WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Industrial pollution; Pollution industrielle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aria Technologies, sub-company of Air Liquide, is a firm specialized in the atmospheric control of industrial pollutions. It will soon make, in the industrial basin of the Dunkerque centre, an important study on the understanding, the modelling and the impact of the industrial pollutions on the health of the inhabitants. The concerned pollutants are: the heavy metals, the dioxines, the volatile organic compounds... (O.M.)

Anon.

2004-06-15

2

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

3

National priorities in marine pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

1988-02-01

4

Water Pollution Control Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

|A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)|

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

5

A recommended approach to completing the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environment Canada administers a facility-based inventory for national releases of pollutants. This document was prepared by the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Subcommittee of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to help its members meet reporting requirements of the NPRI. It is intended to be a supplement to Environment Canada's guides for reporting to the NPRI and provides CAPP members with specific oil, gas and oil sand examples and clarifies NPRI requirements as applied to oil, gas and oil sand facilities. Having all CAPP members use the procedures in the guide to determine their NPRI emissions contributes to consistent and comparable emissions reporting between upstream oil and gas companies. The NPRI was developed in the early 1990s. Owners and operators of facilities are required to report to the NPRI if they meet the reporting criteria determined by the Minister of the Environment. Criteria air contaminants (CAC) were reported for the first time in 2002 when all upstream oil and gas facilities with 20,000 employee-hours worked onsite had to report criteria air contaminants (CAC) releases. In 2003, the 20,000 man hours worked threshold exemption for the upstream oil and gas industry was removed for CAC reporting. There were no major changes to the NPRI for the 2004 reporting year. This report outlined the general reporting criteria to the NPRI with reference to all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items located on a single site, pipeline installations and offshore installations. The report addressed reporting exemptions and special considerations; generalized estimation methods; combustion sources and CAC; fugitive equipment leaks; process venting; hydrocarbon emissions from storage tanks; loading losses; spills and accidental releases; releases to underground injection; disposal and recycling; hydrogen sulphides; speciation of volatile organic compounds; particulate matter from cooling towers; in-situ oil sand operations; and common errors in reporting to the NPRI. 40 refs., 27 tabs., 4 figs

2005-01-01

6

Australian Government: National Pollutant Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Department of Environment and Heritage, the Australian Government has developed the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI), "...an Internet database designed to provide the community, industry and government with information on the types and amounts of certain substances being emitted to the environment." Visitors to the Web site can search for emissions by location, substance, source or facility. The NPI requires industries to report on their emissions to air, land and water on 90 NPI substances including Benzene, Carbon Monoxide, Cyanide (inorganic) compounds, Methanol, and Sulfuric Acid. The Web site contains detailed information on which industrial facilities must report their emissions and how to do so. The site also provides tools for people to map emissions data or download data.

7

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group) from Ahvaz-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM) concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR) of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

Rafiei Masoud; Gadgil Alaka; Ghole Vikram; Gore Sharad; Jaafarzadeh Neemat; Mirkazemi Roksana

2009-01-01

8

International environment `air pollution industry`  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future of the air pollution control industry is discussed. The United States government must deal with the toxics in air emissions from utilities. This will call for increased spending on flue gas desulphurization systems. The future of the air pollution industry depends on utility decisions. The applicability of U.S. experience abroad is a related issue. U.S. expertise on continuous emissions monitoring systems for gaseous contaminants, the air toxics market, the NO{sub x} market, and Asia as a fast growing market are discussed. 7 figs.

McIlvaine, R.W. [McIlvaine Company, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

9

Pollution, industrial development, and comparative advantage: a re-evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two related hypotheses are offered to explain how environmental regulations are helping to alter international comparative advantage in industrial production. The first is that stringent regulations push industries out of the United States and other advanced industrial nations (the industrial flight hypothesis). The second is that less developed countries compete to attract multinational industries by minimizing their own regulations (the pollution haven hypothesis). The combination of the push out of industrial countries and the pull toward less industrialized countries supposedly exerts a powerful influence on international industrial location patterns and enhances national strategies for industrial development in the Third World. This study examines the validity of the industrial flight and pollution haven hypothesis within a broad political-economic framework of theories purporting to explain international trade and investment. These include theories on the international product cycle for manufactured goods, the foreign direct investment process, industrial location, national industrial development strategy and the bargaining relationship between host countries and private investors. Recent foreign investment and import trends by US firms are analyzed to determine whether pollution-control and workplace health standards have pushed US industries abroad, and whether the US industrial base and balance of trade have been negatively affected.

Leonard, H.J.

1985-01-01

10

Inspecting industry: pollution and safety. Action plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Action plan prepared by the D.O.E. to develop a more integrated approach to the control of pollution from major industrial processes and the monitoring of radioactive discharges and water and waste disposal authorities.

1986-01-01

11

Environmental Pollution Control: Textile Processing Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgra...

A. Lubell

1978-01-01

12

the role of industry in air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

1998-01-01

13

Techniques for industrial pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a catalog of seventy-three techniques to reduce/eliminate of recycle/reuse wastes, now operating in one hundred and twenty one industrial plants in seven different industries. Each technique is described and illustrated. Industries represented include: chemical; food and beverage; plating; construction materials; metallurgy; textiles; tannery; pulp and paper.

Overcash, M.R.; De Hertogh, M.D.

1986-01-01

14

Factors controlling bioindicators for industrial pollution detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindicators of pollution containing industrial metals. Phytoplanktonic algae varied with waste type and with environmental and growth conditions. In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta species and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were cultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution. PMID:10674183

Ali, G H; Abd el-Salam, N F

1999-09-01

15

The 1991 global air pollution control industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This market analysis of the global impact of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act on the air pollution industry includes an examination of significant requirements of the law, and the various technological developments necessary to produce emission reductions. A key point is the need for improved equipment not only in the US and other industrialized countries, but in developing countries as well. One critical component discussed is the demand for an increase in training and personnel to build, supply, and operate pollution control equipment.

McIlvaine, R.W. (The McIlvaine Co., Northbrook, IL (United States))

1991-05-01

16

The 1991 global air pollution control industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This market analysis of the global impact of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act on the air pollution industry includes an examination of significant requirements of the law, and the various technological developments necessary to produce emission reductions. A key point is the need for improved equipment not only in the United States and other industrialized countries, but in developing countries as well. One critical component discussed is the demand for an increase in training and personnel to build, supply, and operate pollution control equipment. 11 figs.

McIlvaine, R.W. (McIlvaine Company, Northbrook, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

17

National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers the history and role of the institute and its work under the following headings: energy development and utilization; coal liquefaction; coal gasification; biomass energy; hydrocracking of heavy oils; chemical liquefaction of natural gas; combustion and heat utilization; heat extraction from hot dry rock; mineral resources development and utilization; manganese nodule mining, and processing resources into high grade materials; advanced utilization of carbonaceous resources; new water treatment system - Acqua Renaissance '90; mine and industrial safety; industrial pollution control; measurement of pollutants; mechanisms of environmental pollution; environmental assessment; and international cooperation of science and technology. The report also gives brief details of the research projects being carried out by industrial departments.

1986-01-01

18

Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

1996-12-31

19

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

20

Parameter estimation of harmonic polluting industrial loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper develops a methodology for the estimation of relevant parameters characterizing harmonic polluting industrial loads through a set of measurements acquired at the point of common coupling. The proposed method is capable of obtaining an accurate load model in absence of detailed information about its internal structure and composition. (author)

Maza-Ortega, J.M.; Gomez-Exposito, A.; Trigo-Garcia, J.L.; Burgos-Payan, M. [University of Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain). Department of Electrical Engineering

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group), Ahvaz, Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM) and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different (P < 0.05) in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene's (3 mg/m(3)). The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei M; Gadgil AS; Ghole VS; Jaafarzadeh N; Gore SD; Aberomand M; Shabab M

2008-08-01

22

Pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A clear understanding of the process, reaction pathways, process equipment, operational requirements, and waste stream characteristics are critical for the evaluation, selection, and implementation of pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry. Although pollution prevention opportunities are always preferred over treatment and disposal techniques, consideration of a full range of options--including at-source treatments and disposal--is a practical necessity to ensure protection of the environment using best available technology. General housekeeping can also play a major role in waste minimization. Waste minimization and pollution prevention are not new concepts for the pharmaceutical industry. But the confidential and highly competitive nature of the business stands in the way of disseminating information regarding specific activities in this area. The pharmaceutical industry could probably do much better in this respect. Successful implementation of waste minimization in the pharmaceutical industry requires that a process modification not have a negative impact on product quality. Recovered and recycled materials must meet quality specifications that are similar to those for virgin raw materials.

Venkataramani, E.S. [Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

23

Emphysema and occupational exposure to industrial pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a case-referent study, the possible association between the development of emphysema and occupational exposure to industrial pollutants has been studied. Based on complete work histories from the participants, the number of years of employment in a polluted workplace was assessed for 36 patients with emphysema and 72 referents, matched for age (+/- 2 a) and smoking habits. Analyzed as matched triplets, the estimated risk ratio for the exposed (greater than or equal to 10 a in polluted workplaces) subjects developing emphysema in comparison to the nonexposed (less than 10 a in polluted workplaces) was 3.0, a value statistically significant. Estimated risk ratios according to the number of years employed in a polluted workplace did not show any significant trend towards a dose-response relationship. Only one of the emphysema patients had never smoked. In the further study of the relationship between emphysema and occupational exposure, the interaction between cigarette smoke and different occupational exposures seems to be of particular interest.

Kjuus, H.; Istad, H.; Langard, S.

1981-12-01

24

76 FR 32081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-06-03

25

76 FR 50414 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-08-15

26

76 FR 81840 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-12-29

27

76 FR 70057 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-11-10

28

76 FR 20546 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-04-13

29

76 FR 51266 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-08-18

30

78 FR 45871 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2013-07-30

31

76 FR 76314 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-12-07

32

75 FR 47482 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2010-08-06

33

Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

1999-01-01

34

Pollution prevention in the chemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical industry`s voluntary initiatives to reduce both releases to the environment and off-site transfers are illustrated by the fact that 100% of the CMA member companies originally invited became participants in the EPA`s 33/50 Program. The 33/50 Program is a voluntary program designed to reduce the releases of 17 targeted chemicals by 50% by the year 1995, from the baseline year of 1988. Making environmental management, and especially pollution prevention, a part of a company`s existing setup isn`t easy. Pollution prevention, in particular, cuts across the traditional management boundaries of R and D and product development, manufacturing, engineering, business management, customer and supplier relationships, and risk management (which looks to episodic risks presented by operations, storage, and transportation, and to chronic risks from the routine releases to the environment associated with the particular manufacturing facility). Many chemical companies have integrated pollution prevention as a tool in their overall risk reduction and risk management strategy. This allows the company to balance environmental risks presented, not only from the generation of waste or release of chemicals into the environment, but from episodic risks presented by chemical processes as well.

Moore, F.L. [Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

1995-09-01

35

GUIDE TO INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents an overview of industrial assessments and the general framework for conducting an assessment. It describes combined assessments for pollution prevention and energy, "industrial assessments," providing guidance to those performing assessments at industrial o...

36

78 FR 47205 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2013-08-05

37

75 FR 44932 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, hazardous...

2010-07-30

38

78 FR 45064 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2013-07-26

39

75 FR 54779 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2010-09-09

40

78 FR 44455 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2013-07-24

 
 
 
 
41

75 FR 43082 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2010-07-23

42

75 FR 48867 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which...

2010-08-12

43

77 FR 58321 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the...Part 300 Environmental protection; Air pollution control; Chemicals; Hazardous...

2012-09-20

44

76 FR 76048 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP),...

2011-12-06

45

75 FR 27192 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...would be cleaned up under CERCLA or Oil Pollution Act authority. The surrounding...

2010-05-14

46

Industrial pollution: The threat to Polish forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poland's forests are continually under strong anthropogenic pressure. Deforestation together with the harmful effects of air pollution have resulted from growing industrialization and urbanization. These effects have been further exacerbated by considerable negligence in environmental protection in Poland and by the high level of toxic substances transported from neighboring states. This article presents the consequences and spatial differentation of this forest destruction. The most extreme effects have been observed in the West Sudetes Mountains and Upper Silesia. The situation in these areas is catastrophic. Whole high mountain regions are threatened with total devastation within the near future. (15 refs.).

Mazurski, K.R. (Academy of Economics, Wroclaw (PL))

1990-04-01

47

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

2006-01-01

48

Pollution, contamination and future land use at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientists interested in contamination normally deal only with pollution itself, not with people's perceptions of pollution or the relationship between pollution and land use. The overall objective of this article was to examine the relationship between people's perceptions of pollution and their views on future land use. People were interviewed at an Earth Day Festival near the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on Long Island, New York. On an open-ended question, people thought that BNL should be left as it is, or maintained as a preserve, park or conservation area, or used for environmental research. Almost no one thought that it should be used for housing or industrial purposes. When asked to rate a list of possible future land uses, maintaining BNL as a National Environmental Research Park for research and for recreation were rated the highest (nuclear storage was rated the lowest). This was consistent with the subjects' views that pollution was the greatest concern about BNL. The congruence between perceptions about concerns or problems and future land use preferences suggests a unified view of management of contaminated sites, such as BNL, at least among a group of people whose environmental interests were evident by their presence at the event.

Burger J; Gochfeld M; Shukla S; Jeitner C; Ramos R; Tsipoura N; Donio M

2008-10-01

49

Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others

1995-01-01

50

Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

2005-01-01

51

Pollution and energy management in tanning industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat in flue gases through a thermal wheel. Savings in the use of electrical and mechanical energy can carried out by using simple techniques. (author)

2005-01-01

52

Environmental pollution-effects on national development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

1994-01-01

53

Pollution control in the petrochemicals industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book of fundamentals is intended to provide a base on which to build a pollution control program for petrochemicals plants. Though not exhaustive, it provides data for the establishment of intelligent, environmentally sound approaches to pollution prevention, treatment, and control. Guidelines for the proper selection of pollution control equipment are presented throughout the book, with specific attention to performance and cost-effectiveness.

Borup, M.B.; Middlebrooks, E.J.

1987-01-01

54

Multimedia pollution assessment of the wood products industries. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a summary and commentary on pollutants, abatement technologies, and regulations in the wood products industries. Industries included in the study are pulp, paper and paperboard, veneer/plywood, particleboard, millwork and structural members, fabricated wood products, and gum and wood chemicals, and wood preserving. Water pollution abatement legislation has established guidelines based on Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available (BPCTCA). These guidelines primarily address conventional pollutants, including five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. In addition, guidelines based on Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) and Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology (BCPCT) are currently being established to address conventional, priority (toxic), and nonconventional (neither conventional nor toxic) pollutants. Existing external air pollution control devices, in conjunction with internal process controls, can be effective in the reduction of air pollutants, especially particulates and sulfur dioxide.

Casana, J.

1984-02-01

55

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group), Ahvaz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM) and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P 3 ). The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei Masoud; Gadgil Alaka; Ghole Vikram; Jaafarzadeh Neemat; Gore Sharad; Aberomand Mohammad; Shabab Mitra

2008-01-01

56

Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process or activity. (author)

1997-01-01

57

Sassuolo-Scandiano (Italy) environmental policy: Ceramics industry pollution abatement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Italy's Sassuolo-Scandiano 50 square kilometer area is host to a thriving ceramics industry responsible for about 30% of the world's annual production of ceramic tiles. In the early 60's, local health authorities noted the presence of dangerously high levels of lead in the air and surface waters. A national-regional pollution control campaign was then conducted which involved the installation of exhaust air filters and water treatment plants in the ceramics factories. Subsequent health surveys in the 80's showed a great improvement in air and water quality. Current efforts are being directed towards the use of innovative production technologies involving the recycling of waste materials, and towards research to find ways to further reduce boron levels in the local surface waters. This paper points out the administrative, organizing and planning strategies which combined to make for a successful environmental protection program.

Lewanski, R. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Organizzazione e Sistema Politico)

1992-06-01

58

Industrial process for treatment of highly polluted waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stricter statutory constraints on the discharge of wastewater and the trend towards the application of polluter-pays-pollution principles have burdened many industrial enterprises with disproportionate increases in effluent charges. Designed especially for treating organically highly polluted wastewater, an aerobic-thermophilic process is now being developed which utilizes the heat evolved in biochemical reactions to enhance the activity of activated sludge. Loop type reactors intensify mass transfer while at the same time reducing energy consumption and space requirements.

Kiese, S.; Scheffler, U.; Pilepp, E.

1986-01-01

59

Inspecting industry: pollution and safety. Reports and annexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section of the action plan prepared by the D.O.E. to develop a more integrated approach to pollution inspection in industry presents the recommendations for revision of the Inspectorate for Nuclear Installations.

1986-01-01

60

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Declaration of pollutant emissions. Obligations for the industry?; Declaration des emissions polluantes. Des obligations pour l'industrie?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each operator of a classified facility submitted to permission is obliged, since 2004, to declare to the regional direction of industry, research and environment (DRIRE) to which his facility belongs, the overall pollutant emissions to the atmosphere and to the surface and underground waters of this facility (by-law of December 24, 2002). Compiled at the national scale, these data supply the European pollutant emissions register (EPER). Thus, the European Commission can follow the evolution of the emissions of about 50 different pollutants. For the industrialist in concern, the respect of this new regulation is not easy. The existing tools (declarations for the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP), declaration of greenhouse gases..) do not cover the complete spectrum of the targeted pollutants. Some emissions will have to be determined by calculation, while some others will require precise measurements. In front of this difficulty, the French association of environment engineers and technicians (AFITE) and the energy environment technical association (ATEE) have organized this colloquium in order to show the concrete experience of specialists in the domain of pollutants inventory: 1 - the international context and the foreign experiences: advance status of the EPER (obligations for the European countries and their industries about the creation of the EPER, characteristics of the EPER protocol); the OECD works on pollutant release and transfer registers (PRTR); the Canadian experience of PRTR; the Belgian experience in the implementation of PRTR; inventory of emissions and air registers: synergies and differences; 2 - implementation in France: data gathering at the national scale; inventory of the emissions to the water; methodology of the cement industry; annual declaration of the emissions in the chemical industry: the ATOFINA experience (methodology of data gathering and consolidation of the annual emissions of industrial sites); application to district heating networks and other classified facility. (J.S.)

Lucas, Ph. [Ministere de l' Ecologie et du Developpement Durable, 75 - Paris (France); Mehlhorn, B. [Commission Europeenne DG 3, Bruxelles(Belgium); Harjula, H. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France); Chung, A. [Pollution Data, Environment (Canada); Amand, M. [Ministere de la Region Wallone (Belgium); Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, 75 - Paris (France); Fribourg-Blanc, B. [Office International de L' eau, 75 - Paris (France); Laffaire, D. [ATILH, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Fosse, S. [Atofina, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Boos N' diamye, B. [ELYO, 92 - Nanterre (France); Peyne, F. [ELYO, Ile de France, 75 - Paris (France)

2004-07-01

62

UNIDO's work on pollution control and risk management in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important aspect of UNIDO's work is to learn from the experience of industrialized countries and to avoid severe health and environmental pollution problems through the transfer of appropriate technologies and pollution control mechanisms as an essential part of industrial development - which is UNIDO's main mandate. Moreover, UNIDO's role is to provide to the policy makers of developing countries a better understanding of environmental problems and appreciation of early remedial action. One way to achieve this is through the application of environmental impact assessment and risk assessment methodologies. Since 1972 UNIDO has developed and implemented about 172 projects related to industrial pollution control and management of environmental resources. Currently UNIDO implements about 60 projects in this area. This represents about 10 per cent of the total UNIDO technical assistance budget. Specifically, UNIDO's programme focuses attention on the following main areas: Developing Low- and Non-Waste Technologies, Reutilization and Recycling of Wastes, Energy Conservation and Promotion of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy; Control of Air, Waste and Solid Waste Pollution; Assistance in Environmental Planning, Environmental Impact Assessment, Elaboration of Integrated Planning Concepts for Industrial Areas; Industrial and Plant Safety and Emergency Planning Systems. Clearly toxic materials and waste management, energy resources development and conservation, low- and non-waste technology, risk assessment, industrial and plant safety and emergency planning, transboundary pollution, are foremost concerns of both industrial and industrializing countries at this time

1988-01-01

63

Sound Pollution Caused by the Industrial Activity in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise pollution is the problem of the industrial world that along with noised induced by traffic has become a problem in human life.This is more problematic in Tehran because of the traffic and the accumulation of small or large industries. People are profoundly exposed to the high level noises and there are increasing demands to solve the problem of noise in Tehran or at least alleviate it.In the current article we will have a brief and quick look to the noise making industries, the reason behind the noise pollution and the strategies for facing the disturbing industries.

Fattah Ramezanali; Omid Montazeri; Behnam yazdani; Mehrangiz shams

1999-01-01

64

Water pollution in the steel industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sources of water pollution in the various stages of steelmaking are considered; these include the coke ovens. Details are given of the operations producing contaminants, together with the briefest information on methods of treatment.

Owen, D.

