WorldWideScience

Sample records for national industrial pollution

  1. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... reducing pollution in the most competitive manner for a specific industry sector or industrial process....

  2. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia. (paper)

  3. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  4. 78 FR 7137 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    2013-01-31

    ...; (7) suspension burners designed to burn biomass; (8) dutch ovens/pile burners designed to burn... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...

  5. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  6. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,

  7. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    2010-06-09

    ... the deadline for written comments on the proposed rules (75 FR 32006 (major source boilers), 75 FR 31896 (area source boilers), 75 FR 31938 (CISWI), and 75 FR 31844 (waste definition)) to August 3, 2010... 2050-AG44 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources:...

  8. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  9. THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

    Kshemaling S. Bhaskar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants given off by various industries and factories are often considered to be one of the prime factors contributing to air, water and soil pollution. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, it has been estimated that industrial pollution is responsible for almost 50 percent of the pollution present in the United States. There are various wideranging effects, as well as serious consequences, of industrial pollution on the ecological balance of the atmosphere.

  10. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    2010-06-04

    ... technology exchange in various areas of air pollution control. D. When would a public hearing occur? We will... implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715, July..., infrequent, and not reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control and monitoring equipment,...

  11. A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions

    The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

  12. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    2011-03-21

    ... Electronic Reporting Tool FR Federal Register GACT Generally Available Control Technology HAP Hazardous Air... information and technology exchange in various areas of air pollution control. C. Judicial Review Under... implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715,...

  13. A recommended approach to completing the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : guide

    Environment Canada administers a facility-based inventory for national releases of pollutants. This document was prepared by the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Subcommittee of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to help its members meet reporting requirements of the NPRI. It is intended to be a supplement to Environment Canada's guides for reporting to the NPRI and provides CAPP members with specific oil, gas and oil sand examples and clarifies NPRI requirements as applied to oil, gas and oil sand facilities. Having all CAPP members use the procedures in the guide to determine their NPRI emissions contributes to consistent and comparable emissions reporting between upstream oil and gas companies. The NPRI was developed in the early 1990s. Owners and operators of facilities are required to report to the NPRI if they meet the reporting criteria determined by the Minister of the Environment. Criteria air contaminants (CAC) were reported for the first time in 2002 when all upstream oil and gas facilities with 20,000 employee-hours worked onsite had to report criteria air contaminants (CAC) releases. In 2003, the 20,000 man hours worked threshold exemption for the upstream oil and gas industry was removed for CAC reporting. There were no major changes to the NPRI for the 2004 reporting year. This report outlined the general reporting criteria to the NPRI with reference to all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items located on a single site, pipeline installations and offshore installations. The report addressed reporting exemptions and special considerations; generalized estimation methods; combustion sources and CAC; fugitive equipment leaks; process venting; hydrocarbon emissions from storage tanks; loading losses; spills and accidental releases; releases to underground injection; disposal and recycling; hydrogen sulphides; speciation of volatile organic compounds; particulate matter from cooling towers; in-situ oil sand operations; and common errors in reporting to the NPRI. 40 refs., 27 tabs., 4 figs

  14. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    2012-09-11

    ... for the pulp and paper industry was promulgated on April 15, 1998 (63 FR 18504). The standards are... uncertainties discussed in the proposal preamble (76 FR 81338-40), the risks from the pulp and paper source... Environmental Justice EPA Environmental Protection Agency ERT Electronic Reporting Tool FR Federal Register...

  15. 75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    2010-07-22

    ... documents published on June 4, 2010. Comments on FR Doc 2010-10827 (75 FR 32006); FR Doc 2010-10832 (75 FR 31896); and FR Doc 2010-10821 (75 FR 31938) must be received on or before August 23, 2010. ADDRESSES... address: johnson.mary@epa.gov . For commercial and industrial solid waste incineration units: Ms....

  16. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  17. Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran

    Rafiei Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher′s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

  18. Physico-chemical studies of industrial pollutants

    Pollution problem industrial estates in more acute in some areas and district Haripur is one of those places. Industrial wastewater generated form various industries is drained into the natural streams / nallahs, which ultimately join river Indus through river Haro. Effluent of different industries were collected periodically and analysed for pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids, ammonia and chlorine. cations like calcium, magnesium and iron, anions like phosphate, chlorides, sulphates and sulphides were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Trace metals like arsenic cadmium, chromium cobalt copper lead manganese, nickel, tin and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. These results were evaluated and compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Effluent of the fertilizer industries in Haripur, (both phosphatic and nitrogenous) are producing pollution and causing damage to the flora and fauna in the area. Effluent of the phosphatic fertilizer is acidic, having pH 1.5-3.0 due to acid, while effluent of nitrogenous fertilizer is alkaline having pH 9.0 -10.5 due to ammonia. Suggestion for useful remedial measures and the effective control of the pollutants are discussed. (author)

  19. Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent

    V. Emongor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and suspended solids above the maximum permissible limits. While the chemical and paints industries could be a potential source of lead pollution in Gaborone. Temperature and acidity generally were not a problem for industrial effluents. The pharmaceutical industries met all the maximum and minimum guidelines for wastewater discharge. COD, BOD, suspended solids and heavy metal levels should be monitored strictly by the Gaborone City Council in order to prevent environmental pollution and reduce health hazards caused by pollutants.

  20. Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent

    V. Emongor; E. Nkegbe; B. Kealotswe; I. Koorapetse; S. Sankwasa; S. Keikanetswe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and sus...

  1. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

  2. National pollutants emission limits

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  3. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies...

  4. Industrial pollution in economic development: Kuznets revisited

    Hettige, Hemamala; Mani, Muthukumara; Wheeler, David

    1998-01-01

    Using new international data, the authors test for an inverse U-shaped, or"Kuznets,"relationship between industrial water pollution and economic development. They measure the effect of income growth on three proximate determinants of pollution: the share of manufacturing in total output, the sectoral composition of manufacturing, and the intensity (per unit of output) of industrial pollution at the"end of pipe."They find that the manufacturing share of output follows a Kuznets-type trajectory...

  5. the role of industry in air pollution

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  6. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  7. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26046426

  8. Atmospheric pollution and industrial melanism

    Lees, D.R.; Creed, E.R.; Duckett, J.G.

    1973-04-01

    The distribution of melanic forms in two moth and two ladybird species has been analysed in relation to fourteen environmental variables by multiple regression. Local smoke levels emerge as important factors in Phigalia pedaria and Adalia bipunctata whereas in Biston betularia sulfur dioxide appears to be the more important. The importance of crypsis is indicated in P. pedaria but not in the warningly colored A. bipunctata; nor is it confirmed in B. betularia despite earlier experimental results. There is no evidence for industrial melanism in Adalia decempunctata.

  9. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  11. Noise pollution in iron and steel industry

    Iron and steel industry is characterized by high energy consumption and thus present remarkable problems from the point of view of noise pollution. The aims of this paper is to examine characteristic and acoustical emissions and immisions of some fundamentals iron and steel plants with several remarks on the possible measures to reduce noise pollution. For a large integrate iron and steel system, some surveys are shown with all devices running and, in addition, comparisons are made with other surveys when the main devices were out of service owing to great maintenance works

  12. Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran

    Rafiei Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene′s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

  13. Pollution Charges, Community Pressure, and Abatement Cost of Industrial Pollution in China

    Wang, Hua

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate stand...

  14. Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm

    PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

    2013-01-01

    The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing...

  15. Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure

    Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

    1999-01-01

    In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

  16. Industrial Pollution Action Team final discussion document

    This report presents the recommendations of Ontario's Industrial Pollution Action Team regarding prevention of industrial spills and dangerous air emissions. The panel's report will be posted to the Environmental Bill of Rights Registry for a 60 day comment period. It reveals that there is room for improvement in the existing system of approvals, inspection, enforcement and prosecution. It was noted that there is no simple solution to spill prevention, and that a long-term, multi-pronged approach is needed. The action plan of Ontario's Ministry of Environment will focus on enhancing its scientific capacity, developing innovative policies to protect the environment, and implementing new ways to enforce environmental legislation for the province. The report made particular reference to a spill which occurred in the St. Clair River area and the following 5 areas of investigation: spill prevention, on-site/off-site spill detection, spill response, human and ecosystem health impacts, and communications. 1 fig

  17. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

  18. Pollution and energy management in tanning industry

    Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat in flue gases through a thermal wheel. Savings in the use of electrical and mechanical energy can carried out by using simple techniques. (author)

  19. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  20. Dust and smoke pollution monitoring in industrial unit

    Dust and smoke are the two most commonly emitted industrial pollutants which are visible to the naked eye. Cement plants and power generation plants, based on coal and fuel oil etc. are the most common examples of industry emitting these pollutants. In this article these pollutants have been briefly described and some monitoring instruments for dust and smoke emissions have been specific. These instruments are especially suitable for power station and the cement industry etc. Automotive in urban areas. However, this paper does not include equipment for automotive exhaust pollution. (author)

  1. Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, and Investment in Pollution Abatement

    Fowlie, Meredith

    2005-01-01

    Policy makers are increasingly relying on emissions trading programs to address environmental problems caused by air pollution. If polluting firms in an emissions trading program face different economic regulations and investment incentives in their respective industries, emissions markets may fail to minimize the total cost of achieving pollution reductions. This paper analyzes an emissions trading program that was introduced to reduce smog-causing pollution from large stationary sources (pr...

  2. Monitoring system for industrial gases pollutants

    The system is designed for monitoring gas pollutants in air, in a chemical plant. It consists of gas detectors with transmitter and modules for environmental conditions measurement, data loggers and a central monitoring station which role is to collect data, generate alarms if pollutants concentration becomes over limit and create database. A dedicated software permits data collecting and processing in order to get solutions for minimising human and technological risks. The system role is monitoring the pollution sources and the surrounded areas that might be affected, for keeping gas pollutants concentration at an acceptable level and to minimise the pollution effects. (author)

  3. Environmental Assessment due to Air Pollution near Iron Smelting Industry

    Arunachalam, R; Paulkumar, K.; A.J.A.Ranjitsingh; G. Annadurai

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was on iron smelting industry which was located in Papankulam-Madavarvilagam Village, Tamilnadu, India and polluting the environment in the forms of fumes. The pollutant seems to affect the various plants and human beings residing at the vicinity of industry. In this industry, for a month 40-50 tones of ferric sulphate was produced using sulphuric acid, nitric acid and iron which were considered major environmental contaminant. Ditch, well, bore-well waters, plant sa...

  4. Oil spill preparedness: The oil industry and the national arrangements

    It is vital that there is a credible and well organised arrangement to deal with oil spills in Australia. This paper discusses government and industry plans to deal with oil spills. The National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil (National Plan) is the umbrella oil spill response plan for Australia, with state, regional and specific industry plans cascading from the National Plan. The plan is a combined effort by the Commonwealth and state governments, the oil industry and the shipping industry, all of which have a stake in ensuring that Australian waters, coastlines and harbors remain pollution free. A review of the National Plan in 1992 identified amongst a number of issues, that the National Plan needed to be re-focussed, to ensure full integration of all government and industry activities for the first time. This has led to greatly improved understanding between government and industry and significant improvements to oil spill response preparedness. The National Plan review has also resulted in a clearer definition of the responsibilities for operational control, together with the organisational structure to deliver a successful response. The current state of Australia's National Plan is such that it does provide confidence that there is the capacity to deliver an effective response to oil spills in the marine environment. Nevertheless, there is more to be done, particularly in the areas of planning and exercises. (author). 2 figs., 1 photo

  5. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process or activity. (author)

  6. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem. PMID:25467695

  7. Environmental pollution-effects on national development

    Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

  8. How to control the industry pollution in China optimally?

    Li, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we empirically examine the effectiveness of existed several economic instruments in 31 provinces in China and develop the ways that could control the industrial pollution effectively. Although the current pollution norms and the informal pressure have a positive effect on controlling the water pollution in China, there are still some tasks we are supposed to do to improve the water quality. In this paper, the author suggests testing the monitoring and enforcement effor...

  9. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact

    Lucia Fazzo; Mario Carere; Francesco Tisano; Caterina Bruno; Achille Cernigliaro; Maria Rita Cicero; Pietro Comba; Maria Luisa Contrino; Marco De Santis; Fabrizio Falleni; Vincenzo Ingallinella; Anselmo Madeddu; Ida Marcello; Carlo Regalbuto; Giovanna Sciacca

    2016-01-01

    The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS) of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006). Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province ...

  10. Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm

    PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

  11. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  12. Sound Pollution Caused by the Industrial Activity in Tehran

    Mehrangiz shams

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is the problem of the industrial world that along with noised induced by traffic has become a problem in human life.This is more problematic in Tehran because of the traffic and the accumulation of small or large industries. People are profoundly exposed to the high level noises and there are increasing demands to solve the problem of noise in Tehran or at least alleviate it.In the current article we will have a brief and quick look to the noise making industries, the reason behind the noise pollution and the strategies for facing the disturbing industries.

  13. The Verification of Air Pollution Control Episodes in Industrialized Regions.

    Kovgar, V.

    1996-01-01

    There are two approaches for the protection of ambient air against the violation of the admissible threshold values and pollution impacts in large industrial regions. The first approach is the so-called "technological way". This approach leads to "green" technologies supporting the lowest level of a harmful pollutant emission. It would be the best solution for the FSU countries, but, unfortunately, this approach is difficult to implement. Many industrial enterprises in these countries ar...

  14. Pressures on industry to move to pollution prevention

    In a recent EPA report entitled Reducing Risk: Sorting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection, a recommendation was made that EPA should emphasize pollution prevention as the preferred option for reducing risk. A significant number of states have adopted legislation requiring industry to conduct pollution prevention planning activities and submit reports to the state agencies. Federal legislation may be on the way. Industrial trade organizations are looking at the Chemical Manufacturing Association's Responsible Care: Program. Institutional investment groups are looking at initiatives like the Valdez Principles when selecting its portfolio, each of these initiatives have pollution prevention components. Environmentalists are demanding further attention be paid to pollution prevention. Industry is responding with a variety of programs designed to move them away from the classic end-of-the pipe controls which EPA mandated in previous regulations

  15. Linkage with Industry on a National Scale.

    Shoemaker, Byrl R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines how the automobile industry, through the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence and the National Automotive Technical Education Foundation, has accepted a set of standards developed by the Industry Planning Council of the American Vocational Association Trade and Industrial Division and made them a basis for certification of…

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN INDUSTRIAL CONDENSATION REACTIONS

    The objective of this project is to develop heterogeneous acid-base catalysts to increase the economic and environmental performance of the current homogeneous catalysts used to make industrially important condensation products. Such products include methyl isobutyl ketone ...

  17. Industrial electricity conservation projects that save electricity and reduce pollution

    Newcomb, T.M. (Puget Sound and Light, Bellevue, WA (United States)); Healy, J. (Seattle City Light, WA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations have been put into effect that are more stringent and require industrial customers to reduce air pollution, water pollution, and toxic waste production. The amendments to the federal Clear Air Act and new regulations by the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency in the Seattle metro area regarding volatile organic compounds are cases in point. These regulations add another constraint to the decisions industrial engineers must make about the purchase of industrial equipment. Sometimes regulations stipulate the permissible types of industrial equipment, and sometimes the regulations merely set a permissible level of emissions for the plant to meet. The thesis of this article is that there are numerous types of electrical equipment that are more energy efficient and at the same time act to control or reduce industrial pollutants. Therefore, meeting environmental regulations with these types of efficient equipment can sometimes bring benefits in the form of reduced energy bills and utility grants. Industry's cost to comply with regulations can be mitigated, and the cost equation for industrial compliance with environmental regulations need not be a zero sum equation in which society's gain equals industry's loss. The case studies from Seattle City Light and Puget Sound Power and Light that follow demonstrate a variety of situations in which electrical end-uses and pollution are interrelated. The primary purposes of the article are: (1) to encourage others to look more carefully for the connections between energy efficiency and pollution as they implement efficiency projects and (2) to begin to answer the question why should these connections be as significant as they are'.

  18. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009) Using the LMDI I Method

    Beidou Xi; Hongjun Lei; Changjia Li; Xunfeng Xia

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-...

  19. Nuclear industry and national security

    The central issue of the book is not nuclear power as such, but its effects on the country as a whole in terms of security and safety. The contributions to the book examine aspects of national security affected by nuclear power, and the measures taken to make nuclear power safe, with safety covering the engineering aspects, and security the social, economic, and legal aspects. Experts in their field explain the safety philosophies modified in the course of nuclear industry development, and how technological problems have been tackled. Physical protection of nuclear power plant is an aspect, and insurance for financial security another. Security problems in connection with nuclear weapons in the F.R.G. are discussed as well as the political dimension of nuclear power safety, which is explained by representatives of the parties in the Bundestag. The role of the general public in the democratic process of defining 'security' or 'safety', and security in the context of a constitutional state are further topics under investigation. The book gathers contributions from authors who are known for their advocating, oppositional, or sceptical attitude towards nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  20. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point...

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility

  3. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-12-06

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  4. Environmental Assessment due to Air Pollution near Iron Smelting Industry

    R. Arunachalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was on iron smelting industry which was located in Papankulam-Madavarvilagam Village, Tamilnadu, India and polluting the environment in the forms of fumes. The pollutant seems to affect the various plants and human beings residing at the vicinity of industry. In this industry, for a month 40-50 tones of ferric sulphate was produced using sulphuric acid, nitric acid and iron which were considered major environmental contaminant. Ditch, well, bore-well waters, plant samples like coconut tender water, Cassia auriculata and Opuntia elatior extracts were captivated from pollutant and unpollutant sites and the concentration of iron content in the captivated water samples and plant extracts were monitored and also the effect of iron on the physiology of plants was studied. On the basis of results, we concluded the exhaust from the iron smelting industry had a telling effects on the near by ecosystem. Accordingly, continuous monitoring of this polluted study site can be helped to solve this air pollution.

  5. Green Design and Planning Resolutions for an Eco-Industrial Town: A Case Study of Polluted Industrial Estate in Rayong Province, Thailand

    Ariya Aruninta

    2012-01-01

    Map Ta Phut was designated for development in national policy as an Eastern Seaboard Industrial Port. It is located in Rayong Province with growing demand from Eastern Seaboard industries and is heavily affected by serious environmental problems as a"pollution control zone". While the Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry and Banking, representing the national business sector, claimed that the area generated total revenues of 1.1 trillion baht per year, or 11% of Thailand’s gross dom...

  6. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    2011-04-21

    ...EPA is taking final action for four national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) that regulate 12 industrial source categories evaluated in our risk and technology review. The four NESHAP include: National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber Production, Epichlorohydrin Elastomers Production, Ethylene Propylene Rubber Production, Hypalon\\TM\\......

  7. Treatment of Some Hazardous Industrial Pollutants by Simple Oxidation Techniques

    Central treatment of Industrial wastewater requires pretreatment of some specific pollutants which may be not effectively degraded in down stream processes in central treatment unit. Some of the hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewater including acrylonitrile, pesticides and some commonly used dyes (active and acid dyes) have been subjected individually to oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions in acidic solution. Treatment efficiency was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using a specially developed concentration/COD curves. Initial concentrations (in terms of COD) were 910 PPM, 1348 and 530 ppm and the respective COD reductions were 91, 98 and 99%, for the pesticide, acrylonitrile and the reactive dye. Oxidative degradation of polared and acid green also reduced COD by 99 and 100% respectively. The obtained results confirm the appropriateness of oxidative degradation as a pretreatment for some hazardous pollutants prior to treatment in central facilities or municipal activated sludge stations

  8. Industrial Sources of Pollution by Vibrations – Causes and Behavior

    Gilbert-Rainer Gillich; Florin Constantin Berinde

    2006-01-01

    Pollution by vibrations caused by industrial sources is extremely unpleasant if in their proximity are build areas. The authors present a classification of this kind of sources and the way how the vibrations are produced and propagated. Parameters of vibrations, their attenuation trough the ground and impact on the build structures is also illustrated.

  9. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

  10. EPA industrial pollution control R and D program. Petroleum refining and organic chemicals industries

    Lacy, W.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC); Des Rosiers, P.E.; Myers, L.H.; Short, T.E.

