and the results are compared. In teches and the results are compared. In terms of sampling particles number, indirect analysis appears to be more efficient than direct analysis for our experimental conditions. Better detection limits were found with direct analysis when comparing the two approaches under similar sampling conditions (analysis time and sampling flow). (authors)

  7. The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This extensive report, created by the National Center for Welding Education and Training, provides a quick look at the employment needs of the welding industry and the educational requirements needed to meet those demands. It looks at short-term, long-term, wage distribution, projected retirements, and the pipeline of new entrants back into the workforce. The report examines four industry occupations: welder, welding technicians, welding inspector and welding engineer. This report is a thorough examination of the welding industry and its future needs.

  8. 71 FR 35005 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Final Regulations To Establish Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    ...regulatory requirements for facilities subject to the Phase I or Phase II regulations...withdrawn nationally is already subject to national categorical requirements...entrainment while expanding the universe subject to national categorical...

  9. Possible Use of Fly Ash in Ceramic Industries: AN Innovative Method to Reduce Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gayatri; Mehla, S. K.; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Bajaj, Annu

    The process of coal combustion results in coal ash, 80% of which is very fine in nature & is thus known as fly ash. Presently, in India, about 120 coal based thermal power plants are producing about 90-120 million tons of fly ash every year. With increase in demand of power energy, more and more thermal power plants are expected to commission in near future and it is expected that fly ash generation will be 225 million tons by 2017. Disposal of fly ash requires large quantity of land, water and energy and its fine particles, if not disposed properly, by virtue of their weightless, can become air born and adversely affect the entire Environment. These earth elements primarily consist of silica, alumina & iron etc. and its physicochemical parameters are closely resembles with volcanic ash, natural soil etc. These properties, therefore, makes it suitable for use in ceramic industries and helps in saving the environment and resources.

  10. Loyalty (The National Principles: Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romzi A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2 that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia. The data were collected through a self administered questionnaire and later analyzed using SPSS. In this study, 100 youth were selected as respondents with a mean age of 27. This study found that there is a positive influence but no negative influence of the second NP on the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. The factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia is ethical and moral values. In accordance, professional experience, and the use of a specific formula may provide a suitable basis for change in this industry when dealing with the local perception on their responsibility to make this industry develop in relation to their feeling of concern towards ‘loyalty to the king and country’.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  13. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2008a). At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2008, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.9 mrem/yr; well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six pseudo-critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61 (CFR, 2008a). Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 19 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. Potential dose to the public from NLVF was also very low at 0.00006 mrem/yr; more than 160,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  14. The Differentiation between Point and Diffuse Industrial Pollution of the Floodplain of the Ploucnice River, Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majerová, L.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Elznicová, J.; Strnad, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 224, ?. 9 (2013), 1688/1-1688/20. ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : sedimentary archive * floodplain sediment * overbank fines * point pollution * diffuse pollution Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2013

  15. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared with wet (65 vs. 35%) which is due to significantly smaller precipitation in this country. Considering total deposition during transboundary atmospheric transport, it should be noted that 80.3% of transported sulphates will be deposited over territories of Kazakhstan, 13.8% - Russia, about 2% each - Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and less than 1% over other countries. Among considered 14 Regions of Kazakhstan and 8 Federal District of Russia, the highest concentrations and depositions were identified in the Atyraus and Magistaus regions of Kazakhstan as well as in the South Federal District of Russia. For Kazakhstan, the lowest values were identified in the Almaty, East-Kazakhstan, Dzhambul and Pavlodar regions. Among most populated cities the city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan (Russia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) showed the largest concentrations during transboundary atmospheric transport.