1983-06-01

65

Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

2007-01-01

66

Pressures on industry to move to pollution prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In a recent EPA report entitled Reducing Risk: Sorting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection, a recommendation was made that EPA should emphasize pollution prevention as the preferred option for reducing risk. A significant number of states have adopted legislation requiring industry to conduct pollution prevention planning activities and submit reports to the state agencies. Federal legislation may be on the way. Industrial trade organizations are looking at the Chemical Manufacturing Association's Responsible Care: Program. Institutional investment groups are looking at initiatives like the Valdez Principles when selecting its portfolio, each of these initiatives have pollution prevention components. Environmentalists are demanding further attention be paid to pollution prevention. Industry is responding with a variety of programs designed to move them away from the classic end-of-the pipe controls which EPA mandated in previous regulations

1991-01-01

67

Targeting industrial processes for pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before investing in pollution prevention projects, companies need to focus on the processes that have the potential to result in the greatest payback. All too often, companies hire outside consultants to conduct one-time, isolated opportunity assessments in response to state or Federal planning requirements but do not continue to seek opportunities as operations are modified. As a result, companies may end up investing in projects to meet their immediate needs while missing opportunities for savings that may result from broader, longer term solutions. Similarly, departments may implement projects independently and end up missing opportunities to take advantage of economies of scale or internal reuse/recycling possibilities. The companies that have profited the most from pollution prevention strategies are those that have fully integrated the concept into their major business decisions at all levels within the organization. In this respect, pollution prevention is one of several possible tools to minimize projected environmental impacts.

Li, D.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Reston, VA (United States)

1997-05-01

68

76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...Pollutant From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket...Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, EPA...

2011-01-18

69

77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards...

2012-08-03

70

Modern low-pollutive industrial gas turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As illustrated by aviation gas turbines, industrial gas-turbine engineering saw a rapid development towards light-weight compact units with enhanced efficiency. The Sulzer gas turbine type 10 is a most up-to-date machine which has not been derived simply from the aircraft engine but will also fully meet the requirements for stationary industrial operation.

Marriott, A.

1987-01-01

71

77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...327310 Portland cement manufacturing plants. Federal...

2012-07-18

72

Soil pollution and industry; De bodemproblematiek in het bedrijfsleven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article deals with the consequences of the recent legislation on soil pollution for the industry. A close look is especially taken to the difference between historical and new soil pollution. Besides, the course of a reference soil investigation and the periods when a similar investigation needs to be carried out are explained. As a conclusion, special attention is given to the soil certificate that is to be applied for with every ground transaction.

De Lembre, H. [RDC NV, Ghent (Belgium)

1996-11-01

73

Environmental Assessment due to Air Pollution near Iron Smelting Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was on iron smelting industry which was located in Papankulam-Madavarvilagam Village, Tamilnadu, India and polluting the environment in the forms of fumes. The pollutant seems to affect the various plants and human beings residing at the vicinity of industry. In this industry, for a month 40-50 tones of ferric sulphate was produced using sulphuric acid, nitric acid and iron which were considered major environmental contaminant. Ditch, well, bore-well waters, plant samples like coconut tender water, Cassia auriculata and Opuntia elatior extracts were captivated from pollutant and unpollutant sites and the concentration of iron content in the captivated water samples and plant extracts were monitored and also the effect of iron on the physiology of plants was studied. On the basis of results, we concluded the exhaust from the iron smelting industry had a telling effects on the near by ecosystem. Accordingly, continuous monitoring of this polluted study site can be helped to solve this air pollution.

R. Arunachalam; K. Paulkumar; A.J.A. Ranjitsingh; G. Annadurai

2009-01-01

74

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

75

Pollution and nuisances due to industrial and municipal wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In industrialized countries, the industrial and municipal wastes increase in quantity, in complexity and in harmfulness. The different wastes processing (incineration, technical hiding in the ground centres and composting) generate pollutions which affect the air, the water and the soil. The main pollutants incriminated are the heavy metals, the volatile organic compounds, the persistent organic compounds, the hydrochloric acid and the nitrogen oxides. The emanations due to the dangerous stored wastes can involve some harmful effects on men. The leaching process has some consequences on the ecosystem. Some preventive measures on the wastes processing and storage will be taken in the future. (O.L.). 1 tab.

Bourrelier, P.H. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

1996-09-01

76

Industrial emissions and air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of recent environmental initiatives and regulatory requirements in Canada is presented, focusing on emission control options and approaches that have proven to be useful in meeting some of the requirements. End-of-pipe treatment technologies currently being utilized to meet air quality requirements and which touch on key federal government initiatives such as meeting targets established under the Kyoto Protocol, are also reviewed. Emission reduction and control technologies with regard to air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides are highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Hansen, K. J. [Amec Earth and Environmental, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2003-12-01

77

Prevention of industrial pollution in English law. Der Schutz gegen industrielle Immissionen im englischen Recht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nineteenth-century industrial revolution turned the largely agricultural nations of Europe into industrial nations. The radical changes resulting from this development made difficult demands on the traditional apparatus of society. Harmful substances from industrial production penetrated the environment, and the population still suffers as a result of them. How was and is the law able to reconcile the diverging interests. This investigation attempts to determine whether England as 'the first industrial nation' has found more effective remedies with respect to these demands or whether the attempts at solutions which are so different when compared with German law, can be explained simply by the different legal system. The German private pollution prevention law and principally English Case Law and Common Law are analyzed and compared. (orig./HSCH).

Pill, B.W.

1988-01-01

78

78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) to broaden the...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision to...

2013-03-18

79

77 FR 66729 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), to acknowledge...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), 40...

2012-11-07

80

77 FR 66783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, to acknowledge advancements...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), to...

2012-11-07

 
 
 
 
81

Pollution prevention in the aluminum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and construction of a greenfield facility provides unique opportunities to implement pollution prevention programs and controls that would otherwise be difficult and possibly cost prohibitive to retrofit an existing facility. Norandal U.S.A., Inc. (Norandal) recently announced the construction of a $240 million aluminum foil mill to be co-located at their existing facility in Huntingdon, Tennessee. Federal and State regulations required that a Prevention of Significant (PSD) permit be obtained for compliance of the Clean Air Act. Among other elements, the PSD application required an assessment of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). BACT options considered and selected for aluminum melting and holding furnaces are described, including work practices and various traditional and state-of-the-art emission control technologies. Also described are the BACT options considered and selected for rolling mill emissions control. The technology selected for control of rolling mill emissions will likely set BACT for future rolling mills in the United States.

Namie, G.R.; DeRose, C.R.

1999-07-01

82

Analyses of air pollutants of a typical industrial region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimating atmospheric quality of an industrial region involves the determination of organic and inorganic priority pollutants entering the urban air from diverse sources, including motor vehicles, power generating stations and industries, municipal effluents, and the like. The first stage of such an investigation is determination of the composition of volatile organic air pollutants, most often by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as small as detection of airborne heavy metals and inorganic gases by spectrometric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analysis. In the second stage, depending on the composition of identified toxic substances, priority pollutants such as aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, nitrogen oxides, and others are determined. In the present paper, the authors show the possibility of estimating the contribution of a specific industrial plant to general anthropogenic urban air pollution, using as an example an investigation of atmospheric composition in the city of Shchekino, Tula District. This approach to air pollution analysis was also based on experience acquired in similar investigations in Moscow and Podmoskov`e. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

Drugov, Yu.S.; Murav`eva, G.V. [I.M. Gubkin Moscow Inst. of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation)]|[Scientific-Research Inst. of Labor Hygiene and Professional Diseases, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1992-04-10

83

Treatment of Some Hazardous Industrial Pollutants by Simple Oxidation Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Central treatment of Industrial wastewater requires pretreatment of some specific pollutants which may be not effectively degraded in down stream processes in central treatment unit. Some of the hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewater including acrylonitrile, pesticides and some commonly used dyes (active and acid dyes) have been subjected individually to oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions in acidic solution. Treatment efficiency was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using a specially developed concentration/COD curves. Initial concentrations (in terms of COD) were 910 PPM, 1348 and 530 ppm and the respective COD reductions were 91, 98 and 99%, for the pesticide, acrylonitrile and the reactive dye. Oxidative degradation of polared and acid green also reduced COD by 99 and 100% respectively. The obtained results confirm the appropriateness of oxidative degradation as a pretreatment for some hazardous pollutants prior to treatment in central facilities or municipal activated sludge stations.

1262-01-00

84

Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

1993-01-01

85

Pollution prevention assessments for marine maintenance and commercial printing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper represents the results of ten pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on marine maintenance and commercial printing industries in the Hampton Roads area of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between Old Dominion University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (ODU) and Hampton Roads Sanitation District Industrial Waste Division (HRSD) for the Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS) grant awarded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, waste water discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Financial analyses of identified technology and procedural options were developed in order to prepare comprehensive reports for each business on findings and recommendations. Industry profiles are provided in order to establish the type of services rendered by the facilities participating within the program. Material usage, waste generation, and waste minimization recommendations are examined for both the marine maintenance and commercial printing industries. In addition to loss prevention and good housekeeping, waste minimization recommendations for the commercial printing industry include hazardous solvent source reduction, recycling of available markets, and silver recovery during photoprocessing operations.

Robinson, H.L.; Erten-Unal, M.; Marchello, J.M. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Burgess, M.; Aydlett, G.M. [Hampton Roads Sanitation District, Virginia Beach, VA (United States). Industrial Waste Div.

1996-12-31

86

The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent...

Vitaliy G. Salnikov; Marat A. Karatayev

87

ON VIBRATION EXPOSURE MONITORING AT INDUSTRIAL INTENSIVE POLLUTANT AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study consisted by identification, evaluation and characterization of a direct linkage between the vibration levels at the intensive pollutant industrial sources and the vibration exposure of the proximity areas of these sites, at potential sensitive destinations. This analysis acquires high significance when nearly of these industrial sites there are the civil constructions, with preponderant human activities, or habitable areas. Based on a lot of instrumental measurements and using virtual instrumentation applications set, with implementation of the multipoint spectral analysis method, the authors succeeds to dignify the potential influences regarding the certain industrial vibratory pollutant sources and their qualitative effects on destination points, from the direct influence area of the respective sources. The actual benefit of this global approach in exposure evaluation method helps identification and analysis of this particular phenomenon of transmissibility. The instrumental tests were performed at the ASTRA Factory, Arad, Romania, on the forges sector, and on proximity zones.

CARMEN DEBELAC; SILVIU NASTAC

2010-01-01

88

Effect of industrial pollution on growth of paints (photosynthesis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants need to do three functions: maintain their metabolic process; grow in size and reproduce. These processes depend on the photosynthesis that is directly or indirectly affected by man-made pollution that is Industrial discharge that include many toxic elements in air, water and land in Industrialized zones. To analyze the various pigments contained in chloroplast and to investigate the effect of industrial pollution on photosynthesis, sunny, semishady and shady leaves of different trees (30 samples) were collected at varying distances from the industrial area having power plants and other industries and the non-industrial area separately in Wah Cantt. The leaves were washed, dried and homogenized before undertaking analysis for different parameters. The result showed that average values of total chlorophyll varied in the range 21.6 - 35, chlorophyll a, 11-19, chlorophyll b, 15-17 and carotene content in the range of 13-33 mg/g of sample taken depending on the type of plant and distance from the industry. These values were in order of sunny> semishady>shady leaves and were comparatively lower as compared to the values in non-industrial area. The soil and water samples from different sites around the trees under study in industrial and non-industrial area were also analyzed for pH, EC, Cl/sup -1/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Pb, Na/sup +1/,K/sup +1/, turbidity and total alkalinity. Based on these analyses, the quality of water and soil samples of the industrial area were found to be satisfactory and within permissible limits. (author)

2003-01-01

89

National Marine Pollution Program: Summary of Federal Programs and Projects FY 1987 update. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Summary of Federal Programs and Projects presents descriptions of 542 projects in 47 programs funded by the 11 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. The update reviews the marine-pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1986 through 1989, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels, and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs. Projects included are limited to efforts that focus primarily on pollution problems in the oceans and Great Lakes. Projects that exclusively address inland pollution are excluded, as are industrial, regulatory, and management activities such as development of waste-treatment methods or assessment of fisheries stocks. The FY 1987 update of the Summary presents information on projects and programs that were funded or underway during FY 1987.

1989-03-01

90

1984 market trends for the air pollution control industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

January 1984 forecasts by The McIlvaine Company project variable but promising worldwide industry trends for the coming year. The influence on the market of air pollution legislation (in particular, acid rain legislation), gauged by utility planning trends, is discussed in the context of a shifting world market. Specialties within the segmented air pollution control market are categorized by the ''market leader'' concept, with which the author identifies a number of top companies as ''world market leaders.''

McIlvaine, R.W.

1984-03-01

91

The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

1989-01-01

92

76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...Pollutant From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket,...

2011-01-18

93

Identification of the Water Pollutant Industries in Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to build up a logic ranked pattern between the most important industrial activities with respect the type of water pollution and the discharge ways or managing the wastewaters in these units. For this purpose all of the statistical data have been gathered by referring to the responsible organizations. After that, by using the desk study, field work and selecting some of the industrial units as studied cases and by referring to their production processes and obtaining the curtained analytical results, the industries have been separated to several groups including Food ,Textile , Pulp & Paper/, Chemical, Non-metallic mineral, Metal and Electricity & electronics Comparing the number of active industrial plants within the boundaries of Khuzestan province at 5 catchments area, indicates that Karun, Dez and Jarrahi basins with 1044. 324 and 290 active plants, respectively, are crowded with a lot of industries. Nature of the examined parameters has been selected in view of the production process type and includes pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chloride, sulfate, BOD, COD, TSS, iron. Results indicates that Dez river basin, being compared with the other two basins, impose the most degradable organic, nutrient substances and suspended particle loads to Dez River , and the metal pollution load at Karun basin is more than the other two basins , caused by the steel industries concentrated in Ahvaz city.

N Jafarzadeh, S Rostami, K Sepehrfar, A Lahijanzadeh

2004-01-01

94

Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies  

Science.gov (United States)

World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.

Bringezu, Stefan.; Amann, Christof.; Matthews, Emily.; Schandl, Heinz.; Schã¼tz, Helmut.; Van Der Voet, Ester.

2000-01-01

95

Pollution prevention assessments for metal fabricating and metal finishing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper represents the results of three pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on metal fabricating and metal finishing industry. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between a higher education institution and a municipality. Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, wastewater discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Proposed waste minimization recommendations for the electroplating industry include loss prevention, good housekeeping, bath replenishment, filtration, and the installation of evaporators and drainboard for a drag-out recovery system, and use of a solvent distillation system.

Erten-Unal, M.; Timbo, D.I.; Hamedani, Z.N.; Marchello, J.M.

1999-07-01

96

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required making many simplifying assumptions, the model permits comprehensive analyses that are not possible with existing techniques.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.; Young, G. K.

1981-08-01

97

Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31

98

Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns), over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR) of towns situated at a distance of less than 2?km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a) the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b) a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463), paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140), food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111), metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123) and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099). Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of the differences between men and women observed in the analyses of the industrial groups suggest that there may be a component of occupational exposure, little-studied in the case of cancers of the digestive system.

López-Abente Gonzalo; García-Pérez Javier; Fernández-Navarro Pablo; Boldo Elena; Ramis Rebeca

2012-01-01

99

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

Science.gov (United States)

|Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)|

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

100

National marine pollution program: Summary of federal programs and projects, FY 1988 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (NOPPA; P.L. 95-273) requires NOAA to develop a detailed description of Federal research, development, and monitoring efforts related to ocean pollution. The Summary of Federal Programs and Projects is prepared each year in partial fulfillment of this requirement. The Summary presents descriptions of 474 projects in 44 programs funded by the 11 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. Figure 1 displays the agencies involved and their responsibilities. The update reviews the marine pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1987 through 1990, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs. Projects included are limited to efforts that focus primarily on pollution problems in the oceans and Great Lakes. Projects that exclusively address inland pollution are excluded, as are industrial, regulatory, and management activities such as development of waste treatment methods or assessment of fisheries stocks. The FY 1988 update of the Summary presents information on projects and programs that were funded or underway during FY 1988.

1990-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Briquettes for pollution control from residential and small industrial sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acurex Environmental Corporation is conducting a new joint venture between the United States and Poland to manufacture and sell coal-based briquettes to reduce pollution from residential and small industrial sources in Krakow, Poland. The key advantage of this project is that the level of pollutants (particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons) currently generated from these sources will be reduced. This is a significant reduction in air pollution and will take place without disrupting traffic or requiring a large investment, as other possible air pollution reduction methods do. An additional benefit to the consumer is that there is absolutely no cost or investment involved. The new company formed as a result of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and US Agency for International Development (AID)-sponsored activities will be capable of securing at least 50% of the residential coal market in Krakow. Mass production of briquettes for the residential coal market in Krakow will be preceded by the exploration of market strategies applicable there, gathering business information necessary to form a joint venture, preparation of a detailed business plan, and collecting technical performance data on the briquette under Polish conditions. The briquettes are manufactured according to a proprietary concept. 9 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Jozewicz, W.; Natchke, D.F. [Acurex Development Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-31

102

78 FR 22369 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...FRL-9682-8] RIN 2060-AQ90 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air...

2013-04-15

103

76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...FRL-9303-4] RIN 2060-AQ68 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air...

2011-05-19

104

Gas industry reform: the national expectations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas industry in Australia is undergoing a major growth phase. Major infrastructure projects are planned which could fundamentally transform the markets for gas in Eastern Australia. They will allow suppliers and distributors to capitalize on the growing demand for gas. In this context, the Council of Australian Governments (CoAG) made a commitment to implement free and fair trade in natural gas as part of the move to more competitive and integrated national markets. This paper discusses the implementation of this initiative and the role of the Gas Reform Task Force which was created to oversee the process. A national framework for free and fair trade in gas was established with the aim of introducing reforms which remove all laws and regulations that prevent free trade in gas, and ensure third party access for all gas pipelines. The proposed reforms also encompass a national competition policy, an industry code of practice, and industry participation in the Task Force. It is believed that all stake-holders will need to bring a broad industry perspective to their contribution to the process which will facilitate an effective transition to more competitive markets. (author). 1 fig.

Charlton, R. [Gas Reform Task Force, (Australia)

1995-09-01

105

76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of...Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Response to Comments...we exempted coal mills at cement manufacturing facilities whose only...

2011-05-17

106

National standards for the nuclear industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Standards needs for the nuclear industry are being met by a number of voluntary organizations, such as ANS, ASTM, AWS, ASME, and IEEE. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates these activities and approves completed standards as American National Standards. ASTM has two all-nuclear committees, E-10 and C-26. A C-26 subcommittee, Test Methods, has been active in writing analytical chemistry standards for twelve years. Thirteen have been approved as ANSI standards and others are ready for ballot. Work is continuing in all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle.

Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

1981-01-01

107

National standards for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standards needs for the nuclear industry are being met by a number of voluntary organizations, such as ANS, ASTM, AWS, ASME, and IEEE. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates these activities and approves completed standards as American National Standards. ASTM has two all-nuclear committees, E-10 and C-26. A C-26 subcommittee, Test Methods, has been active in writing analytical chemistry standards for twelve years. Thirteen have been approved as ANSI standards and others are ready for ballot. Work is continuing in all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle

1981-10-06

108

Biomagnetic monitoring of industry-derived particulate pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clear association exists between ambient PM10 concentrations and adverse health outcomes. However, determination of the strength of associations between exposure and illness is limited by low spatial-resolution of particulate concentration measurements. Conventional fixed monitoring stations provide high temporal-resolution data, but cannot capture fine-scale spatial variations. Here we examine the utility of biomagnetic monitoring for spatial mapping of PM10 concentrations around a major industrial site. We combine leaf magnetic measurements with co-located PM10 measurements to achieve inter-calibration. Comparison of the leaf-calculated and measured PM10 concentrations with PM10 predictions from a widely-used atmospheric dispersion model indicates that modelling of stack emissions alone substantially under-predicts ambient PM10 concentrations in parts of the study area. Some of this discrepancy might be attributable to fugitive emissions from the industrial site. The composition of the magnetic particulates from vehicle and industry-derived sources differ, indicating the potential of magnetic techniques for source attribution. - Highlights: ? We use biomagnetic monitoring to map PM10 concentrations around an industrial site. ? SIRMs of tree leaves represent a quantitative proxy for PM10 around this site. ? Magnetically distinct proximal samples (10 levels in the prevailing wind direction from the site. ? Magnetic differences between vehicle and industry PM10 may enable source attribution. - Biomagnetic techniques are used for quantitative mapping of particulate pollution at uniquely high spatial resolution and to distinguish between differently-sourced PM10.

2011-01-01

109

Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer.

López-Abente G; Fernández-Navarro P; Boldo E; Ramis R; García-Pérez J

2012-05-01

110

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

111

Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-05-01

112

Air pollution perceptions and their impacts on the coal industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Perceptions of disaster caused by burning fossil fuels have reached such a pitch that they seriously threaten the very future of the industry. Coal is a dirty word. A leader in Business Day (January 19 2009) claimed 'There is no disputing that renewable and non-polluting energy sources are preferable to the country-the true cost of so-called cheap coal-fired power stations is neither reflected nor accounted for by Eskom-the true and immediate but unacknowledged cost of co (more) ntinued coal mining is apparent in the catastrophic level of acidification from mining runoff of all significant natural water resources in the country-and their waters have been rendered unfit for human consumption. Air quality is in a similar state with-increases in pulmonary disease causing workforce absenteeism and compromised childhood development, among many other health problems recorded in areas polluted by coal mining.' The upshot is that our latest coal-fired power station, Kusile, is being required to use flue gas desulphurization. The costs are considerable, and the benefits minimal. Meanwhile, exports are being threatened by EU directives and an assumption that South African coal gives off excessive quantities of SOx and NOx when burned. The industry needs to arm itself with clear responses to these and similar misconceptions, and to communicate those responses loudly and clearly, if it is to survive.