    1975-02-01

    The Research, Development, and Demonstration grants program of EPA has been implemented to meet current and emerging needs for water pollution control and energy conservation in the Petroleum Refining and Organic Chemicals Industries. Since the trend toward industrial water reuse has already commenced (e.g., the Petroleum Refining Industry), the exception occurring in some areas of the Organic Chemicals Industry, acceleration of the trend would provide a sound basis for future industrial expansion. Since current and future environmental standards are expected to increase greatly the pressures to reduce dramatically, or eliminate altogether, pollutional loads and effluent discharges, reuse and recycle to the point of providing an industrial closed water cycle should be planned. On this point, Federal legislation calls for the elimination of the discharge of pollutants into navigable waters by 1985, as a goal. Specific approaches that these Industries should consider in order to achieve higher levels of water pollution control performance and energy conservation include: Reduction and/or elimination of once-through water use; Reduction and/or elimination of high polluting (i.e., direct contact) water use; Recovery of products and by-products from concentrated wastewater streams; Cooling and process water recycle, and in some cases, boiler blowdown recycle/reuse; Acceptable disposition of solids, sludges, and gaseous wastes; and In-plant segregation of refractory or bio-toxic organic waste streams for special AWT treatment.

  11. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2012-05-25

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: May 8... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  12. 77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    2012-11-14

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA...

  13. Magnetic biomonitoring of industrial air pollution in SW Finland

    Salo, Hanna; Mkinen, Joni

    2015-04-01

    Moss bags made of Sphagnum papillosum were exposed along 8 km transects near Harjavalta Industrial Park in SW Finland. Previous studies have identified Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as the main source of air pollution. Our research hypothesis is that nowadays the local pollution load of airborne particulate matter from Industrial Park is mainly caused by other emission sources than the smelter's pipe. To identify possible magnetic fingerprints, industrial samples (fiberglass filters from the smokestacks of Cu-Ni smelter and Ni-dryer, final Cu-slag, granulated Ni-slag, Cu-concentrates, Ni-concentrates) were investigated. Mass-specific susceptibility and heavy metal levels were significantly higher near Industrial Park and showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the source. The magnetic mineralogy of moss bags, smelter's filter and Cu-slag was dominated by a low-coercivity magnetite while high-coercivity minerals were observed in dryer's filter, Ni-slag and majority of concentrates including all Ni-concentrates. Angular and sharp-edged particles prevailed in moss bags and industrial samples, except for smelter's filter and granulated Ni-slag in which spherical particles dominated. Seven air pollution impact zones were distinguished around Industrial Park on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and previous studies. Overall, industrial area's influence is observable up to 4 km and even further distances in SE and NW along prevailing wind directions and Kokemenjoki River valley. The heaviest anthropogenic air pollution load is deposited at 0.5-1 km distances. Particle morphology and magnetic data of the moss bags indicate that the particulate matter in the hot spot area, which spatial emphasis is in S-SW-W-NW in the upwind from the smelter, originate mainly from the dust emissions from other sources rather than the smelter's pipe. The industrial activities in and nearby hot spot area include handling and moving of concentrates and slags as well as heavy traffic. This study shows that air pollution from various dust-providing sources outweighs the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe especially at short distances. Furthermore, active magnetic monitoring by moss bags is spatially detailed sampling method for the identification of air pollutants and emission sources.

  14. ON VIBRATION EXPOSURE MONITORING AT INDUSTRIAL INTENSIVE POLLUTANT AREAS

    CARMEN DEBELAC

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study consisted by identification, evaluation and characterization of a direct linkage between the vibration levels at the intensive pollutant industrial sources and the vibration exposure of the proximity areas of these sites, at potential sensitive destinations. This analysis acquires high significance when nearly of these industrial sites there are the civil constructions, with preponderant human activities, or habitable areas. Based on a lot of instrumental measurements and using virtual instrumentation applications set, with implementation of the multipoint spectral analysis method, the authors succeeds to dignify the potential influences regarding the certain industrial vibratory pollutant sources and their qualitative effects on destination points, from the direct influence area of the respective sources. The actual benefit of this global approach in exposure evaluation method helps identification and analysis of this particular phenomenon of transmissibility. The instrumental tests were performed at the ASTRA Factory, Arad, Romania, on the forges sector, and on proximity zones.

  15. Effect of industrial pollution on growth of paints (photosynthesis)

    Plants need to do three functions: maintain their metabolic process; grow in size and reproduce. These processes depend on the photosynthesis that is directly or indirectly affected by man-made pollution that is Industrial discharge that include many toxic elements in air, water and land in Industrialized zones. To analyze the various pigments contained in chloroplast and to investigate the effect of industrial pollution on photosynthesis, sunny, semishady and shady leaves of different trees (30 samples) were collected at varying distances from the industrial area having power plants and other industries and the non-industrial area separately in Wah Cantt. The leaves were washed, dried and homogenized before undertaking analysis for different parameters. The result showed that average values of total chlorophyll varied in the range 21.6 - 35, chlorophyll a, 11-19, chlorophyll b, 15-17 and carotene content in the range of 13-33 mg/g of sample taken depending on the type of plant and distance from the industry. These values were in order of sunny> semishady>shady leaves and were comparatively lower as compared to the values in non-industrial area. The soil and water samples from different sites around the trees under study in industrial and non-industrial area were also analyzed for pH, EC, Cl/sup -1/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Pb, Na/sup +1/,K/sup +1/, turbidity and total alkalinity. Based on these analyses, the quality of water and soil samples of the industrial area were found to be satisfactory and within permissible limits. (author)

  16. Radiochemical studies on some industrial pollutants released to the environment

    This work aims at characterizing the industrial pollutants that may be released from: Abu-Zaabal fertilizer company, arab ceramic industry, Egyptian alum company near the compass of Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas and petroleum pipelines company at the start of lsmailia canal. The work concentrates on soil or/and sediment pollution, the lsmailia canal water stream pollution and plant pollution. Type of the element and its content are major parameters that are traced in the traced in the experimental work. The work stresses on the analysis of the raw materials used in the chosen Factories, their products of current use as well as their wastes and drainage. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique and radiometric determination of elements are adopted through this work. The selection of the technique is based on less time consumption, high accuracy, reliability, selectivity as well as chemical processing and separation need not to applied. Together with INAA determination of natural radioactivity are also adopted for accessing certain specific elements of importance to the fertilizer industry. Beside the mentioned techniques several classical analytical techniques as atomic absorption, spectrophotometric determination and volumetric methods are handled. 25 tabs., 80 figs., 117 refs

  17. Prosperity without pollution: The prevention strategy for industry and consumers

    Here is the first book to explain why only a preventative environmental strategy can work: because growing population, consumption and industrialization cripple current, rather haphazard, remedial efforts. This book shows how our society can make more with less, be more competitive and less polluting, while maintaining our standard of living by reducing and eventually eliminating the production of wastes and pollutants from industry, commerce, homes, farms, and institutions. This may seem far-fetched, but be prepared to discover in this book that there can be a middle ground between ecology and economy - and that you can help achieve it. You'll find data and examples that any person can use, from engineers in industry to office workers to activists. Every concerned citizen will also want to consider the authors' innovative suggestions for taxing wastes and using the proceeds to help companies and communities switch to new industrial processes. Also, you should evaluate their proposals to reburies meaningful waste and toxicity information on product labels, to make bans on chemicals and products a more credible and available corrective measure, and to secure permanent, high-level government support for pollution prevention

  18. Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

  19. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  20. Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain

    López-Abente Gonzalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns, over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR of towns situated at a distance of less than 2 km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463, paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140, food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111, metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123 and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099. Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of the differences between men and women observed in the analyses of the industrial groups suggest that there may be a component of occupational exposure, little-studied in the case of cancers of the digestive system.

  1. A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas

    Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

  2. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

  3. The National Ignition Facility and industry

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. The National Ignition Facility construction project will require the best of national construction industries and its success will depend on the best products offered by hundreds of the nation's high technology companies. Three-fourths of the construction costs will be invested in industry. This article reviews the design, cost and schedule, and required industrial involvement associated with the construction project

  4. 2001 national overview of the National Pollutant Release Inventory : recycling and energy recovery

    Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) was established in 1992 as a national, legislated, publicly accessible inventory in Canada that provides information to Canadians on industrial pollution and their communities. Companies are required to report annually to Environment Canada any information on releases and transfers of pollutants. A list of substances for which reports are required is published each year along with reporting requirements and thresholds for each substance. Changes to the NPRI are considered on an annual basis. The NPRI covers about 100 sectors of industrial and commercial activity ranging from electric power generation to leather tanneries. In 2001, 2618 facilities reported to the NPRI. This report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001. A total of 857 facilities submitted data on off-site transfers for recycling and energy recovery totalling 1,126,461 tonnes, a decrease of 3,911 tonnes from 2000. The report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001 with reference to recycling activities (80.8 per cent); metals and metal compounds (10.2 per cent); acids or bases (5.6 per cent); solvents (1.0 per cent); catalysts (1.0 per cent); energy recovery (0.8 per cent); organic substances (0.3 per cent); inorganic materials (0.2 per cent); pollution abatement residues (0.1 per cent); and, used oil (less than 0.1 per cent). The report also includes a summary of the 25 NPRI-listed substances transferred off-site in the largest quantities for recycling and energy recovery in 2001. The substances that accounted for nearly 1,077,306 tonnes were hydrogen sulphide, sulphuric acid, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective

    Vaz, N.

    1995-12-31

    The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

  6. The pollution intensity of Australian power stations: a case study of the value of the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI).

    Tang, Minmeng; Mudd, Gavin M

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the pollutant emissions from electrical generation facilities reported to Australia's National Pollutant Inventory (NPI). The data, in terms of pollutant intensity with respect to generation capacity and fuel source, show significant variability. Based on reported data, the dominant pathway and environmental segment for emissions is point-source air emissions. Surprisingly, pollutant emissions from power stations are generally a very small fraction of Australia's facility and diffuse emissions, except for F, HCl, NO(x), PM2.5, SO2 and H2SO4 (where it constitutes between 30 and 90% of emissions). In general, natural gas and diesel facilities have higher organic pollutant intensities, while black and brown coal have higher metal/metalloid pollutant intensities and there is a wide variability for inorganic pollutant intensities. When examining pollutant intensities with respect to capacity, there is very little evidence to show that increased scale leads to more efficient operation or lower pollutant intensity. Another important finding is that the pollutant loads associated with transfers and reuse are substantial, and often represent most of the reported pollutants from a given generation facility. Finally, given the issues identified with the NPI data and its use, some possible improvements include the following: (i) linking site generation data to NPI data (especially generation data, i.e., MWh); (ii) better validation and documentation of emissions factors, especially the methods used to derive and report estimates to the NPI; (iii) using NPI data to undertake comparative life cycle impact assessment studies of different power stations and fuel/energy sources, or even intensive industrial regions (especially from a toxicity perspective) and (iv) linking NPI data in a given region to ongoing environmental monitoring, so that loads can be linked to concentrations for particular pollutants and the relevant guidelines (e.g., air, water, human health). Pollutant inventory systems are clearly valuable tools in understanding pollution burdens and ongoing analysis of the growing body of data should help to further improve environmental and public health outcomes. Overall, this study provides a valuable insight into the current status of pollutant intensities from Australia's electrical generation facilities and should be a valuable benchmark for future studies and international comparisons. PMID:26233750

  7. Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe

    Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the industrial sectors included in the E-PRTR pollutant register, emissions from the power generating sector contribute the largest share of the damage costs (estimated at EUR 66-112 billion). Excluding CO{sub 2}, the estimated damage costs from this sector are EUR 26-71 billion. Sectors involving production processes and combustion used in manufacturing are responsible for most of the remaining estimated damage costs. (LN)

  8. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  9. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (μg/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 μg/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  10. Biomagnetic monitoring of industry-derived particulate pollution

    Clear association exists between ambient PM10 concentrations and adverse health outcomes. However, determination of the strength of associations between exposure and illness is limited by low spatial-resolution of particulate concentration measurements. Conventional fixed monitoring stations provide high temporal-resolution data, but cannot capture fine-scale spatial variations. Here we examine the utility of biomagnetic monitoring for spatial mapping of PM10 concentrations around a major industrial site. We combine leaf magnetic measurements with co-located PM10 measurements to achieve inter-calibration. Comparison of the leaf-calculated and measured PM10 concentrations with PM10 predictions from a widely-used atmospheric dispersion model indicates that modelling of stack emissions alone substantially under-predicts ambient PM10 concentrations in parts of the study area. Some of this discrepancy might be attributable to fugitive emissions from the industrial site. The composition of the magnetic particulates from vehicle and industry-derived sources differ, indicating the potential of magnetic techniques for source attribution. - Highlights: → We use biomagnetic monitoring to map PM10 concentrations around an industrial site. → SIRMs of tree leaves represent a quantitative proxy for PM10 around this site. → Magnetically distinct proximal samples (10 levels in the prevailing wind direction from the site. → Magnetic differences between vehicle and industry PM10 may enable source attribution. - Biomagnetic techniques are used for quantitative mapping of particulate pollution at uniquely high spatial resolution and to distinguish between differently-sourced PM10.

  11. Industrial cogeneration in the national energy context

    The paper deals with the role of industrial cogeneration in the national energy context, focussing to the great unexploited potential related to modern conversion technology. Technological aspects, energy saving, environmental benefits of cogeneration are described, as well as regulation, authorization and tariff aspects that strongly affect the cogeneration development

  12. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  13. 76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-12-07

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  14. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  15. 75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    2010-04-06

    ... Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA. ACTION... Administration (NARA), has amended National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1. This amendment to...). The Executive Order established a National Industrial Security Program (NISP) to safeguard...

  16. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6) nuclear sources until the year 2005. Each module was analyzed separately and the result from each module was transferred into the Air Quality Impact model. The model assesses the changes in electricity generation within each module due to deregulation and these changes can then be correlated to the emission of air pollutants in the United States.

  17. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  18. 76 FR 18066 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-04-01

    ..., Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: March 17, 2011. Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional... consists predominately of industrial/ commercial properties and associated parking areas in an industrial... reporting past industrial waste dumping and contamination in the then vacant field of Kerry Place. As...

  19. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  20. A Critique of the Public Education Approach to Industrial Pollution Abatement.

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    1973-01-01

    Public education cannot be considered an efficient alternative to industrial pollution abatement. The public education alternative stresses that an informed non-industrial public will, out of civic responsibility, bring about sufficient social pressure on the industrial sector to end pollution. However, evidence suggests that the mere presence of…

  1. Occupational Noise Pollution and Hearing protection in selected industries

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of technology in industries is ever increasing. With the introduction of this technology come new safety and human performance concerns. Hearing loss caused by industrial noise has been recognized for many years, and protection of employee hearing has been made mandatory by governmental agencies. This paper presents an investigation of occupational noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD in selected industries in the south-eastern Iran. A questionnaire has been used to collect data for workers with high noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD. The subjects were 354 industrial workers expose to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in Iranian legislation (85dB (A 8h/d. The results of this study indicated that only younger workers with minor professional experience and with high educational background are used PHPD to protect and preserve their hearing. The finding of this study shows that approximately 75% of the workers with age 18-36 reported the use of personal protective Devices at all the time, and 73% of workers with age more than 46 years old reported that they had never used them PHPD, even though it was mandatory in their workplaces. Statistical data show that, the percentage of male workers (82 with age more than 37 years old having headaches at workplace are higher than female (3.4 with the same age groups. A noise training and education program must be developed for industrial employees in order to protect them from hazardous noise pollution. Employers must play an important role in promoting the regular use of Personal hearing protective devices. Noise level in work areas must be considered in the early design of Hearing Conservation Program.

  2. Do Industries Pollute More in Poorer Neighborhoods? Evidence From Toxic Releasing Plants in Mexico

    Lopamudra Chakraborti; José Jaime Sainz Santamaría

    2015-01-01

    Studies on industrial pollution and community pressure in developing countries are rare. We employ previously unused, self-reported toxics pollution data from Mexico to show that there exists some evidence of environmental justice concerns and community pressure in explaining industrial pollution behavior. We obtain historical data on toxic releases into water and land for the time period 2004 to 2012. We focus on 7 major pollutants including heavy metals and cyanide. To address endogeneity c...

  3. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

  4. Industrial Pollution Control and Efficient Licensing Processes: The Case of Swedish Regulatory Design

    Maria Pettersson; Patrik Söderholm

    2014-01-01

    Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT) requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED). In this paper, we review and a...

  5. STUDIES ON THE POLLUTION OF WATERBODY BY TEXTILE INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    ADENOWO, J.A.; GBADEBO, A.M.; TAIWO, A.M.; Awomeso, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution arises from introduction of foreign materials capable of deteriorating water quality into a waterbody, hence, posing negative effects on aquatic lives and human health. Industrial effluents accounts for several point sources of water pollution. To quantify the impacts of these industrial discharges on water bodies, water samples from a stream polluted by a textile industry were collected at twelve sampling points with sampling intervals of 50 m. Samples were analyzed using s...

  6. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    Lope Virginia; García-Pérez Javier; Vidal Enrique; Ramis Rebeca; Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain a...

  7. Industrial air pollution: British progress—a review

    Nonhebel, G.

    Recent Annual Reports on industrial air pollution issued by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive show that considerable progress has been made. Further "Presumptive Limits of Emission" and "Notes on Best Practicable Means" have been published by H.M. Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate. The lists given in this journal [9, 709 (1975)] are extended in the Appendices. An abstract is given of BPM for oil refineries. Heavy smoke from blue brick manufacture and from shaft lime kilns has been eliminated by gas firing. Steps have been taken to reduce emissions of vinyl chloride, PCBs, compounds of fluorine and of toxic metals, As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn and radioactives. Reduction of low-level emissions is a continuing problem in improving local amenity. Considerable attention has been paid to continuous monitoring of massive emissions and of concentrations of pollutants outside factories, including odours. Arrestment equipment supplied to small firms has given trouble through poor design of components and monitors, inadequate help by suppliers during commissioning, and by lack of training and correct maintenance by management; tight specifications requiring quality engineering should be prepared by purchasers. Lectures to workers, backed by booklets, are assisting in making difficult works better neighbours. The Inspectorate has six sampling teams, mainly for dust, and nine task groups for special programmes. A computer programme for calculation of ground concentrations from multiple sources is assisting inspectors to assess complex situations. It is the author's opinion that research workers on environmental problems should examine these Reports to find more industrial subjects for study.

  8. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

    2006-09-15

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

  9. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  10. Industrial pollution and its impacts on public health in the Chekka area

    Industrial development in the region of Chekka - North Lebanon, has caused a serious industrial pollution.This is mainly due to the presence of multiple industrial plants such as cement industries, chemical industry and others... The article describes pollution of air, water and soil by effluents, dusts and chemicals emitted by industries. Many studies were done to analyze the rate of pollution in water, dusts, petroleum coke and results showed that industrial plants were the primary source of environmental pollution. Three kinds of gases are considered to be the main cause of pulmonary cancer: black smog, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide and NO2. Safety procedures were taken within industries to assure public safety of workers

  11. Directory of National Organizations Concerned With Land Pollution Control.

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 133 national organizations, agencies, institutes and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  12. Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control, 1971.

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 204 national organizations, agencies, institutes, and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  13. Industrial Pollution Regulation in the EU and in Macedonia, Serbia And Croatia

    Aleksandar Chavleski

    2013-01-01

    Industrial pollution control has substantial impact in the protection of the environment. In the European Union, there’s vast legislation in this field consisting mainly of the Directive on industrial emissions of 2010 aimed at consolidating the so far existing legislation in this field. The new Directive on industrial emissions aims to establish an integrated prevention and control of the pollution arising from industrial activities and it lays down rules designed to prevent or, where that i...

  14. Dioxin. Reduction of industrial pollutions; Dioxines. Reduction des pollutions d'origine industrielle

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In june 1999 the ADEME organized, in collaboration with national and international experts, two technical days on the environmental and society problem of the dioxin. Presented in two parts the talks are proposed in this book. The first one deals with the dioxin impact from the incinerators to the milk products, under a juridical, sociological and epidemiological point of view. The second one is devoted to the formation mechanisms, the monitoring and the risk management in the industry. (A.L.B.)

  15. 75 FR 48867 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2010-08-12

    ..., agricultural, food service, and ground water uses of that area as well. In addition, development of that area... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: August 4, 2010. Lawrence E. Starfield... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  16. 76 FR 76048 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-12-06

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... of the shallow ground water. The State of Texas defines ground water resources based on water quality... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  17. 76 FR 45428 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-07-29

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... of the shallow ground water. The State of Texas defines ground water resources based on water quality... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  18. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-12-13

    ..., Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  19. 75 FR 44932 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2010-07-30

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  20. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2012-08-02

    ..., Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  1. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    2011-11-10

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan...