  16. Distribution and mobility of the heavy metals cadmium, copper and zinc in industrially polluted, calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a region that had been polluted with heavy metal emissions by a brass foundry for decades the chemical aspects of the mobility of cadmium, copper and zinc in calcareous soils were investigated. This was done by analysing the distribution of the heavy metals in the soil profile and the amount sorbed at the different binding sites. Adsorption and desorption experiments were performed under varying environmental conditions. The soil water of the affected area was analysed. This data was then related to investigations of plant availability, transport and mass balance. In the top soil of the area close to foundry the heavy metal contents are 37.5 nmol g-1 cadmium, 23.6 ?mol g-1 copper, and 24.9 ?mol g-1 zinc (extracted with 2M HNO3). These contents are more than 70% of cadmium, and more than 90% of copper and of zinc of the amounts in the soil body with a thickness of 1 m. The mobility of the examined heavy metals is dominated by the high sorption capacity of the soil that is rich in lime and clay. Sorption experiments with unpolluted fine subsoil material in 0.001 M Mg(NO3)2 at 25o C resulted in a sorption coefficient Kf of 900 ml g-1 for cadmium and 3300 ml g-1 for zinc. Additional examinations of the binding forms showed that less than 5% of the accumulated copper and zinc, but up to 45% of cadmium are bound in an exchangeable form. The sorption of cadmium hangeable form. The sorption of cadmium and zinc on the unpolluted calcareous material of the subsoil can be described by two-step Freundlich-isotherms. The first step is dominated by adsorption processes combined with calcium-ions exchange. The second step is dominated by the precipitation of cadmium- and zinc-carbonates or hydroxide-carbonate mixed crystals, respectively, together with a decrease in pH. (author) figs., tabs., 102 refs

  17. Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ireneusz; Danek, Ma?gorzata; Marchwi?ska-Wyrwa?, Ewa; Danek, Tomasz; Wistuba, Ma?gorzata; Kr?piec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5–20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950–1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964–1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km wes...

  18. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...Capital Annual Requirement cost cost Net [million] [million] benefit...Organic Compounds by Direct Interface Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry'' is cited as...Organic Compounds by Direct Interface Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, approved...

  19. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...heater means any boiler or process heater that burns any amount...heat input of the boiler or process heater divided by the average...7 to this subpart. Metal process furnaces include natural gas-fired annealing furnaces, preheat...

  20. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...Any area source facility using a 321 Wood product boiler as defined in the final manufacturing. rule...organic matter (POM) as 7-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene, mercury, polychlorinated...

  1. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...and other technical assistance...integrated into the system of services...and other technical assistance providers. Factors that may...within the MEP system. (5...management control, external evaluation...relevance and cost...

  2. 75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...EPA Docket Center, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave...Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m...number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and...contacts: For major source boilers and process heaters: Mr....

  3. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ...EPA Docket Center, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave...Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m...number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and...contacts: For major source boilers and process heaters, Mr....

  4. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...different emission characteristics which may affect...governments would not be unique or disproportionate...laundries, apartments, restaurants, theatres, and hotels...establishments such as hotels, restaurants, and laundries...evaluation of operating characteristics of the...

  5. 78 FR 7137 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...PM particle size, fouling characteristics and feasibility of certain...liquid fuel units are not unique to this subcategory...governmental buildings, hotels, restaurants, and laundries...An evaluation of operating characteristics of the boiler or...

  6. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...different emission characteristics which may affect...governments would not be unique or disproportionate...laundries, apartments, restaurants, theaters, and hotels...establishments such as hotels, restaurants, and laundries...establish operating characteristics of the...

  7. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (I) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with RI value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea

  8. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (I) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with RI value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea. (author)

  9. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papetti, R.A.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1971-01-01

    Air pollution is an old problem to large-town dwellers, but a new and urgent one to people in many other parts of the world. This article discusses its sources, distribution, harmful effects, and mathematical modelling. As the pace of industrialization increases, the relatively simple and inexpensive measures that reduce only part of the pollutant emissions become inadequate, and much more costly changes must be made. In such circumstances, much expense and inconvenience may be saved by using mathematical models of pollutant transport, photochemical reaction, and dispersion to determine the best way to maintain the desired air quality throughout a populated region.

  10. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was published...Performance for Portland Cement Plants'' under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0817...Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances,...

  11. 78 FR 25435 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Municipal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...is designated as a regulated MS4 pursuant to 40 CFR...discharges from areas of a regulated small MS4 located outside...Phase I and Phase II regulated MS4s in the Albuquerque...prohibit the discharge of non-stormwater to the...require controls to reduce pollutants in discharges from...