Lloyd, P.

2011-08-01

113

A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh water sources; drying of wells, reduction on ground water level, livestock productivity and loss of scenic beauty of the place. The agriculture crop yield has also decreased vastly and the area is gradually converting into dry land, the top soils have been eroding and crop plants are being covered with pollutants which are effecting directly or indirectly to the local people. In this paper, health impact of local people, environmental and economic impact of locality by mining industries are examined and evaluated considering questionnaire and available data from several sources such as government publications, related researches, websites and other references. This paper concludes with recommendations in order to control environment pollution, to reduce the impact of gravel, sand and stone mines.

Deshar Bashu Dev

2013-01-01

114

75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Science.gov (United States)

...3095-AB63 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight...amended National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1. This amendment to Directive No. 1 provides guidance to agencies on...

2010-04-06

115

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions, the model permits comprehensive analyses that are not possible with existing techniques. 27 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Gianessi, L.P. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC); Peskin, H.M.; Young, G.K.

1981-08-01

116

Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

1996-06-01

117

Green Design and Planning Resolutions for an Eco-Industrial Town: A Case Study of Polluted Industrial Estate in Rayong Province, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Map Ta Phut was designated for development in national policy as an Eastern Seaboard Industrial Port. It is located in Rayong Province with growing demand from Eastern Seaboard industries and is heavily affected by serious environmental problems as a"pollution control zone". While the Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry and Banking, representing the national business sector, claimed that the area generated total revenues of 1.1 trillion baht per year, or 11% of Thailand’s gross domestic product, and employed more than 100,000 workers, the declaration of the area as a pollution control zone severely limited investment and business operations. Thus, controversies arose among the investment business sectors, the residential sector (residents have been affected by a decrease in their quality of life and health) and environmental concern sectors. This paper aims to find an efficient and practical mitigation practice to balance the purposes of the industrial port with protection of surrounding communities and natural resources. The author will apply physical design and planning such as the application of “buffer zones”, “greenbelts”, “set-back”, “green corridor”, “green wall” and “protection strips” along with environmental measurements such as the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), which can be adapted for pollution protection as best practices of landscape architecture.

Ariya Aruninta

2012-01-01

118

Industrial pollution treatment: water, air, wastes, soils, sludges; Traitement des pollutions industrielles: eau, air, dechets, sols, boues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Devoted to the environment managers, this guide describes different industrial environment de-pollution technologies. The fundamental and technological aspects are presented as the advantages and disadvantages. (A.L.B.)

Koller, E.

2004-07-01

119

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

2006-09-15

120

[Heavy metals content and pollution risk assessment of cropland soils around a pesticide industrial park].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By the method of concentric circle distribution method, a total of 183 topsoil samples were collected from 30-km2 area around a pesticide industrial park in south Jiangsu Province, with the content and pollution index of soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg and As analyzed. The average contents of Hg, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the top soils were higher than those of the natural background values, and the contents of Hg and Cu were the highest. Taking the national standard II as the assessment criterion, the average pollution index values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and As in the top soils were all below 1, while those of the Hg and Cu were 1.59 and 1.05, respectively. In the southeast and northwest to the pesticide industrial park, soil heavy metals contamination was more serious, and, with the increasing distance to the park, the contents of soil Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, Zn, and Cu increased first and then decreased to a stable level. The comprehensive pollution index of test metals indicated that the areas 200-1000 meter around the industrial park were of high risk in soil heavy metals contamination, while the areas 1000 meter beyond were safety. By using geostatistics and GIS, it was found that the pollution index of the eight heavy metals had significant spatial variability. Based on the principal component analysis and correlation analysis, it was speculated that the Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As were mainly from soil parent materials, while the Hg, Cu, and Cd were mainly related to human activities.

Shi NN; Ding YF; Zhao XF; Wang QS

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

National Marine Pollution Orogram: federal plan for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring, fiscal years 1988-1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct marine pollution research, development, or monitoring activities. In FY 1988, the Federal Government expended an estimated $107.2 million for marine pollution research and monitoring activities. These activities were funded by 11 Federal departments and independent agencies and included studies pertaining to pollution in coastal areas, estuaries, open oceans, and the Great Lakes. The Plan represents the fourth such document in the continuing interagency planning process called for in the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-273), as amended. As required by the Act, a comprehensive 5-year Plan for the overall Federal effort is prepared and updated every 3 years. The Plan identifies national marine pollution needs and problems, describes the existing Federal capability for conducting marine pollution research and monitoring.

1988-09-01

122

National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

1998-09-01

123

Dioxin. Reduction of industrial pollutions; Dioxines. Reduction des pollutions d'origine industrielle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In june 1999 the ADEME organized, in collaboration with national and international experts, two technical days on the environmental and society problem of the dioxin. Presented in two parts the talks are proposed in this book. The first one deals with the dioxin impact from the incinerators to the milk products, under a juridical, sociological and epidemiological point of view. The second one is devoted to the formation mechanisms, the monitoring and the risk management in the industry. (A.L.B.)

NONE

1999-07-01

124

Local air pollution sources and Canadian National Parks : an ecozone focussed summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a survey of local air pollution sources in national parks across Canada were presented, as well as recommendations for future monitoring and abatement programs. The aim of the survey was to collect information on the sources and nature of various pollutants. The survey was conducted primarily through the use of a questionnaire as well as through a comprehensive literature review, which was intended to provide an overview of long range and transport air pollution issues affecting national parks. A summary of 1998, 2001 and 2004 primary air pollution sources was presented. Data were presented on a park by park basis within specific eco-zones in order to assist in the understanding of air pollution sources and challenges common to each eco-zone in order to encourage the compilation, comparison and analysis of data on an eco-system basis and to serve as a baseline for other disciplinary studies. Emissions data from the Canadian Criteria Air Contaminant (CAC) Emissions Inventory for the parks and their surrounding regions were mapped. Significant issues of concern included continental and global air issues; meso-scale transport; acid deposition; tropospheric ozone formation; tropospheric transport of natural ozone; arctic haze; arctic ozone; greenhouse gases (GHGs) and climate change; and stratospheric ozone. The ecological impacts of pollution on soils, vegetation, wildlife and aquatic eco-systems were outlined for all parks. Complete emission inventories for all parks were recommended, as well as the implementation of a monitoring program. It was suggested that dispersion modelling of all local air pollution sources would help to determine the relative contribution of park air pollution sources versus off-site sources. Local air pollution sources included industry pollution, smoke and odour; vehicular traffic; biomass burning; campfires and residential heating; landfills, refuse burning and open air burning of household waste; and spray of chemicals on agricultural lands. An ongoing dialogue with neighbouring landowners to discuss chemical control measures was advised as well as a monitoring program to ensure that spraying is conducted under optimal meteorological conditions. 36 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

Welch, D. [Parks Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada); Schajnoha, S.; Douglas, M.; Duffin, K. [RWDI Air Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Speed, L.; Budgen, M. [Highwood Environmental Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Munro, N. [Victoria, BC (Canada)

2005-07-01

125

National Marine Pollution Program: federal plan for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring, Fiscal Uears 1985-1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct research, development, or monitoring activities related to marine pollution. In FY 1985, the Program consisted of about 650 projects with a total Federal expenditure of about $122.7 million. These projects were funded by eleven Federal departments and independent agencies and included studies pertaining to pollution in coastal areas, estuaries, open oceans, and the Great Lakes. This plan is intended to guide and coordinate the overall Federal effort in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring during FY 1985-1989 and represents the third such document in the continuing interagency planning process called for in the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-273), as amended. As required by the Act, this plan identifies and establishes priorities for national marine pollution needs and problems.

1985-09-01

126

Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time.

2002-01-01

127

76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading...National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

2011-04-21

128

RFF council discusses voluntary pollution reduction by industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 2, 1992, the RFF Council - a group of individual, foundation, and corporate supporters of Resources for the Future - met at Kiawah Island, South Carolina, to discuss corporate responsibility and voluntary pollution reduction. Among the featured speakers were an assistant administrator from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), representatives of two US companies, and a consultant to the international environmental advocacy organization Greenpeace. They each addressed topics pertinent to voluntary pollution reduction by US corporations - that is, the practice of some corporations of reducing their emissions of regulated pollutants below permitted levels, or of voluntarily reducing emissions of other pollutants for which no regulatory limits have been established, or both.

1992-09-01

129

A national day with near zero emissions and its effect on primary and secondary pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Traffic related air pollution is a major health concern in many countries. The potential costs and benefits of different abatement policies are usually estimated by either models, case studies or previously implemented intervention measures. Such estimations have, however, limited ability to predict the effect of a reduction in primary pollutants' emissions on secondary pollutants such as ozone, because of the nonlinear nature of the photochemical reactions.This study examines the short term effects of a drastic change in emissions on a national scale during the Jewish holiday of Day of Atonement (DA) in Israel. During the holiday nearly all anthropogenic emission sources are ceased for a period of 25 h, including all vehicles, commercial, industrial and recreational activities. DAs during the 15 years period of 1998–2012 are analyzed at three sites with respect to primary and secondary air pollutants, and in greater details for 2001.A dramatic decrease in primary pollutants emissions (83–98% in NO) causes an 8 ppbv increase in ozone at the urban core. Downwind (27 km), ozone decreases by only 5 ppbv. Nighttime O3 is shown to increase to 20 ppbv at the urban sites and 30 ppbv downwind.In spite of the striking reduction in emissions, changes in ozone are not greater than what is reported in the literature about less significant events like the ozone weekend effect. Changes in ambient pollution levels observed during DA provide some indication to the possible outcomes of a major change in anthropogenic emissions. These may be considered as the best case scenario for emissions reduction intervention measures and thus aid policy makers in evaluating potential benefits of such measures.

Levy, Ilan

2013-10-01

130

Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately.

1993-01-01

131

Relationship between technological progress, capital elasticity and emissions of industrial pollutants for the production sectors in Catalonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As is known, the Kyoto protocol proposes to reinforce national policies for emission reduction and, furthermore, to cooperate with other contracting parties. In this context, it would be necessary to assess these emissions, both in general and specifically, by pollutants and/or among productive sectors. The objective of this paper is precisely to estimate the polluting emissions of industrial origin in Catalonia in the year 2001, in a multivariate context that explicitly allows a distinction to be made between the polluter and/or the productive sector causing this emission. Six pollutants are considered, four directly related to greenhouse effect. A multi-level model, with two levels, pollutants and productive sectors, was specified. Both technological progress and elasticity of capital were introduced as random effects. Hence, it has been permitted that these coefficients vary according to one or the other level. The most important finding in this paper is that elasticity of capital has been estimated as very non-elastic, with a range that varies between 0.162 (the paper industry) and 0.556 (commerce). In fact, and generally speaking, greater the capital in the sector, lower the elasticity of capital estimated

2009-01-01

132

Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

Marie Kondo; Sangchan Limjirakan

2013-01-01

133

Oil industry and the problems with radioactive pollution on Absheron Peninsula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'Sustainable development' accepted by the international community as a basis of co-operation among countries envisages the necessity of rational national resource management that will minimize the damage to the future generations. As a fundamental guide towards this goal, a document identifying the principles of the global environmental security - 'Agenda 21 century'- was approved by the majority of states at the 1992 Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. Based on the principles of Agenda-21 century, Azerbaijan developed its National Environmental Concept, and passed a number of laws in support of environmental protection and sustainable development. At this stage of the country's development, the issue of national resource management is of paramount importance for the nation. The disastrous environmental situation inherited from the former Soviet Union is affecting every aspect of the country's life and presenting a clear threat to the health and well-being of the population. Considering the problem with the radioactive contamination and radioactive wastes we have to identify the primary reason of it existence on the territory of Azerbaijan, and particularly Apsheron Peninsula. The main contributor to intensive environment pollution is the technogenic and industrial wastes

2004-01-01

134

Field Study on Air Basin Pollution of Industrial Cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Operational principles for investigating pollution in urban air basins are discussed. A typical long-term study of such pollution for two cities is presented and includes an analysis of the yearly variation of such contaminants as sulfur dioxide, carbon m...

N. S. Burenin B. B. Goroshko B. N. Pyantsev

1974-01-01

135

Industrialization of the developing countries and the problem of environmental pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ongoing industrialization of developing countries is examined and this modernization is compared with developed countries in terms of annual incomes, resource utilization, and environmental pollution. International cooperation is essential if developing countries are to achieve a balance of technology and pollution control. (KRM)

Anand, R.P.

1980-01-01

136

Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs) associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model). Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km) could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27). Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.

Ramis Rebeca; Vidal Enrique; García-Pérez Javier; Lope Virginia; Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; López-Abente Gonzalo

2009-01-01

137

Air pollution modeling for an industrial complex and model performance evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jamshedpur, the steel city of India situated in the eastern part of India is affected by increasing air pollution levels as a result of concentrated industrial activities. The impact of NOx emissions resulting from various air pollution sources, viz. industries, vehicles and domestic, was estimated using Industrial Source Complex Short-Term gaussian dispersion model. The contribution of NOx concentration from industrial, vehicular and domestic sources was found to be 53, 40 and 7%. Further statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the model performance by comparing measured and predicted NOx concentrations. The model performance was found good with an accuracy of about 68%. (Author)

2001-01-01

138

Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology.

2007-01-01

139

Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology.

Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: mikoz@utu.fi; Eraenen, Janne K. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland); Zverev, Vitali E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland)

2007-07-15

140

UST-IDRC national symposium on the mining industry and the environment: programme and abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Symposium on the mining industry and the environment was organized by the UST/IDRC Environmental Research Group in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The symposium generally covered strategies for the development of the mining industry as well as solutions to the environmental problems associated with the industry in Ghana. The publication contains the programme and abstracts of scientific sessions of the Symposium. The abstracts covered the following topics among others: multi-element analysis of mineral ores samples, review of environmental studies related to gold mining in Ghana, local sulphooxidizing bacteria for environmentally friendly gold mining, arsenic pollution in streams and sediments, rainfall erositivity and soil loss from degraded lands and mine spoils, the impact of surface mining on forest structure and environment, current environmental practices in the mining industry, and the role of the mining industry in the economy of Ghana.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

1988-07-01

142

Effect of industrial pollution on behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate how and to what extent industrial pollution affects the behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems, studies were conducted in the vicinity of two Cu-Ni smelters: one in a pine forest at Harjavalta, Finland, and the other in a spruce forest at Monchegorsk, Russia. Industrial pollution had significant effects on the distribution of radionuclides in soil horizons. With the increase in pollution towards the smelter, radionuclides were accumulated more in the litter layer because the conversion of litter into organic material was diminished due to inhibited microbial activity. As a result, the organic layer contained less radionuclides towards the smelter. The effect of industrial pollution on soil-to-plant transfer was complex. The effect varied with radionuclide, plant species and also on forest type. For 137Cs, soil-to-plant transfer decreased significantly as industrial pollution increased in pine forest, whereas the decrease was less pronounced in spruce forest. Root uptake of 239,240Pu by plants is extremely small, and plant contamination by resuspended soil is an important factor in considering the soil-to-plant transfer of this radionuclide. In spruce forest, more plutonium was transferred into plants when pollution load increased due to resuspension of litter particles, which contained higher concentrations of plutonium in the vicinity of the smelter. Soil-to-plant transfer of plutonium was much less affected in pine forests contaminated with industrial pollution. This research clearly indicates the sensitivity of the northern forest ecosystem to inorganic pollutants. Prediction of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in industrially polluted forest ecosystems requires detailed information on the total deposition, vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil, soil microbiological factors, other soil parameters as well as the rooting depths of the plants. (LN)

2009-01-01

143

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

144

Investigation of cadmium pollution in contaminated industrial area in Guilan province industrial estates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxicity and accumulation of cadmium in body organs by eating contaminated food has an important role in endangering a human's health. Using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, site 1, site 2 and site 3 were selected as polluted sites and site 4 was selected as the control site. Seedlings of buttonwood were prepared for 12 months then root, stem, and leaf samples were harvested and the amounts of cadmium element in stem and leaf organs together with the growth parameters were measured. This study determines the amount of cadmium accumulated in Platanus occidentalis. The respective cadmium concentrations in the root, leaf, and stem in site 1 were 382, 98, and 87; in site 2 they were 591, 122, and 94; and in site 3 they were 633, 151, and 104 mg/kg dry weight (DW). Furthermore, the comparison between accumulation and transfer of cadmium in the study showed more absorption of this metal by the root than that by the stem and leaf. The result of this research shows that buttonwood has the potential for cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. To control the extent of contamination in industrial areas, petrochemical industries, power plants and vast contaminated municipal areas, there is a great need for planting plants like buttonwood.

Hashemi SA

2013-07-01

145

Financial structure and the effectiveness of pollution control in an oligopolistic industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores the link between pollution taxes and the financial and output decisions of firms in an oligopolistic industry facing demand uncertainty. It is shown that environmental regulations such as pollution taxes may induce firms to alter their financial structure, which in turn influences both output levels and the effectiveness of the tax in controlling pollution emissions. It is demonstrated that there exist circumstances in which highly leveraged firms may respond to pollution taxes by expanding output and emission levels. This possibility arises in a leveraged oligopoly since the tax acts as a credible commitment device which leads to more aggressive competition in output markets.

Damania, R. [School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia)

2000-01-01

146

Alveolar macrophage count as an indicator of lung reaction to industrial air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major proportion of the cellular components found in most of the sputa from persons working in polluted atmospheres are alveolar macrophages, and counts of the alveolar macrophages present in smears made from sputa from exposed workers probably reflect the lung reaction to air pollution. An investigation of this phenomenon was undertaken using the sputa of workers in different types of industries: a coke plant, two different aluminum reduction plants, a ship-building yard and asphalt work on a road. The results showed that the alveolar macrophage count increases with a higher level of particulate pollution in the workplace. A synergistic effect of occupational air pollution and smoking habits was also recorded.

Mylius, E.A.; Gullvag, B.

1986-03-01

147

Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

1999-01-01

148

National marine pollution program: summary of federal programs and projects FY 1985 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (NOPPA; P.L. 95-273) requires NOAA to develop a detailed description of Federal research, development, and monitoring efforts related to ocean pollution. The Summary report presents descriptions of 524 projects in 56 programs funded by the 10 Federal departments and independent agencies involved in the National Marine Pollution Program. The update reviews the marine pollution programs undertaken by each of these departments and agencies by describing program goals, objectives, recent accomplishments, future milestones, funding for Fiscal Years 1984 through 1987, and legislative mandates. In addition, the update includes information on Federal personnel, facilities, vessels and other equipment currently assigned to ocean pollution programs.

1986-12-01

149

Air pollution control in industrial and urban areas and air quality evaluation in 1980 (Fos-Etang de Berre, France)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents data of the air pollution in the district of Fos-Etang de Berre of France caused by its industries from 1970 to 1979. Furthermore, it shows the efforts of the Permanent Office for Industrial Pollution Problems (SPPPI) to reduce the air pollution.

Audurier-Cros, A.

1982-03-01

150

Analysis of Pollution Industrial Transfer Based on Environmental Regulation and Public Participation: China’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Referring to 1995-2011 China's provincial panel data, this paper constructs an econometric model consisting of environmental regulation, public participation and pollution industrial transfer, and mainly focuses on the role of environmental regulation and public participation in the pollution industries transfer using panel data unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test and panel regression analysis method. The results show that environmental regulation and public participation play an obvious role in promoting the pollution industries transfer both in the long-term and in the short-term. However, their influencing strength varies. The effect from environmental regulation is stronger, while public participation has a comparatively weak effect on the pollution transfer

Wen-bin Peng; Wei-ping Wu

2013-01-01

151

Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was the key soil characteristics determining the Cu removal rate.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina

2006-01-01

152

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

153

Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The result...

Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek

154

Preventing pollution by commune, brigade-run industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports on efforts to control pollution in Shunde County, China. With regard to the county's economic output value, state-run enterprises produce 19.8%; enterprises run by communes, brigades and collectives produce 52.7%; and agriculture produces 27.5%. Shunde County has an environmental protection office, an environmental monitoring station, and an environmental control office. Of the 4,161 large and small enterprises in the county, polluting enterprises number 1,739 (41.8%) and the remaining 2,422 (or 58.2%) have little or no pollution. Topics considered include deepening the understanding of environmental protection, the functional role of the county's office for environmental protection, and environmental management measures.

1983-01-01

155

Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China: estimation and application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10(-6) for TSP, and 4.2x10(-6) for SO2, with standard deviations of 8.15x10(-6) and 9.16x10(-6), respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10(-7) to 10(-5). Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts.

Wang S; Hao J; Ho MS; Li J; Lu Y

2006-02-01

156

Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

1999-07-01

157

Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored.

1996-01-01

158

Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

NONE

1995-12-01

159

Studies of some gas pollutants near industrial areas in Hat-Yai: pollution problems in southern Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some gas pollutants i.e., amines, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and arsenic hydride were studied by collecting air samples, near industrial areas through indicator tubes. Air samples were taken at the height of 1.5-1.6 meters from the ground and the distance of 100-200 meters from the manufacturing factory. Amines were the only gas pollutant found and in the range of 0.54-3.93 ppm which is below the threshold limit value (TLV). Many factors, i.e., wind speed, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, and temperature affect the gas pollutants concentration. Protein digesting/cracking and decay of protein waste were found to be the major source of volatile amine.