  2. 77 FR 58321 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2012-09-20

    ..., Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: August 27, 2012. Gwendolyn Keyes Fleming, Regional...)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  3. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2013-08-05

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  4. 76 FR 18136 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-04-01

    ..., Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  5. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-08-10

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  6. 75 FR 53268 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2010-08-31

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  7. 76 FR 50164 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    2011-08-12

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan...

  8. 78 FR 11620 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    2013-02-19

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...

  9. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2010-09-13

    ... documentation. The public comment period for the NOIDp was extended through August 16, 2010 (75 FR 42361). EPA..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  10. MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    M. LUCA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

  11. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

  12. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: a case study.

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M James C; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  13. Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach

    Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

  14. Compliance plan for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). The facility is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio, on a 16.2-km2 (6.3-mile2) site about 1.6 km (1 mile) east of the Scioto River Valley at an elevation approximately 36.6 m (120 ft) above the Scioto River floodplain. The terrain surrounding the plant, except for the Scioto River floodplain, consists of marginal farmland and densely forested hills. The principal site process is the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. Support operations include the feed and withdrawal of material from the primary process, treatment of water for both potable and cooling purposes, steam generation for heating purposes, decontamination of equipment removed from the process for maintenance or replacement, recovery of uranium from various waste materials, and treatment of industrial wastes generated on-site. PORTS will comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations as a single facility as specified under ''Discussion of Source Categories, VI.A.4.d Definition of a Facility'' in Volume 54, No. 240 p. 51665 of the Federal Register. Continuous vent stack monitoring and dose modeling as specified in 40 CFR 61.93 of Subpart H will be used to demonstrate compliance with radionuclide NESHAP regulations. Ambient air monitoring stations near receptor sites and Health Physics monitoring in plant process buildings will be used to give assurance that unmonitored sources, or fugitive emission sources, are not emitting sufficient radionuclides to add a significant contribution to total plant emissions

  15. Communities as informal regulators: new arrangements in industrial pollution control in Vietnam

    Phung Thuy Phuong; Mol, A.P.J.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies in developing countries show that in the absence of strict environmental regulation and strong enforcement, communities have emerged as a new informal regulators. In Viet Nam local communities in some cases are successful in forcing industrial polluters to reduce pollution or to change production processes into more environmentally sound directions. New subpolitical arrangements are formed, involving innovative relations between communities, industrial polluters and state ...

  16. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Yang Guan; Chaofeng Shao; Qingbao Gu; Meiting Ju; Qian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined usi...

  17. Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution

    Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

  18. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  19. GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants

    Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; Hřebíček, Jiří; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a model monitoring network providing public administration, private subject, and general public information about air pollution by POPs that had not been previously regularly monitored and whose measurement is further required by global monitoring plan of the Stockholm Convention. The MONET network is international project with many participants. Monitoring in the MONET-CZ network started in 2004 with the pilot project and continues to the current days, MONET CEEC started in 2006 and continues nowadays, MONET Africa started in 2008. The database of the GENASIS systems currently covers MONET-CZ data until the year 2008. The MONET network currently covers 37 countries in the Europe, Asia and Africa with more than 350 sampling sites. The paper will discuss about following topics * Data Fusion in GENASIS: how can GENASIS maximize the value and accuracy of the information gathered from heterogeneous data sources? * Sensor types in GENASIS: which POPs can be measured; what are the physical limitations to achievable accuracy, reliability, and long-term stability of miniaturized sensors; which applications can (not) be realized within these limitations?

  20. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOC, and NH3) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the count...

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    AbdulFatai JIMOH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

  2. Optimalisation of national industry participation in nuclear power plant construction

    A study of national industry participation based on recent data has already been conducted. The current industry data is used to estimate the optimum level of national industry participation in nuclear power plant (NPP) construction based on the prior study. The purpose of the study is to give a figure of the optimum level of national industry participation in NPP construction. The scope of the study is the NPP construction project in related to the potency of national industry to participate in the project. The methodology used in the study are literature study, web surfing for industrial data, and on-the-spot industry survey that are potential to participate in NPP construction. In addition to that, discussion with expertise of industrial practitioner was also conducted. The study concludes that (1) based on the recent national industry capability provided and compared to prior similar study, it is estimated that the level of national industry participation in the first NPP construction with the capacity of 1000 MWe PWR is about 40%. (2) to accelerate NPP technology transfer, we need to build a small size NPP. The nuclear island will be developed by BATAN in cooperation with national industry and the non-nuclear island will be developed by national industry. Universities and other academicians should be involved to support and keep the sustainability of man power availability in developing the NPP technology. (author)

  3. National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

    Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

  4. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  5. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  6. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  7. Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources. Highlights and achievements

    The importance of industries to national development is well recognized. However, for sustainable national development, the environmental impacts (particularly as it affects human health) of these industries must also be well monitored. Ingestion through food and water is one of the two major routes for these toxic pollutants to accumulate in man and thereby impact his health. The other major route being inhalation from the air

  8. Investigation of cadmium pollution in contaminated industrial area in Guilan province industrial estates.

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin

    2014-09-01

    Toxicity and accumulation of cadmium in body organs by eating contaminated food has an important role in endangering a human's health. Using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, site 1, site 2 and site 3 were selected as polluted sites and site 4 was selected as the control site. Seedlings of buttonwood were prepared for 12 months then root, stem, and leaf samples were harvested and the amounts of cadmium element in stem and leaf organs together with the growth parameters were measured. This study determines the amount of cadmium accumulated in Platanus occidentalis. The respective cadmium concentrations in the root, leaf, and stem in site 1 were 382, 98, and 87; in site 2 they were 591, 122, and 94; and in site 3 they were 633, 151, and 104 mg/kg dry weight (DW). Furthermore, the comparison between accumulation and transfer of cadmium in the study showed more absorption of this metal by the root than that by the stem and leaf. The result of this research shows that buttonwood has the potential for cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. To control the extent of contamination in industrial areas, petrochemical industries, power plants and vast contaminated municipal areas, there is a great need for planting plants like buttonwood. PMID:23853204

  9. WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT IN THE WISCONSIN PAPER INDUSTRY

    The study estimates the costs incurred by paper mills in the State of Wisconsin to comply with water pollution control requirements and compares these costs to those incurred by similar mills in other states.

  10. Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

  11. Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Nadeem Zafar

    2005-01-01

    In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU), tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU), textile: Dying Unit (DU) and textile: Finishing Unit (FU) in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivi...

  12. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Marian Ianculescu; Monica Ionescu; Dora Lucaci; Stegan Neagu; Cristina Mihaela Macarescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney ...

  13. Pollution reduction strategies in the fiberglass boatbuilding and open mold plastics industries

    Davis, D.; Lao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the industry, the incentives for pollution reduction including economic, regulatory, liability and psychological factors. Production-based pollution reduction strategies and some case studies are described for air assisted airless spray guns, resin impregnators, resin roller dispensers, vacuum bag molding, resin transfer molding, resin transfer molding, and rotational molding. Managing contaminated solvents, facility based pollution reduction management strategies, and materials safety information are discussed.

  14. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov; Marat A. Karatayev

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negativ...

  15. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Weili Duan; Bin He

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the ...

  16. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    Lope Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.

  17. Place-Based Stressors Associated with Industry and Air Pollution

    Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigm...

  18. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  19. Oil industry and the problems with radioactive pollution on Absheron Peninsula

    The concept of 'Sustainable development' accepted by the international community as a basis of co-operation among countries envisages the necessity of rational national resource management that will minimize the damage to the future generations. As a fundamental guide towards this goal, a document identifying the principles of the global environmental security - 'Agenda 21 century'- was approved by the majority of states at the 1992 Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. Based on the principles of Agenda-21 century, Azerbaijan developed its National Environmental Concept, and passed a number of laws in support of environmental protection and sustainable development. At this stage of the country's development, the issue of national resource management is of paramount importance for the nation. The disastrous environmental situation inherited from the former Soviet Union is affecting every aspect of the country's life and presenting a clear threat to the health and well-being of the population. Considering the problem with the radioactive contamination and radioactive wastes we have to identify the primary reason of it existence on the territory of Azerbaijan, and particularly Apsheron Peninsula. The main contributor to intensive environment pollution is the technogenic and industrial wastes

  20. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This empirical study confirms that the proposed approach is useful in both guiding regional planning and developing a sustainable society. It is easily envisioned that the proposed approach is useful for not only Japan but also the other industrial and developing nations. - Highlights: • Japan effectively reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances. • Japan needs to allocate capital in regions with high investment effectiveness. • Technology innovation makes it possible to balance economic growth and pollution prevention. • The proposed approach is useful in guiding regional development of a sustainable society

  1. Air pollution modeling for an industrial complex and model performance evaluation

    Jamshedpur, the steel city of India situated in the eastern part of India is affected by increasing air pollution levels as a result of concentrated industrial activities. The impact of NOx emissions resulting from various air pollution sources, viz. industries, vehicles and domestic, was estimated using Industrial Source Complex Short-Term gaussian dispersion model. The contribution of NOx concentration from industrial, vehicular and domestic sources was found to be 53, 40 and 7%. Further statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the model performance by comparing measured and predicted NOx concentrations. The model performance was found good with an accuracy of about 68%. (Author)

  2. Analysis of Pollution Industrial Transfer Based on Environmental Regulation and Public Participation: China’s Case

    Wen-bin Peng; Wei-ping Wu

    2013-01-01

    Referring to 1995-2011 China's provincial panel data, this paper constructs an econometric model consisting of environmental regulation, public participation and pollution industrial transfer, and mainly focuses on the role of environmental regulation and public participation in the pollution industries transfer using panel data unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test and panel regression analysis method. The results show that environmental regulation and public participat...

  3. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Ehsanul Kabir; Sharmila Ray; Ki-Hyun Kim; Hye-On Yoon; Eui-Chan Jeon; Yoon Shin Kim; Yong-Sung Cho; Seong-Taek Yun; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration obs...

  4. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    Cristina C. David; Inocencio, Arlene B.; Gundaya, Debbie M.

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution and Policies for Restructuring the Steel and Iron Industry in Poland

    Novy, M.

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of a three year Industrial Metabolism Project entitled "Regional Material Balance Approaches to Long-Term Environmental Policy Planning" at IIASA which focuses on heavy metal pollution in the Black Triangle-Upper Silesia region of Poland. This report examines the economic importance of the iron and steel industry in the Katowice region, and its impact on heavy metal pollution. Environmental policies in Poland for limiting the emission of heavy metals and maintaining air qua...

  6. Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan

    Sardar Khan; Asif Muhammad Khan; Muhammad Noor Khan

    2002-01-01

    Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure th...

  7. Relationship between technological progress, capital elasticity and emissions of industrial pollutants for the production sectors in Catalonia

    As is known, the Kyoto protocol proposes to reinforce national policies for emission reduction and, furthermore, to cooperate with other contracting parties. In this context, it would be necessary to assess these emissions, both in general and specifically, by pollutants and/or among productive sectors. The objective of this paper is precisely to estimate the polluting emissions of industrial origin in Catalonia in the year 2001, in a multivariate context that explicitly allows a distinction to be made between the polluter and/or the productive sector causing this emission. Six pollutants are considered, four directly related to greenhouse effect. A multi-level model, with two levels, pollutants and productive sectors, was specified. Both technological progress and elasticity of capital were introduced as random effects. Hence, it has been permitted that these coefficients vary according to one or the other level. The most important finding in this paper is that elasticity of capital has been estimated as very non-elastic, with a range that varies between 0.162 (the paper industry) and 0.556 (commerce). In fact, and generally speaking, greater the capital in the sector, lower the elasticity of capital estimated

  8. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact.

    Fazzo, Lucia; Carere, Mario; Tisano, Francesco; Bruno, Caterina; Cernigliaro, Achille; Cicero, Maria Rita; Comba, Pietro; Contrino, Maria Luisa; De Santis, Marco; Falleni, Fabrizio; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Madeddu, Anselmo; Marcello, Ida; Regalbuto, Carlo; Sciacca, Giovanna; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Zona, Amerigo

    2016-01-01

    The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS) of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006). Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs) present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern. PMID:27087035

  9. Evaluation Of The Level Of Compliance Of Cost Approach To Valuation To Provisions Of Nigerian’s National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement In Industries And Facilities Generating Waste) Regulation Of 1991

    Aniagolu C. O; Odumodu, A. I

    2016-01-01

    The cost approach to Valuation is one of the primary methods of valuation adopted in Nigeria by valuers in solving industrial valuation problems. The method is based on the principles of contribution and substitution. Generally, lacks of data, insecurity and instability in the Nigerian economy have made other models relatively, inapplicable in Nigeria situation. Hence majority of the valuations done in Nigeria adopts the cost approach. With recent focus of the world on environment...

  10. Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries

    In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

  11. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Zhengge Tu; Renjun Shen

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS) on the pollution abatement costs (PAC) from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC) and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC) based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. O...

  12. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ECOSYSTEM AND INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AT THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU

    Ravindran, A. Antony

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to investigate the environmental ecosystem in Thoothukudi district. The study area is the small and large scale industrial city of Tamilndu. Chemical industry and power plant and marine fishing affect the ecosystem of the study area. Airborne emissions emitted from various industries are the cause of major concern. These emissions are of two forms such as, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and gaseous emission of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxi...

  14. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  15. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  16. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Yang Guan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1 Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2 Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3 The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  17. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  18. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions. PMID:26452654

  19. [Relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou: how about the EKC?].

    Ling, Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yin, Rong-Yao; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Based on the study of the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou City in 1991-2005, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of the City was estimated by several kinds of function, with the cause analyzed. The results showed that the EKC of Suzhou was not a typical one. The industrial pollution of the City increased dramatically by scale effect of economic growth and the clear environmental benefit of industrial structure adjustment was not received obviously, while generalized discharge reduction technologies showed great results. In general terms, the pollution increase was comparatively slower than the GDP growth. As a whole, the environmental policy of Suzhou was in effect. However, the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge had not been a benign development yet. In order to achieve win-win situation of economic growth and pollution reduction, Suzhou needed to optimize its industry structure, push the energy conservation and discharge reduction policy deeply, increase environmental investment, and enforce the strictest environmental and industrial policy. In doing these, Suzhou could turn the traditional omega-shaped EKC into delta-shaped EKC. PMID:19565781

  20. removal of hazardous pollutants from industrial waste solutions using membrane techniques

    the removal of hazardous pollutants from industrial waste solutions is of essential demand field for both scientific and industrial work. the present work includes detailed studies on the possible use of membrane technology especially liquid emulsion membrane for the removal of hazardous pollutants such as; cadmium , cobalt , lead, copper and uranium from different industrial waste solution . this research can be applied for mixed waste problems. the work carried out in this thesis is presented in three main chapters, namely introduction, experimental and results and discussion

  1. A national day with near zero emissions and its effect on primary and secondary pollutants

    Levy, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Traffic related air pollution is a major health concern in many countries. The potential costs and benefits of different abatement policies are usually estimated by either models, case studies or previously implemented intervention measures. Such estimations have, however, limited ability to predict the effect of a reduction in primary pollutants' emissions on secondary pollutants such as ozone, because of the nonlinear nature of the photochemical reactions. This study examines the short term effects of a drastic change in emissions on a national scale during the Jewish holiday of Day of Atonement (DA) in Israel. During the holiday nearly all anthropogenic emission sources are ceased for a period of 25 h, including all vehicles, commercial, industrial and recreational activities. DAs during the 15 years period of 1998-2012 are analyzed at three sites with respect to primary and secondary air pollutants, and in greater details for 2001. A dramatic decrease in primary pollutants emissions (83-98% in NO) causes an 8 ppbv increase in ozone at the urban core. Downwind (27 km), ozone decreases by only 5 ppbv. Nighttime O3 is shown to increase to 20 ppbv at the urban sites and 30 ppbv downwind. In spite of the striking reduction in emissions, changes in ozone are not greater than what is reported in the literature about less significant events like the ozone weekend effect. Changes in ambient pollution levels observed during DA provide some indication to the possible outcomes of a major change in anthropogenic emissions. These may be considered as the best case scenario for emissions reduction intervention measures and thus aid policy makers in evaluating potential benefits of such measures.

  2. Serving Science and Industry from a National Library

    Russon, David

    2012-01-01

    I should like to consider the ways in which special needs in the scientific and industrial communities are met by national libraries. What services are needed? What are provided? How are they changing? The traditional view of a national library's role is that it should maintain and preserve the national archive and provide a bibliographic record of the nation's literary output. Traditionally, it should provide reference access to the national archive and, possibly, play a central role in t...

  3. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: Business and Industry.

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents an indication of existing workforce levels and career potentials for environmental/energy occupations within private industry. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. The format includes an introduction to…

  4. The Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset

    The economic importance of the Canadian nuclear industry in saving costs and creating jobs is expounded. The medical work of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is also extolled. The Canadian Nuclear Association urges the federal government to continue to support the industry at home, and to continue to promote nuclear exports. This report was prepared in response to the Federal Finance Minister's 'A New Direction for Canada'

  5. Environmental policy and industrial competitiveness: The pollution haven hypothesis reconsidered

    Bommer, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis suggests that tight environmental standards reduce domestic producers' competitiveness and give rise to their relocating to countries with more lenient standards. This paper questions that relocation is always caused by reduced competitiveness at home. By using a signaling approach, I show that relocation can be undertaken for purely strategic reasons. Relocation is the producer's tool to convince the policy maker to refrain from a further tightening of environm...

  6. Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry

    Manea, D.; Dorina, S.; Popescu, L.; Stoian, P.

    2009-07-01

    It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

  7. Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry

    It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

  8. UST-IDRC national symposium on the mining industry and the environment: programme and abstracts

    The National Symposium on the mining industry and the environment was organized by the UST/IDRC Environmental Research Group in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The symposium generally covered strategies for the development of the mining industry as well as solutions to the environmental problems associated with the industry in Ghana. The publication contains the programme and abstracts of scientific sessions of the Symposium. The abstracts covered the following topics among others: multi-element analysis of mineral ores samples, review of environmental studies related to gold mining in Ghana, local sulphooxidizing bacteria for environmentally friendly gold mining, arsenic pollution in streams and sediments, rainfall erositivity and soil loss from degraded lands and mine spoils, the impact of surface mining on forest structure and environment, current environmental practices in the mining industry, and the role of the mining industry in the economy of Ghana

  9. Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Muhammad Asif Hanif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU, tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU, textile: Dying Unit (DU and textile: Finishing Unit (FU in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

  10. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T2O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  13. Selected uses of activated carbon for industrial wastewater pollution control

    Skovronek, H.S.; Dick, M.; Rosiers, R.E.D.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the EPA's research, development, and demonstration program (designed to meet the conditions of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act) showed that it has contributed to the development of carbon adsorption technology for oil refinery wastewaters, removal of acetic acid and phenol from brine, treatment of pulp mill and pine stump wastes, treatment of intermittent storm water, and polishing final effluent from an integrated steel mill. Investigations are also being carried out into the biological regeneration of activated carbon and production of carbon from various wastes.

  14. Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

  15. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina; Kubal, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic...... remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially...... polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the...

  16. Environmental Monitoring, Other - MO 2012 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfalls (SHP)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a point data set depicting outfall locations of wastewater facilities in Missouri with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) operating...

  17. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

    1988-07-01

    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  18. Environmental pollution and policies in China's Township and Village Industrial Enterprises

    Taketoshi, Kazuki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze economic and policy factors affecting pollution by Township and Village Industrial Enterprises (TVIEs) in China and to discuss problems and directions in environmental policies for them. With the rapid growth of TVIEs since the early 1980s, pollution has been spreading into the rural areas. The large number and small size of TVIEs makes it difficult for TVIEs themselves and the government to implement environmental measures. The econometric ...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  1. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

  2. System of cities dynamics in newly industrializing nations.

    Meyer, D R

    1986-01-01

    Rapid industrialization in such countries as Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan suggests that the complex functional structures of cities in the periphery may appear early in development. This paper proposes a 4-stage framework for the dynamics of a system of cities in a developing country undergoing industrialization and encompassing both nonindustrial and industrial development. The synthesis is assessed with evidence from the newly industrializing Asian nations of Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. The 4 stages of cities' industrial change include 1) increasing primacy with industrial satellites, 2) increasing primacy with industrial satellites and nodal towns on a transport network, 3) rapidly increasing primacy with rapidly growing industrial satellites and nodal towns on the transport network, and 4) decreasing primacy with slowly growing industrial satellites and rapidly growing peripheral industrial towns. The 4-stage synthesis suggests that economic development in the periphery may occur even while the primate city maintains its hegemony over control and coordination functions. Peripheral industrial growth does not challenge this hegemony. The growth of industrial cities is, instead, part of a process of regional specialization in which the low cost labor in the periphery becomes an attraction for industry. These stages are not inevitable. Government efforts are necessary to develop rural areas in terms of social improvements (education and health), capital infrastructure (transportation and utilities), and fair payments to farmers for their outputs. These seem to be the lessons learned from the industrialization process in Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. PMID:12314582

  3. Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations

    This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored

  4. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  5. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  6. Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification

    The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

  7. Industrial concessions, fires and air pollution in Equatorial Asia

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C. L.; Gaveau, D. L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Forest and peatland fires in Indonesia emit large quantities of smoke leading to poor air quality across Equatorial Asia. Marlier et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 085005) explore the contribution of fires occurring on oil palm, timber (wood pulp and paper) and natural forest logging concessions to smoke emissions and exposure of human populations to the resulting air pollution. They find that one third of the population exposure to smoke across Equatorial Asia is caused by fires in oil palm and timber concessions in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Logging concessions have substantially lower fire emissions, and contribute less to air quality degradation. This represents a compelling justification to prevent reclassification of logging concessions into oil palm or timber concessions after logging. This can be achieved by including logged forests in the Indonesian moratorium on new plantations in forested areas.