  12. Assessment of some industrial pollutants and their impact on the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, H. A.; Shehata, M. K.; Metwally, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The results obtained by the analysis of raw materials and product samples collected from the three industries in Abu Zaabal area for the elements U, Th, La, Ce, Gd, Cr, Sb, Sc, Hf, Na, Fe, Lu, Zn and Au in the samples under study are presented and discussed. U content (in ppm) was found to be as follows: phosphate ore=72.6, GSSP=50.45, SSP=42.65, DCP=8.36, Gypsum=5.31 and GNPK=4.664. The La content in the phosphate ore is 40.0 ppm. The Cr content in fertilizers is in the range 12.12-19.56 ppm except gypsum that has the lowest value of 0.406 ppm. In the alum company as well as ARACEMCO samples all the important elements have been analyzed either in the raw materials or in the products using NAA, namely U, Th, lanthanides as well as other elements. U, Ce, Co La, Cr,... etc. contents in the reference water samples are compared with two drainage water samples. Also U, Ce, Cr and Th have been analyzed. All the elements content in the leaf samples collected from AZFC zone are higher than their values in the reference leaf samples from Mounofia. Also, the elements content of the unwashed sample is higher than the values found in the same but washed sample. The measurements of the natural radioactivity in phosphate ore and in some fertilizer samples from AZFC are compared with the corresponding values obtained by NAA technique for the same samples. The comparison shows a negligible difference as regards the uranium content for each sample.

  13. Assessment of some industrial pollutants and their impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by the analysis of raw materials and product samples collected from the three industries in Abu Zaabal area for the elements U, Th, La, Ce, Gd, Cr, Sb, Sc, Hf, Na, Fe, Lu, Zn and Au in the samples under study are presented and discussed. U content (in ppm) was found to be as follows: phosphate ore = 72.6, GSSP = 50.45, SSP = 42.65, DCP = 8.36, Gypsum = 5.31 and GNPK = 4.664. The La content in the phosphate ore is 40.0 ppm. The Cr content in fertilizers is in the range 12.12 - 19.56 ppm except gypsum that has the lowest value of 0.406 ppm. In the alum company as well as ARACEMCO samples all the important elements have been analyzed either in the raw materials or in the products using NAA, namely U, Th, lanthanides as well as other elements. U, Ce, Co La, Cr,... etc. contents in the reference water samples are compared with two drainage water samples. Also U, Ce, Cr and Th have been analyzed. All the elements content in the leaf samples collected from AZFC zone are higher than their values in the reference leaf samples from Mounofia. Also, the elements content of the unwashed sample is higher than the values found in the same but washed sample. The measurements of the natural radioactivity in phosphate ore and in some fertilizer samples from AZFC are compared with the corresponding values obtained by NAA technique for the same samples. The comparison shows a negligible difference as regards the uranium content for each sample. (author)nt for each sample. (author)