Kanatharana, P.; Luckana, P.

1986-01-01

160

Development of a waste minimization and pollution prevention training program for the upstream oil and gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental, health, and safety professionals, operating staff, and management of both major and independent producers have long recognized the importance of continued education on environmental issues that impact the oil and gas producing industry. However, the information and knowledge concerning environmental practices acquired by the corporate staff is not always successfully or timely transferred to the field personnel. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) of the US Environmental Protection Agency recognized the role that field personnel have on the producing oil and gas industry`s waste generation and disposal performance. To broaden the environmental awareness and knowledge of these field personnel, OSWER funded a grant in October 1993 to the National Environmental Training Association for the development of an E and P Field Personnel Pollution Prevention Training Program. This program introduces the field E and P employee to fundamental pollution prevention and waste minimization concepts such as: the EPA waste management hierarchy -- Source Reduction, Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal; identification and categorization of the wastes that they generate; recognition of pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities; and proper handling techniques.

Pepper, J.; Megna, A.; Souders, S.

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU), tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU), textile: Dying Unit (DU) and textile: Finishing Unit (FU) in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU) effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Nadeem Zafar

2005-01-01

162

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Water pollution. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the water pollution equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Ceron, F.

1992-04-01

163

Industry sector analysis, Czechoslovakia: Air pollution control. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article is derived from a report titled: 'The Air Pollution Control Market in Czechoslovakia', dated October 1992, prepared by Emiliana Ulrychova, American Embassy - Prague. The article consists of 8 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sale Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

1993-04-24

164

The health effects of non-industrial indoor air pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is growing public awareness regarding the risk associated with poor indoor air quality in the home and workplace. Because Americans spend approximately 22 hours every day indoors, susceptible individuals are at much greater risk of adverse health effects from chronic low levels of exposure to indoor air pollutants over time. Along with particulate matter, gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide; microbial and chemical volatile organic compounds; passive smoke; and outdoor ambient air are the most common types of air pollutants encountered indoors. OBJECTIVE: To provide the allergists with necessary information that will assist them in making useful recommendations to patients seeking advice regarding indoor environmental triggers beyond traditional perennial allergens. METHODS: Review of the literature pertaining to indoor exposure and health effects of gaseous and particular matter. RESULTS: Indoor pollutants act as respiratory irritants, toxicants, and adjuvants or carriers of allergens. CONCLUSION: The allergist should be prepared to evaluate patient exposure to allergic and nonallergic triggers and understand how outdoor air pollution is affecting indoor environments. This requires being familiar with methodologies for monitoring and interpreting indoor air quality and interpreting results in the context of the patients exposure history and advising patients about rational environmental control interventions.

Bernstein JA; Alexis N; Bacchus H; Bernstein IL; Fritz P; Horner E; Li N; Mason S; Nel A; Oullette J; Reijula K; Reponen T; Seltzer J; Smith A; Tarlo SM

2008-03-01

165

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009) Using the LMDI I Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction.

Hongjun Lei; Xunfeng Xia; Changjia Li; Beidou Xi

2012-01-01

166

Opportunities for international collaboration in industrial pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this paper is to describe international research opportunities for in-process reduction of wastes from industrial processes. Written responses from 52 researchers were obtained from 15 different countries in mid-1992. Each researcher provided information about products to reduce waste in industrial processes and recommended joint activities and mechanisms for working collaboratively with the United States.

Young, J.K.; Fowler, K.M.

1993-08-01

167

Controlling industrial pollution: the economics and politics of clean air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Congress enacted the 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act, it instructed the Environmental Protection Agency to impose strict controls on ''stationary sources'' of air pollution such as factories and power plants to go along-side the controls on ''mobile sources'' such as vehicles. Crandall says there ''is some evidence that emissions from automobiles have been reduced by federal new-car standards'' - although at an unnecessarily high cost - ''but no conclusive studies demonstrate similar success for federal stationary-source policies''. The major evidence for the success of the latter standards consists of data on the concentrations of pollutants detected at various monitoring sites around the country. These data show a substantial drop in SO/sub 2/ and CO levels since the early 1970s, along with no improvement in the level of airborne particles and a rise for NO/sub x/. Unfortunately, the quality control of the monitoring is poor. EPA's data on air quality also do not correspond well with two other sets of government statistics, Crandall says. The discrepancies suggest problems with either EPA's assumptions about compliance with its emissions standards or its procedures for monitoring air quality, or both. Part of the agency's problem is that its regulations do not foster the most-efficient means of pollution abatement. Crandall considers emissions fees a more-promising way to control many types of pollution. This approach, however, would tend to redistribute wealth drastically, which makes it politically unpopular in many quarters. He offers a ''two-part'' fee scheme designed to reduce that problem. Of course, the author concludes, no incentives system can work very well if EPA lacks the capacity to monitor its enforcement.

Crandall, R.W.

1983-01-01

168

Define list of hazardous (pollution agents) substances, that are subject to regulation, on the building industry / ??????????? ???????? ??????? (????????????) ???????, ?????????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of testing methodology for establishing lists of hazardous (pollution agents) substances that are subject to regulation, on the several objects of the building industry are preseded. At the mean of pollution agents emitted by these enterprises do not influence on air quality. Emissions of various aerosols (metals, their salts, dust with different contents of silicon compounds, etc.) have the most adverse effect. / ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? (????????????) ???????, ?????????? ????????????, ?? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ????????????? ????? ?????????????, ?? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? (????????, ?? ?????, ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??.).

Dvinyanina O.V. / ????????? ????? ??????????; Nedre A.Yu. / ????? ?????? ???????

2010-01-01

169

National marine pollution program: catalog of federal projects FY 1984 update. Appendix No. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, P.L. 95-273 (as amended), calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. The Catalog of Federal Projects is one of a series of documents published by NMPPO to meet the mandates of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act. The Act calls for a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs related to ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. Two reports are published on an annual basis to meet this requirement. One of these contains summaries of the major programs conducted by the Federal agencies.

1985-06-01

170

Current status of trace metal pollution in soils affected by industrial activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J C

2012-05-03

171

Current status of trace metal pollution in soils affected by industrial activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

Kabir E; Ray S; Kim KH; Yoon HO; Jeon EC; Kim YS; Cho YS; Yun ST; Brown RJ

2012-01-01

172

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

1995-01-01

173

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

1995-06-01

174

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides lists of figures and tables related to the NTS and includes a Site Description. The Source Description includes current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The Site has been the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. since 1951. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950`s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. At the North Las Vegas Facility, operated for DOE/NV by EG&G Energy Measurements, there was an Unusual Occurrence that led to an insignificant potential exposure to an offsite person. The incident involved the release of tritiated water (HTO), and a description of the incident and the method of calculating the effective dose equivalent for offsite exposure are described. The Source Description further describes Ground Seepage of Noble Gases, Radioactive Waste Management Sites, and Plutonium Contaminated Surface Areas.

Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E. [ed.

1996-06-01

175

Water relations and photosynthesis in pine trees exposed to industrial pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The temporal and spatial variability of the shoot water potential, a sensitive characteristic of plant water relations, was investigated in common pine growing under conditions of industrial pollution. The alterations in the xylem structure that made the plants more susceptible to water deficit were revealed. It is concluded that water stress, enhanced by pollutants, negatively affects the diurnal pattern and light curves of CO{sub 2}-gas exchange; this additional factor, along the damage to assimilatory apparatus and stomata, accounts for photosynthesis decline in the pollutant-exposed pine trees. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Kaipianen, L.K.; Bolondinskii, V.K.; Sazonova, T.A.; Sofronova, G.I. [Karelian Scientific Center, Karelia (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

176

European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR). Capturing and reporting industrial pollutant emissions data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new web-based European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) has been launched by the European Commission, replacing a previous version. Although the new register offers many new features and greater potential for public access to pollutant emissions data, CONCAWE's analysis of the current data contained in the register has identified data omissions and errors in facility coding. While these errors are being corrected by the EC, refineries are well-advised to check their own facility's data in the E-PRTR and work with competent authorities to correct any errors.

Roberts, P. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2009-04-01

177

National recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Russell, C.S.; Vaughan, W.J.

1982-01-01

178

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Land pollution instruments, equipment, and services. Export Trade Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for land pollution instruments, equipment and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for land pollution instruments, equipment and services.

1990-09-01

179

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Water pollution instruments, equipment, and services. Export Trade Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for water pollution instruments equipment and service contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for water pollution instruments, equipment and services.

1990-09-01

180

Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

Abou-Elela, S.I. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Water Pollution Control Dept.; Zaher, F. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Fats and Oil Dept.

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
181

Industrial Applications of E-Beam Plasma to Air Pollution Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel combustion creates a the treat to environment. Waste quantities of SO2, NOx and VOC (volatile organic compounds) are emitted in to atmosphere. Municipal wastes incineration is another air pollution potential problem. New technologies for simultaneous removal of different pollutants are searched for. Electron beam process is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. The laboratory unit (400 Nm3/h) and industrial pilot plant (20000 Nm3/h) have been constructed in Poland. Full scale industrial project is under development (270000 Nm3/h). New developments, connected mostly with energy consumption reduction, made this process very competitive in comparison with conventional technologies. (author)

2000-01-01

182

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

183

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

184

Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

2011-09-01

185

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

186

National coastal pollutant discharge inventory: Estimates for Long Island sound. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the National Coastal Pollutant Discharge Inventory (NCPDI) data base and presents the results of an analysis of the pollutant discharge estimates contained in the inventory. It identifies the sources and contaminants for which discharge estimates have been compiled, describes the spatial and temporal organization of the data base, presents estimates of pollutant discharges from different sources, outlines the methodologies used to develop the estimates, and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the discharge estimates.

Farrow, D.R.G.; Arnold, F.D.; Lombardi, M.L.; Main, M.B.; Eichelberger, P.D.

1986-12-01

187

MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

188

THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) and carbon (CO and CO2). The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches); percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA; GAVRILESCU ELENA

2013-01-01

189

Environmental policy, intra-industry trade and transfrontier pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper discusses effects of domestic environmental policy on foreign emissions and on transboundary pollution. We use a Dixit-Stiglitz type model of monopolistic competition with an endogenous number of firms. Production generates environmental externalities which spill over to the other country. It is shown that environmental policy has an impact on market structure at home and abroad. These market structure effects induce changes in emissions abroad. In contrast to what has been derived in earlier contributions, it turns out to be possible that tighter environmental standards at home lead to less emissions abroad. The paper derives these results and provides the economic intuition behind them. Finally, conditions for optimal environmental policies are derived. 17 refs

2000-01-01

190

Environmental policy, intra-industry trade and transfrontier pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses effects of domestic environmental policy on foreign emissions and on transboundary pollution. We use a Dixit-Stiglitz type model of monopolistic competition with an endogenous number of firms. Production generates environmental externalities which spill over to the other country. It is shown that environmental policy has an impact on market structure at home and abroad. These market structure effects induce changes in emissions abroad. In contrast to what has been derived in earlier contributions, it turns out to be possible that tighter environmental standards at home lead to less emissions abroad. The paper derives these results and provides the economic intuition behind them. Finally, conditions for optimal environmental policies are derived. 17 refs.

Guertzgen, N.; Rauscher, M. [Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultaet, Rostock (Germany)

2000-09-01

191

Air pollution concentration monitoring and effects research in U.S. National Parks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Park Service (NPS) is mandated by legislation, such as the Clean Air Act, the agency Organic Act, and the Wilderness Act, to protect resources on its lands from air pollution. To fulfill that responsibility, the NPS must collect high-quality, defensible data regarding pollutant levels and resource effects, and use those data convincingly in the State and Federal regulatory arena. Accordingly, air pollution concentration monitoring and effects research has been conducted in a number of NPS units. Monitors collect ozone, deposition, and particle data to establish baselines and detect trends in pollutant levels. Research projects investigate the effects of these atmospheric pollutants on vegetation, soil and surface water chemistry and biota, and visibility. The results show that many NPS areas are affected by air pollution to some extent. High ozone concentrations and associated vegetation injury have been observed in Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah National Parks in the eastern US, and in Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks in the west. Acid-sensitive watersheds are found in parks of the Sierra Nevada, Cascades, Rocky Mountains, and Appalachians. Mercury, possibly from atmospheric sources, has been detected in fish collected in Acadia and Everglades National Parks. Some degree of visibility degradation has been observed in every park that has been monitored. Continuing research will help the NPS identify resources that are most sensitive to air pollution and determine pollution concentrations that adversely affect those resources.

Maniero, T. [National Park Service, Denver, CO (United States). Air Quality Div.

1995-12-31

192

Storm runoff quality and pollutant loading from commercial, residential, and industrial catchments in the tropic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on the pollution level and the influence of hydrologic regime on the stormwater pollutant loading in tropical urban areas are still scarce. More local data are still required because rainfall and runoff generation processes in tropical environment are very different from the temperate regions. This study investigated the extent of urban runoff pollution in residential, commercial, and industrial catchments in the south of Peninsular Malaysia. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected from 51 storm events. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease (O&G), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus (TP), and zinc (Zn). It was found that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants varied greatly between storm characteristics and land uses. The results revealed that site EMCs for residential catchment were lower than the published data but higher for the commercial and industrial catchments. All rainfall variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants except for antecedent dry days (ADD). This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of ADD for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for O&G, NO3-N, TP, and Zn. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by rainfall depth, mean intensity, and max 5-min intensity in all the three catchments. Overall, ADD is an important variable in multiple linear regression models for predicting the EMC values in the tropical urban catchments. PMID:23591675

Chow, M F; Yusop, Z; Shirazi, S M

2013-04-17

193

Storm runoff quality and pollutant loading from commercial, residential, and industrial catchments in the tropic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Information on the pollution level and the influence of hydrologic regime on the stormwater pollutant loading in tropical urban areas are still scarce. More local data are still required because rainfall and runoff generation processes in tropical environment are very different from the temperate regions. This study investigated the extent of urban runoff pollution in residential, commercial, and industrial catchments in the south of Peninsular Malaysia. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected from 51 storm events. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease (O&G), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus (TP), and zinc (Zn). It was found that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants varied greatly between storm characteristics and land uses. The results revealed that site EMCs for residential catchment were lower than the published data but higher for the commercial and industrial catchments. All rainfall variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants except for antecedent dry days (ADD). This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of ADD for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for O&G, NO3-N, TP, and Zn. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by rainfall depth, mean intensity, and max 5-min intensity in all the three catchments. Overall, ADD is an important variable in multiple linear regression models for predicting the EMC values in the tropical urban catchments.

Chow MF; Yusop Z; Shirazi SM

2013-10-01

194

Risk-based targeting: identifying disproportionalities in the sources and effects of industrial pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: I assessed the distribution of relative health risk from industrial air pollution in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and the extent to which risk was disproportionately attributable to a minority of facilities. METHODS: I spatially linked data on airborne emissions, health risk, and sociodemographics by census tract, coupling disproportionality measurements from 2 perspectives: the health risk borne by communities and the harms produced by individual polluters. RESULTS: Of Milwaukee's 307 census tracts, 90 warranted the highest environmental justice concern. Striking variations in risk production existed between industrial polluters. Of 299 facilities with reported emissions, 30 (10%) contributed 90% of all health risk. CONCLUSIONS: This research adds to an emerging body of work connecting environmental health risk, environmental justice, and corporate responsibility. Findings support the hypothesis that relatively few heavy polluters create most environmental health risk. Environmental policy often devotes insufficient attention to such outliers, in part because of the questionable assumption that pollution is economically necessary for jobs or essential products. Increased emphasis on risk-based targeting of the worst polluters could significantly improve environmental quality and health in overburdened communities.

Collins MB

2011-12-01

195

Guides to pollution prevention: The pharmaceutical industry. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pharmaceutical manufacturers generate a variety of wastes during manufacturing, maintenance, and housekeeping operations which can be reduced or minimized through source reduction and recycling. The typical waste streams are spent fermentation broths, process liquors, solvents, equipment wash water, spilled materials, off-spec products, and used processing aids. Suggestions include improvements to operational practices, solvent recycling and implementing good materials management and housekeeping practices. To help companies in the industry identify opportunities for waste reduction at their own facilities, the guide includes a set of worksheets which take the user step-by-step through an analysis of the on-site waste generating operations and the possibilities for minimizing each waste. The guide and its worksheets would also be instructive to consultants serving the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and government agencies who regulate waste streams generated from these firms.

1991-10-01

196

76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to a final rule that provided national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action...

2011-03-09

197

Effect of Sulphurdioxide Pollution on Immunoglobulins of the Industrial Workers and the Residents of the Vicinity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is caused by the increased concentration of any of its constituent above the normal value and this type of situation prevails in highly industrialized areas. SO2 is among the air pollutants which produces bad effects on human health. The value of IgG in industrial workers were high and IgM was low which might be due to repeated exposure to SO2 pollutant, IgM production was switched over to IgG which results in high level of IgG and low level of IgM. IgA level was low, which might be due to the transportation of circulatory IgA to the epithelial surface for defence.

Hina Syed; K.M. Khan; K.Rehman; S. Siddiqui

2000-01-01

198

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effect...

Boutefnouchet Nafissa; Noureddine Bouzerna; Houria Chettibi

199

Reduction of environmental pollution by the lead glass industry of the Federal Republic of Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey is given over technological developments of the last years within the lead glass producing industry of the Federal Republic of Germany with impact to environmental pollution reduction. Special attention is put on clean air technologies including recycling of filter dusts, to the removal of heavy metals from recycling and waste waters and to environmental improvements of the acid polishing process.

Kaiser, A. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung, Wuerzburg (FRG))

1989-01-01

200

Wastewater Pollution Abatement in China: A Comparative Study of Fifteen Industrial Sectors from 1998 to 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the management of wastewater pollutants in a number of Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2010. We use decomposition analysis to calculate changes in wastewater pollutant emissions that result from cleaner production processes, end-of-pipe treatment, structural changes in industry, and changes in the scale of production. We focus on one indicator of water quality and three pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD), petroleum, cyanide, and volatile phenols. We find that until 2002, COD emissions were mainly reduced through end-of-pipe treatments. Cleaner production processes didn’t begin contributing to COD emissions reductions until the introduction of a 2003 law that enforced their implementation. Petroleum emissions were primarily lowered through cleaner production mechanisms, which have the added benefit of reducing the input cost of intermediate petroleum. Diverse and effective pollution abatement strategies for cyanide and volatile phenols are emerging among industries in China. It will be important for the government to consider differences between industries should they choose to regulate the emissions of specific chemical substances.

Hidemichi Fujii; Shunsuke Managi; Shinji Kaneko

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Global marine pollution bibliography: Ocean dumping of municipal and industrial wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains papers from the following categories: marine pollution/ocean dumping, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, legislation/regulations, international conventions, ocean dumping criteria/site selection studies, waste management strategies, biological processes, chemical processes, geological processes, physical processes, engineering studies, and dumping by countries and by regions.

Champ, M.A.; Park, K.P.

1982-01-01

202

REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

203

Less pollutants in petroleum. On-site supply of industrial gases to refineries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental protection and legal requirements require reduction of pollutants in Diesel fuel and gasoline. One efficient way to accomplish that is to use industrial gases for various purification processes in oil-refineries. Large quantities of gases are produced in so-called on-site plants in the immediate vicinity of the users. That is an extremely economical possibility of refinery operation. (orig.)

Schweer, D.; Scholz, G. [Linde Gas AG, Hoellriegelskreuth (Germany); Heisel, M.

2003-07-01

204

Aquatic Fungi Recovered from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted With Industrial Effluents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nineteen species were recovered belonging to 9 genera of aquatic fungi in addition to unidentified species of Aphanomyces, Pythium and Saprolegnia. These species were isolated from surface water and submerged mud samples collected from canal polluted with industrial effluents of Ki...

Farida T. El-Hissy; Mortada S.M. Nassar; A.M. Khallil; Fatma F. Abdel-Motaal

205

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report, 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The prog...

J. S. Harris L. J. Farren

2010-01-01

206

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

2011-01-01

207

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

Harris, Janet S.

2011-04-01

208

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved 'critical receptor' stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

2006-01-01

209

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2010-03-01

210

Reactions of dendriform plants to industrial pollutions of the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In connection with investigations regarding the genetic structure of a single population of common pine, the authors took an interest in the study of the origin-dependent variability of the sensitivity of those pine-trees from the European part of the distribution area to toxic air pollutions. So they tested the degree of sensitivity of 20 origin samples of common pine, making use of the 1982 IUFRO experiment. Seedlings from different origins were fumigated in SO/sub 2/-cabins and moreover planted, by way of field tests, near SO/sub 2/ and HF emittors. In both series of this experiment the differences between the individual origin samples as regards damage to the needles were statistically corroborated. Seedlings of northern origin (Sweden, USSR) and of southern origin (Yugoslavia, Turkey) proved less sensitive as compared to seedlings from origins of the central distribution part of the pines. There is high correspondence between the results of the cabin and field experiments. A comparison of the intensity of the net photosynthesis of control specimens with needle necroses from both test series confirms the existence of a statistically corroborated correlation.

Bialobok, S.; Karolewski, P.; Oleksyn, J.