  8. Environmental policy, intra-industry trade and transfrontier pollution

    The paper discusses effects of domestic environmental policy on foreign emissions and on transboundary pollution. We use a Dixit-Stiglitz type model of monopolistic competition with an endogenous number of firms. Production generates environmental externalities which spill over to the other country. It is shown that environmental policy has an impact on market structure at home and abroad. These market structure effects induce changes in emissions abroad. In contrast to what has been derived in earlier contributions, it turns out to be possible that tighter environmental standards at home lead to less emissions abroad. The paper derives these results and provides the economic intuition behind them. Finally, conditions for optimal environmental policies are derived. 17 refs

  9. National Industrialization in Philippine Mining: Review and Suggestions

    Danilo C. Israel

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviewed national industrialization as a long-term strategy of mining development in the Philippines. The end purpose was to suggest immediate actions that can be undertaken for the promotion of national industrialization. The paper used secondary data and information from institutional sources and available relevant literature as well as primary data and information from institutional key informants. The paper found that the knowledge base of the country required to pursue the ...

  10. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  11. A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal

    Deshar Bashu Dev

    2013-01-01

    Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh wate...

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROMANIAN AVIATION INDUSTRY TURNOVER AND NATIONAL GDP

    Honu, Monica-Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Since its emergence, at the beginning of the 20th century, the national aviation industry was considered one of the top industries. Acknowledging the potential of the industry, we try to focus our attention towards the status of several long established aviation company and the wellbeing of the economy as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to establish a correlation between the turnover of the most important aerospace companies and the gross domestic product (GDP). In order to ...

  13. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  14. Industrial Applications of E-Beam Plasma to Air Pollution Control

    Fossil fuel combustion creates a the treat to environment. Waste quantities of SO2, NOx and VOC (volatile organic compounds) are emitted in to atmosphere. Municipal wastes incineration is another air pollution potential problem. New technologies for simultaneous removal of different pollutants are searched for. Electron beam process is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. The laboratory unit (400 Nm3/h) and industrial pilot plant (20000 Nm3/h) have been constructed in Poland. Full scale industrial project is under development (270000 Nm3/h). New developments, connected mostly with energy consumption reduction, made this process very competitive in comparison with conventional technologies. (author)

  15. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    Abou-Elela, S.I. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Water Pollution Control Dept.; Zaher, F. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Fats and Oil Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  16. 75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    2010-01-12

    ... Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA. ACTION... Federal Register of November 30, 2009, regarding the National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1... rule FR Doc. E9-28517, beginning on page 62531 in the issue of November 30, 2009, make the...

  17. Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city

    Clarke, Kevin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-10-01

    Most of industrial cities in developed countries use automatic station networks for monitoring of Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), and the tremendous amount of data acquired are often used to verify that the concentrations are within safety levels and to warn the population in the other case. Furthermore, these data can be used to investigate the source-receptor relationship. In this study, the data were collected from automatic monitoring stations in Ulsan, the most industrialized city in South Korea. The dataset consists of hourly concentrations of five CAPs (SO2, CO, O3, NO2, and PM10) recorded at 13 monitoring stations in the city during a full year (March 2011-February 2012). Different types of sources were identified by studying the temporal (daily and seasonal) trends and spatial distributions of CAPs with wind directions. It was confirmed that SO2 pollution in Ulsan originated mostly from local industrial areas, whereas CO and NO2 were also substantially influenced by mobile sources. The high PM10 levels resulted from both local industries and traffic sources as well as from remote sources. The originality of this work comes from the study of the high episodes of pollutions on a case by case basis as well as on average data. Moreover, rather simple statistical tools developed in this study can be used for a real-time diagnosis of the local pollution in large urban and industrial areas.

  18. EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    Islam Mir Sujaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

  19. Air pollution causes health effects and net national product of a country decreases: a theoretical framework

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with green accounting and accounts the health effects of air pollution. It shows that due to air pollution human capital can not be utilized properly and net national product of a country decreases. The willing to pay system among workers is beneficial to the government, factory owners and workers of a country. The marginal cost-benefit rule for an optimal level of air pollution creates negative health effects. The air pollution cause both direct disutility and indirect welfar...

  20. Iron (III) Removal from Industrially Polluted Waters by Electrocoagulation

    Krystyník, Pavel; Klusoň, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    Trnava : Trnavská univerzita sv.Cyrila a Metoděje, 2013 - (Ondrejovič, M.; Nemeček, P.), s. 39 ISBN 978-80-8105-501-0. [International Scientific Conference Applied Natural Sciences 2013 /4./. Nový Smokovec, High Tatras (SK), 02.10.2013-04.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010548; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/065 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : electrocoagulation * iron removal * water treatment Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

  2. Ecopetrol, motor of the national industry

    The paper refers to the production of parts in the city of Barrancabermeja, on the part of Ecopetrol, becoming the motor for the development of the small and medium companies (pyme) that now have the capacity to built pieces and supplies, that it requires the refinery and that before they were bought in the exterior. An analysis of this market is made in the national and international environment

  3. THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS

    POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and carbon (CO and CO2. The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches; percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

  4. Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution during implementation of pro-environmental policy in Silesia region (Poland).

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Slawomir; Opała, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Sławomira; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of research conducted within the project entitled "Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollutants during the implementation of pro-environmental policies in the area of Silesia" (acronym BIOPOL) is the reconstruction of climate changes and anthropogenic effects and monitoring of the influence of human activities related to industrial development and the introduction of pro-environmental policy. The analysis will concern the climatic and anthropogenic signals recorded in annual tree rings width of Scots pine and in the isotopic composition of wood and its compenents (such as alpha-cellulose and glucose). Only a few studies made a complex multiproxies analysis of the influence of industrial air pollutants on changes in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition in any selected region. In addition, research is usually for a period of industrial development, is a lack of analysis for the period of implementation of EU law and standards on air quality to Polish law. The research area are the forests close to 3 different industrial plants (chemical- nitrogen plants, steel mills, power plants), in Silesia, where operating companies have strategic importance for the region and country. By analyzing the structure of land in Silesia noted a significant advantage of forest land and agricultural land. A large percentage of forest land providing protection for residents in case of failure in any of the plants. A cloud of noxious fumes is possible in large part retained in the trees. Waste generated by the chemical industry, metallurgy and energy represent the largest proportion of waste generated in the region. Already in the beginning of 21stcentury, the Waste Management Plans for various cities in Silesia are set out various strategic objectives to 2015, including in the economic sector: the implementation of non-waste technology and less and the best available techniques (BAT), the introduction of the principles of "cleaner production". The BIOPOL innovation is: a) multiproxy spatio-temporal analysis of the effects of climate changes and emission of air industrial pollution on trees during the development of industry and the implementation of pro-environmental policies in Silesia: - Analysis of the width of annual tree rings (since 1975) - Analysis of underestimation of the 14C concentration during the implementation of European standards (since 2000) - Analysis of the recorded signals of environmental changes in the composition of stable isotopes in annual tree rings - wood and its components b) modeling of the influence of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere on the width of annual growth of trees and C,O,N stable isotopes and radiocarbon - Spatio-temporal model of environmental change in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition close to each of the selected plants - comparison to the impact of climate change and industrial pollution for 3 different industries (steel mills, power plants, nitrogen plants) in the period from 1975 to present - Space model of environmental changes in the isotopic composition of trees near each of the selected plants (at varying distances from the chosen site) based on analysis of isotopic composition of annual shoots of pine trees in three consecutive years: from 2012 to 2014) - Estimation of emission components originating from industrial pollution for individual plants This project was funded by the National Science Centre allocated on the basis of the decision number DEC-2011/03/D/ST10/05251

  5. Fall-out of pollutants from distant industrial areas in a rural environment

    At Louvain-la-Neuve, a semi-rural area, one frequently observes the fall-out of sulphur dioxide attributable to various industrial areas within Belgium. Two techniques are employed for finding the sources: meteorological studies of the trajectories of the polluted air masses; elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the time of dioxide fall-out. With the latter technique it is possible to characterize the emitting industries and thus to determine the origin of the detected sulphur dioxide. (author)

  6. Trade reforms, deforestation and industrial pollution in developing countries: One size does not fit all

    Coxhead, Ian; Jayasuriya, Sisira

    2005-01-01

    Many developing countries possess comparative advantage both in natural resources and in labor-intensive industries, and experience both industrial pollution and natural resource degradation. We present a model that incorporates these stylized facts together with key spatial features and property rights failures typical of developing economies. We explore consequences of anticipated domestic and global trade policy and world price changes. Similar exogenous or policy shocks are seen to have c...

  7. Pollutants of Textile Industry Wastewater and Assessment of its Discharge Limits by Water Quality Standards

    Tüfekçi(1), Neşe; Sivri, Nüket; Toroz(2), İsmail

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry is one of the most important and rapidly developing industrial sectors in Türkiye. It has a high importance in terms of its environmental impact, since it consumes considerably high amounts of processed water and produces highly polluted discharge water in large amounts. Textile mills in Türkiye are required to control their discharge and therefore have started installing treatment plants in the name of environmental protection. The wastewater treatment plants of 11 textile ...

  8. Evaluation of industrial wastewater pollutants from soap factories and breweries in the Bafoussam city vicinity and contribution to the reduction of this pollution (Western highlands of Cameroon

    C. Gouafo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The discharges of wastewaters of industries in the Bafoussam city vicinity deteriorate the quality of surface and underground water and soils. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of ecotoxicity in the different industries and ways to fight against pollution. The following physico-chemical parameters were determined: COD, BOD5, OM, TP, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe, Al, EC, Turbidity, NH4+ and NO3- from wastewaters from all the two soap factories (SWC and SCS and one breweries (ASCB industries in Bafoussam. Statistical analysis, we determined the correlation efficient R and Covariance. R varies from 0.715 to 0.897. These coefficients indicate a positive correlation different from 1, hence, we can not predict the parameters of an industry based on the parameters of the other. Total heavy metals contents range from 118.66 mg /l for SCS; 39.58 mg /l for the SWC and 2.45 mg /l for the ASCB. COD ranges from 122 mg /l to 959 mg /l, the highest value was obtained in the SCS. These results indicate that the SCS is the most polluting industry. To reduce the pollution we recommended that each industry recycle its wastewater and put in place specific treatment plants because pollutants to eliminate vary depending on the industry. The Municipal community also advised to institute sensitization meeting with the promoters of these industries on proper wastewater handling treatment. Penalties for pollution should be proportional to the degree of pollution.

  9. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

  10. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. PMID:24576652

  11. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ► A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ► Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ► Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ► Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ► It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  12. Analysis of air pollution from industrial plants by lichen indication on example of small town

    Orlova, K. N.; Pietkova, I. R.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-09-01

    According to the research the species of lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Parmeliopsis ambigua, Phiscia stellaris, Xanthoria parietina are founded on example of small town. Values of clear air index correlated with the average content of sulphur dioxide in the air. These measurement points correspond to residential areas and regions of the objects of food industry. Two zones zero projective coverage are selected. These most polluted zones corresponded to the location of the metallurgical industry and heat electropower station. The roof production and abrasive industry do not show a significant increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the contiguous territory. By method lichen indication on example of small city two zones lichen deserts (sulfur dioxide concentration greater than 0.3 mg/m3) and one area of critical pollution (sulfur dioxide concentration of 0.1 -0.3 mg/m3) were founded. The largest area of air pollution allegedly linked to the activities of plants. Thus metallurgical industry and heat electropower station can be called major air pollutants in small towns.

  13. Tussilago farfara L. - a plant relatively resistant to industrial air pollution

    Maria Świeboda; Zofia Brunarska

    2015-01-01

    Tussilago farfara L. is a species highly resistant to the fumes emitted by the factory of silicophosphate fertilizers and to other kinds of industrial air pollution. The resistance of this species results from the wide ecological amplitude and characteristic anatomical structure of the leaves of this plant.

  14. REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

  15. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  16. Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  18. Construction of an environmental pollution map for some industrial sites using some bio-indicators

    The present work deals with an environmental pollution through determination of the heavy metal pollutants namely Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ni,Pb and Zn which are known to cause hazard to plants and animals in water, soil and plants at different sites in Helwan and El-Tibben as old industrial areas and Toshki as pre-industrial area. In addition to, study physico-parameters of water, major anions and major cations. The thesis is divided into four main chapters (introduction, experimental, results and discussion, and comparison between Toshki, Helwan and el-Tibben)in addition to summary and conclusion, references, abstract and arabic summary. The first chapter of the thesis comprises the general introduction, which gives introduction on the subject under investigation . Also contains a brief account on the environmental pollution of water, soil and plants in addition to the impact of industrial pollution in egypt , previous work on heavy metal pollutants then the characteristic of the investigated heavy metal pollutants and natural radioactivity for the soil of the investigated areas. The second chapter contains a description of selected areas, the methodology of sampling, sample preparation for water, soil and plant and method of analysis of the selected heavy metals. The third chapter involves the results and discussion . The results revealed physico-chemical parameters measured in water samples collected from investigated areas as temperature, ph, dissolved oxygen(DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) , and total alkalinity as well as determination of the major anions and cations in water samples collected from investigated areas. Heavy metals determined in water, soil and plants in addition to natural radioactivity in soil samples for each of the studied industrial cities, Helwan, el-ti been and Toshki

  19. Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan

    Sardar Khan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure that's why man is bent on industrializing his domain from earlier. The environment acts like a source to supply raw materials for production processes. The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE, Peshawar, to investigate the individual industrial effluent load. All the industries were divided into five categories like Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical and Paper and three industry from each category were selected. The samples were collected from end-up-pipe of individual industrial process and were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Effluent of Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical, and Paper industries were analyzed for pH, Temperature, DO, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cu were investigated in the effluents of selected industries. The concentrations of BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Pb, Cr and Ni were found higher than NEQS for industrial discharges. The wastewater flow rate was also calculated for industrial effluent. Wastewater treatment facilities are not present in the industrial estate. The study suggests that huge quantities of wastewater is generating in industrial estate can be minimized through process modification, change in existing equipment, installation of recycling plants and selection of proper trained employees.

  20. Industrial Pollution Control and Efficient Licensing Processes: The Case of Swedish Regulatory Design

    Maria Pettersson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED. In this paper, we review and assess the licensing of industrial plants in one of the Member States, namely Sweden. Specifically, we discuss how the existing regulations (including the IED manage to address potential trade-offs between important regulatory design issues, such as flexibility, predictability and the need to provide continuous incentives for environmental improvements. The analysis indicates that while the EU regulations provide flexibility in terms of the choice of compliance measures, in Sweden, it enters an existing regulatory framework that adds a lot of uncertainty with respect to the outcome of the licensing processes. An important challenge for the implementation of the IED is to implement performance standards that lead to continuous incentives to improve environmental performance in industrial sectors without, at the same time, adding new uncertainties. While standards ideally should be both flexible and predictable, achieving one of these criteria may often come at the expense of the other.

  1. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  2. Industrial competitiveness and diffusion of new pollution abatement technology – a new look at the Porter-hypothesis

    Greaker, Mads

    2004-01-01

    We study the relationship between industrial competitiveness, adaption of cleaner production techniques and environmental policy. While other contributions have analyzed environmental innovations with point of departure in the polluting firm, we introduce an up-stream market for new pollution abatement technology. A strong environmental policy may then benefit industrial competitiveness through its effect on the price on pollution abatement. However, the incentive for a stringent policy partl...

  3. Implementation of Environmental Judgments in Context: A Comparative Analysis of Dahanu Thermal Power Plant Pollution Case in Maharashtra and Vellore Leather Industrial Pollution Case in Tamil Nadu

    Geetanjoy Sahu

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a relatively neglected aspect of understanding the post-environmental judgment scenario: the impact of environmental judgment at the grassroots level and why there has been variation in the implementation of environmental judgments. It examines two Supreme Court environmental judgments on industrial pollution in two different states of India-the Dahanu Power Plant Case in Thane District of Maharashtra and the leather industrial pollution case in Vellore District of Tamil N...

  4. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Uffia, I. Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

  5. Horse Hair as an Indicator of Pb Pollution Around Shiraz Oil Industry, Iran

    Mehrdad Pourjafar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for using the horse hair as a bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Horse hair samples from different radial distances from oil and petrochemical industries of Shiraz were analyzed to determine their Pb content. Viz farms located in radial zone of 1-1.5, 1.5-5, 5-7, 7-10 km, respectively considered as group A, B, C and D. Group E (control farms were far from exam place and roads. In order to sampling, each farm was visited at every season and from 19 selected horses approximately 2 g cervical skin hair was collected. The lead content of samples was measured by Atomic Absorption spectrometer. The horses which were located closer to oil industry had higher hair Pb content. In all seasons except for winter significant differences existed between group A and all other groups (p<0.05. Also by respect of going from spring to winter we can see decline in lead burden in all groups. In this study, hair Pollution Factor (PF of lead, 1-3.95 may reflect the higher effect of environmental pollution and anthropogenic interference. The results showed increases Pb concentration in the hairs of the horses according to decrease of distance to oil industry, therefore Pb as determined in the hair of the animals, showed a certain potential for using horses as bio-indicators of environmental pollution.

  6. Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control

    The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

  7. Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

  8. Cutting air Pollution by Improving Energy Efficiency of China's Cement Industry

    Zhang, Shaohui; WORRELL Ernst; Crijns-graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) combined with the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) was used to estimate the co-benefits of energy savings on CO2 and air pollutants emission for implementation co-control options of energy efficiency measures and end-of-pipe options in the China's cement industry for the period 2011-2030. Results show the cost-effective energy saving potential (EEP1 scenario) and its costs is estimated to be 3.0 EJ ...