  14. Feasibility study concerning remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands on the Absheron Peninsula, Republic of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivin, Majorie; Helsen, Stefan; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    ECOREM is carrying out a feasibility study focused on the remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands, located on the Absheron Peninsula (Republic of Azerbaijan), on behalf of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR). The objective of this study is to support SOCAR with specific technologies and capacity building for environmental remediation works on various sectors of the Peninsula. As an independent consultancy company, ECOREM provides sustainable and quality advice, seeking the balance to the interests of the client and the environment in the broadest sense of the word. Within this study, it is important to underline that extraction activities in the country have been going on for more than a century. Given that the age of the environmental problems is equal to the history of the oil production, it is nearly impossible to point out the responsibilities of the various companies or to define the exact activities that occurred on a particular location. From the data gathered so far, more than 3600 ha of oil contaminated area are known in Baku and the Absheron Peninsula. Within this feasibility study, ECOREM will advice SOCAR on suitable and best available remediation technologies to apply on prior contaminated areas. According to the Environmental Policy of the Company, SOCAR would like to act in priority on the numerous contaminated lands of the Absheron Peninsula. Through the exploitation of the extensive GIS database provided by SOCAR, the oil contaminated sites will be examined in details in order to determine the most sensitive areas, on which remediation works or monitoring should be implemented in priority. To locate these sites, ECOREM will provide SOCAR with technical support in order to conduct risk analysis, remediation and monitoring of soil and/or groundwater oil pollutions. According to these results, practical solutions will be proposed concerning the possible reuse and management of contaminated soils and hazardous wastes in the local area and industrial sites where a known risk (for health or ecosystems) is demonstrated. Various aspects are being considered to prioritize needed actions. The client will be informed on the existing remediation technologies and their applicability on the concerned lands, not only taking into account the pollution extent and local geology, but also the operation costs, and existing technical means of SOCAR and the country. With this knowledge as a starting point, ECOREM p.l.c. will strive to offer the most recent, innovative and customized solutions to advice SOCAR with the best available techniques for oil-contaminated land remediation and rehabilitation, in order to reduce the environmental externalities associated with the extraction activities. As a final aspect of this study, ECOREM will help SOCAR with the further development of their Strategic Action Plan for remediation and monitoring. Specific remediation measures will be defined in a realistic time schedule. Each and every stage of the proposed remediation technologies will be implemented in a realistic plan that needs to be technically and economically feasible for SOCAR.

  15. Internationalization of the auto industry in the conditions of national economies growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Laduba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article were studied the strategies, models and forms of the auto industry internationalization in the conditions of integration processes development and growth of the national economies transparency level. The authors determined the factors and grounded the criteria of effective strategies implementation of automobile companies of the USA, Japan, the EU and China.

  16. Finding Common Ground: Local Intermediaries and National Industry Associations. Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marc S.

    Local school-to-work intermediaries and national industry associations share the goal of organizing employers to improve learning and career opportunities for young people. Each type of organization has much to offer the other. Local school-to-work intermediaries perform the following essential functions: convene local employers and other leaders;…

  17. Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000; La pollution industrielle de la Moselle francais: naissance, developpement et gestion d'un probleme environnemental, 1850-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcier, J.R

    2005-12-15

    In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

  18. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sectorr/sub-sector

  19. Magnetic susceptibility of road deposited sediments at a national scale – Relation to population size and urban pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties of road dusts from 26 urban sites in Bulgaria are studied. Temporal variations of magnetic susceptibility (?) during eighteen months monitoring account for approximately 1/3rd of the mean annual values. Analysis of heavy metal contents and magnetic parameters for the fraction d 2 = ?0.84) is observed between the ratio ARM/? and Pb content. It suggests that Pb is related to brake/tyre wear emissions, releasing larger particles and higher Pb during slow driving – braking. Bulk ? values of road dusts per city show significant correlation with population size and mean annual NO2 concentration on a log-normal scale. The results demonstrate the applicability of magnetic measurements of road dusts for estimation of mean NO2 levels at high spatial density, which is important for pollution modelling and health risk assessment. - Highlights: • temporal variations of road dust magnetic susceptibility comprise 1/3 of the signal. • high negative correlation between Pb content and magnetic ratio ARM/? is obtained. • brake- and tyre ware emissions are the main pollution sources of the road dusts. • road dust magnetic susceptibility rises parallel with logarithm of population size. • linear correlation is found between mean NO2 concentrations and susceptibility. - Magnetic susceptibility of road dusts on a national scale increases proportionally to the population size and mean NO2 concentrations due to the effect of traffic related pollution