1986-01-01

211

Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure that's why man is bent on industrializing his domain from earlier. The environment acts like a source to supply raw materials for production processes. The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE), Peshawar, to investigate the individual industrial effluent load. All the industries were divided into five categories like Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical and Paper and three industry from each category were selected. The samples were collected from end-up-pipe of individual industrial process and were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Effluent of Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical, and Paper industries were analyzed for pH, Temperature, DO, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cu were investigated in the effluents of selected industries. The concentrations of BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Pb, Cr and Ni were found higher than NEQS for industrial discharges. The wastewater flow rate was also calculated for industrial effluent. Wastewater treatment facilities are not present in the industrial estate. The study suggests that huge quantities of wastewater is generating in industrial estate can be minimized through process modification, change in existing equipment, installation of recycling plants and selection of proper trained employees.

Sardar Khan; Asif Muhammad Khan; Muhammad Noor Khan

2002-01-01

212

Water pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every day, the nation's sewers collect 34 billion gallons of wastewater from homes, businesses, and industry; some of this water contains toxic substances that threaten aquatic life and may cause cancer and other diseases in people. Because sewage treatment plants are typically not designed to treat toxic material, many of these substances simply pass untreated into receiving waters. This paper examines the range, sources, and seriousness of pollutants found in nonindustrial wastewater; the strategies and programs developed by local and state governments to better manage and control these pollutants; and federal options that might encourage or require better management and control of these pollutants.

1991-12-01

213

Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

NONE

1995-05-01

214

Econometric effects of environmental factors on industrial firms: benefits from regulating air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is concerned with the beneficial impacts of environmental regulations, and specifically regulations on air pollution. However, the focus is somewhat unusual in that the dissertation is concerned with beneficial impacts on industry. The empirical analysis is based on econometric models derived directly from the economic theory of the firm and applied welfare economics. This is in contrast to previous analyses of this problem which have been largely engineering based. Some of the advantages of this new approach are that it: yields estimates consistent with the theoretical definition of economic benefits; allows for behavioral adjustments on the part of affected firms; and potentially is able to identify a broader range of air pollution effects compared to more conventional approaches. The analysis makes use of data on the manufacturing sector at a more disaggregate level than previously attempted. The data are for US county areas at the 3-digit SIC industry level for the year 1972. The principal findings of the analysis are that total costs of production in certain industries are positively associated with local ambient air pollution concentrations, after controlling for other sources of cost variation (e.g., input prices, level of production, inplace capital, and climate). A test for possible spurious correlation with costs of pollution controls was negative.

Manuel, E.H. Jr.

1984-01-01

215

Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ) limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1) was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1) were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1) was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

2013-01-01

216

Environmental Research Brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt industrial crankshafts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Minimization Assessment Center at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that refurbishes large industrial crankshafts. The team report indicated that the waste stream generated in the greatest quantity is spent cutting fluid from the grinding of crankshafts and that significant cost savings could be achieved by implementing a formal cutting fluid management program. This research brief discusses the process, existing waste management practices, pollution prevention opportunities, and gives additional recommendations. Tables summarize current waste generation and recommended pollution prevention opportunities.

Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Looby, G.P. [University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1995-08-01

217

Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

1994-01-01

218

Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

1989-01-01

219

The relationship between air pollution and emergency room visits in an industrial community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for using community morbidity as an index of air pollution levels was evaluated. The relationship between air pollution levels and numbers of hospital emergency room visits in an industrial community was explored. Deviations from expected numbers of daily visits during March, April, October, and November of 1974-77 were not correlated with atmospheric levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, or total suspended particulates. However, a linear regression model showed small but statistically significant correlations between total suspended particulates and SO2 and excessive instances of respiratory illness.

Samet, J.M.; Bishop, Y.; Spengler, J.D.; Ferris, B.G.; Speizer, F.E.

1981-03-01

220

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relations are shown used for calculating air and surface pollution in the METEO-2 computer programme. The programme may be used for computing both short-term and long-term stack emissions of conventional and radioactive industrial wastes into the atmosphere and their deposition in the neighbouring environment. The factors for pollution computation comprise vertical plume dynamics and heat capacity. Methods of dispersion data determination are given. The practical choice of a mesh point system used in the computations is discussed. (J.B.)

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Guides to pollution prevention: The mechanical equipment repair industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercial mechanical equipment repair services are covered under SIC 76 and include activities such as repair of boilers, commercial appliances, lawn mowers, refrigerators and air conditioners, electric motors, generators and transformers, among others. The guide describes the typical wastes generated during repairs, such as spent solvents, oils and rags, sand blasting materials, sump sludge, refrigerant, and scrap metals. Waste reduction options, including source reduction and recycling, are then identified. Suggestions for improved housekeeping, substitution of chlorinated solvent-based paints and degreasers with aqueous products, and recycling of solvents, refrigerants and scrap metal are some of the alternatives for waste reduction identified in the guide. To help repair shops determine opportunities for waste reduction at their own shops, the guide provides a set of worksheets which take the user step-by-step through an analysis of the on-site waste generating operations and the possibilities for minimizing each waste. The guide is also intended to be instructive to consultants who serve the industry and government agencies who regulate it.

1992-09-01

222

Evaluation of Indoor Air Pollution of Polyurethane Industries with Emphasis on Exposure with Methylene Diphenyle Diisocyanate (MDI)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diisocyanates are used as a initial chemical material in different factories such as surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders and sealants. In the polyurethane workplace there are aerosols of diisocyanates which has important to effect on workers. They can also be exposed to partial reaction of isocyanate-containing intermediates formed during polyurethane production. The main objective of this study pointed on assessment of exposure risk factors with MDI in the workplace, determination of MDI concentration and biomonitoring of MDA in polyurethane industries. NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) 5522 sampling and analysis method was used by midget impinger contained dimethyl sulfoxide with tryptamine. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) was employed for air sampling analysis and GC (Gas Chromatography) for urine analysis. Getting personality data was carried out by Health Surveillance Questionnaire and multiple linear regression models with ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis. The result of study showed that there was a diisocyanate pollution (MDI > 96.6?g/m³) and it have seen in the workers' urine. A new approach to assess isocyanate pollution in the workplace is risk factor assessment simultaneously with indoor air pollution and biological monitoring.

Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi; M. Hakimi; A. Ahmad; M. Mohammadyan; K. Kamel

2010-01-01

223

The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000). Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010). Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6). Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general and technogenic hotspots. Airpollution- related health effects can be reduced through policies that curb emissions. Among measures that can be undertaken to achieve these reductions is the use technology in industry and programs to increase public awareness. However Kazakhstani society is more concerned about social problems; government does not want to disturb people, because environmental problems are far from a positive decision.

Vitaliy G. Salnikov; Marat A. Karatayev

2011-01-01

224

Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching.

Kim KH; Ihm SK

2011-02-01

225

Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching. PMID:21122984

Kim, Kyoung-Hun; Ihm, Son-Ki

2010-11-11

226

Pollution minimisation practices in the Australian mining and mineral processing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to identify some of the current pollution minimisation practices adopted in Australia's mining and mineral processing industries. Initially, 84 mining and mineral processing companies were approached for inclusion in the study, with request only made for information that was available to the company stakeholders and the wider general community. Among the responses received, BHP Billiton, BlueScope Steel, Newmont Australia Limited and AngloGold Australia provided the information requested and/or a substantial quantity of information through reports on their company website. Analysis of the data collected for these companies indicated that improvements were made, and that policies had been implemented over the previous few years. The pollution minimisation and policy practices adopted at the operations of these companies include environmental management systems, advanced pollution control technologies, environmental awareness training for employees, and requirement - from company stakeholders - for increased accountability of environmental impacts.

Catherine Driussi; Janis Jansz [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

2006-07-01

227

Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations. But since the inception of the oil industry in Nigeria, more than twenty-five years ago, there has been no concerned and effective effort on the part of the government, let alone the oil operators, to control environmental problems associated with the industry'. The article reviews the meaning of water pollution, water pollution categories, point source pollution, non-point source pollution, ground water pollution, causes of water pollution, pathogens, chemicals and other contaminants, thermal pollution, transport and chemical reactions of pollution, measurement of pollution, sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, biological testing, control of water pollution, domestic sewage, industrial waste water, agricultural waste water, construction site storm water urban runoff (storm water), radiation pollution, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, The National Policy on Environment, The national environmental reference laboratory, Water resources management, Strategies under the National Policy on Environment, Industrial water pollution control programme, Industrial effluent standards to provide some information on the Nigeria situation.

A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

2011-01-01

228

The effect of uncertainty on pollution abatement investments: Measuring hurdle rates for Swedish industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimate hurdle rates for firms' investments in pollution abatement technology, using ex post data. The method is based on a structural option value model where the future price of polluting fuel is the major source of uncertainty facing the firm. The empirical procedure is illustrated using a panel of firms from the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and the energy and heating sector, and their sulfur dioxide emissions over the period 2000-2003. The results indicate that hurdle rates of investment vary from 2.7 to 3.1 in the pulp and paper industry and from 3.4 to 3.6 in the energy and heating sector depending on econometric specification. (author)

Loefgren, Aasa [Department of Economics, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 640, SE 405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Millock, Katrin [Paris School of Economics, CNRS, Centre d' Economie de la Sorbonne, Universite Paris 1, 106/112 Boulevard de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Nauges, Celine [Toulouse School of Economics, LERNA-INRA, Manufacture des Tabacs, 21 Allee de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France)

2008-12-15

229

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

Boutefnouchet Nafissa; Noureddine Bouzerna; Houria Chettibi

2005-01-01

230

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

Radhapriya P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan A; Malini P; Ramachandran A

2012-05-01

231

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

2012-05-01

232

Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

2010-01-01

233

Pollution in Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes developments within the agency`s fields of responsibility, with particular emphasis on emissions of pollutants, the state of the environment, and anticipated developments. The data are based on reports from industrial enterprises, material flow analyses, modelling, and data from the National Environmental Monitoring Program run by the State Pollution Control Authority.

Midtland, S.

1993-12-31

234

National marine pollution program: agency program summaries FY 1984 update. Appendix No. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, P.L. 95-273 (as amended), calls for the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and effective Federal program for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. The Agency Program Summaries is one of a series of documents published by NMPPO to meet the mandates of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act. The Act calls for a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs related to ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring. Two reports are published on an annual basis to meet this requirement. One of these contains summaries of the major programs conducted by the Federal agencies, the second is a catalog of the specific projects that comprise these programs.

1985-07-01

235

Commercial national accounts program is a gas industry revenue builder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for gas distributors to implement revenue-generating strategies is clearly evident in the commercial sector - their fastest growing market. One strategy is A.G.A.'s commercial national accounts marketing program, designed to establish working relationships with national and regional food, hotel, and retail chains and with the firms that design energy systems for them. The program supplies these chains with information on gas industry services and research aimed at increasing energy utilization efficiency. Regular communications and coordinated sales calls by gas utility executives on chain headquarters often produce increased gas sales, even of traditionally all-electric chains, as illustrated by several case histories.

Moskitis, T.L.

1984-04-01

236

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The mean horizontal wind velocity is defined and it is calculated that it varies little with height so that it may be considered as constant up to the reference level which corresponds to the height of the source of industrial pollution. The formula is given for the calculation of the mean dispersion values of the diffusion coefficient and of the dispersion factor. (J.P.)

1977-01-01

237

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Water pollution instruments, equipment, and services, September 1990. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) for water pollution instruments, equipment, and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation (Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors), and market access (Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, and distribution channels). The ISA also contains key contact information.

1990-09-01

238

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Emissions and air pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the emissions and air pollution control equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

De Keratry, E.; Cooper-Bahar, D.

1992-04-01

239

An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

1995-01-01

240

Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m2/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

2002-01-01

242

Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m{sup 2}/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

2002-12-01

243

THE BUILDING INDUSTRY- A FLOURISHING SECTOR OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The building industry has been one of the most dynamic fields of theRomanian economy over the last years. The increase in the number of builders, the penetrationon the Romanian market of a large number of branches of the multinational companies, themajor investments in large projects, they all give the coordinates of an intensely competitiveconstruction market. In this paper we wanted to point out the fact that the building industry is asignificant branch of the national economy, as it plays an important role in the developmentand modernization of the Romanian society. We also wanted to provide an overview of thebuilding industry evolution on the basis of the economic financial indicators in this sector.

CRISTINA PLOSCARU; BOGDAN BUDIC?

2009-01-01

244

Effects of industrial and urban pollution on the benthic macrofauna in the Bay of Muggia (industrial port of Trieste, Italy).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The benthic macrofauna of the Bay of Muggia and its evolution in time was analysed in order to assess the impact of man-made pollution in this port area. The north and NE zones are totally industrialised while the southern zone is mainly used for tourism and aquaculture. The most important anthropic impacts were stagnation and direct urban and industrial discharges, which operated until the beginning of the 1990s. Forty-four stations were sampled in 1981, 12 of which were monitored over time (1975, 1981 and 1994). From 172 taxa 11783 organisms were identified. Polychaetes were the richest group, followed by molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. The dominant species was Corbula gibba (39.5%) followed by Pectinaria koreni (9%). Uni- and multivariate analyses showed a declining pattern for the fauna along a gradient of environmental stress. The very high concentrations of heavy metals in the Bay's sediments, especially Pb, contrasted with the diversity and biological index values found, indicating that many species could survive these conditions. The enforcement of the Italian ecological laws regarding water pollution control benefited the local macrofauna and evidenced the resilience of the system. C. gibba constituted a good biological indicator of zones of high instability (especially sedimentary) and of intermediate levels of pollution.

Solis-Weiss V; Aleffi F; Bettoso N; Rossin P; Orel G; Fonda-Umani S

2004-07-01

245

Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature.

2001-01-01

246

Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

2004-09-15

247

Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

2001-01-01

248

National implementation plan on reduction and elimination of persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Macedonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Stockholm Convention' is to protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Currently the Convention lists twelve POPs. They have similar physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. They possess toxic properties, resist degradation, bio accumulate and are transported, through air, water and migratory species, across international boundaries and deposited far from their place of release, where they accumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To reach its objectives, the Convention groups POPs into three categories. Annex A lists those intentionally produced chemicals, whose production, use, import and export have to be eliminated. They are, on the one hand, organo chlorine pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, Dieldrin, Endrin, Hexachlorobenze, Heptachlor, Mirex, Toxaphene) and industrial chemicals (PCBs) on the other. Annex B of the Convention lists those chemicals, whose production, import, export and use are allowed but restricted. Currently only DDT is listed in Annex B. Annex C to the Convention details those chemicals which are formed and released unintentionally from anthropogenic sources. They are Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and di benzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Their releases should continuously be reduced, and where feasible, with the goal of their ultimate elimination. The Convention also aims to increase public awareness on POPs and on the activities related to POPs. It also requests parties to develop a National Implementation Plan, which describes what measures the party will take, how much time and financial support would be required to meet the obligations of this treaty. Macedonia signed the Stockholm Convention on 23rd May 2001, and ratified it on March 19th 2004. With the fund from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and with the assistance of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning prepared the first NIP for Macedonia. The preparation took two years and the National POPs Office coordinated all the activities. The first part of this document summarizes the current status in Macedonia with regards to POPs. This is the baseline inventory. The second part of the NIP details all the actions which need to be undertaken in order to meet all the obligations of the Convention. (Original)

2004-01-01

249

Danger pollution; Danger pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different types of pollution are presented: air, water, soils, sea, toxic substances, domestic and industrial wastes, radioactive wastes, visual pollution. Their causes and consequences, the regulations and the Government attitude are discussed. (A.L.B.)

Salomon, J.N.

2003-07-01

250

Integrating Market Based Instruments for Pollution Control - Strategic Option for Enhancing Competitiveness within Energy Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize the efficiency of using market based instruments for both reducing pollution and enhancing competitiveness within the energy industry. Given the previous experience of European countries, as well as the characteristics of the main market based instruments, the paper is focused on developing two alternatives for combining green certificates schemes, white certificates schemes and emissions trading schemes (black certificates schemes) in strategic options, aiming to increase the competitiveness of the energy industry and to decrease the emissions generated within this field. Each strategic option presented includes an integration scheme, as well as the main advantages and disadvantages deriving from the implementation of these mechanisms. The paper also demonstrates that an integrated market based instruments’ scheme is more efficient and even cost-effective than using single instruments. The whole analysis places a higher focus on white certificates, as these are the more recent market based instrument for enhancing competitiveness within energy industry.

Oana-C?t?lina ??PURIC?

2011-01-01

251

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions) observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez; A. Alastuey; S. Alonso-Pérez; X. Querol; E. Cuevas; J. Abreu-Afonso; M. Viana; M. Pandolfi; J. de la Rosa

2011-01-01

252

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez; A. Alastuey; S. Alonso-Pérez; X. Querol; E. Cuevas; J. Abreu-Afonso; M. Viana; N. Pérez; M. Pandolfi; J. de la Rosa

2011-01-01

253

A new approach for the extraction of pollutants from wastewaters handled by the graphic industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is widely recognized that the Graphic Industry handles toxic products and produces, in its various operations, toxic wastes. These wastes can cause serious environmental damages and can lead to severe health problems. In this work we report an efficient, simple and cheap to run method for the removal of some of the most common pollutants involved in the various stages of the Graphic Industry production, using a Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) methodology. We have determined equilibrium constants, K(eq), and adsorption (k(up)) and desorption (k(off)) rate constants for the extraction of benzene, xylene, toluene and ethylbenzene (BXTE) from water, using C18 disks. The removal of these compounds was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, at room temperature. Average extraction efficiencies were of 60% in a mixture of BXTEs and close to 80% when pollutants were assessed separately. Since the retention mechanism in the C18 disk is essentially governed by hydrophobic interactions between the compounds and the alkyl chains of the disk, we have also shown that these pollutants' lipophilicity plays an important role in the rationalization of their behavior during the extraction process.

Monteiro C; Ventura C; Martins F

2013-06-01

254

Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

1999-01-01

255

A new approach for the extraction of pollutants from wastewaters handled by the graphic industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely recognized that the Graphic Industry handles toxic products and produces, in its various operations, toxic wastes. These wastes can cause serious environmental damages and can lead to severe health problems. In this work we report an efficient, simple and cheap to run method for the removal of some of the most common pollutants involved in the various stages of the Graphic Industry production, using a Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) methodology. We have determined equilibrium constants, K(eq), and adsorption (k(up)) and desorption (k(off)) rate constants for the extraction of benzene, xylene, toluene and ethylbenzene (BXTE) from water, using C18 disks. The removal of these compounds was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, at room temperature. Average extraction efficiencies were of 60% in a mixture of BXTEs and close to 80% when pollutants were assessed separately. Since the retention mechanism in the C18 disk is essentially governed by hydrophobic interactions between the compounds and the alkyl chains of the disk, we have also shown that these pollutants' lipophilicity plays an important role in the rationalization of their behavior during the extraction process. PMID:23562952

Monteiro, C; Ventura, C; Martins, F

2013-04-03

256

Identification of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants in untreated industrial wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a generic protocol for the determination of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants on untreated industrial wastewaters involving the use of two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methodologies followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Untreated industrial wastewaters might contain natural and synthetic dissolved organic compounds with total organic carbon (TOC) values varying between 100 and 3000 mg/L. All polar, ionic and highly water soluble compounds comprising more than 95% of the organic content and with major contribution to the total toxicity of the sample cannot be analyzed by conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and LC-MS is a good alternative. In this work two extraction procedures were used to obtain fractionated extracts of the nonionic polar compounds: a polymeric Isolute ENV + SPE cartridge for the preconcentration of anionic analytes and a sequential solid-phase extraction (SSPE) method percolating the samples first in octadecylsilica cartridge in series with the polymeric Lichrolut EN cartridge. Average recoveries ranging from 72% to 103% were obtained for a variety of 23 different analytes. Determination of nonionic pollutants was accomplished by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS), while anionic compounds were analyzed by ion pair chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (IP-ESI-MS) and LC-ESI-MS. This protocol was applied to a pilot survey of textile and tannery wastewaters leading to the identification and quantification of 33 organic pollutants.

Castillo, M.; Alonso, M.C.; Riu, J.; Barcelo, D. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1999-04-15

257

Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

2007-01-01

258

[Los Alamos National Laboratory industrial applications and technology transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In October 1989, the Los Alamos Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC) entered into a contract with the Industrial Applications office (IAO) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) whereby the LAEDC was to provide support services to IAO. More specifically, according to the Statement of Work in this contract The Los Alamos Economic Development Corporation shall assist the Los Alamos National Laboratory Industrial Applications Office in establishing and strengthening connections between potential entrepreneurs at the Laboratory and the business assistance community throughout New Mexico, directed toward enhancing the number, of successful start up businesses spinning off the Laboratory's technology base.'' As part of this contract and subsequent modifications thereof, the LAEDC was to perform seven tasks: 1. Provide business planning assistance to potential entrepreneurs. 2. (Assist IAO in preparing and distributing) informational materials on technology transfer. 3. (Organize and manage) meetings and seminars on technology transfer and entrepreneurship. 4. Identify new opportunities for technology transfer. 5. (Identify and implement programs for the) recognition of Laboratory Entrepreneurs. 6. Training Lab personnel, in the area of technology transfer and Laboratory industrial interactions. 7. Review and summarize prior New Mexico economic development studies. The purpose of this report, is to summarize the accomplishments of the LAEDC under its contract with IAO, and to fulfill its reporting requirements. This report covers the period from October 1989 to September 1992.