  9. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia. (Author)

  10. New observations on PAH pollution in old heavy industry cities in northeastern China

    This study investigated the distinctive PAHs adsorbed on street dust near various industries in the three typical industrialized cities of Daqing (DQ), Harbin (HEB) and Jilin (JL) in northeastern China. The mean ∑PAHs concentrations in street dust of DQ, HEB and JL were 1.84, 4.87, 12.38 μg/g, respectively. Typical petroleum resource city DQ had higher proportions of low and medium ringed PAHs with higher proportions of phenanthrene (Phe), naphthalene (Nap), fluoranthene (Flua) and chrysene (Chr) at industrial sites. Typical chemical processing city JL had higher proportions of medium and high ringed PAHs with higher proportions of Flua, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at industrial sites. Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were four major PAHs from most studied industries. The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. BaA and BaP concentrations decreased by 90% at sites more than 2 km away from the ferroalloy plant. - Highlights: • Industry types determined PAH pollution characteristics at industrial sites. • Petroleum resource city Daqing had more low and medium ringed PAHs. • Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were major PAHs at most studied industrial sites. • The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. • The major industry pollution impact radius was found to be about 2 km. - This paper investigated the signature of PAH contamination in street dust from 3 cities with contrasting industries

  11. Pollution prevention/waste minimization program applications to the commercial nuclear industry

    Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Programs have been established for new facilities to encompass design, construction, operation and decommissioning of process and power plants, research and government facilities. With respect to Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization, operating nuclear facilities must consider ongoing operations; modifications to processes, systems or components; changes in operating practices; and eventual decommissioning. The primary emphasis of the programs, consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) definition of pollution prevention/waste minimization, is waste elimination, source reduction and/or recycling to minimize the quantity and toxicity of material before it enters the waste stream for treatment or disposal. The 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and 1990 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) passed by Congress have driven commercial nuclear utilities to consider formal pollution prevention/waste minimization programs. These programs typically contain four distinct phases in accordance with guidance from the US EPA: planning, assessment, feasibility, and implementation. Certain utilities, such as the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) have taken pro-active steps to provide the baseline for pollution prevention/waste minimization programs through waste characterization and assessment. In addition, the nuclear industry's efforts in evaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reactor core hardware storage and disposal also provide directly applicable baseline information

  12. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94 % in this study, except for a 68.75 % portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  13. The HORUS model--inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions from industrial combustion in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    This paper explains a methodology for a low-cost air pollution emissions inventory, focusing on fuel combustion processes in industries and based on the identification and refinement of connections among existing databases. The first bottom-up approach allowed by the HORUS model is especially suitable for developing countries, where there are limited resources for air emission monitoring. It starts from adapting and connecting databases and statistics, providing a top-down inventory that establishes the boundaries for the bottom-up assessment. The latter is based on a proxy distribution of the numbers of employees in each industry for each sector. Some results are presented for the case of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, with three different fuels submitted to three main combustion processes, producing three pollutants under two scenarios (plus carbon dioxide). From a universe of 157,304 industries, the model covered 46,283 (up to 54% of total fuel consumption). With a high spatial and temporal resolution, the model is extremely flexible and transparent, an approach that can be adapted to other regions in the world. This is particularly important in developing countries, with energy intensive industries and severe episodes of urban air pollution. Further developments can refine the model, by substituting the calculated outputs by real scale measurements or by providing upgrades in the available statistical databases, demonstrating the value of such a tool for an integrated energy and environmental planning

  14. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    Wen, Zong-Guo; Di, Jing-Han; Zhang, Xue-Ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution. PMID:26722715

  15. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general and technogenic hotspots. Airpollution- related health effects can be reduced through policies that curb emissions. Among measures that can be undertaken to achieve these reductions is the use technology in industry and programs to increase public awareness. However Kazakhstani society is more concerned about social problems; government does not want to disturb people, because environmental problems are far from a positive decision.

  16. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; García-Pérez Javier; López-Cima María; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based...

  17. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; WANG, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration dur...

  18. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Voytyuk Y.Y.; Kurayeva I.V.; Kroyik H.A.; Karmazynenko S.P.; Matsibora O.V.

    2014-01-01

    Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dum...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved 'critical receptor' stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout)

  2. Pollution minimisation practices in the Australian mining and mineral processing industries

    Catherine Driussi; Janis Jansz [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Research was conducted to identify some of the current pollution minimisation practices adopted in Australia's mining and mineral processing industries. Initially, 84 mining and mineral processing companies were approached for inclusion in the study, with request only made for information that was available to the company stakeholders and the wider general community. Among the responses received, BHP Billiton, BlueScope Steel, Newmont Australia Limited and AngloGold Australia provided the information requested and/or a substantial quantity of information through reports on their company website. Analysis of the data collected for these companies indicated that improvements were made, and that policies had been implemented over the previous few years. The pollution minimisation and policy practices adopted at the operations of these companies include environmental management systems, advanced pollution control technologies, environmental awareness training for employees, and requirement - from company stakeholders - for increased accountability of environmental impacts.

  3. Application of nuclear track membrane for the reduction of pollutants in the industrial effluent

    Industrial pollution is growing at a faster rate due to the discharge of untreated effluent in the open environment. It is a serious threat to human health and aquatic life and causes deterioration of the environment. Untreated effluent is a cognizable offence under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) 1997. An experimental study has been carried out on ceramics, pulp/paper and textile/yarn effluents to assess the removal efficiency of the pollutants by the use of nuclear track membrane. The parameters such as flux, temperature, applied pressure, flow rates, density, concentration of the effluents and their interrelationships have been illustrated. Moreover, it was shown that the pollution parameters had been reduced quantitatively in post filtration effluents

  4. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

  5. 75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    2010-07-23

    ... FR 40218); there are approximately 564 federally recognized American Indian Tribes in the United... privatized on September 30, 2006 (72 FR 28945). In 2008, the NSIIC was re-established under Title XI of the... Service 7 CFR Part 63 National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  6. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  7. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

  8. Multi-national industry capacity in the North Sea fishery

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries managers often see the management of regional fisheries as a more pertinent approach than managing separate national fleet units that exploit numerous fish stocks. This article considers an industry approach, using data envelopement analysis (DEA), to shed light on the exploitation of the...... North Sea flatfish by a multi-national fleet, identifying overcapacity and possible reductions of the current fleet. The analysis estimates that the same catch could be taken with a fleet at 77% of its current size, and suggests an optimal reallocation of fixed inputs of each national fleet. Futher...

  9. Industrial pollution

    The absorption by atomization process is based on the drying by atomization and is recommended for the incinerators or thermal power plants fumes processing. This paper presents the different processes for the fumes scrubbing and the dioxines reduction process for old plants. (A.L.B.)

  10. Who bears the environmental burden in China? An analysis of the distribution of industrial pollution sources

    Ma, Chunbo [School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    A remaining challenge for environmental inequality researchers is to translate the principles developed in the U.S. to China which is experiencing the staggering environmental impacts of its astounding economic growth and social changes. This study builds on U.S. contemporary environmental justice literature and examines the issue of environmental inequality in China through an analysis of the geographical distribution of industrial pollution sources in Henan province. This study attempts to answer two central questions: (1) whether environmental inequality exists in China and if it does, (2) what socioeconomic lenses can be used to identify environmental inequality. The study found that: (1) race and income - the two common lenses used in many U.S. studies play different roles in the Chinese context; (2) rural residents and especially rural migrants are disproportionately exposed to industrial pollution. (author)

  11. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    2012-02-14

    ... cause noncancer health effects. The assessments also provided estimates of the distribution of cancer... by the HEM-3 model APCD air pollution control devices AMOS ample margin of safety ANPRM advance... Hazardous Air Pollutants NOAEL no observed adverse effects level NRC National Research Council...

  12. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    2011-02-17

    ... ore processing and production. See 75 FR 22471. Because EPA lacked emissions information on mercury... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category; and... and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine...

  13. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Paradee Asa; Wanida Jinsart

    2016-01-01

    The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C) questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques wer...

  14. Evaluation of Indoor Air Pollution of Polyurethane Industries with Emphasis on Exposure with Methylene Diphenyle Diisocyanate (MDI

    Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diisocyanates are used as a initial chemical material in different factories such as surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders and sealants. In the polyurethane workplace there are aerosols of diisocyanates which has important to effect on workers. They can also be exposed to partial reaction of isocyanate-containing intermediates formed during polyurethane production. The main objective of this study pointed on assessment of exposure risk factors with MDI in the workplace, determination of MDI concentration and biomonitoring of MDA in polyurethane industries. NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 5522 sampling and analysis method was used by midget impinger contained dimethyl sulfoxide with tryptamine. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography was employed for air sampling analysis and GC (Gas Chromatography for urine analysis. Getting personality data was carried out by Health Surveillance Questionnaire and multiple linear regression models with ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis. The result of study showed that there was a diisocyanate pollution (MDI > 96.6?g/m and it have seen in the workers' urine. A new approach to assess isocyanate pollution in the workplace is risk factor assessment simultaneously with indoor air pollution and biological monitoring.

  15. Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation: A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Nelliyat, Prakash

    2006-01-01

    Industrial disposal of effluents on land and subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands – is a relatively new area of research. Environmental and socio-economic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domestic sewage based irrigation practices, at least for developing countries like India. Disposal of treated and untreated industrial effluents on land has become a regular practice for some industries. Industries located in M...

  16. Informal environmental regulation of industrial air pollution: Does neighborhood inequality matter?

    Klara Zwickl; Mathias Moser

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes if neighborhood income inequality has an effect on informal regulation of environmental quality, using census tract-level data on industrial air pollution exposure from EPA´s Risk Screening Environmental Indicators and income and demographic variables from the American Community Survey and EPA´s Smart Location Database. Estimating a spatial lag model and controlling for formal regulation at the states level, we find evidence that overall neighborhood inequality - as measur...

  17. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  18. Protecting the Groundwater Environment of Tulkarem City of Palestine from Industrial and Domestic Pollution

    Amjad Aliewi; Najwan Imseih; Deeb Abdulghafour

    2013-01-01

    Domestic sewage, solid waste, industrial activities, and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides are the main sources of pollution that threaten the main groundwater aquifers of Tulkarem City of Palestine which add to the problem of water scarcity already experienced by the Palestinians in the West Bank. These aquifers are a vital groundwater resource that provides high quality water. This paper presents the findings of the “Pro Aquifer” project funded by the EU, wh...

  19. A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru

    To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from 210Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ∼ 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our 14C and 210Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ∼ 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ∼ 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 μg g-1. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution

  20. Integrating Market Based Instruments for Pollution Control - Strategic Option for Enhancing Competitiveness within Energy Industry

    Oana-C?t?lina ??PURIC?

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to emphasize the efficiency of using market based instruments for both reducing pollution and enhancing competitiveness within the energy industry. Given the previous experience of European countries, as well as the characteristics of the main market based instruments, the paper is focused on developing two alternatives for combining green certificates schemes, white certificates schemes and emissions trading schemes (black certificates schemes) in strategic options, aiming to ...

  1. A study of pollution of surface waters by radioactive elements in the absheron industrial region

    Full text : One of the important issues to be taken into account during lake pollution studies is the distribution of radionuclide pollution. Lake waters contain the same radioactive elements as rivers and seas. The main radioactive elements available in natural water resources are : uranium, radium, radon and potassium. In order to study the absheron lakes the radioactivity of water and sediment samples were analyzed. Analyses were carried out in Radiometry laboratory of Geological Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences using gamma-spectrometry method

  2. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Gila River Indian Community AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  3. Large scale Air pollution and deposition in the National Environmental Outlook 5. Background information

    The methods, as applied in the fifth National Environmental Outlook (NMP5), to calculate acidification, eutrophication (1900-2030), transboundary air pollution (1980-2030) and effect indicators climate change (1950-2030)

  4. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009 Using the LMDI I Method

    Beidou Xi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N, between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity, structure effects (caused by change in economic structure and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector, using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I decomposition method. Results showed that: (1 the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2 the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3 the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4 the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction.

  5. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

  6. Politics of corporate social control: the federal response to industrial water pollution

    Yeager, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    In the annals of criminology and the sociology of law, the phenomenon of corporate illegalities has been seriously neglected. Moreover, the relatively few social scientific studies of illegal corporate behavior have often approached the subject from limited theoretical perspectives. These studies have generally overlooked a critical element in criminological understanding; the role of law and its administration in generating violation rates that may be said to be characteristic of the prevailing social structure. This dissertation develops an integrated theoretical approach to a type of corporate illegality, environmental pollution. In this approach, law is seen as integral to the understanding of crime, and both are situated within the broad socio-economic structure of the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. This research first reviews and analyzes the history of the federal government's efforts to control industrial water pollution, seeking to identify the social structural limits on regulatory activity. Statistical analyses of data on the federal processing of industrial pollution violations are then presented, with a view toward analyzing the correlates of both business behavior and the federal response. The analyses test a proposed model of industrial regulation, and provide important support for the perspective linking law and crime.

  7. Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong

    This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m2/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

  8. Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong

    Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2002-12-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m{sup 2}/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved “critical receptor” stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

  10. Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions

    Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

  11. Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement

    The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

  12. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1C. Model emission sources. Draft report

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents model emission sources that were developed to evaluate the national impacts of the proposed rule.

  13. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  14. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  15. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  16. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  17. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  18. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  19. Industry

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  20. Pollution

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  1. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

  2. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure of pollution sources, continuing ecological reconstruction works, already carried out on about 500 hectares of degraded land, unfortunately unsuitable for other uses-only for forestry fields, followed by vigorous action of soils decontamination, based on extensive interdisciplinary research. 

  3. Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool

    Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

    A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

  4. Integrating Market Based Instruments for Pollution Control - Strategic Option for Enhancing Competitiveness within Energy Industry

    Oana-Cătălina ŢĂPURICĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize the efficiency of using market based instruments for both reducing pollution and enhancing competitiveness within the energy industry. Given the previous experience of European countries, as well as the characteristics of the main market based instruments, the paper is focused on developing two alternatives for combining green certificates schemes, white certificates schemes and emissions trading schemes (black certificates schemes in strategic options, aiming to increase the competitiveness of the energy industry and to decrease the emissions generated within this field. Each strategic option presented includes an integration scheme, as well as the main advantages and disadvantages deriving from the implementation of these mechanisms. The paper also demonstrates that an integrated market based instruments’ scheme is more efficient and even cost-effective than using single instruments. The whole analysis places a higher focus on white certificates, as these are the more recent market based instrument for enhancing competitiveness within energy industry.

  5. The impact of industrial SO2 pollution on north Bohemia conifers

    Rydval, M.; Wilson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Conifer forests in the Jizersk Mountains, Czech Republic have experienced widespread and long lasting effects related to industrial SO2 pollution. To explore the spatial and temporal impact of this phenomenon on Norway spruce stands, a transect of sites was sampled to the southeast of the Polish coal-fired power station Turw. Tree-growth at all sites displayed a significant reduction around 1980, which could not be explained by climate alone. However, by incorporating both climate and SO2 variables in multiple regression models, the chronology trends could be explained well. The lowest growth rates were found to coincide with the period of greatest atmospheric SO2 concentrations and the degree of suppression decreased with increasing distance from the power station. The period of growth suppression in a Silver fir site appeared to be more severe and longer in duration than for the spruce, although differing site conditions prevented a direct comparison. Fir trees also appeared to be affected by SO2 pollution earlier in the 20th century compared to spruce. Growth of both species, however, did not return to predicted levels following the reduction of pollution levels in the 1990s. A comparison with spruce and fir data from the Bavarian Forest, a region also affected by pollution in the past, revealed a temporal difference in growth suppression, likely related to different timings and loadings of SO2 emissions between both regions. This study highlights pollution as another potential causal factor for the so-called 'divergence problem' and dendroclimatic reconstructions in polluted regions should be developed with caution.

  6. An Association between Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Disease in a Heavy Industry Area

    Wang, Kuo-Ying; Chau, Tang-Tat

    2013-01-01

    In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007–2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple...

  7. Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships

    The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winners

  8. Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, Chemical, sup(210) Pb dating, and microscopic methods

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Deenadayalan, K.; Borole, D.V.; Mohite, R.D.

    The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminated mudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH...

  9. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    S. Rodrguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaa Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  10. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    S. Rodrguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaa Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  11. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade biodegradable organic substances and many xenobiotics. • It reviews the biocontrol in yeast system according to molecular information

  12. Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry

    Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

  13. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  14. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Zhengge Tu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS on the pollution abatement costs (PAC from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. Our findings are that SETPS failed to reduce PAC as a whole. During 2002 to 2011, SETPS increased APAC by 1310 RMB per ton on average and had an insignificant negative effect on MPAC. Nevertheless, the conclusions would be markedly different if we separately investigated the effects of SETPS each year of the pilot period. The positive effects of SETPS on PAC started to appear since 2009, and SETPS significantly reduced both APAC and MPAC, especially in 2009 and 2011.

  15. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  16. South Korean historical drama : gender, nation and the heritage industry

    Hwang, Yun Mi

    2011-01-01

    From the dynamic landscape of contemporary South Korean cinema, one trend that stands out is the palpable revival of the historical drama (known as the ‘sageuk’ in Korean). Since the early 2000s, expensive, visually striking, and successful costumed pieces have been showcased to the audience. Now rivalling the other mainstream genres such as gangster action, romantic comedy, and the Korean blockbuster, the sageuk has made an indelible impact on the national film industry. Even so, the cycle h...

  17. Growth of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Mimosaceae) in Polluted Soils of Landhi and Korangi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Syed Atiq-ur- Rehman; Muhammad Zafar Iqbal; Mohammad Athar

    2011-01-01

    Growth of Albizia lebbeck was observed in the polluted soils from towel, garment, rubber and ply board factories in the vicinity of Landhi and Korangi industrial areas of Karachi. Growth of A. lebbeck was reduced in most of the industrial area soils as compared to the control soil from Karachi University campus. The rubber factory soil reduced all the growth parameters as compared to the control soil. Percentage of soil pollutants (total soluble salts and available sulfate) in all of the indu...

  18. Evaluation of Some Tree Species to Absorb Air Pollutants in Three Industrial Locations of South Bengaluru, India

    Abida Begum; S. Harikrishna

    2010-01-01

    With the fast growing and excessive increase in industrial projects in Bengaluru, the level of pollution is also increasing. Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. The study examined the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI) of plant species around three industrial areas of south Bengaluru. The physiological and biochemical parameters, which are relative to leaf's water content (RWC), ascorbic acid content (AA), total leaf chlor...

  19. Industrial Pollution and Economic Compensation : A  Study of Down Stream Villages in Noyyal River, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Santhi Kanna, Dorai Kannan

    2008-01-01

    Tirupur is an Indian textile town which constitutes many dyeing and bleaching units situated in the upstream. Tirupur serves as one of the major exporters of textiles. The industrial pollution have affected not only the surface water but also the soils and ground water. This thesis studies the impacts of industrial pollution on agriculture and livestock. It also explores the implicated problems involved in putting an economic compensation mechanism into practise. The impact study was made on ...

  20. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:20734618

  1. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat. PMID:27048492

  2. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copºa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 -1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery.Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reductionof industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health andagriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlatedwith noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentrationlevel in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure ofpollution sources, continuing ecological reconstruction works, already carried out on about 500 hectares of degraded land, unfortunately unsuitable for other uses-only for forestry fields, followed by vigorous action of soils decontamination, based on extensive interdisciplinary research.

  3. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  4. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals. PMID:26911014

  5. Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China

    Highlights: ► Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ► Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ► Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ► Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. κ–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants

  6. Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China

    Zhu, Zongmin, E-mail: zhumin@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Bi, Xiangyang [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Langfang 065000 (China); Yu, Genhua [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ► Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ► Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ► Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. κ–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants.

  7. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  8. Potential Effects of Industrial Air Pollution and Wood-Product Supply and Demand, and Structure of the Wood-Products Industry, in Poland

    Mencel, A.; Ratajczak, E.; Strykowski, W.; Skalecki, C.; Szostak, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study aimed to determine potential changes in the production structure of the wood-processing industry up to 2020, resulting from unfavorable impact of industrial pollutants upon forests in Poland. The paper consists of four chapters. In the first section, forecasts of consumer demand for forest products, based on patterns of actual demand, are presented. The structure of industrial demand for wood assortments, and the degree to which it is met, are the topics of the second chapter. In t...

  9. Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Economic Development and Industrial Pollution in Chongqing in Recent Years Based on EKC

    LIU Cun-dong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Chongqing has made rapid economic development. But it also faces an enormous pressure in energy-saving and carbon emission reduction especially in the industrial fields. This paper constructs the models of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC with time series data of Chongqing from 1995 to 2006. The basic data include the industrial waste discharge per unit GDP, industrial waste discharge per capita GDP and corresponding environmental data. The relationship between typical environmental indexes and increase of GDP is analyzed. The results show that the industrial waste discharge per unit GDP displays general downward trend, which indicates the technological progress and readjustment of industrial structure have yielded significant environmental benefit. Meanwhile, on the whole the relationship of economic development and environmental pollution in recent years donot conform with the obvious characteristics of EKC. The fitting EKC curves of all environmental indexes have no tuming point. So the efficient environmental policy and huge environmental investment of Chongqing have to make the economic and environment develop sustainable and healthily.

  11. Metal pollution of soils and vegetation in an area with petrochemical industry

    Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, ' Rovira i Virgili' University, San Lorenzo 21, Reus 43201 (Spain)

    2004-04-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted (blank samples) sites. Human health risks derived from metal inhalation and ingestion of soils were also assessed. With the exception of an increase in the levels of Cd and V, significant differences in soil samples from the industrial and the unpolluted zone were not found. In chard samples, significant differences between collection sites were only noted for V concentrations. For non-carcinogenic risks, the current levels of metals in the industrial area were lower than those considered as safe for the general population. In relation to carcinogenic risks, only As ingestion and Cr inhalation in the industrial zone might potentially cause an increase of the cases of cancer. A Kohonen self-organized map (an Artificial Neural Network) showed differences in metal concentrations according to the zone of origin of the samples. The current results suggest that although in general terms the petrochemical complex is not a relevant metal pollution source for the area, attention should be paid to As, Cr and V.