  20. Investigating the Electro-Fenton (EF Process Performance in Treating Highly Formaldehyde-Polluted Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bagheri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Formaldehyde is a toxic substance and harmful to human beings and the environmental health. Therefore, the effluents containing formaldehyde have to be efficiently treated before discharging into the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the efficiency of Electro-Fenton (EF Process in pre-treating industrial wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde.Materials and Methods: The effect of the important operational variables including pH, current density, H2O2 dosage, and reaction time were evaluated on the degradation of 7500 mg/L formaldehyde using batch tests. The EFP batch reactor was consisted of a cylindrical glass column with 5.20 cm in internal diameter and 34.50 cm in height. Working volume of the reactor was 500 mL.Results: The maximum formaldehyde removal was obtained at alkaline pH of 10, H2O2 concentration of 10 mM/min, current intensity 8.5 mA/cm2, and the reaction time of 6 minute. Furthermore, aerating the EFP cell could enhance the formaldehyde removal. Complete removal of formaldehyde was obtained under the abovementioned operational conditions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the EFP is capable of reducing high concentration of formaldehyde (7500 mg/l to the level suitable for biological post-treatment. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  2. Targets and criteria for the effective participation of national industry in a domestic nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in maximum use of national resource is common to all countries, the highly industrialized as well as the developing ones. Although benefits can be expected from national participation in a domestic nuclear power programme and may not be limited to this programme, such national participation is restricted by constraining factors: economic, financial, technical and political. Considering the various natures of activities - design, procurement, manufacturing, erection -, their technical difficulties, their potential spin-off effects on the overall industrial development of a country, the paper reviews the materials and components of a nuclear power plants which can be selected as targets for domestic production. The paper also reviews criteria which must be considered in setting these Target materials and components in order to overcome restricting factors to national participation such as cost of national products, financing, investment capability, adequate market size, availability of qualified manpower, industrial capability and quality standards, availability of technology and know-how, conflicts of interests. Some concrete examples drawn from previous experience will illustrate France efforts to overcome these limiting factors

  3. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

  4. [A multifactor assessment of effects of technogenic pollution on the occurrence of lung cancer in the population of an industrial town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnin, V L; Kazantsev, V S; Polzik, E V

    2014-01-01

    The study was devoted to the evaluation of technogenic geochemical pollution of the residential area of an industrial town and its effects on lung cancer incidence in the population living under severe exposure to emissions of a copper smelter plant. For mathematical treatment of epidemiologic data there were used methods of a system multifactor analysis based on pattern recognition principles. The result of the long-term operation of the copper smelter plant was established to become the intensive technogenic pollution of environment with carcinogenic substances. The contribution of environmental contamination in the lung cancer incidence of the population exposed to industrial emissions of the copper smelter was shown to be about 10%. PMID:25306695

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of the effluents eluted from different processes of the textile industry and its immobilization to trim down the environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the significance of industrial waste water pollution, which creates severe health hazards in humans, this study concentrates over the reduction and determination of the amounts of toxic metals/pollution parameters in the effluents leached from different processes of the textile industry. The concentrations of metal ions were measured by using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The values of toxic metals such as As (49.1 ± 1.8 mg/L), Cu (42.7 ± 1.5 mg/L), Ni (41.1 ± 3.3 mg/L), Mn (51.1 ± 0.7 mg/L), Sb (1.89 ± 0.04 mg/L), Se (0.41 ± 0.01 mg/L), Co (7.5 ± 0.3 mg/L), Cr (8.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and Cd (1.21 ± 0.08 mg/L) were found very high in crude textile's effluents as compared to their standard recommended limits. The immense variation observed among the injurious pollutants of the effluents i.e. pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, biological oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total solids etc. The toxic metals and injurious pollutants in the unprocessed effluents have been reduced in the post filtration effluents up to 98% and 96% respectively with the help of an ultra-filtration membrane therapy unit. (author)

  6. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  7. The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos, which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. This created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

    El asociacionismo farmacéutico industrial, al igual que ocurriera con otras actividades empresariales, experimentó un notable auge durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la II República. La Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, desde Barcelona, representó a la industria química nacional hasta su asimilación definitiva por la Organización Sindical franquista, en 1939. Dentro de esta asociación, los asuntos relacionados con los productos farmacéuticos, a los que prestaremos especial atención en este trabajo, fueron gestionados por la Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico- Farmacéuticos, que defendió los intereses de los productores de medicamentos industriales ante las autoridades gubernamentales, utilizando para ello recursos y mecanismos también manejados por otros grupos empresariales de presión. La inclusión de la farmacia industrial en el entramado químico nacional desligó a los fabricantes de especialidades farmacéuticas del ejercicio tradicional de esta profesión y de su entorno corporativo, circunstancia que generó encuentros, desencuentros, conflictos de intereses y, en definitiva, relaciones de amor-odio con sus colegas de oficina de farmacia y, por supuesto, con el grupo asociativo que les representaba: la Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