1992-09-30

259

Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems.

Rai PK

2010-03-01

260

Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 ? g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 ? g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. ?(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region. PMID:23484131

Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

2013-01-31

 
 
 
 
261

Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 ? g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 ? g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. ?(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

Sosa G; Vega E; González-Avalos E; Mora V; López-Veneroni D

2013-01-01

262

A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

1994-09-28

263

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

264

Marine dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication and industrial pollution: a discussion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results from an investigation of dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication in Tokyo Bay, Japan, by Matsuoka [Sci Total Environ 231 (1999) 17] are discussed with reference to other pertinent literature not discussed in the original article. Both the Japanese study and previous work from Norwegian fjords show that pollution (including cultural eutrophication) may produce changes in the phytoplankton reflected by a shift from more autotrophic--to more heterotrophic--dominance of cyst assemblages. However, this is a proportional change that seems likely to result from reduced autotrophic production rather than the increased heterotrophic production suggested by Matsuoka. This is not unequivocal evidence of eutrophication, since Tokyo Bay is impacted also by heavy industrial pollution, the possible effects of which cannot be distinguished, and the quantitative method used for estimating changes in cyst productivity is flawed. PMID:11213194

Dale, B

2001-01-17

265

Marine dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication and industrial pollution: a discussion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results from an investigation of dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication in Tokyo Bay, Japan, by Matsuoka [Sci Total Environ 231 (1999) 17] are discussed with reference to other pertinent literature not discussed in the original article. Both the Japanese study and previous work from Norwegian fjords show that pollution (including cultural eutrophication) may produce changes in the phytoplankton reflected by a shift from more autotrophic--to more heterotrophic--dominance of cyst assemblages. However, this is a proportional change that seems likely to result from reduced autotrophic production rather than the increased heterotrophic production suggested by Matsuoka. This is not unequivocal evidence of eutrophication, since Tokyo Bay is impacted also by heavy industrial pollution, the possible effects of which cannot be distinguished, and the quantitative method used for estimating changes in cyst productivity is flawed.

Dale B

2001-01-01

266

Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot) also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

Frances C. Moore

2009-01-01

267

Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

1985-02-01

268

Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study proposes an integrated multi-pollutant co-control strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the co-control strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multi-pollutant co-control routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though co-control strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China.

Mao X; Zeng A; Hu T; Zhou J; Xing Y; Liu S

2013-10-01

269

UK emissions of air pollutants 1970-1994. A report of the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This eighth annual report, from the National Environmental Technology Centre, produced as part of a United Kingdom air quality monitoring programme, presents estimates of emissions to atmosphere of a wide variety of pollutants from 1970 to 1994. Methodologies used to derive estimates are also explained. Greenhouse gases, pesticides and heavy metals are all included. (UK)

Salway, A.G.; Eggleston, H.S.; Goodwin, J.W.L.; Murrells, T.P.

1996-11-01

270

75 FR 30395 - Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0464; FRL-9156-7] Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...sessions, the public may also provide input to the Agency directly through e- mail...DATES: EPA is asking for statements and input from the interested public on or...

2010-06-01

271

NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)  

Science.gov (United States)

NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

272

Pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The laws and regulations governing pollution control in the Netherlands are examined. The chronology of pollution control planning and regulations is presented. Statute law dealing with air pollution, surface water pollution, oil pollution, wastes, radioactive materials and noise is discussed. The role of national and regional planning in controlling pollution is outlined. (KRW)

Bennett, G.

1980-11-21

273

Industrial pollution; Pollution industrielle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absorption by atomization process is based on the drying by atomization and is recommended for the incinerators or thermal power plants fumes processing. This paper presents the different processes for the fumes scrubbing and the dioxines reduction process for old plants. (A.L.B.)

Anon

1999-07-01

274

78 FR 24380 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. AMS-LPS-13-0020] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of...information collection 0581-0263: National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Sheep Industry Improvement Center. OMB...

2013-04-25

275

76 FR 510 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777,...

2011-01-05

276

76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777,...

2011-08-15

277

78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Deletion of the Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund...Intent to Delete the Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund...Notice of Deletion of Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund...Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste,...

2013-07-26

278

Control and prevention of industrial air pollution: Special issue; Bestrijding en preventie van industriele luchtverontreiniging: Thema  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In four articles in this special issue of the magazine attention is paid to new techniques by which emissions to the air from the industry can be controlled and/or prevented. In the first article an overview is given of sources of air pollution, caused by dust. In the second article intermediate results of the KWS 2000 program (aimed at 50% reduction of the emission of volatile organic matter for the year 2000) are outlined. In the third article a cooperative biological (flue) gas desulfurization pilot plant project is discussed. In the fourth and last article the most important possible techniques to reduce the emission of volatile organic matter are highlighted

Waque, W.P.G.M. [Bureau Vergunningen en Bedrijven, DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Schiedam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, W.M. [Bureau Milieu en Ruimtelijke Ordening, VNO/NCW, The Hague (Netherlands); Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [Paques, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar Development, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Corporate Research Laboratorium, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Jol, A. [Sector Milieutechnologie, DHV Milieu en Infrastructuur, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Van Ham, J. [ed.

1994-12-01

279

Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and will discuss the findings in regard to noise control and management in details.

Parvin Nasiri

1999-01-01

280

Quantitative structure-activity relationships in fish toxicity studies. Part 1: relationship for 50 industrial pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LC50-experiments have been conducted using guppies subjected to 72 industrial pollutants. The correlation of the LC50 with several expressions of the hydrophobicity of these chemicals has been studied. Calculated log Poct-values appeared to satisfy more than HPLC retention indices, solubility data or molecular connectivity indices. One QSAR, with log Poct as the only variable, gave good estimations of the toxicity of most of the tested compounds with log Poct less than 6. No LC50 could be determined for solutions of compounds with log Poct greater than 6.

Koenemann, H.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Concentration of inorganic and total arsenic in fish from industrially polluted water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The total concentration of arsenic in fish from industrially arsenic polluted brackish water and fresh water were found to be 1.4-5 times higher than in fish from corresponding unpolluted waters. For the majority of the fish species the inorganic arsenic content constituted 5-12% of the total arsenic concentration, corresponding to 0.01-0.15 ..mu..g As/g fish meat. The fraction of inorganic arsenic decreased with increasing total arsenic concentrations. The major part of the arsenic was of organic nature.

Norin, H.; Vahter, M.; Christakopoulos, A.; Sandstroem, M.

1985-01-01

282

Analysis of nickel industrial wastes by nuclear techniques and its pollution assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The concentration of some heavy metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in nickel industrial wastes from Moa, northeastern Cuba, is determined. The analysis was performed by External Standard method of ED-XRF, using 238Pu (1.11 GBq) excitation source and laterite certified reference material as standards. The capability of INAA using neutrons from a Pu-Be (107 n/s) source and Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC is studied. The determined concentration values for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn shows a different pollution degree according to Dutch regulations and US NOAA guidelines. (Author)

2011-01-01

283

Aquatic Fungi Recovered from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted With Industrial Effluents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nineteen species were recovered belonging to 9 genera of aquatic fungi in addition to unidentified species of Aphanomyces, Pythium and Saprolegnia. These species were isolated from surface water and submerged mud samples collected from canal polluted with industrial effluents of Kima factory for fertilizers and River Nile during the period from January to December 1996 at Aswan region, using baiting technique of sesame seeds at 22+1 oC. Pythium, Nowakowskiella and Saprolegnia contributed the broadest spectra of species. Pythium (5 identified in addition to unidentified species), Nowakowskiella (4 species), Saprolegnia (3 identified and unidentified species), whereas the other aquatic fungal genera of the narrowest spectra of species.

Farida T. El-Hissy; Mortada S.M. Nassar; A.M. Khallil; Fatma F. Abdel-Motaal

2001-01-01

284

Metal pollution of soils and vegetation in an area with petrochemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted (blank samples) sites. Human health risks derived from metal inhalation and ingestion of soils were also assessed. With the exception of an increase in the levels of Cd and V, significant differences in soil samples from the industrial and the unpolluted zone were not found. In chard samples, significant differences between collection sites were only noted for V concentrations. For non-carcinogenic risks, the current levels of metals in the industrial area were lower than those considered as safe for the general population. In relation to carcinogenic risks, only As ingestion and Cr inhalation in the industrial zone might potentially cause an increase of the cases of cancer. A Kohonen self-organized map (an Artificial Neural Network) showed differences in metal concentrations according to the zone of origin of the samples. The current results suggest that although in general terms the petrochemical complex is not a relevant metal pollution source for the area, attention should be paid to As, Cr and V.

Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, ' Rovira i Virgili' University, San Lorenzo 21, Reus 43201 (Spain)

2004-04-05

285

We must emphasize solving the problem of environmental pollution caused by small-scale industry. [China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article proposes that solving the problem of environmental pollution caused by small-scale industry managed by counties, communes and brigades and protecting the agricultural environment are new issues that must be emphasized during China's socioeconomic development. China has more than 1.4 million commune and brigade enterprises, which employ over 30 million people. Disadvantages of the small-scale enterprises include irrational distribution, poor technical equipment, bad management, and the lack of antipollution devices. It is suggested that the construction of factories must not be permitted upwind from cities and towns, in dense residential districts or water protection areas, or near scenic tourist spots, sanitariums, natural preserves, famous relics or hot springs. The development of small-scale industry should be integrated with the growth of cities, towns and villages through unified planning and rational distribution.

Zhang Guoguang

1983-08-25

286

Groundwater pollution around an industrial area in the coastal stretch of Maharashtra State, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and thirty one samples were collected from various sources, such as dugwells, borewells, dug-cum-borewells, effluent sumps, drainage channels (effluent channels), creeks and ocean, for chemical analyses. These analyses show that the area in general is characterized by hard water and high salinity hazard, possibly due to its proximity and hydraulic connection with the sea. Although the potability of groundwater is questionable in certain pockets, it is good enough for irrigation purposes at present. Low pH value and high heavy metal contents in the adjoining Muramba creek water is a matter of great concern and may be attributed to the indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents to the drainage channels connecting the creek. Muramba Creek is well connected with the Arabian Sea, and there are evidences of seawater intrusion around this creek. Because of the fact that Muramba Creek is highly polluted, and is hydraulically connected with the dugwells and borewells surrounding the creek, it cannot be ruled out that the groundwater around this creek is susceptible to contamination. Unless measures are not taken immediately to stop the indiscriminate disposal of the solid wastes and liquid effluents in open ground and drainage channels, and measures are not taken to maintain the appropriate pH values at the effluent treatment facilities before their disposal, the problem would indeed be formidable one day, and it will be too late then for the authorities to take care of the resulting maladies. Few suggestions have been given for controlling and managing the industrial pollution around the Tarapur MIDC area. These suggestions are relevant to other industrial areas situated on the 7,000 km long Indian Sea Coast.

Naik PK; Dehury BN; Tiwari AN

2007-09-01

287

The British National Museum of Science and Industry: Ingenious  

Science.gov (United States)

The British National Museum of Science and Industry (NMSI) hosts the Ingenious website, which "brings together images and viewpoints to create insights into science and culture." Visitors can read articles covering over 30 topics, including travelling, communication, and the environment. The entries are organized so you can explore topics further. For example, the section on Understanding our World includes a discussion of "the beauty and utility of maths," which then leads to three other articles on mathematics. The image or "See" section, which includes over 30,000 images from the Science Museum, the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, the National Railway Museum, the Science & Society Picture Library and the Science Museum Library, can be searched or browsed by topic area. By completing the free registration form, you can join in the Debate on questions such as "Has technology given us a home life filled with opportunities?" Registered users can also go to the Create section to set up personalized links, saved images, e-cards, and web galleries.

288

Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field experiment. The content of available boron in the soil differed significantly (p soapstock, prina, and blood were used alone or in combination. Although total Co, Cd, and Pb contents of soils showed no significant differences between the applications, Cr content differed significantly (p < 0.05). No pollution risk was observed in soil in respect to total Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr contents. The amount of boron and heavy metals in leaves showed no significant differences among the applications. Cobalt, Cd, and Pb in leaves were at normal levels whereas Cr was slightly above normal but well under the critical level. Boron was low in tubers and varied significantly between applications such as Co and Cd. The Co content of tubers was high, Cd and Cr contents were below average, and Pb content was between the given values. Some significant correlations were found between soil characteristics and the boron and heavy metal content of soil, leaves, and tubers. PMID:19680756

Seçer, Müzeyyen; Ceylan, Safak; Elmaci, Omer Lütfü; Akdemir, Hüseyin

2009-08-13

289

Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field experiment. The content of available boron in the soil differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the applications. Generally, B values were found to be slightly higher when soapstock, prina, and blood were used alone or in combination. Although total Co, Cd, and Pb contents of soils showed no significant differences between the applications, Cr content differed significantly (p < 0.05). No pollution risk was observed in soil in respect to total Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr contents. The amount of boron and heavy metals in leaves showed no significant differences among the applications. Cobalt, Cd, and Pb in leaves were at normal levels whereas Cr was slightly above normal but well under the critical level. Boron was low in tubers and varied significantly between applications such as Co and Cd. The Co content of tubers was high, Cd and Cr contents were below average, and Pb content was between the given values. Some significant correlations were found between soil characteristics and the boron and heavy metal content of soil, leaves, and tubers.

Seçer M; Ceylan S; Elmaci OL; Akdemir H

2010-09-01

290

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

1999-06-01

291

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

R. F. Grossman

2000-06-01

292

Advanced oxidation process by electron-beam-irradiation-induced decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluents  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron-beam irradiation considered on advanced oxidation process induces the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5MeV energy and 37kW power. The effluent samples from an industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's liquid effluent irradiation pilot plant. The experiments were conducted using one sample from each of eight separate industrial units and five samples of a mixture of these units. The physical-chemical characterization of these samples is presented. The electron beam irradiation was efficient in destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents, mainly, chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, xylene and phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture was explained by the destruction /G value (Gd) that was obtained for those compounds with different initial concentrations and was compared with literature.

Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C. G.; Azevedo, A. L.

2002-03-01

293

Advanced oxidation process by electron-beam-irradiation-induced decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron-beam irradiation considered on advanced oxidation process induces the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The effluent samples from an industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's liquid effluent irradiation pilot plant. The experiments were conducted using one sample from each of eight separate industrial units and five samples of a mixture of these units. The physical-chemical characterization of these samples is presented. The electron beam irradiation was efficient in destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents, mainly, chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, xylene and phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture was explained by the destruction G value (Gd) that was obtained for those compounds with different initial concentrations and was compared with literature.

Duarte, C.L. E-mail: clduarte@net.ipen.br; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.; Azevedo, A.L

2002-03-01

294

Advanced oxidation process by electron-beam-irradiation-induced decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron-beam irradiation considered on advanced oxidation process induces the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The effluent samples from an industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's liquid effluent irradiation pilot plant. The experiments were conducted using one sample from each of eight separate industrial units and five samples of a mixture of these units. The physical-chemical characterization of these samples is presented. The electron beam irradiation was efficient in destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents, mainly, chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, xylene and phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture was explained by the destruction G value (Gd) that was obtained for those compounds with different initial concentrations and was compared with literature.

2002-01-01

295

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility

296

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility.

Y. E. Townsend

2002-06-01

297

Lime Manufacturing Industry Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, National Lime and Stone Company, Carey, Ohio. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this testing program is to: (1) quantify hydrogen chloride (HCl) emission levels; and (2) gather screening data on other hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emissions from lime production plants to support a national emission standard for hazard...

2000-01-01

298

Characterization of an industrial spray dryer at Argonne National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is operating an industrial-scale, coal-fired boiler with a flue gas cleaning (FGC) system consisting of a spray dryer and fabric filter. This paper presents a description of the FGC system together with a status report for an EPA-sponsored project being carried out by ANL to characterize the operation of the system. This project involves a design and economic analysis of the FGC system, determination of waste characteristics, and analysis of system operation through monitoring of inlet/outlet gas streams and sampling of various process streams. Preliminary data and material balances are presented in the paper, as well as a proposed performance model based on an analysis of key operating parameters.

Farber, P.S.; Livengood, C.D.

1983-01-01

299

Twin frequency and industrial pollution in different regions of Hesse, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: To investigate whether twinning occurs more frequently in residents in the vicinity of a toxic waste incinerator (TWI). Methods: Within a longitudinal environmental study that addressed child health second grade school children and their parents were recruited. The proportion of twinning in the TWI region was compared with two comparison areas. In a second confirmatory investigation, birth records for the years 1994–97 from the Hessian Perinatal Survey (HEPS) were accessed to determine whether the incidence of twinning was higher in regions around the TWI compared to adjacent reference areas. Results: In the environmental study, 61.5% of the children and 95% of their mothers participated. In mothers, twinning was 5.3% in the TWI region compared to 1.6% and 2.3% in the comparison regions. The proportion of mothers with fertility assessment/treatment was 5.7%, 8.3%, and 0% respectively. The prevalence of twinning was not significantly higher (4.5%) in mothers with treatment compared to mothers without (3.7%). From the HEPS, data of 20 603 births was analysed. The incidence of twins was significantly higher in areas which surround the TWI and other industries (1.4–1.6 per 100 births) compared to births in reference areas (0.8 per 100). Conclusions: Twinning rates may be associated with exposure to industrial pollution. Future environmental health studies that consider multiple births as an outcome are warranted. These should also investigate whether the incidence of monozygotic or dizygotic twinning may be associated with industrial pollution.

Obi-Osius, N; Misselwitz, B; Karmaus, W; Witten, J

2004-01-01

300

Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas. PMID:22324147

Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

1996-01-01

302

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

1990-07-01

303

Voluntary approaches in Japan: proven record of pollution control agreements and new industrial initiatives for the protection of the global environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a review of the Japanese experience in the use of voluntary approaches in environmental policy. Pollution control agreements between local government and private industry have a proven record over 30 years as they have been extensively used to supplement national and local legislation while adapting to local conditions. They have played unique, positive roles for facilitating voluntary actions of industries, especially in the control of conventional air and water pollution in local areas, although there remain several unsettled questions concerning legitimacy and transparency of the discretional use of this approach by local government. In the 1990s, Japan's environmental policy came into a new paradigm in which more attention had to be paid to voluntary actions of various stakeholders for protecting the global environment. In this new realm, Japanese industries under the initiative of Keidanren (the Federation of Economic Organisations) adopted a new approach based on voluntary action plans. They are unilateral commitments of industries to take measures against the environmental issues such as climatic change. They are expected to play a key role for Japan to achieve the reduction target of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases agreed upon at the COP 3 in Kyoto, but their overall achievement will largely depend upon future actions of players involved and not predictable at this moment. (Author)

Sugiyama, Rie [Institute for Global Environment Strategy, Hayama, Kamagawa (Japan); Imura, Hidefumi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1999-07-01

304

The contribution of the gas industry to the pollutant emission abatement in the Czech Republic in the 1990's; Reduction des emissions polluantes en Republique Tcheque dans les annees 90 - contribution de l'industrie du gaz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An objective of the environmental policy of the Czech Republic is to attain such a level of the tare of the environment that corresponds to the level achieved in west-European countries. A result of these efforts is the abatement of emissions of key pollutants by approximately 90%, which was obtained during the transformation of the economy after the change in the political system. The position and rote of the gas industry within the Czech energy economy are documented by figures on the dynamics of the use of gaseous fuels in different segments of consumption and on changes in the gas industry infrastructure. Comments are given on the legislation both existing and under preparation relating to air pollution control. To deal with specific problems concerning environmental protection, the State Environmental Fund was established in the Czech Republic. The Fund provided resources to support the replacement of solid fuels with natural gas within the 'National Programme of Air Quality Recovery'. The payer presents results of this programme and the programme of desulfurization of large power stations in tables and graphic representations. The presented data are taken over from the national emission database, whose brief description is given, too. Attention is paid to the abatement of emissions of solids, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and greenhouse gases. Included separately is a balance of methane emissions from underground coal mining in comparison to emissions from the Bas industry system operation. (author)

Neuzil, V. [KONEKO, Ltd. (Czech Republic); Machalek, P.; Pretel, J. [Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute (Czech Republic)

2000-07-01

305

Guide to marine-pollution related data collected by federally sponsored projects identified in the FY 1984-1987 National Marine Pollution Program catalogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Section 8 of the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-273, supplemented by PL 99-272 to include specifically the Great Lakes and estuaries of National importance) mandates that the results of Federally sponsored marine pollution programs be disseminated to all interested persons. In an effort to fulfill NOAA's responsibility under Section 8 of the Act, the Central Coordination and Referral Office (CCRO) of the Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN) has compiled summary descriptions of 98 projects described in the annual Summary of Federal Programs and Projects published for fiscal years 1984 through 1987 that have collected pollution related measurements in the marine or Great Lakes environment.