  12. Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease

    Parvin Nasiri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and will discuss the findings in regard to noise control and management in details.

  13. Analysis of nickel industrial wastes by nuclear techniques and its pollution assessment

    The concentration of some heavy metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in nickel industrial wastes from Moa, northeastern Cuba, is determined. The analysis was performed by External Standard method of ED-XRF, using 238Pu (1.11 GBq) excitation source and laterite certified reference material as standards. The capability of INAA using neutrons from a Pu-Be (107 n/s) source and Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC is studied. The determined concentration values for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn shows a different pollution degree according to Dutch regulations and US NOAA guidelines. (Author)

  14. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  15. Aquatic Fungi Recovered from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted With Industrial Effluents

    Farida T. El-Hissy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species were recovered belonging to 9 genera of aquatic fungi in addition to unidentified species of Aphanomyces, Pythium and Saprolegnia. These species were isolated from surface water and submerged mud samples collected from canal polluted with industrial effluents of Kima factory for fertilizers and River Nile during the period from January to December 1996 at Aswan region, using baiting technique of sesame seeds at 22+1 oC. Pythium, Nowakowskiella and Saprolegnia contributed the broadest spectra of species. Pythium (5 identified in addition to unidentified species, Nowakowskiella (4 species, Saprolegnia (3 identified and unidentified species, whereas the other aquatic fungal genera of the narrowest spectra of species.

  16. Horse Hair as an Indicator of Pb Pollution Around Shiraz Oil Industry, Iran

    Mehrdad Pourjafar; Khalil Badiei; Mostafa Shakhse-Niaie

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for using the horse hair as a bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Horse hair samples from different radial distances from oil and petrochemical industries of Shiraz were analyzed to determine their Pb content. Viz farms located in radial zone of 1-1.5, 1.5-5, 5-7, 7-10 km, respectively considered as group A, B, C and D. Group E (control farms) were far from exam place and roads. In order to sampling, each farm was visi...

  17. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations. But since the inception of the oil industry in Nigeria, more than twenty-five years ago, there has been no concerned and effective effort on the part of the government, let alone the oil operators, to control environmental problems associated with the industry'. The article reviews the meaning of water pollution, water pollution categories, point source pollution, non-point source pollution, ground water pollution, causes of water pollution, pathogens, chemicals and other contaminants, thermal pollution, transport and chemical reactions of pollution, measurement of pollution, sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, biological testing, control of water pollution, domestic sewage, industrial waste water, agricultural waste water, construction site storm water urban runoff (storm water, radiation pollution, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, The National Policy on Environment, The national environmental reference laboratory, Water resources management, Strategies under the National Policy on Environment, Industrial water pollution control programme, Industrial effluent standards to provide some information on the Nigeria situation.

  18. Two pollution prevention technology evaluations for the printed circuit board industry

    The Minnesota/EPA Waste Reduction Innovative technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program is one of seven programs nationwide in which EPA and cooperation states or local governments evaluate and demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of selected waste reducing technologies in a manufacturing or fully operation setting. The program in Minnesota, which began in mid 1989, targets the metal finishing industry, specifically rinsing operations within metal finishing operations, as the focus of the evaluations. The 5 technology evaluation projects planned for the full life of the Minnesota/EPA Program and subsequent technology transfer activities are intended to speed the early introduction of cleaner, pollution preventing technologies in the metal finishing industry. This extended abstract presents final results from the first project and preliminary results from the second project conducted under the Program

  19. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... ] Industrial Security Program policy matters. Dated: February 23, 2012. Mary Ann Hadyka, Committee...

  20. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  1. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  2. Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term catwalking the nation, both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to st...

  3. Advanced oxidation process by electron-beam-irradiation-induced decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluents

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C. G.; Azevedo, A. L.

    2002-03-01

    Electron-beam irradiation considered on advanced oxidation process induces the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The effluent samples from an industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's liquid effluent irradiation pilot plant. The experiments were conducted using one sample from each of eight separate industrial units and five samples of a mixture of these units. The physical-chemical characterization of these samples is presented. The electron beam irradiation was efficient in destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents, mainly, chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, xylene and phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture was explained by the destruction G value (Gd) that was obtained for those compounds with different initial concentrations and was compared with literature.

  4. Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances - overview and current issues

    Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) has operated since 1973. The objectives of the National Plan are based on Australia's obligations as a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 and a responsibility to protect natural and artificial (man made) environments from the adverse effects of oil pollution and minimise those effects where protection is not possible. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is the managing agency of the National Plan, working together with the States and Northern Territory governments, other Commonwealth agencies, ports, and the shipping, oil and exploration industries, to maximise Australia's marine pollution response capability. The 1990s have been a period of significant change for oil spill response arrangements in Australia. The National Plan was extended in 1998 to cover chemical spills and is currently in the process of implementing the oil spill response incident control systems (OSRICS). A fixed wing aerial dispersant spraying capability was implemented in 1996 and a research and development program has been put in place. The development of a computer-based National Oil Spill Response Atlas was a major project completed during 1999. (Author)

  5. Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility

    Timur, Emre

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

  6. Evaluation of Stakeholder Involvement towards a Comprehensive Reduction of Industrial Land Pollution around the Douala Metropolis, Cameroon

    Cyprian Nkem, Billa

    2009-01-01

    The protection of the land from Industrial pollution continues to be an environmental onus for the Cameroonian society today. This is evidenced in urban areas with relatively high industrial concentration. This work sought to critically identify and present a detail analysis of the efforts made by the government and all relevant stakeholders towards reducing the emission of industrial effluents on the local terrestrial environment. A case study was conducted in Douala the largest metropolis i...

  7. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution. PMID:26903127

  8. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

  9. On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry

    Zhaozhen Fan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industrys financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

  10. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  11. Economic Assessment of Environmental Pollution Damages Caused by Industry on Agriculture: The Case of Samsun Fertilizer (TÜGSAS) and Karadeniz Copper (KBI) Industries

    TANRIVERMİŞ, Harun; MÜLAYİM, Z. Gökalp

    1999-01-01

    In this study, to assess the environmental pollution damages to agriculture the case of TÜGSAS and KBI industries were chosen. For this aim, change-in-productivity, preventive/defensive expenditures and contingent valuation approaches are applied to the selected case for assessing the pollution damage. The result indicates that the value of pollution damages to major agricultural crops in 1994 are estimated as 70.8 billion TL in Tekkeköy region. It has been determined that there is an inverse...

  12. 1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.'' Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  14. A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

  15. Assessment of the variability of atmospheric pollution in National Parks of mainland Spain

    Escudero, M.; Lozano, A.; Hierro, J.; Tapia, O.; del Valle, J.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Anzano, J.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Air quality in nine National Parks in mainland Spain was assessed analysing SO2, NOx, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 data from background stations. As emissions in and around parks are limited, the levels of primary pollutants are low. Concentrations of secondary pollutants are high especially in summer due to photochemical production. The geographical variability of pollutants responds to regional emission patterns and the dominant circulation regimes in different regions resulting in west-east gradients for O3 and PM. Seasonal variability of pollutants was also interpreted in virtue of transport scenarios, changes in photochemical activity and emissions variability. NOx and SO2, maximize in winter due to higher emissions while O3 and PM do it in summer due to photochemical production, lower precipitation and, in the case of PM, the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. The diurnal evolution was interpreted in virtue of variability in emissions and changes in the Planetary Boundar Layer height.

  16. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area. PMID:25503327

  17. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  18. Pollution strength in effluents of Telephone Industries of Pakistan (TIP) in Haripur

    The telephone industries of Pakistan (TiP), being the oldest industry in District Haripur, is in is operation for the last forty years. Industrial wastewater is drained into a natural stream/nallah, which is either used for agricultural purposes of becomes part of an Ox-Bow lake in the midway used for fishing and it ultimately joins river Indus through river Haro. Effluents were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, hardness alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids and ammonia etc. Cations like nickel, copper, iron, chromium and anions like sulphates and nitrates were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Some trace metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, cobalt, arsenic and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. The results were interpreted an d compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). (author)

  19. Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry

    I. M. Romn-Snchez; Irene Carra

    2013-01-01

    Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failu...

  20. Business Leadership in the Movement to Regulate Industrial Air Pollution in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century America

    Rosen Christine Meisner

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns an important but currently still poorly understood aspect of the history of environmental reform: the leadership role played by reform minded businessmen in movements to regulate industrial air pollution in American cities between 1860 and 1920. For the most part, the task of writing the history of air pollution regulation in this period has fallen to historians who been predisposed to play up the leadership of public health and women reformers, while playing down the ro...

  1. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Alma Shehu; Alfred Mullai; Seit Shallari

    2013-01-01

    Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area unde...

  2. Effect of industrial pollution on the behaviour of 239,240Pu, 241A 137Cs in forest ecosystems

    The behaviour of radionuclides (239,240Pu9 241Am and 137Cs) was investigated in forests in the vicinity of Cu-Ni smelters in Monchegosrk, Russia, and Harjavalta, Finland. Study was made of the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radionuclides between various soil horizons, on their chemical forms in the organic horizon and on soil-to- plant transfer. Sampling sites in Monchegorsk were in spruce forest, while those in Harjavalta were in pine forest. Industrial pollution had a significant effect on the behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems. As the load of industrial pollution increased towards the smelter, more radionuclides accumulated in the litter layer and less in the organic horizon. This trend was due to the inhibited microbial activity in the vicinity of the smelters, which caused slower decomposition of litter into organic matter. Pollution also affected the chemical forms of radionuclides, and less 'easily exchangeable' (plant available) radionuclides were present in the organic layer at the most polluted sites. The effect of industrial pollution on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to plant depended on the radionuclide, plant species and forest type. In pine forest, soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs was noticeably reduced in the vicinity of the smelter, while transfer of 239,240Pu and 241Am from soil to plants was less affected. In spruce forest, soil- to-plant transfer of 239,240Pu increased for most species with increasing industrial pollution owing to surficial contamination of plants by resuspended soil. Soil- to-plant transfer of 241Am was generally higher than that of 239,240Pu. (orig.)

  3. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    2011-07-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122 and 125 RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling... published April 20, 2011, at 76 FR 22174, must be received on or before August 18, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit... ``anonymous access''' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless...

  4. 76 FR 76259 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants

    2011-12-06

    ... HAP with the potential to cause noncancer health effects, and the hazard quotient (HQ) for acute exposures to HAP with the potential to cause noncancer health effects. The assessments also provided... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants NOAEL no observed adverse effects level NRC National Research...

  5. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal...

  6. 75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    2010-03-05

    ... pollution control. I. Corrections On December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63504), the EPA promulgated the national... explained in detail in the preamble of the final rule (74 FR 63504). Today's action notifies interested..., Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a ''significant...

  7. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    2011-11-25

    ...: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks H. Executive Order 13211: Actions... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants NIOSH National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health NRC... necessary to provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health (CAA section 112(f)(2)(A))....

  8. 76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    2011-03-14

    ... Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions EPA is reconsidering is a requirement that certain affected... published final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing...

  9. 76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 (Sec. Sec. 63.600 to 63.1199), revised...

  10. 78 FR 25435 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Municipal...

    2013-05-01

    ...EPA Region 6 Water Quality Protection Division, today is proposing for public comment the issuance of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit for storm water discharges from municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) located in the Middle Rio Grande Watershed in the State of New Mexico. This proposed permit offers discharge authorization to regulated MS4s......

  11. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is proposing to add the gold mine ore processing and production area source category to the list of source categories subject to regulation under the hazardous air pollutant section of the Clean Air Act (CAA) due to their mercury emissions. EPA is also proposing national mercury emission standards for this category based on the emissions level of the best performing facilities which are......

  12. NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)

    NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

  13. Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants.

    Zverev, Vitali E; Zvereva, Elena L; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2008-11-01

    We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. PMID:18329145

  14. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  15. Effects of Local Circulations, Turbulent Internal Boundary Layers, and Elevated Industrial Plumes on Coastal Ozone Pollution in the Downwind Kaohsiung Urban-Industrial Complex

    Yee-Lin Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Linyuan (LY is a coastal station located down wind of the industrial city of Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan. This station is often affected by severe ozone pollution during sea breeze events. Intensive tethered ozone soundings were per formed at this station during a 4-day ozone episode in November, 2005. Back air trajectories were also calculated to track the origins of air masses arriving at the station during the experiment. The investigation revealed complicated ozone pro files in the lower at mo sphere (be low 1300 m both day and night. At night, industrial plumes forming no-ozone air layers were frequently distributed at 400 - 800 m. Mixing layers rapidly decreased from 800 - 1100 m down to 200 - 350 m in the late morning hours when sea breezes and thermal internal boundary layers (TIBLs developed. Recirculation of polluted in land air masses over the sea, the development of TIBLs, and the late development of sea-breeze events all are likely responsible for severe ozone pollution at the LY station. Elevated industrial plumes or ozone aloft above TIBLs revealed only aminor contribution to ozone pollution via a downward mixing process. Elevated ozone levels (140 - 170 ppb were of ten trapped within transitional layers of sea-breeze circulations at 600 - 800 m and were accompanied by ambient northerly flows parallel to the coast line, suggesting that an ozone pollution core likely formed over the west coast of Taiwan on ozone-episodic days when sea-breeze circulations developed.

  16. The history of Lake Maggiore industrial pollution traced through lake sediment and long term monitoring of the biota

    Marchetto, Aldo; Licia GUZZELLA; Binelli, Andrea; Roberta BETTINETTI; Lami, Andrea; Manca, Marina; Laura MARZIALI; Roberta PISCIA; Volta, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In Lake Maggiore large watershed (ca. 6,600 sq. km), industrial activities along the XX century led to the discharge into the lake or its tributaries of several pollutants, such as DDT, PCBs and mercury. Other pollutants, such as PAHs and flame retardants (such as PBDEs) are still reaching the lake. Analyses of some of these pollutants in lake biota were performed continuously since 1998 and form a unique time series. We used in parallel lake sediment cores to infer the history of lake contam...

  17. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

  18. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils. PMID:26803661

  19. Magnetic response to air pollution recorded by soil and dust-loaded leaves in a changing industrial environment

    Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Hu, Shouyun; Yin, Gang; Lin, Hai; Rösler, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Linfen city is one of the World's most polluted cities due to uncontrolled industrial activities of coal combustion releasing huge amounts of heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the atmosphere. We used soil and leaves as receptors for atmospheric particulate matter to test the efficiency of magnetic approach for assessing and discriminating past and present pollution. The results indicate that strong magnetic particles in topsoil and leaf samples are mainly low-coercivity magnetite, occurring in a larger grain-size range than in background soil, which is helpful to separate anthropogenic and natural sources. Topsoil magnetic signals reflect pollutants, which accumulated over the last decades. Differences in the vertical distribution of magnetic properties between undisturbed and disturbed (cultivated) soil profiles show that the plowing depth is the most important factor for migration of pollutants in cultivated soils. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) values of leaf samples reflect the present state of pollution and can even trace seasonal changes. Spatial maps of MS identify differences of the past and present environmental conditions caused by the shutdown of industrial sites within the last decade. Correlation coefficients between analyzed HM contents (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb) and MS values are significantly positive in leaf samples, and still moderate in topsoil samples. Our results demonstrate the practical and economical value of magnetic techniques for pollution assessment, also for the studied case with a complex pollution history, a relatively high magnetic background and disturbing land use.

  20. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy

    Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@emg.umu.s [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Andren, Thomas [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University, SE-141 89 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Maelaren - Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. - Pollution in Sweden during AD 900-1900 was often greater than modern industrial pollution.

  1. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Maelaren - Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. - Pollution in Sweden during AD 900-1900 was often greater than modern industrial pollution.

  2. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  3. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  4. Air pollution studies by plants growing near some industrial objects of Uzbekistan

    Leaves and seeds of many popular kinds of plants in Uzbekistan was used to study atmospheric pollution near such industrial objects as Tadjik aluminum factory (TadAF), Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent institute of nuclear physics (INP). Leaves of fruit plants: vineyard, tomato and apple, apricot, quince, peach, persimmon, pomegranate, mulberry trees as well as leaves of technical crops: cotton, corn, mint and clover, which grow near above specified objects and also seeds of water-melon, tomato, aubergine, bulgarian pepper, pumpkin, grapes, cherry and persimmon from areas near aluminum factory were sampled. The purpose of choice of so much investigated vegetation was to select plants which can be used as biomonitors and which best accumulate in themselves the most harmful pollution from soil and air in order to subsequent destruction of these collector plants will be made. Investigations were conducted by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical methods. Tashkent State Agrarian University has used the alternative methods. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant leaves and seeds have been developed. (author)

  5. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  6. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998; TOPICAL

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

  9. Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry

    Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility

  11. Growth of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Mimosaceae in Polluted Soils of Landhi and Korangi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Syed Atiq-ur- Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Albizia lebbeck was observed in the polluted soils from towel, garment, rubber and ply board factories in the vicinity of Landhi and Korangi industrial areas of Karachi. Growth of A. lebbeck was reduced in most of the industrial area soils as compared to the control soil from Karachi University campus. The rubber factory soil reduced all the growth parameters as compared to the control soil. Percentage of soil pollutants (total soluble salts and available sulfate in all of the industrial area soils was higher than in the control area soil. Percentage of coarse sand, calcium carbonate, total soluble salts, available sulfate, and chromium was higher in soil of rubber factory then in the control area soil whereas percentage of water holding capacity, organic matter and zinc was lower in soil from rubber factory than in the control area soil. This showed that the soil of industrial areas of Landhi and Korangi particularly from rubber factory and ply board factory was contaminated by the pollutants in the area and drastically affected the plant growth. The findings of this research could be helpful in monitoring and controlling the pollutant levels in soils of the industrial areas. Such information could also be useful for landscaping and urban planning.

  12. The contribution of the gas industry to the pollutant emission abatement in the Czech Republic in the 1990's; Reduction des emissions polluantes en Republique Tcheque dans les annees 90 - contribution de l'industrie du gaz

    Neuzil, V. [KONEKO, Ltd. (Czech Republic); Machalek, P.; Pretel, J. [Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    An objective of the environmental policy of the Czech Republic is to attain such a level of the tare of the environment that corresponds to the level achieved in west-European countries. A result of these efforts is the abatement of emissions of key pollutants by approximately 90%, which was obtained during the transformation of the economy after the change in the political system. The position and rote of the gas industry within the Czech energy economy are documented by figures on the dynamics of the use of gaseous fuels in different segments of consumption and on changes in the gas industry infrastructure. Comments are given on the legislation both existing and under preparation relating to air pollution control. To deal with specific problems concerning environmental protection, the State Environmental Fund was established in the Czech Republic. The Fund provided resources to support the replacement of solid fuels with natural gas within the 'National Programme of Air Quality Recovery'. The payer presents results of this programme and the programme of desulfurization of large power stations in tables and graphic representations. The presented data are taken over from the national emission database, whose brief description is given, too. Attention is paid to the abatement of emissions of solids, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and greenhouse gases. Included separately is a balance of methane emissions from underground coal mining in comparison to emissions from the Bas industry system operation. (author)

  13. Hygiene definition of a gamma - background, in ground by pollution solid industrial oil waste

    The problem of protection environments from pollution by oil waste is actual in many sphere of science, including and hygiene. During industrial production of oil, its transportation, storage and processing objects of an environment (air, ground, water and etc.) both crude oil, and its different fractions (Kazimov M.A., and the co- author, 2000; Ivanov A.V. and co-author, 2001; Shor E.L., Hurshudov A.G.,2000; Zalesov S.V. and co - author,2000).As it is visible, despite of the rather vast literature about reglamentization pollution of environments oil by maximum deflections, about influencing some solid waste of oil, specially in aspect of hygiene, on an ecology is studied unsufficiently. Among these waste of oil the special place takes slime. The slime is a withdrawal, which one during industrial crude oil separates first of all on an incipient state, and on final, and consists of rather high-gravity chemical agents, mechanical sediment and small amount with groundwaters. At storage of hundreds tons preliminary clearing of oil in special tanks the slime will be derivated in a great many. During many years, on refineries and tanks of republic the accumulated slime without surveillance was rejected on nearly sites above-stated objects and on around of city. It is known, that the radioactive members (uranium - 238, radium-226, thorium- 232 and ets.) as both other stable member and their natural radionuclides. (potassium- 40, rubidium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samarium -147 and ets) (Kazimov M.A., Samedov Sh. Kh., 2001). It is necessary to take into account, that in due course, sojourning in ground, changes which are included in its structure metals and metalloids will derivate different mineral connections the set of radioactive matters, is transformed into more than 30 different members (polonium -218, bismuth - 214, thallium - 218, iodine - 131, strontium - 89, zirconium - 95, niobium - 95 and ets). The present research was conducted on the basis of former, dismantle of shop OOGE - of Surakhani region on the first of petroleum refining (desalting and dehydration) and sites around of oil of the tanks (pollution by oil the slime) fathomed a level a gamma of a background and is compared to the hygienic standards. The researches were conducted both on sites rather contaminated by slime, and on sites contaminated by slime almost completely unmixed from 10-15 of limitation of ground. In a course research was clarified, that on sites fresh pollution oil by slime natural exceeds a background a gamma - irradiation at the altitude 0,5 m from a surface of ground (8-15 micro R/hours) in 3,5-4,5 times and reaches an abnormal background (60 - 120 micro R/hours) and from time to time reaches a level of radiological contamination (> 120 micro R/hours) On sites 10-15 years limitations of pollution oil by slime a level a gamma - background exceeds a natural background in 1,5-2,0 times, reaches 25-30 micro R/hours. As it is visible in second matter a level of a gamma of a background below, but in too time the radionuclides, creating it completely displaced with ground and occur rather deeper and consequently it is possible to suspect about migration these impurity through a vegetative cover and groundwaters. It is in case of the former clearing from oil of slime the contaminated sites is considerably more lighter, than in the second case. Extending above-stated, it is possible to reach such concluding that oil the slime which has accumulated on oil producing, objects, and also in oil tanks, cleaning, should be expose the analyses on an elemental composition and radioactivity and in case of indispensable is neutralized in places, specially retracted for it

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  15. Sex ratios of births, mortality, and air pollution: can measuring the sex ratios of births help to identify health hazards from air pollution in industrial environments?