  8. A pilot study on the distribution of 137Cs between vegetation and soil in an industrial pollution gradient at the Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of radiocesium in dwarf shrubs, mosses, organic and inorganic soil was studied in an industrial pollution gradient from the Monchegorsk smelter at the Kola peninsula. As expected the highest values for vegetation was found in mosses/lichens followed by dwarf shrubs. The transfer factor between organic and vascular vegetation was ten times higher in the control area (100 km from the smelter) than in the affected areas (7 to 31 km from the smelter). 3 refs

  9. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe)

  10. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21?N, 111°11?E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  11. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...refrigerator door liners and food compartments, automotive...insulation board, food containers, drain...than a 0.5-percent price change and a similar...consumers based on supply and demand elasticities for the industries...

  12. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...free of any defects or viruses...Office of Air Quality Planning and...describe industrial processes, data inventories...variability in manufacturing processes and control...assurance/quality control processes, the...

  13. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...free of any defects or viruses...Office of Air Quality Planning and...describe industrial processes, data inventories...variability in manufacturing processes and control...assurance/quality control processes, the...

  14. 77 FR 44494 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation for Concentrated Animal Feeding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...operator of a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO...Guidelines for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations in Response...Industry Operators of animal production operations that...Beef cattle ranching and farming........ 112111...

  15. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: A case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate and univariate statistical techniques i.e., cluster analysis PCA, regression and correlation analysis, one way ANOVA, were applied to the metal data of effluents soil and ground water to point out the contribution of different industries towards the metals pollution, their source identification and distribution. The samples were collected from different industries and different downstream points of the main effluents stream and from the relatively less polluted area considered as control area. The samples were analyzed for metal concentration levels by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration data in the three media of the polluted area were compared with background data and control data as well as with the WHO safe limits. The results showed that soil has high metals concentration compared to effluents and water. The data also showed elevated levels of Mn and Pb in water that are 8.268 and 2.971 mg/L, respectively. Principal component analysis along with regression analysis showed that the elevated levels of metals in the effluents contaminate adjacent soil and ultimately the ground water. The other elements Co, Cd, Ni and Cu were also found to have correlation in the three media.

  16. Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Claudia Maria; Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatao (state of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Piloes River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress. (author)

  17. Air pollution prediction models of particles, As, Cd, Ni and Pb in a highly industrialized area in Castellón (NE, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Fortea, Ana Bele?n; Jorda?n Vidal, Manuel Miguel; Sanfeliu Montolio, Teo?filo; Sa?nchez, A?ngel; Esteban, Mari?a Dolores

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elaborate a series of mathematical models with the aim of short-term prediction of TSP, PM10, As, Cd, Ni and Pb in ambient air. These pollutants depend on some known variables (meteorological variables). The reason for choosing this pollutant type is that particulate matter may present a much higher potential risk despite its low representativeness as compared with the gas pollutant group. A positive correlation between high particle concentrations and deter...

  18. Assessment of impact of air pollution on human health and environment in the South Durban Industrial Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.; Hertel, O.

    This study predicts the spatial variation of air quality and estimate the human health risk of air pollution in SDIB. The study is based on the operational air pollution (OML) model which is predicting the dispersion and quantifying the contribution of selected air pollutant as PM10, SO2 and NOX in the case domain (12km*12km) with a resolution of 500m * 500 m grid

  19. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  20. CARTELS OR FAIR COMPETITION? THE ECONOMICS OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During the heart of the Great Depression, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA suspended U.S. antitrust laws and helped coordinate government sponsored cartels in most manufacturing industries in the American economy. The potential effect, detrimental or beneficial, of cartels is a topic of debate in the recent theoretical literature of cartels, though few historical examples of large-scale, economy-wide cartels exist. This study uses the NIRA cartel experience to test the competing hypotheses of the effects of cartels on economic variables.