1991-08-01

306

Reduction of environmental pollution through optimization of energy use in cement industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial development has lead to higher energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, as well as air pollutants. Cement factories play an important role in overall greenhouse emissions. This study aims to investigate the role of Iranian cement industries and their contribution of greenhouse gases contribution. The measured emission factors for oil and fuel gas shows that carbon dioxide contribution from fuel oil based cement industries is almost 2.7 times higher than gas based cement factories. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat technique analysis showed that the best strategy to combat greenhouse gases from Iranian cement factory is to implement energy efficiency measures. Further, strategic position and action evaluation matrix analysis indicates that Iranian cement industries fall within invasive category. Therefore, exploitation of opportunities must carefully be used. One of these opportunities is the utilization of financial assistance provided by clean development mechanism. The results show that replacement of ball mills with vertical roller mill can reduce the electricity consumption from 44.6 to 28 kWh/ton. As a result of such substitution about 720 million kWh/y of electricity would be saved (almost a power plant of 125 MW capacities). Though implementation of new mills may not be economic for the cement industries' owner, but the overall gain for the government of Iran will be about US$ 304 million. If the duration of such efficiency measure is considered as about 12 y, then the overall carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reduction/phase-out would be around 4.3 million tons.

Karbassi, A.R.; Jafari, H.R.; Yavari, A.R.; Hoveidi, H. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran). Graduate Faculty of the Environment; Sid Kalal, H. [J.I.H. Research Laboratories, Tehran (Iran). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst.

2010-01-01

307

Pollution strength in effluents of Telephone Industries of Pakistan (TIP) in Haripur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The telephone industries of Pakistan (TiP), being the oldest industry in District Haripur, is in is operation for the last forty years. Industrial wastewater is drained into a natural stream/nallah, which is either used for agricultural purposes of becomes part of an Ox-Bow lake in the midway used for fishing and it ultimately joins river Indus through river Haro. Effluents were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, hardness alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids and ammonia etc. Cations like nickel, copper, iron, chromium and anions like sulphates and nitrates were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Some trace metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, cobalt, arsenic and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. The results were interpreted an d compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). (author)

2000-01-01

308

Integrated techniques to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a highly industrialized terrain, Tamilnadu, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigation has been made to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution by using geoelectric and hydrochemical investigations in an important industrial town Mettur located in Tamilnadu state of India. Schlumberger vertical electric soundings were carried out in 23 locations and groundwater samples collected from bore wells in the same locations. The resistivity value with <20 ?m up to a depth of 36 m indicate contamination of groundwater in areas influenced by sewages from industries, domestic and agricultural practices in the central and southern part of the study area. The calculated specific conductance was noted higher than EC in central and southern part of the study area with low resistivity indicating the contaminated nature of groundwater. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg and K along with Cl, HCO(3), SO(4) and NO(3) were higher in certain locations when compared with WHO and ISI standards. The facies concept demarcated four groups based on the nature of groundwater contamination. The trace elements Fe and Pb were higher in locations confined to industrial zones and Zn and Cu were within the prescribed limit in all the samples.

Srinivasamoorthy K; Vijayaraghavan K; Vasanthavigar M; Rajivgandhi R; Sarma VS

2011-11-01

309

Integrated techniques to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a highly industrialized terrain, Tamilnadu, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation has been made to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution by using geoelectric and hydrochemical investigations in an important industrial town Mettur located in Tamilnadu state of India. Schlumberger vertical electric soundings were carried out in 23 locations and groundwater samples collected from bore wells in the same locations. The resistivity value with <20 ?m up to a depth of 36 m indicate contamination of groundwater in areas influenced by sewages from industries, domestic and agricultural practices in the central and southern part of the study area. The calculated specific conductance was noted higher than EC in central and southern part of the study area with low resistivity indicating the contaminated nature of groundwater. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg and K along with Cl, HCO(3), SO(4) and NO(3) were higher in certain locations when compared with WHO and ISI standards. The facies concept demarcated four groups based on the nature of groundwater contamination. The trace elements Fe and Pb were higher in locations confined to industrial zones and Zn and Cu were within the prescribed limit in all the samples. PMID:21229305

Srinivasamoorthy, Krishnaraj; Vijayaraghavan, K; Vasanthavigar, Murugesan; Rajivgandhi, R; Sarma, V S

2011-01-13

310

Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

2008-01-01

311

Policy, principle, and practice in industrial pollution control: views from the regulatory interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been much criticism of the system for the control of industrial pollution, but not much is known about the views of the regulators and the industry. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes at this regulatory interface towards the current and proposed regulatory system and make recommendations for improvements. The methodology involved a questionnaire survey sent to over 700 key personnel. Statistical analysis revealed similarities and significant differences between the views of industry and the regulator on the effectiveness of the current regime. Weaknesses related to the derivation and enforcement of standards were identified. The Environmental Quality Standards system was acknowledged to be flawed by both operators and regulators who agreed it should be improved by the expansion of listed chemicals, the introduction of sediment environmental quality standards and direct toxicity assessment of effluents. This paper concludes that these measures should be incorporated into the regulatory system, together with more rigorous enforcement of environmental performance standards including serious sanctions for non-compliance. In the longer term, a reappraisal of the regulatory system is required in order to establish an appropriate framework to ensure that environmental policy commitments are implemented. PMID:11815822

Richards, J P; Glegg, G A; Cullinane, S; Wallace, H E

2002-02-01

312

Policy, principle, and practice in industrial pollution control: views from the regulatory interface.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been much criticism of the system for the control of industrial pollution, but not much is known about the views of the regulators and the industry. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes at this regulatory interface towards the current and proposed regulatory system and make recommendations for improvements. The methodology involved a questionnaire survey sent to over 700 key personnel. Statistical analysis revealed similarities and significant differences between the views of industry and the regulator on the effectiveness of the current regime. Weaknesses related to the derivation and enforcement of standards were identified. The Environmental Quality Standards system was acknowledged to be flawed by both operators and regulators who agreed it should be improved by the expansion of listed chemicals, the introduction of sediment environmental quality standards and direct toxicity assessment of effluents. This paper concludes that these measures should be incorporated into the regulatory system, together with more rigorous enforcement of environmental performance standards including serious sanctions for non-compliance. In the longer term, a reappraisal of the regulatory system is required in order to establish an appropriate framework to ensure that environmental policy commitments are implemented.

Richards JP; Glegg GA; Cullinane S; Wallace HE

2002-02-01

313

Self-supervision control of pollutant emissions in cement industry; Auto-surveillance des emissions gazeuses dans l`industrie cimentiere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After describing the different techniques of continuous and discontinuous measurement of pollutants emissions available for the cement industry, we explain how to set/install an analysis line. The self-supervision system installed in all CALCIA production plants is given as an example. (author)

Defosse, C.

1997-12-31

314

Evaluation of external breathing in children living in a region with industrial pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The changes in respiratory functions are among the most sensitive indicators available for the evaluation of the influence of air pollution on health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the respiratory functions of children from three schools situated at a different distance from the major sources of air pollution--an asbestos-cement plant, a fertilizer plant and a steam-power plant which utilize brown coal as a main source of energy. METHODS: Comprehensive functional investigation of breathing (FIB) was performed on 97 children from the town of Dimitrovgrad--mean age 10.4 +/- 0.1 years and height 145 +/- 0.6 cm (mean +/- Sx) in a special university medical center laboratory. The characterization of the degree of air pollution was based on the analysis of the mean yearly concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide in the three zones of exposure in the town on the basis of the criteria outlined in the Uniform National System for Control of Air Pollution in Bulgaria. RESULTS: The mean yearly concentrations of particulate matter up to 0.19 mg/m3, of hydrogen sulphide--up to 0.07 mg/m3, of nitrogen dioxide--up to 0.025 mg/m3, of ammonia--up to 0.16 mg/m3, of hydrogen sulphide--up to 0.13 mg/m3 and lead aerosols--up to 0.00012 mg/m3 recorded at the different stations reached statistical significance at some of them. No significant differences were found in the values of lung function parameters of the healthy children from all three zones. MEF50% (94 +/- 2%) and the Single Breath Transfer Factor (TLCO = 93 +/- 1.5%) showed a tendency towards lower values. CONCLUSIONS: In the low-grade pollution that we found in the present study no significant differences were found in the lung function parameters of the children from the three regions.

Turnovska T; Kostianev S; Montchovska S

1998-01-01

315

Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

1998-10-01

316

Metal body burdens and detoxifying enzymes in spiders from industrially polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and metal concentrations have been monitored in four species of spiders from differently contaminated localities in Southern Poland. A behavioural feeding activity and the life style decide on sensitivity and vulnerability of spiders. Wolf-spiders, more active than the web-spinners, cumulate higher amounts of metals, reflecting quantitatively and qualitatively the pollution level in their environment. Detoxifying systems in spiders appeared inducible and efficient to maintain normal physiological responses. Within web-spinning spiders the linyphiids seem to be the most effective regulators of metal burdens. Their detoxifying capabilities correlate well with increased industrial contaminants. The analysis of biochemical biomarkers of exposure confirmed earlier ecological findings that species of the family Linyphiidae are more favoured than the Araneidae. Differences in their feeding activity, behaviour of web-spinning and the size of animals would explain alterations in detoxifying abilities between Meta segmentata and Araneus diadematus. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilczek, G. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, P. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland)

1996-03-01

317

Proactive pollution prevention and safety solutions for the upstream oil and gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the development of zero spill technology which has provided a new standard in pollution prevention and health and safety for the upstream petroleum industry. The paper also outlines safety solutions for service rig floors, drill rig substructures, and well sites. Proactive oil field environmental protection solutions were also reviewed along with the associated tangible and intangible benefits. The 3 main problems that need to be continually addressed include workplace health and safety, environmental contamination, and economic losses resulting from personnel injury claims, drilling fluid costs, and environmental reclamation costs. Some of the solutions developed by Katch Kan were described, including: a new style mud bucket composed of polymers; tong hand protectors; lego-style floor mats; drilling fluid splash guards; and, a new style tray composed of polymers. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Holtby, Q.; Rondeau, E. [Katch Kan Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

318

Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

1998-01-01

319

Heavy metals as stressing factors in the red wood ants (Formica polyctena) from industrially polluted forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relations between metal contaminations in social groups of ants from colonies of Formica polyctena, from 5 localities variously contaminated by industrial pollution, and their metabolic and detoxifying strategies have been investigated. Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu levels have been measured in social groups of workers and pupae throughout the season. Patterns of metabolic, transport and detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and phosphoadenine nucleotides and the energy charge (AEC) have been determined. The metal content is a measure of the level of contamination and has been the highest in foragers returning to the nest. Body burdens of Cd, Pb and Zn diminished progressively from the surface workers to those from the inner part of the hill. The concentration of total adenylates was slightly lower than stated in Finnish ants poisoned with Cd, but the AEC index was always above 0.8, with high variations between the social groups. Carboxylesterases showed a positive correlation of activity pattern with the metal load in foraging workers, with the highest value for cadmium load in ants from a locality in the middle of a pollution gradient. The pattern of superoxide dismutase activity has been site-dependent, but it did not correlate well with the metal load in workers. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Migula, P. [Faculty of Biology, University of Silesia 40-007 Katowice, ul. Bankowa 9 (Poland); Glowacka, E. [Faculty of Biology, University of Silesia 40-007 Katowice, ul. Bankowa 9 (Poland)

1996-03-01

320

The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Air Pollution-Related Lichen Monitoring in National Parks, Forests, Refuges: Guidelines for Studies Intended for Regulatory and Management Purposes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guidance document is intended to serve as a resource for national park, forest, and refuge staff when considering lichen studies to address air quality concerns. It provides background regarding the use of lichens as air pollution indicators, their s...

E. Porter L. Geiser T. Blett

2003-01-01

322

75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...  

Science.gov (United States)

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security...individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than...

2010-03-08

323

Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

Wrons, R.

1998-06-01

324

Investigation of heavy metal pollution of trees in contaminated industrial area in the north of Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytoremediation is the technology of purging soils and water systems from heavy pollutant metals. Cadmium is one of the heavy elements, which is environmentally important due to its toxicity to humans and animals. Toxicity and accumulation of cadmium in body organs through eating contaminated food has an important role in endangering human's health. To this end, trees of buttonwood were prepared and irrigated with nutrient solution containing cadmium chloride in 10, 15 and 20 mM for 12 months. Then the root, stem and leaf samples were harvested and the amounts of cadmium element in stem, root and leaf organs together with the growth parameters were measured. This study determined the amount of cadmium accumulated by Platanus occidentalis. Furthermore, the comparison between accumulation and transfer of cadmium in the study showed that absorption of this metal by the root is more than its amount in stem and leaf. The result of this research shows that buttonwood has the potential for cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Regarding the extent of contaminated industrial areas, petrochemical industry, power plants and vast contaminated municipal areas, there is a great need for planting fast-growing and tolerant plants like buttonwood.

Hashemi SA

2012-07-01

325

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

2003-07-01

326

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

2003-01-01

327

EFFECTS OF HEAVY INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN THE CHILDREN OF CUBATAO, BRAZIL; A PRELIMINARY REPORT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cubatao is located on the coast of Brazil 44 km from Sao Paulo. ts geography and wind patterns limit dispersion of air pollutants which result from heavy industrial activity within the city. ew York University and EPA in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo are conducti...

328

Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p < 0.05) with the biochemical constituents of stressed plants. Plants growing in industrial zone exhibit a considerable decline in total chlorophyll (34.97-59.81%), soluble sugars (23.85-33.16%) and protein content (21.59-47.13%) and increase in ascorbic acid (81.87-238.53%) and proline content (123.47-284.91%). Of the studied tree species, Shorea robusta (9.78 +/- 0.095), Alstonia scholaris (8.76 +/- 0.084), Peltophorum pterocarpum (8.99 +/- 0.13) and Albizia lebbeck (7.71 +/- 0.012) were found to be more tolerant with higher Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

Nayek S; Satpati S; Gupta S; Saha RN; Datta JK

2011-01-01

329

Technical codification of air pollution control at the national, European and international level; Technische Regelsetzung zur Luftreinigung - national, europaeisch, international  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper underscores the significance of the national, European and international codification of technical rules for environmental protection and environmental engineering in the area of air pollution control, especially in the context of European legislation. On account of their legitimation by European law European standards on air pollution control have a strong binding force on the member states. National, European and international standardisation are closely intertwined, and close consultations and cooperation are needed in order to avoid double work and create a unitary, consistent set of standards that can serve to strengthen the European common market, promote global trade and reduce trade impediments and distortions. [German] Die Ausfuehrungen machen den Stellenwert der nationalen, europaeischen und internationalen technischen Regelsetzung (Normung) fuer Umweltschutz und Umwelttechnik am Beispiel der Luftreinhaltung, insbesondere auch im Kontext von europaeischen rechtlichen Regelungen, deutlich. Europaeische Normen zur Luftreinhaltung bekommen durch Anbindung an das europaeische Recht einen hohen Verbindlichkeitsgrad. Nationale, europaeische und internationale Normung sind eng miteinander verzahnt, so dass es zur Vermeidung von Doppelarbeit und zur Schaffung eines einheitlichen, widerspruchsfreien Normenwerkes gegenseitiger Abstimmung und enger Kooperation bedarf, um den Binnenmarkt in Europa zu staerken, den Welthandel zu foerdern und weltweit Handelshemmnisse und Wettbewerbsverzerrungen abzubauen. (orig.)

Grefen, K. [Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI) - Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft (KRdL) im VDI und DIN, Duesseldorf (Germany)

1999-07-01

330

Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

2003-03-28

331

Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification.

2008-01-01

332

78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Treatment Plant Superfund Site (Kerr-McGee STP Site) from the National Priorities List...Section IV discusses the Kerr-McGee STP Site and demonstrates how it meets the...Background and History The Kerr-McGee STP Site is located in West Chicago,...

2013-02-19

333

78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the Craig Farm Drum Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental...issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Craig Farm Drum Superfund Site (Site) located...direct final Notice of Deletion of the Craig Farm Drum Superfund Site without...

2013-07-30

334

Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the reduction of air pollutant emissions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch emission legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and reduction of atmospheric pollutants emissions, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding emissions reduction. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning emission control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this emissions control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension.

Coutinho M; Rodrigues R; Ferreira J; Lopes M; Borrego C

2006-03-01

335

Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

López-Cima María; García-Pérez Javier; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Aragonés Nuria; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

2011-01-01

336

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

1999-01-01

337

Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

2009-01-01

338

Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

2002-01-01

339

[Atmospheric air pollution in an industrial city as the factor of non-carcinogenic risk for health of communities].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper deals with the results of the research on risk of exposure of atmospheric air pollution in a large industrial city to health of communities. The results of individual both immediate and chronic risk estimation for selectable city zones are presented. Regression ratios of various substances concentrations and disease incidence are revealed. On their basis the estimation of risk of additional disease incidence is carried out and taxonomic values characterizing the contribution of separate pollutants to risk of health of communities' disorder are obtained.

Surzhikov VD; Surzhikov DV; Golikov RA

2013-01-01

340

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The Polluter Pays Principle under WTO law: The case of national energy policy instruments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study addresses the compatibility of the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) with obligations under world trade law as administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO). In particular we look at the instruments of German domestic and international energy policy, analysing the relationship between those instruments, the PPP and WTO rules. The main finding is that German national environmental policy instruments for the implementation of the PPP generally do not infringe upon WTO rules if properly designed and applied. In particular, German energy laws, which aim at reducing greenhouse gases, are compatible with international trade law. Command and control policies as well as labels do not discriminate against foreign suppliers. Aspects of possible incompatibility of national energy policy measures with specific WTO rules are discussed. (orig./CB)

Biermann, F.; Boehm, F.; Brohm, R.; Droege, S.; Trabold, H.

2003-07-01

342

Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca2+, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs).

2007-02-15

343

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. Also the topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the north-west contribute to the influence of the industries located in the north onto this region. The region selected in this work includes a oil-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centred in a oil powered station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hung. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For a 9 month period and every three months, one transplant of each set was collected. We have no knowledge of any other study on differentiation elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata where the component wind direction is taken into account. Some information on local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The transplants were analysed by INAA. Contents on Cl, Na, Ca, V and Zn are mapped and discussed. (author)

2001-01-01

344

Phytoplankton as index of water quality with reference to industrial pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper Shannon-Weaver (SI-3.58-4.07, SII-3.1-3.72, SIII-1.64-2.25, SIV-2.54-2.95 and SV-3.09-3.23) diversity index was applied to surface phytoplankton to study the water quality status of river Bhadra receiving Mysore paper mill and Iron and steel mill effluent. A total of 45 species of phytoplankton belonging to 5 classes were recorded and study indicated that the phytoplankton diversity (Chlorophyceae-19 species, Bacillanophyceae-16 species, Cyanophyceae-07 species, Euglenophyceae-2 species and Chrysophyceae-1 species) did not reveal the same type of water quality (water temperature 24.62-27.32 degrees C, pH-7.08-7.25, electrical conductivity-67.49-201.94 micromhos/cm, dissolved oxygen-4.13-5.98 mgl(-1), chloride-12.30-40.85 mgl(-1), calcium-6.49-23.74 mgl(-1), total hardness 28.98-76.65 mgl(1), magnesium-4.69-15.92 mgl(-1), total alkalinity-77.26-86.53 mgl(-1), BOD-1.88-4.01 mgl(-1), COD - 16.53-45 mgl(-1), phosphate-0.001-0.53 mgl(-1), sodium-2.70-7.46 mgl(-1) and potassium-2.37-7.88 mgl(-1)). The investigation emphasized the need of phytoplankton community as index of water quality polluted by industrial effluents at the downstream stretch of the Bhadra river.

Shekhar TR; Kiran BR; Puttaiah ET; Shivaraj Y; Mahadevan KM

2008-03-01

345

Phytoplankton as index of water quality with reference to industrial pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper Shannon-Weaver (SI-3.58-4.07, SII-3.1-3.72, SIII-1.64-2.25, SIV-2.54-2.95 and SV-3.09-3.23) diversity index was applied to surface phytoplankton to study the water quality status of river Bhadra receiving Mysore paper mill and Iron and steel mill effluent. A total of 45 species of phytoplankton belonging to 5 classes were recorded and study indicated that the phytoplankton diversity (Chlorophyceae-19 species, Bacillanophyceae-16 species, Cyanophyceae-07 species, Euglenophyceae-2 species and Chrysophyceae-1 species) did not reveal the same type of water quality (water temperature 24.62-27.32 degrees C, pH-7.08-7.25, electrical conductivity-67.49-201.94 micromhos/cm, dissolved oxygen-4.13-5.98 mgl(-1), chloride-12.30-40.85 mgl(-1), calcium-6.49-23.74 mgl(-1), total hardness 28.98-76.65 mgl(1), magnesium-4.69-15.92 mgl(-1), total alkalinity-77.26-86.53 mgl(-1), BOD-1.88-4.01 mgl(-1), COD - 16.53-45 mgl(-1), phosphate-0.001-0.53 mgl(-1), sodium-2.70-7.46 mgl(-1) and potassium-2.37-7.88 mgl(-1)). The investigation emphasized the need of phytoplankton community as index of water quality polluted by industrial effluents at the downstream stretch of the Bhadra river. PMID:18831381

Shekhar, T R Shashi; Kiran, B R; Puttaiah, E T; Shivaraj, Y; Mahadevan, K M

2008-03-01

346

Air pollution; Pollution atmospherique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

Anon

2008-03-15

347

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

1995-01-01

348

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

1995-07-01

349

Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to strengthen potential market share, which is the focus of this article. What may at first appear in the Danish case as an absurd and non-productive relationship is actually significant, I would argue, despite its complexity. It has the potential to stimulate critical fashion design practice and give fashion designers a voice, allowing them to take an active part in contemporary public debates on important issues such as nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization.