    Williams, F.L.; Ogston, S A; Lloyd, O L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the sex ratios of births and mortality in 12 Scottish localities with residential exposure to pollution from a variety of industrial sources with those in 12 nearby and comparable localities without such exposure. METHODS--24 localities were defined by postcode sectors. SMRs for lung cancer and for all causes of death and sex ratios of births were calculated for each locality for the years 1979-83. Log linear regression was used to assess the relation between exposure, ...

  16. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  17. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Barrera-Díaz, C.; Ureña-Nuñez, F.; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus γ-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ , that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a γ-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC γ-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  18. Gaseous Air Pollutants and its Environmental EffectEmittedfrom the Tanning Industry at Hazaribagh, Bangladesh

    Md. Abul Hashem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has focused on gaseous air pollutants and its environmental effect-emitted from tanning industry during leather processing, especially in unhairing & liming, deliming, pickling and finishing operations in which hydrogen sulphide (H2S, ammonia (NH3, chlorine (Cl2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs are emitted respectively at Hazaribagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S gas has negative effect at atmosphere by the process of photochemical reaction; it increases the greenhouse methane gas. In atmosphere, gaseous form of ammonia (NH3 reacts with available acids and form their corresponding salts cause cloudiness and finally they return to earth surface by wet or dry deposition which effects on aquatic life. Workers in tanning industries are directly inhaled toxic chlorine gas suffers withvarious health complexities. Emission of VOCs isthe mostly formaldehyde and it is captured in photochemical oxidation by ozone as well as UV radiation. It’s an important precursor of smog formation where it reacts with oxides of nitrogen (NOx including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN; smog decreases the visibility in the urban area.

  19. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus γ-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a γ-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC γ-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms

  20. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Nadal Lomas, Mart

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Mart NadalResum:Un dels complexos qumics/ petroqumics ms importants del sud d'Europa est ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupaci pblica envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la poblaci resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inici un estu...

  1. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Hélène Sarter; Morgane Stempfelet; Amandine Cochet; Marie-Laure Bidondo; Laurence Pascal; Mathilde Pascal; Vérène Wagner

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majori...

  2. 76 FR 49324 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-08-10

    ... protective soil cover Erosion of channels or other storm water drainage control structure Items found... inspecting the integrity of the caps, covers and storm water controls on an annual basis. The UDWR will... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: August 3, 2011. James B....

  3. 75 FR 33747 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2010-06-15

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991... underlying ground water of the approximately 8-acre western portion of Operable Unit 1 of the...

  4. 76 FR 51266 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-08-18

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: August 8, 2011. Judith Enck, Regional... Landfill. The residences in the area of the Landfill are served by a public water supply system that uses ground water as a source. The property contained three surface depressions which were used for...

  5. 76 FR 510 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-01-05

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.... Introduction EPA Region 6 is publishing this notice of intent to delete the soil and ground water associated... Priorities List. 60 FR 55466 (Nov. 1, 1995). As described in Sec. 300.425(e)(3) of the NCP, sites...

  6. 76 FR 50133 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-08-12

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... drilling and ground water sampling program. Five on-property and one off-property monitoring ground water wells were installed and ground water samples were collected by Lakeland and the New York...

  7. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-03-02

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the soil and ground water associated with the... was published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2011 (76 FR 510). The closing date for comments...

  8. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    Highlights: • Implementation rates of 37 EEMs are quantified for China’s cement industry. • Energy Supply Cost Curves were implemented in the GAINS model. • The economic energy saving potential is 3.0 EJ and costs is $4.1 billion in 2030. • Energy efficiency would lead to large reductions in air pollution. • The co-benefits decrease average marginal costs of EEMs by 20%. - Abstract: China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of GHGs and air pollutants emission. In this study, the energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) combined with the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) was used to estimate the co-benefits of energy savings on CO2 and air pollutants emission for implementing co-control options of energy efficiency measures and end-of-pipe options in the China’s cement industry for the period 2011–2030. Results show that there are large co-benefits of improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions of CO2 and air pollutants for the China’s cement industry during the study period. The cost-effective energy saving potential (EEP1 scenario) and its costs is estimated to be 3.0 EJ and 4.1 billion $ in 2030. The technical energy savings potential (EEP2 scenario) and its costs amount to 4.2 EJ and 8.4 billion $ at the same time. Compared to the baseline scenario, energy efficiency measures can help decrease 5% of CO2, 3% of PM, 15% of SO2, and 12% of NOx emissions by 2030 in EEP1 scenario. If we do not consider costs (EEP2 scenario), energy efficiency measures can further reduce 3% of CO2, 2% of PM, 10% of SO2, and 8% of NOx by 2030. Overall, the average marginal costs of energy efficiency measures will decrease by 20%, from 1.48 $/GJ to 1.19 $/GJ, when taking into account avoided investments in air pollution control measures. Therefore, implementation of energy efficiency measures is more cost-effective than a solely end-of-pipe based policy. The plant managers and end users can consider using energy efficiency measures to reach new air pollutants emission standards in China’s cement industry

  9. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  10. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  11. Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants

    We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification

  12. Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants

    Zverev, Vitali E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: vitzve@utu.fi; Zvereva, Elena L.; Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification.

  13. Creating National Air Pollution Models for Population Exposure Assessment in Canada

    Setton, Eleanor; Cervantes, Alejandro; Poplawski, Karla; Deschenes, Steeve; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Martin, Randall; Jerrett, Michael; Demers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Population exposure assessment methods that capture local-scale pollutant variability are needed for large-scale epidemiological studies and surveillance, policy, and regulatory purposes. Currently, such exposure methods are limited. Methods: We created 2006 national pollutant models for fine particulate matter [PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene from routinely collected fixed-site monitoring data in Canada. In multiple regression models, we incorporated satellite estimates and geographic predictor variables to capture background and regional pollutant variation and used deterministic gradients to capture local-scale variation. The national NO2 and benzene models are evaluated with independent measurements from previous land use regression models that were conducted in seven Canadian cities. National models are applied to census block-face points, each of which represents the location of approximately 89 individuals, to produce estimates of population exposure. Results: The national NO2 model explained 73% of the variability in fixed-site monitor concentrations, PM2.5 46%, benzene 62%, ethylbenzene 67%, and 1,3-butadiene 68%. The NO2 model predicted, on average, 43% of the within-city variability in the independent NO2 data compared with 18% when using inverse distance weighting of fixed-site monitoring data. Benzene models performed poorly in predicting within-city benzene variability. Based on our national models, we estimated Canadian ambient annual average population-weighted exposures (in micrograms per cubic meter) of 8.39 for PM2.5, 23.37 for NO2, 1.04 for benzene, 0.63 for ethylbenzene, and 0.09 for 1,3-butadiene. Conclusions: The national pollutant models created here improve exposure assessment compared with traditional monitor-based approaches by capturing both regional and local-scale pollution variation. Applying national models to routinely collected population location data can extend land use modeling techniques to population exposure assessment and to informing surveillance, policy, and regulation. PMID:21454147

  14. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  15. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  16. Study of industrial consumption behavior in the conditions of low power consumption and decrease of pollution using input-output analysis

    This study, regarding the industrial consumption behaviour at low power consumption and under low pollution constraints, making use of the input-output analysis, is based on models for prices, energy demand, and pollution. Numerical applications were developed by use of MATILDA program and the methods of setting the model parameters and data acquisition are presented. The analysis provided prognoses for pollution coefficients for given price and consumption input data and very important data for industrial consumption behavior. (author) 7 refs

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    Abdulfatai JIMOH; Mohammed ALHASSAN

    2006-01-01

    This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN), flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predic...

  18. Biomonitoring the spatial and historical variations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in an industrial region.

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Falay, Ezgi Ozgunerge; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2015-02-17

    Several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in needle, branch, bark, and tree ring samples in pine samples collected at 27 sites (21 industrial, 6 background) in Aliaga industrial region in Turkey. Soil, litter, and air samples were also collected to investigate the relationships between the air and soil, litter, and tree components. Concentrations decreased with distance from the sources and the lowest ones were measured at background sites. The spatial distribution of POPs indicated that the major sources in the region are the iron-steel, ship-breaking, petrochemical plants and the petroleum refinery. Significant correlations between the air concentrations and, soil, litter, and tree components indicated the interaction of these compartments with air. Observed increasing trends of POPs in the tree-ring samples were representative for the variations in anthropogenic emissions and resulting atmospheric concentrations in Aliaga region. These results indicated that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial variations while tree rings could be used to investigate the historical trends of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP amounts (mg/ha) stored in different tree components, litter, and soil were also inventoried. Among the tree components, generally, the highest amounts were stored in the stem followed by needles. For the overall inventory, the highest amounts were stored in soil for PCNs, PBDEs, and PCBs while highest PAH amounts were stored in trees, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is also an important reservoir for POPs. PMID:25629885

  19. Screening procedure for airborne pollutants emitted from a high-tech industrial complex in Taiwan.

    Wang, John H C; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Chiang, Chow-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Despite the modernization of computational techniques, atmospheric dispersion modeling remains a complicated task as it involves the use of large amounts of interrelated data with wide variability. The continuously growing list of regulated air pollutants also increases the difficulty of this task. To address these challenges, this study aimed to develop a screening procedure for a long-term exposure scenario by generating a site-specific lookup table of hourly averaged dispersion factors (χ/Q), which could be evaluated by downwind distance, direction, and effective plume height only. To allow for such simplification, the average plume rise was weighted with the frequency distribution of meteorological data so that the prediction of χ/Q could be decoupled from the meteorological data. To illustrate this procedure, 20 receptors around a high-tech complex in Taiwan were selected. Five consecutive years of hourly meteorological data were acquired to generate a lookup table of χ/Q, as well as two regression formulas of plume rise as functions of downwind distance, buoyancy flux, and stack height. To calculate the concentrations for the selected receptors, a six-step Excel algorithm was programmed with four years of emission records and 10 most critical toxics were screened out. A validation check using Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model with the same meteorological and emission data showed an acceptable overestimate of 6.7% in the average concentration of 10 nearby receptors. The procedure proposed in this study allows practical and focused emission management for a large industrial complex and can therefore be integrated into an air quality decision-making system. PMID:26150196

  20. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Alma Shehu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

  1. Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources

    Dietary intakes of essential and toxic trace elements in various groups of the population consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollutants will be assessed. Industries with clear-cut marker elemental pollutants and which have been in operation for many years are selected. For the first year of study, the tin and lead smelting industry in Jos, Plateau state of Nigeria will be the focus. The common food products (and total diets) that are grown within the locality will be surveyed, sampled and analysed for the marker elemental pollutants. Other essential trace elements which could influence the absorption and metabolism of the marker pollutants will also be studied. Trace element analysis will be carried out mainly by the IAEA-donated TR-XRF system in our laboratory. Afterwards, food frequency questionnaires will be administered to 30 subjects each from 16 sub-groups of the population and their dietary intakes of the various elements of interest will be assessed. The sub-groups are chosen to take care of sociological differences in feeding habits as well as possible variation in the biological tolerance of toxic trace elements. For 5 subjects from each group, blood and headhair samples will be collected and analysed for the elements of interest. Previously obtained results from preliminary studies are presented. (author)

  2. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p species, Shorea robusta (9.78 +/- 0.095), Alstonia scholaris (8.76 +/- 0.084), Peltophorum pterocarpum (8.99 +/- 0.13) and Albizia lebbeck (7.71 +/- 0.012) were found to be more tolerant with higher Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas. PMID:22324147

  3. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  4. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro

    Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca2+, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

  5. Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors

    The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. Also the topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the north-west contribute to the influence of the industries located in the north onto this region. The region selected in this work includes a oil-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centred in a oil powered station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hung. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For a 9 month period and every three months, one transplant of each set was collected. We have no knowledge of any other study on differentiation elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata where the component wind direction is taken into account. Some information on local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The transplants were analysed by INAA. Contents on Cl, Na, Ca, V and Zn are mapped and discussed. (author)

  6. Pollutant Monitoring of a Drainage Canal Receiving Industrial and Agricultural Wastewater Incukurova Plain

    Zeynep Zaimoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The TD-7 drainage channel has been exposed to wastewater discharges of different characteristics from multiple sources, due to industrial establishments and dense settlement in the vicinity. In this study, seasonal changes of the characterization of the water carried by the channel, which is also used for agricultural irrigation purposes, was examined for biological, physical and chemical characteristics in water samples, taken from five selected observation points along the channel. The observation points were decided, so as to demonstrate characteristic changes in water and sludge quality, reflecting the effects of wastewater discharge points and hydraulic profile. According to the result of monthly analyses performed on water of the drainage channel, maximum and minimum values of quality and pollution parameters were; suspended solids (SS, 30-210 mg L-1; electrical conductivity (EC, 734-1937 μS; 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 97-305 mg L-1; chemical oxygen demand (COD, 174-429 mg L-1; total coliform, 250- >1100 EMS mL-1. Accumulations in the sediments were also observed for some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, sampled from the same observation points. The sets of analysis demonstrated that, with the present wastewater discharges the water drawn from the TD-7 drainage channel cannot be used for agricultural purposes according to existing regulations.

  7. Source area identification with observation from limited monitor sites for air pollution episodes in industrial parks

    Huang, Zihan; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Qi; Ma, Weichun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Limin

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution episodes of unknown origins are often detected by online equipment for air quality monitoring in industrial parks in China. The number of monitors available to provide observation data, as well as the source information, is often very limited. In such case, the identification of a potential source area is more practical than the precise back-calculation of the real source. The potential source area which can be deduced from the observation data from limited monitors was concerned in this paper. In order to do the source area identification, two inverse methods, a direct method and a statistical sampling method, were applied with a Gaussian puff model as the forward modeling method. The characteristic of the potential source area was illustrated by case studies. Both synthetic and real cases were presented. The distribution of the source locations and its variation with the other unknown source parameters were mainly focused in the case study. As a screening method, source area identification can be applied not only when the number of effective monitors is limited but also when an ideal number of monitors are available as long as the source information is almost uncertain.

  8. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  9. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  10. Co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement and air pollution abatement in the Chinese iron and steel industry

    In 2010, China was responsible for 45% of global steel production, while consuming 15.8 EJ of final energy and emitting 1344 Mt CO2eq, 8.4 Mt of PM (particulate matter) emissions, and 5.3 Mt of SO2 emissions. In this paper we analyse the co-benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures that jointly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, in comparison to applying only air pollution control (end-of-pipe technology). For this purpose we construct ECSC (energy conservation supply curves) that contain potentials and costs of energy efficiency measures and implement these in the GAINS (greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies) model. Findings show that the technical energy saving potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2030 is around 5.7 EJ. This is equivalent to 28% of reference energy use in 2030. The emissions mitigation of GHGs (greenhouse gases) and air pollutants in BAEEMS3 scenario would be reduce 27% CO2eq, 3% of PM, and 22% of SO2, compared to the BL scenario in 2030. Investments and cost savings were calculated for different scenarios, showing that energy efficiency investments will result in significant reductions in air pollution control costs. Hence, Energy efficiency measures should be integrated in air quality policy in China. - Highlights: • Implementation rates of 56 EEMs (energy efficiency measures) are quantified in China's Iron and steel industry. • Energy Supply Cost Curve was implemented in the GAINS (greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies) model. • The contribution of energy efficiency measure on the process level was estimated. • There are large co-benefits of improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions. • EEMs (energy efficiency measures) would lead to huge reductions in air pollution

  11. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia

    During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

  12. On the variability of air pollutant emissions from gas-fired industrial combustion plants

    This paper describes a statistical analysis of a large number of NOx and CO emission data from natural gas-fired industrial combustion plants in The Netherlands. Many of these emission data are based on stack measurements. The implied emission factors observed for these combustion processes show a high variability, both between different installations and within one installation over time. This variability is well described by lognormal probability distribution functions with a width of 1-2 orders of magnitude. Due to the large number of plants included in the national inventory of The Netherlands, time trends in the national NO emissions of a few percent per year can be detected despite this large variability. A significant trend for CO could not be observed. This suggests that the variability is not disturbing monitoring of emission trends at the national level. At the individual plant level, this variability however introduces a high uncertainty in a priori emission estimates. This could severely hamper emission reporting in the framework of a plant level emission trading scheme. (Author)

  13. Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent

    Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

  14. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  15. 78 FR 24134 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2013-04-24

    ... and Recovery Act Facilities,'' was published in the Federal Register on March 20, 1995 (60 FR 14641..., railroad ties, and fencing materials for the utilities, railroad, and construction industries. The primary... impoundments and the spray irrigation field, wastewater flowed to three RCRA surface impoundments. In 1980,...

  16. 77 FR 50038 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2012-08-20

    ... tracking analysis using a numerical groundwater flow model; vertical hydraulic gradient data; historical... Gorge which descends approximately 350 feet below the surface of the landfill. The Niagara River flows... considered part of the Site. The stream flows under a neighboring industry via a storm sewer, and...

  17. Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the U.S. printed wiring board manufacturing industry.

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-05-15

    Modern manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) involves extensive use of various hazardous chemicals in different manufacturing steps such as board preparation, circuit design transfer, etching and plating processes. Two complementary environmental screening methods developed by the U.S. EPA, namely: (i) the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) and (ii) Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI), are used to quantify geographic and chemical environmental impacts in the U.S. PWB manufacturing industry based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data. Although the release weight percentages of industrial chemicals such as methanol, glycol ethers and dimethylformamide comprise the larger fraction of reported air and water emissions, results indicate that lead, copper and their compounds' releases correspond to the highest environmental impact from toxicity potentials and risk-screening scores. Combining these results with further knowledge of PWB manufacturing, select alternative chemical processes and materials for pollution prevention are discussed. Examples of effective pollution prevention options in the PWB industry include spent etchant recovery technologies, and process and material substitutions. In addition, geographic assessment of environmental burden highlights states where promotion of pollution prevention strategies and emissions regulations can have the greatest effect to curb the PWB industry's toxic release impacts. PMID:21398034

  18. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  19. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  20. Recommended integrated monitoring system for pollutants on US national parks designated as biosphere reserves

    Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere reserves and that can produce data that are comparable between reserves. This report discusses the design of a pollutant monitoring system that has been successfully used in the United States and provides detailed instructions for its application and use. Mathematical models were applied to help determine the optimum monitoring system design. The modeling technique is briefly described, and results are shown using lead as an example. Analytical procedures were chosen for sample analyses because of their ability to detect suspected pollutants and for their cost effectiveness. Multielemental analytical techniques were used whenever possible, and multiorganic analytical techniques were used when available. Samples of air, water, soil, vegetation, and forest litter were collected. The sampling design is discussed, including the layout of sampling blocks, subsampling, sample handling, and sample preservation. Detailed instructions are provided for obtaining samples and operating the necessary equipment. Finally, the maintenance of field log books and the timing of sample collections are discussed, and conclusions regarding the use of an integrated pollutant monitoring system for biosphere reserves are presented. 27 references, 25 figures

  1. Atmospheric Pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a biomonitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    M.A., Martnez-Carrillo; C., Sols; E., Andrade; R.I., Beltrn-Hernndez; K., Isaac-Oliv; C.A., Lucho-Constantino; M.C., Lpez Reyes; L.C., Longoria.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio aborda la aplicacin de tcnicas nucleares para analizar elementos traza en el monitor biolgico Tillandsia usneoides (heno). El uso de monitores biolgicos proporciona una alternativa ventajosa en el muestreo de material particulado en estudios de contaminacin del aire, ya que no requ [...] iere dispositivos especiales de muestreo y el tiempo de monitoreo puede ser tan largo como se desee. T. usneoides que crece en todo el pas, se utilizo para estudiar la calidad del aire del corredor Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) en el estado de Hidalgo. Esta rea es considerada zona crtica debido a la alta concentracin de contaminantes atmosfricos. Las plantas fueron trasplantadas desde un entorno limpio a cuatro sitios en el corredor de TVA y expuestas durante 12 semanas de febrero a abril de 2008. La acumulacin de elementos traza en plantas sin lavar y secas se determino por PIXE y NAA. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diferencias en la distribucin de elementos traza entre los sitios del corredor TVA y muestran que el monitoreo con T. usneoides permite establecer una primera aproximacin de fuentes de contaminantes atmosfricos. Abstract in english This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sam [...] pling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mxico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mxico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by Particle induced X ray Emission PIXE and Neutron Activa-tion Analysis (NAA). Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor.

  2. Heavy metal pollution status of sediment and liquid wastes from fertilizer industries, Hattar, Pakistan

    Sediment and liquid waste samples of selected fertilizer industries were analyzed by flame atomic absorption method by employing the wet oxidation method. Concentrations of Cr, Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Mg and Pb were measured. Results obtained revealed that the concentrations of the most metals were higher than those laid down by the national environmental quality standards. Statistical parameters such as standard deviation, average concentration, t-value and correlation coefficients were used to investigating the distribution and correlaton pattern of metals in sediments and liquid wastes. For sediment and liquid wastes the measurements obtained showed the t-values were significant for Cr, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn and Pb, while for Cu and Mg were non-significant. The sediment Vs. sediment showed a strong positive correlation between Cu-Co (r=0.777). For the liquid waste Vs. liquid waste system a strong positive corrlation was found for Pb-Mn (r=0.810). (author)

  3. Procuring the regional urbanization and industrialization effect on ozone pollution in Pearl River Delta of Guangdong, China

    Zhang, Y. N.; Xiang, Y. R.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Sang, X. F.; Wang, R.; Fu, H. X.

    2011-09-01

    The decade before 2006 was a period of growing regional urbanization and industrialization. Also, the 5-year plan period (2001-2005) is a half decade of fast regional urban expansion with high population growth within the PRD city clusters, At the same time, the PRD region becomes a leading manufacturing center of the world. Industrial expansion in this region of GD was characterized by the spread of industrial activities from hot spots in GZ city and around Foshan and Dongguan to widely distributed patches of industrial active districts, mostly in the seven newly agglomerate formed and urbanizing prefectural municipalities. To provide transportation communication between GZ city and the municipal cities, a system of highways was built and a region road-network surfaced for the connection of the expanding municipal cities and their sub-urban areas as well as the patches of industrial districts, within their municipalities Also, a network of power plants was built at its periphery. As a result, the ozone precursors, NO x and VOC emission from vehicles, industries and power plants increased region wide, and in particular in the newly formed prefectural municipalities. Hence, the whole region was undergoing a redistribution of O 3 precursors and ozone pollution, following the path of redistribution of population and industrial activity in the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong. Study and report on O 3 pollution before 2000 is rare and there were only a few case studies in 2000 and 2004. By 2006, O 3 data supplied by the newly established PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring Network become available for the study of regional O 3 pollution. Also relevant information on the new dimension of regional urbanization and industrialization for the PRD region of GD, as well as a highly resolved temporal and spatial PRD region NO x and VOC emission inventory surfaced. Thus, 2006 is a good year to procure the regional urbanization and industrial effect, and to produce a snapshot of the regional and area specific ozone pollution in the PRD region of GD. Patterns of annual ozone variation and seasonal ozone diurnal cycles for urban/sub-urban areas, for metropolitan city, for rural areas and for special area in the PRD region of Guangdong are presented for future reference.

  4. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than Wednesday, March 17, 2010. ISOO... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security...

  5. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00...

  6. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00...

  7. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 17, 2013 from 10:00...

  8. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00...

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  12. Designing Effective National Programs to Improve Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Feng LIU; Tromop, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This guidance note, about Industrial energy efficiency is closely linked to the economic competitiveness of countries with significant manufacturing bases and to the energy security of countries that rely heavily on imported energy. For individual enterprises, improving energy efficiency strengthens the bottom line, often reducing direct energy costs by 10 to 30 percent Industry accounts f...

  13. 78 FR 69302 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2013-11-19

    ... approximately 4 acres southwest of Buildings 404 and 414. Between 1964 and 1986, the site operated as a fuel..., an engine test cell, was located within Transfer Parcel II-S near Building 447. Initial Response Near... Notice of Policy Change: Partial Deletion of Sites Listed on the National Priorities List. 60 FR...

  14. 77 FR 64748 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2012-10-23

    ... of copper milling and smelting facilities and operations for over 100 years. Torch Lake was a... Novak, Community Involvement Coordinator, at novak.dave@epa.gov Fax: Gladys Beard, NPL Deletion Process... Listed on the National Priorities List (60 FR 55466) on November 1, 1995. As described in...

  15. 78 FR 33276 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2013-06-04

    ... Change: Partial Deletion of Sites Listed on the National Priorities List. 60 FR 55466 (Nov. 1, 1995). As...) operated lead battery recycling plant were located at 555 Farnam Street. Both ASARCO and Aaron Ferer/Gould... February 26, 2002 (67 FR 8836). The Site was listed on the NPL on April 30, 2003 (68 FR 23094)....

  16. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    2011-09-13

    ...-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... Register. DATES: The proposed rule published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41751) is withdrawn as of September 13... Hipps Road Landfill from the National Priorities List. The EPA is withdrawing the Notice of Intent...

  17. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    2011-09-13

    .... 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193. Dated... of the direct final action (76 FR 41719) is effective as of September 13, 2011. ADDRESSES... Hipps Road Landfill from the National Priorities List. The EPA is withdrawing the Final Notice...

  18. 78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2013-10-02

    ..., 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193. Dated... (EPA) Region 2 is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Ludlow Sand & Gravel Superfund Site (Site), located in Paris, New York, from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on...

  19. 75 FR 54779 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2010-09-09

    ... of Policy Change: Partial Deletion of Sites Listed on the National Priorities List, 60 FR 55466 (Nov... institutional controls (ICs) are functioning properly. The Site was added to the Superfund NPL in 1983 (48 FR.... by Thomas Real Estate Corp.) (now Murphy Beds and a Starbucks). Site History OU1 Contamination at...

  20. Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors

    The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

  1. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  2. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore/Washington, area in the morning, and east (downwind) in the afternoon. Column contents (altitude integrals of concentration) were remarkably similar (≈3x1015 molecules cm-2 ). These measurements indicate that NO2 is widely distributed over the eastern US and help quantify the regional nature of smog events and prove extensive interstate transport of pollutants. These results were used to help shape air pollution control policy based on solid science.

  3. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. PMID:19268409

  4. Air Pollution and 'Dirty' Industries. How and Why Does the Composition of Manufacturing Output Change with Economic Development?

    This paper examines the impact on air pollution of changes in the composition of manufacturing output in developed and developing countries. Pollution emissions from manufacturing output are estimated in a manner which holds constant the effect of technology and regulations allowing the impact of compositional changes alone on pollution to be estimated. The paper has three main findings; (1) the inverted-U estimated between per capita income and the pollution intensity of GDP arises due to both the composition of manufacturing becoming cleaner and the share of manufacturing output in GDP falling. Compositional changes alone are not responsible for the inverted-U between per capita income and per capita emissions; (2) changes to the composition of manufacturing output are consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis, however there is clear evidence that rising per capita incomes are associated with a failing income elasticity of demand for 'dirty' products. This fact may explain the compositional changes that occur with development; (3) in addition to the income elasticity effect, the analysis suggests that land prices and to a lesser extent the prices of labour and capital, determine the proportion of dirty industry within a country's manufacturing sector. 27 refs

  5. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Anneke Anggraeni; Sofjan Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian) under tropical climate has res...

  6. The Effect of Fine and Coarse Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality: A National Analysis

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Although many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on mortality, data limitations have resulted in fewer studies of both particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles) and of coarse particles (particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 and < 10 μm; PM coarse). We conducted a national, multicity time-series study of the acute effect of PM2.5 and PM coarse on the increased risk of death for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD),...

  7. Materials of 4. National Symposium Air Protection in Industry

    The number of technical and technological problems connected witch air protection have been performed. The measures for compression of industrial effluent emission into the atmosphere have been extensively discussed. The original solutions for flue gas purification have been also shown

  8. INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE UNITED NATIONS: A PARTNERSHIP

    Sall, English; Clayton, Ann-marie; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    Since the United Nations began in 1945, it has reached out to experts in many fields, and in many parts of the world, to cooperate in its global work. Our field of organizational psychology has an important role to play at the United Nations, but this has begun only recently, in the past few years. This report offers a concise picture of I-O psychology at the United Nations today, and ways that I-O psychologists in the USA and other nations may learn more details on this

  9. Health disturbance and air pollution in metropolitan Tokyo, an analysis of the national health insurance

    Adachi, S.; Okubo, T.

    1975-02-01

    National health insurance bills were examined for 1971 on 6776 insurants in the highly polluted area of Kojiya (A) and on 8735 insurants in the relatively less polluted area (B) to obtain information on health insurance and air pollution. The year's average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and floating dust were 5.0(2.0), 4.4(3.7), 5.5(3.7), 4.0(3.0) pphm, 3.3(3.1) ppM, and 0.14(0.07) mg/cu m. Parenthetical values belong to area B. The age-adjusted incidence (average frequency of new consultation/person/year) of all respiratory and otogenic diseases was higher in area A. Common colds in infants, rhinitis, and chronic and acute bronchitis were more frequently found in area A. The increase of cases of chronic respiratory diseases was noticed in younger men in area A. An increase of otitis media was noted in insurants in area A younger than 20, suggesting a relationship to diseases in upper airway.

  10. [Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].

    Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil. PMID:24720220

  11. air pollution: temporal and spatial distribution of delta /sup 13/C in plants of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate

    This study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of sigma-/sup 13/C in Eucalyptus (Safeda) plants from Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate and its surroundings. The leaves of the Eucalyptus plants were collected from four locations of the Gadoon Amazai area at regular intervals during January 1993 to June 1996. The greenish, old and whole leaf samples were air dried, homogeneously ground (40 mesh) and converted into CO/sub 2/ for SIGMA-13 analysis on isotope ratio mass spectrometer. /sup 13/C depletion in the plant leaves is more in industrial estate than its surroundings. This can be attributed to the depletion of /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased 13 of the ambient air CO/sub 2/ in the industrial area. These, in turn, influenced the plant /sup 13/C during photosynthesis. Temporal variation shows that CO/sub 2/ pollution is increasing in industrial zone with time. Furthermore, the pollution is less in plains side than the mountain side, which is proved by the Sigma-/sup 13/C results of the surroundings. (author)

  12. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  13. Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis

    As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

  14. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  15. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

  16. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  17. Workers on the Line: Teaching Industrial History at the Tsongas Industrial History Center and Lowell National Historical Park.

    Smith, Rick; O'Connell, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Profiles activities and exhibits at the Tsongas Industrial History Center and Lowell National Historical Park. Follows a group of students as they participate in a situation simulating 19th-century working conditions and subsequent union organizing. Includes two documents from a resource kit illustrating worker's lives. (MJP)

  18. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: ECONOMICS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    This report addresses the economics of wastewater treatment alternatives as a guide for minimizing the costs of meeting water pollution control requirements. Initially, operating and investment costs are presented for conventional wastewater treatment systems employed by the elec...

  20. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

  1. Old coal by-products industry sites: the difficult management of polluted soils; Anciens sites de carbochimie: la difficile gestion des sols pollues

    Le Port, J.P.

    2001-12-01

    This article summarizes the communications presented during this colloquium on the management of polluted soils from abandoned coal by-products industry sites. The main topics concern the pollution characterization (laboratory techniques), the remedial actions (bio- and phyto-remediation), the liability and economical aspects of sites cleansing. The visits of three polluted sites were organized during the colloquium and are summarized in the article. (J.S.)

  2. Who will use background concentrations of pollutants in urban and industrial soils? A survey of the intentions of regulators in seven European regions/countries.

    Vandeuren, Aubry; Pereira, Benoît; Sonnet, Philippe; 7th International Conference of the Urban Soils Working Group, SUITMA, of the International Union of Soil Sciences.

    2013-01-01

    Background concentrations of pollutants in soil can play different roles in soil protection policies. They can be used for instance to detect a local pollution or to calculate the cleaning targets if a site has to be remediate. However, soils from urban and industrial areas generally present high concentration of pollutants, since they usually are disturbed by urbanization, mixed with technogenic material and affected by smoke and dust fallout. In these zones, background concentrations can be...

  3. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    Lin, Henry W.; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JW...

  4. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  5. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables

    Omanga, Eunice; Ulmer, Lisa; Berhane, Zekarias; Gatari, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge, hence investments in pollution prevention technologies get sidelined in favor of short-term benefits from increased production and job creation. This lack of air quality management capability translates into lack of air pollution data, hence th...

  6. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DMBOVI?A COUNTY

    Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?; Ovidiu Mur?rescu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat), knows no frontiers, which makes it ...

  7. Influence of industry on pollution of the environment and human population with natural radionuclides and heavy metals

    The rate of fallout of 226Ra depending on the distance from industrial emission sources has been evaluated. Contamination of soil with natural radionuclides in industrial and rural regions of Poland has been compared with the concentration of radionuclides in ash of aerophytic plants. An increase of airborne pollutants in precipitation in Southern Poland has been compared with an increase of the concentration of pollutants in pine trees. Samples of human bones from Southern Poland have been checked for contents of lead. It has been found that in 20th century concentration of lead decreased to a level not much higher than natural. The level of 226Ra in Polish population had been decreasing during the last 100 years. This points to the conclusion that human skeleton is well protected as the level of radionuclides was not related to the level of environmental pollution. The concentration of 226Ra in air is steadily increasing and an upward transport leads to its wide distribution. (E.G.M.)

  8. Impacts of Air Pollution on Productivity Growth in the Air and Truck Transportation Industries in the US: an Application of the Data Envelopment Analysis Malmquist Environmental Productivity Index

    Jaesung Choi; Roberts, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worsens work environment and increases the likelihood of health risks and even premature death for humans. Owing to the fundamental structure of growth through the combustion of fossil fuels, productivity growth in the transportation industry has affected the natural environment. In this study, the authors use the Malmquist environmental productivity index to consider the effects of air pollution on productivity growth in the air and truck transportation industries, which are th...

  9. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    Nozal, Ral Rodrquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cmara Nacional de Industrias Qumicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organizacin Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unin Nacional de Laboratorios Qumico-Farmacuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unin Farmacutica Nacional'. PMID:22372007

  10. Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park

    Notten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the floodplain area in which the rivers Rhine and Meuse join. They contained high loads of heavy metals in the 1960s and 1970s, and polluted sediments were deposited in the floodplains. These polluted layer...

  11. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in marine sediment from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    The concentrations of parent and alkyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediment samples collected from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah were determined by using GC-MS. The ratio of anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene, fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene, benz[a]anthracene to benz[a]anthracene plus chrysene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene plus benzo[g,h,i]perylene, compounds were used to identify the sources of PAHs pollution. The total concentration of parent and alkyl PAHs are ranged from 121.7 to 191.5 ng/ g dry weight. The concentrations of PAHs pollution in sediments were categorised as a moderate polluted. The ratio values of PAHs compound indicate the origin source of PAHs pollutions in marine sediment sample of Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park were originated from fossil fuel combustion (pyrolytic). (author)

  12. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    2011-10-28

    ... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer Solutions AGENCY: National Cancer Institute (NCI), Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research (OCNR),...

  13. Stratigraphic and geochemical evidence for industrial pollutants in alpine and subalpine soils of the Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming, USA

    A stratigraphic and geochemical study of alpine soils, which formed in later Pleistocene (late glacial) and Neoglacial deposits in the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming, indicates that these soils are affected by air-fall in flux of inorganic pollutants. Arsenic, bromine and antimony appear to have been deposited in surface soils by incorporation of aeolian materials which were presumably transported by winds from industrial sources, including coal-burning operations. As vanadium was not found in surface soils at concentrations above site-specific background levels, oil-fired energy generating stations were not found to be significant sources of surface soil pollution in the region. Acid-rain effects were not observed in the soils. (author) 32 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  15. Distribution profiles of selected organic pollutants in soils and sediments of industrial, residential and agricultural areas of South Africa.

    Quinn, Laura; Pieters, Rialet; Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Borgen, Anders Rsrud; Kylin, Henrik; Bouwman, Henk

    2009-09-01

    Currently very little data exists on the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the South African environment. To address this data gap a preliminary study of a highly industrialised area of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle, was done. Soil and sediment samples from the Vaal Triangle, as well as other areas in central South Africa, were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the presence of PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like chemicals and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Results showed that these chemicals are present in the South African environment with concentrations ranging between 39,000 ng g(-1) for SigmaPAHs and 0.01 ng g(-1) for dicofol. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated different pollution sources in industrial and agricultural areas. PMID:19724835

  16. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities

  17. National industry's interest in colorectal cancer screening programmes.

    Hart, A. R.; Barone, T L; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest of the largest 200 British industries in developing and financing colorectal screening services for employees was determined. A standard questionnaire asked if the company would advertise screening supply names of employees to local hospitals and finance faecal occult blood testing. The reasons for rejection were noted. Eighty-six companies returned the questionnaire (43% response rate) of which 78 firms (39% of the total mailed) were prepared to advertise screening programmes at...

  18. Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

    The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

  19. National industry's interest in colorectal cancer screening programmes.

    Hart, A R; Barone, T L; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J F

    1994-11-01

    The interest of the largest 200 British industries in developing and financing colorectal screening services for employees was determined. A standard questionnaire asked if the company would advertise screening supply names of employees to local hospitals and finance faecal occult blood testing. The reasons for rejection were noted. Eighty-six companies returned the questionnaire (43% response rate) of which 78 firms (39% of the total mailed) were prepared to advertise screening programmes at the workplace. A quarter of the companies were prepared to both advertise and release employee details. Companies willing to participate employed significantly more people (mean of 17,000 employees) than those rejecting screening (mean of 6100 employees, Mann-Whitney U test = 7, P companies rejecting (36/36) were concerned about releasing employee information to hospitals. If screening does reduce mortality and community programmes are developed industry could and is prepared to advertise such programmes. If a partnership between hospitals and industry is developed, concerns about employee confidentiality needs to be addressed. PMID:7837182

  20. Genetic variation and selfing rate in Lychnis flos-cuculi along an industrial pollution gradient.

    Dulya, Olesya V; Mikryukov, Vladimir S

    2016-02-01

    We studied nine populations of a meadow mixed-mating plant Lychnis flos-cuculi growing in a gradient of copper smelter emissions. We hypothesize that metal tolerant populations in the polluted areas have experienced a loss of genetic variation and are more selfing than the populations from the unpolluted areas. One hundred and thirty-five parental plants and 1059 offspring were genotyped with sixmicrosatellite markers. Selfing rates were assessed manually, with Rmes, Mltr and Colony2. Soil toxicity, population density and pollinators' activity were estimated in the studied areas. Populations from the heavily polluted area have experienced a strong founder effect. However, at present, they are characterized by high densities. A recent genetic explosion was registered for the population from the most polluted site, probably due to forest thinning under pollution effects. Selfing rates estimated with different approaches agreed well only for populations with high genetic variation; they comprised 0-0.23 and were similar between polluted and clean areas. Self-fertilization in L.flos-cuculi hardly represents a mechanism for the fixation of advantageous alleles and a barrier for gene flow from non-tolerant populations. The employment of different methods of selfing rate estimation in populations with low genetic variation appears to be necessary, though not a guarantee of reliable conclusions. PMID:26354007