Marie Riegels Melchior

2011-01-01

350

77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; NESHAP for Pesticide...

2012-01-09

351

75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...  

Science.gov (United States)

...recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control. 40 CFR Part 136 Environmental...recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control. Dated: June 16, 2010...et seq.) (The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972...

2010-06-23

352

Pollution management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

16 papers were presented discussing: the relationship between industry and government in environmental fields; UK environmental legislation; charging for pollution; how industry views the problem of pollution control, viewpoints from the power, oil, chemical, nuclear and water industries; technological and innovation solutions for managing pollution, including biotechnology for cleaning up waste, electro-incineration, incineration and destructive distillation, catalysis and its opportunities for cleaning up, the role of information technology in environmental protection, and the opportunities for geo-engineering.

1992-01-01

353

Organically polluted waste water produced by the food industry. 3. rev. ed. Organisch verschmutzte Abwaesser der Lebensmittelindustrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication abstracted reviews the present state of the treatment of organically polluted waste water produced by the food industry. A survey of the requirements to be met by the purification of direct and indirect discharge industrial waste water is followed by a separate comprehensive chapter discussing the reduction of waste water loads by in-plant measures. The subsequent chapter deals with the different procedures and methods of treating industrial waste water and is followed by a detailed discussion of the purification of extraordinary waste waters produced by the different branches of the food industry. Both its balanced arrangement and practical examples facilitating access to the construction and operation of efficient water treatment plants make the book a useful manual for planning engineers and practicians. With 178 figs., 229 tabs.

Doedens, H.; Hoffmann-Walbeck, H.P.; Jaeppelt, W.

1985-01-01

354

Detoxication of industrial pollutants by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase system in the liver of Anabas testudineus (Bloch).  

Science.gov (United States)

The interrelationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of a freshwater climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch) exposed to common industrial pollutants has been studied. In both short- and long-term treatments there was a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione profile and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity. It may be surmised that the majority of xenobiotics of industrial origin are detoxicated by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase pathways enabling the fish to survive exposure to the additive and/or synergistic toxicity of mixtures of poisons. PMID:6236582

Chatterjee, S; Bhattacharya, S

1984-08-01

355

Detoxication of industrial pollutants by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase system in the liver of Anabas testudineus (Bloch).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interrelationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of a freshwater climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch) exposed to common industrial pollutants has been studied. In both short- and long-term treatments there was a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione profile and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity. It may be surmised that the majority of xenobiotics of industrial origin are detoxicated by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase pathways enabling the fish to survive exposure to the additive and/or synergistic toxicity of mixtures of poisons.

Chatterjee S; Bhattacharya S

1984-08-01

356

Detoxication of industrial pollutants by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase system in the liver of Anabas testudineus (Bloch)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interrelationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of a freshwater climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch) exposed to common industrial pollutants has been studied. In both short- and long-term treatments there was a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione profile and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity. It may be surmised that the majority of xenobiotics of industrial origin are detoxicated by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase pathways enabling the fish to survive exposure to the additive and/or synergistic toxicity of mixtures of poisons.

Chatterjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

1984-08-01

357

Industrial pollution at Bagnoli (Naples, Italy): benthic foraminifera as a tool in integrated programs of environmental characterisation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the 20th century an important industrial plant operated on the coastal area of Bagnoli. After its closing, an integrated study of environmental characterisation aimed at restoration started. The survey conducted was based on chemical and sedimentological analyses integrated with benthic foraminifera analyses. Statistical analysis of the data shows sectors with a distinct type and degree of pollution. Particularly, pollution linked to the silty sediment fraction, mainly due to Pb and Zn, was recognised in front of the southern sector of the plant. The study of benthic foraminifera provides evidence for a pollution-tolerant character in some species like Haynesina germanica and Quinqueloculina parvula. In addition, two species among the 113 recognised show high percentages of abnormal specimens. These percentages show a statistical correlation with some pollutants (PAHs, Mn, Pb and Zn). In addition, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry shows small amounts of Fe ions included in deformed tests of Miliolinella subrotunda. Because the number of these deformations is positively correlated to the concentration of PAHs, Mn and Zn, the inability of some specimens to exclude the foreign elements from the crystalline reticulum of the test could be attributed to the potential toxic effect of these pollutants.

Romano E; Bergamin L; Finoia MG; Carboni MG; Ausili A; Gabellini M

2008-03-01

358

Air Pollution and 'Dirty' Industries. How and Why Does the Composition of Manufacturing Output Change with Economic Development?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the impact on air pollution of changes in the composition of manufacturing output in developed and developing countries. Pollution emissions from manufacturing output are estimated in a manner which holds constant the effect of technology and regulations allowing the impact of compositional changes alone on pollution to be estimated. The paper has three main findings; (1) the inverted-U estimated between per capita income and the pollution intensity of GDP arises due to both the composition of manufacturing becoming cleaner and the share of manufacturing output in GDP falling. Compositional changes alone are not responsible for the inverted-U between per capita income and per capita emissions; (2) changes to the composition of manufacturing output are consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis, however there is clear evidence that rising per capita incomes are associated with a failing income elasticity of demand for 'dirty' products. This fact may explain the compositional changes that occur with development; (3) in addition to the income elasticity effect, the analysis suggests that land prices and to a lesser extent the prices of labour and capital, determine the proportion of dirty industry within a country's manufacturing sector. 27 refs

2000-01-01

359

Industrial grand challenges: A competitiveness strategy for the DOE national laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Cold War has been won; won in part by superior technology; superior technology such as that found in the DOE national laboratories. However, new challenges face the country, for it is clear that our historic notions of national security have changed to include economic security as well as defense. Economic security means that our industries are able to successfully compete in international markets in order to provide a high domestic standard of living. It is also recognized that US industries must achieve and maintain a leadership in technology and that the technology base of the DOE national laboratories must now be mobilized to support US industry. Once again the laboratories are called upon to support the country in a time of need. Because of this need we are seeing a significant change in mission for the Department of Energy national laboratories in their role as problem solvers for the nation. In particular, the Defense Programs (DP) national labs (Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia National Laboratories, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems Y-12) are moving from dosed institutions to open centers with significant resources ready to support US industry more vigorously than ever before. The DP laboratories are enthusiastic about their new mission and are reaching out to industry in an effort to understand industries` needs and find applications for Laboratory skills and technologies.

Werne, R.W.

1993-10-14

360

Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (?2.5 ?m} aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8 ± 0.16 ?g m?3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5(O3) to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 ?g m?3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv), +0.4 ± 0.17 ?g m?3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv), and ?0.02 ± 0.01 ?g m?3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0–2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3, respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

Y. Fang; V. Naik; L. W. Horowitz; D. L. Mauzerall

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

1998-10-01

362

Production and productivity in coal industry in India. Conclusions and recommendations of National Seminar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conclusions and recommendations arising from a national seminar held in India are outlined. Five areas were considered: the lack of consistent production policy; land acquisition; power availability; law and order; technical developments; industrial relations; and motivation and morale.

1981-04-01

363

Growing Defense Production in Newly Industrializing Countries: Impact on U.S. National Security.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth in arms production among newly industrializing countries, while not dramatic or decisive in global terms, is proving important to international relations in general and to U.S. national security interests in particular. In all likelihood, these...

J. Edensword B. Falkenbach B. Juengling J. Gerard M. Mahoney

1983-01-01

364

The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges [Updated  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is an update to "The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges." It provides statistics on the welding workforce, projections and future educational needs.

Kim, Jongyum

2011-01-25

365

ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). METHODS: Review of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between January 2001 and March 2002. Search terms included "ASHRAE", "ventilation", "minutes", "memo", and the names of key players and organisations as identified in the initial searches. Analysis of ASHRAE and other relevant documents publicly available and the personal files of a Standard 62 committee member; interviews of a selected number of ASHRAE players; observation of an ASHRAE meeting. RESULTS: The tobacco industry has been involved in the development of ventilation standards for over 20 years. It has successfully influenced the standard and continues to attempt to change the standard from a smoke-free framework into an "accommodation" framework. The industry acts directly and through consultants and allies. The major health groups have been largely absent and the health interests have been poorly represented in standard development. While concentrated in the USA, ASHRAE standards are adopted worldwide. CONCLUSION: The tobacco industry determined that allowing smoking in ventilation standards for indoor air quality was a high priority and dedicated significant human and financial resources to ensure that its interests were represented. The health groups, until recently, have largely ignored the policy implications for tobacco control of standard development. This situation is changing, but unless health groups maintain high visibility within ASHRAE, the tobacco industry may succeed in creating a standard that ignores the dangers of secondhand smoke.

Bialous SA; Glantz SA

2002-12-01

366

Estimation of process relevant and climatic relevant CO2 pollutions from industrial plants in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A careful investigation of all relevant data of the process relevant CO2-pollution in Austria has been undertaken. About 3.5 million tons CO2-emission per year has been determined. This is 6% of the total CO2-emissions. 94% comes from fossil fuels. The most important polluters have been compiled. (Suda)

1994-01-01

367

The Effect of Uncertainty on Pollution Abatement Investments: Measuring Hurdle Rates for Swedish Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate hurdle rates for firms' investments in pollution abatement technology, using ex post data. The method is based on a structural option value model where the future price of polluting fuel is the major source of uncertainty facing the firm. The empirical procedure is illustrated using a pa...

Löfgren, Åsa; Millock, Katrin; Nauges, Céline

368

Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R. [Ewing Technical Design, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-10-01

369

Donana National Park survey using crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) as bioindicator: esterase inhibition and pollutant levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Utility of carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition as pesticide exposure biomarker was studied at Doñana National Park (SW Spain) in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Activities were measured in animals from reference sites or potentially exposed to pesticides, and their reactivation studied after dilution or 2-PAM treatment. Crayfish from affected sites had significantly less carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity than reference ones. No significant differences were found after dilution or 2-PAM treatment, showing that inhibition was irreversible. High pesticide levels were found in water and/or soil at rice growing sites, and lower levels at other affected places. High metal levels existed at rice growing sites and lower at other affected and at both reference sites. A combined effect on esterase inhibition of pesticides and metals is proposed. This field study suggest that the rice growing areas near Guadiamar stream are most polluted, followed by strawberry and citrics growing zones near Partido and Rocina streams. However, no correlation exist between the pesticide concentration at different sites and the extent of esterase inhibition, indicating that other factors could affect esterase response of animals from polluted sites.

Vioque-Fernández A; de Almeida EA; Ballesteros J; García-Barrera T; Gómez-Ariza JL; López-Barea J

2007-02-01

370

Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

2008-10-15

371

La prevención de la contaminación industrial como asignatura para la formación ambiental universitaria/ Prevention of industrial pollution as a course for environmental development at university level  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Resumen Es generalmente aceptado que la actividad industrial es la principal responsable de las emisiones atmosféricas, la producción de los desechos peligrosos, la generación de efluentes líquidos, así como de producir contaminación térmica y sónica. Siendo el hombre el principal modificador de su entorno, es necesario generar en él una actitud responsable respecto al tema de la contaminación. El curso ?Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial?, asignatura (more) electiva enmarcada en los programas de estudio de las diferentes carreras de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, busca suministrar a los futuros profesionales, las herramientas para entender y generar cambios en las políticas industriales de sus futuros centros de trabajo en relación con el ambiente. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar el curso ?Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial? como una propuesta a nivel universitario que conduce a la formación y sensibilización del futuro profesional en el problema de contaminación generado por los procesos industriales de los cuales formará parte en su futuro laboral. Incluye los principales objetivos que se pretenden obtener con este curso, los contenidos programáticos incluidos, así como las estrategias enseñanza-aprendizaje y de evaluación que se aplican. De igual modo, se presentan dos casos de estudio desarrollados por dos participantes del curso en su última edición del período abril-julio-2005. Abstract in english Abstract It is generally accepted that the industrial activity is the main responsible for atmospheric emissions, production of dangerous wastes, generation of liquid effluents, as well as to produce thermal and sonic pollution. Man is the principal modifier of his environment, and it is necessary to generate a responsible attitude with respect to the environment. The course ?Prevention of Industrial Pollution?, an elective course in the curricula of various programs of (more) Universidad Simón Bolívar, seeks to offer to the future professionals the tools to understand and generate changes in the environmental policies of their future work centers in connection with the environment. The objective of this paper is to present the course ?Prevention of Industrial Pollution? as a proposal at university level to lead to the development and self-consciousness regarding the contamination problem generated by the industrial processes that he will encounter in his professional future. It includes the main objectives that are intended to cover in this course, including the program contents, as well as the teaching-learning and assessment strategies that are applied. Also included are two case studies by two participants in the last issue of the course for the term April-July, 2005.

Reyes Gil, Rosa; De Souza, Andrea; Petersen, Jan

2006-09-01

372

Sector Model of Development of the National Economy of Ukraine under Post-industrial Society Conditions ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discloses provisions of the sector model of development of the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. It improves and expands theoretical foundations of the sector model of the national economy. It identifies specific features of the structure of the sector model of the national economy depending on the stage of country development. It provides results of this model modelling for the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. The offered sector model of the national economy of Ukraine provides achievement of the level of development of the developed world countries (EU-27) and takes into account structural and technological requirements of the post-industrial society.? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????. ????????????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? (??-27) ? ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????.

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Pirog Olga V.

2013-01-01

373

[The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

Nozal RR

2011-01-01

374

air pollution: temporal and spatial distribution of delta /sup 13/C in plants of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of sigma-/sup 13/C in Eucalyptus (Safeda) plants from Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate and its surroundings. The leaves of the Eucalyptus plants were collected from four locations of the Gadoon Amazai area at regular intervals during January 1993 to June 1996. The greenish, old and whole leaf samples were air dried, homogeneously ground (40 mesh) and converted into CO/sub 2/ for SIGMA-13 analysis on isotope ratio mass spectrometer. /sup 13/C depletion in the plant leaves is more in industrial estate than its surroundings. This can be attributed to the depletion of /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased 13 of the ambient air CO/sub 2/ in the industrial area. These, in turn, influenced the plant /sup 13/C during photosynthesis. Temporal variation shows that CO/sub 2/ pollution is increasing in industrial zone with time. Furthermore, the pollution is less in plains side than the mountain side, which is proved by the Sigma-/sup 13/C results of the surroundings. (author)

1997-01-01

375

Nuclear-physical methods in complex biomonitoring of pollution in the copper-molybdenum non-ferrous industrial region 'Erdenet' (Mongolia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To develop a system of complex monitoring of heavy metals in the areas affected by hazardous industrial impact of Erdenet Mining Corporation of the environment of Mongolia the biomonitoring techniques were applied in combination with nuclear and related analytical methods. The moss (Paltegera) was used to assess the atmospheric deposition patterns of heavy metals and other toxic elements over a large territory affected by non-ferrous industry in the town of Erdenet. Its impact on pasture animals (goats and sheet) was studied through analysis of such inner organs as lung, spleen, liver, kidney and heart. A total of 40 elemental concentrations in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP (Frank Lab. of Neutron Physics), JINR, Dubna.The distribution of 14 biogenic elements and heavy metals in water samples was investigated by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescent analysis (TXRF) at Nuclear Research Centre of the National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar. The results obtained evidence for strong accumulation of element-pollutants typical of non-ferrous industry in the town of Erdenet: Cu, Cr, Fe, Ba, etc., along with other trace elements and rare earths for the first time determined in these environmental objects. The results can be used for integrated assessment of ecological situation near the city of Erdenet, and planning for the protection of the environment and public health

2009-01-01

376

[Los Alamos National Laboratory industrial applications and technology transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Los Alamos Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC) under its contract with the Industrial Applications Office (IAO). The LAEDC has: provided business planning assistance to potential entrepreneurs, assisted IAO in preparing and distributing informational materials on technology, organized and managed meetings and seminars on technology transfer and entrepreneurship, identified new opportunities for technology transfer, and identified and implemented programs for the recognition of Laboratory entrepreneurs.

1991-10-31

377

Nutrition in industrial health at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nutritional status of an individual plays a key role in the reduction and prevention of illness. This involves maintenance of ideal body weight by using a diet that economically optimizes nutrients. The achievement and maintenance of good health in the industrial population helps us to avoid resource losses. The ORNL nutritional counseling program's major emphasis is to correct and control diet related risk factors to cardiovascular disease.

Casey, B.J.

1981-01-01

378

Influence of industry on pollution of the environment and human population with natural radionuclides and heavy metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The rate of fallout of 226Ra depending on the distance from industrial emission sources has been evaluated. Contamination of soil with natural radionuclides in industrial and rural regions of Poland has been compared with the concentration of radionuclides in ash of aerophytic plants. An increase of airborne pollutants in precipitation in Southern Poland has been compared with an increase of the concentration of pollutants in pine trees. Samples of human bones from Southern Poland have been checked for contents of lead. It has been found that in 20th century concentration of lead decreased to a level not much higher than natural. The level of 226Ra in Polish population had been decreasing during the last 100 years. This points to the conclusion that human skeleton is well protected as the level of radionuclides was not related to the level of environmental pollution. The concentration of 226Ra in air is steadily increasing and an upward transport leads to its wide distribution. (E.G.M.)

1982-01-01

379

Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

None

1999-09-01

380

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: ECONOMICS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This report addresses the economics of wastewater treatment alternatives as a guide for minimizing the costs of meeting water pollution control requirements. Initially, operating and investment costs are presented for conventional wastewater treatment systems employed by the elec...

 
 
 
 
381

Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

Ishaq M; Jan FA; Khan MA; Ihsanullah I; Ahmad I; Shakirullah M; Roohullah

2013-02-01

382

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

Guy, K. [Wise Guys Ltd., Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Boekholt, P. [Technopolis, Innovation Policy Research Associates, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaellen, E. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Norway); Downing, T. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Verbruggen, A. [University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

2002-02-01

383

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

2002-01-01

384

ODS refrigerants captured in new national industry stewardship program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Canada-wide stewardship program to recover and safely dispose of ozone depleting substances, most particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) used in large industrial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration systems, has been launched by the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. A not-for-profit company, Refrigerant Management Canada (RMC) has been set up to operate the program, including overseeing an environmental levy system. The environmental levy is based on sales of HCFCs to the refrigeration/air conditioning industry and will be remitted to RMC by manufacturers, importers and reclaimers. Production and importation of CFCs was eliminated in Canada in 1995, although it is still present in older systems. HCFCs too, are slated for gradual phase-out, starting in 2004 and concluding in 2030. At present, production and import are strictly controlled by federal permits. The HCFC permit system is the basis for the environmental levy at the manufacturer/importer/reclaimer level. According to RMC estimates the cost of collecting and disposing of the anticipated volume of CFCs will be about $40 million. Current CFC inventories for the commercial refrigeration sector are estimated at 8,000 tonnes and for the chiller sector at 6,000 tonnes. The $40 million estimate is based on this anticipated inventory and the projected cost for collecting, transporting, storing and disposal of the recovered refrigerants, plus the volume of HCFCs that can be imported during the next ten years. Accordingly, the initial levy is set at $1.00/kg. Collection of surplus CFCs will begin in January 2002, but processing of significant quantities will not start until the CFC refill ban takes effect in 2003-2004.

Anon

2001-02-19

385

Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

2008-01-15

386

Assessment of heavy metal pollution from the industrial dust on the reforestation of pine (Pinus halipensis Mill) in the Tell Setif  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze heavy metals in the cones, bark and needles of Aleppo pine in 05 stations in the area of Ain El Kebira in order to evaluate pollution level and impact on reforestation. Analysis of heavy metals showed that the concentration of lead rose to 1.61 mg/l at the station of the BCR which is above the accepted international standards of 1mg / l. Fe concentrations are at the upper limit of the WHO standards of 1.5 mg / l at the station on the edge of the forest ranging from 1.03 to 1.65mg/l against the cement between 1.36 and 2.21 mg / l and the BCR between 1.31 and 2.19 mg / l are the most polluted. It is noted that with the exception of the BCR is to say that the industrial zone where the values found on analysis of copper are too high between 1.11 and 2.59 mg/l and far exceed the required standards set 1 mg / l. The levels of zinc at the station of the BCR and are highest between 3.05 and 6.47 mg / l where the required standards are 5 mg / l. We can infer from our results that urgent care should be initiated to preserve the national park above the Babors bordering our study area and is ranked world reserve.

Tedjar Lamri; Kaabeche Mohamed; Djirar Nacer; Bouharathi Saddek

2012-01-01

387

76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Science.gov (United States)

...11) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. (12) Ventura County Air Pollution Control District. (13) Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District. * * * * * [FR Doc. 2011-6425 Filed 3-17-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2011-03-18

388

Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the west coast of India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na{sup +}), K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -} whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca{sup 2+} from natural sources and NH{sub 3} released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H{sup +} ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sup 3-}). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rain water in the area may be due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

Khemani, L.T.; Momin, G.A.; Rao, P.S.P.; Pillai, A.G.; Safai, P.D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M.G. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Poona (India)

1994-11-01

389

Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (alpha-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html] founded by the European Union that inquires into the potential coupling between chemical and biological oxidations for the removal of toxic or non-biodegradable contaminants from water. The evolution of pollutant concentration, TOC mineralization, generation of inorganic species and consumption of O3 have been followed in order to visualize the chemical treatment effectiveness. Although complete mineralization is hard to accomplish, and large amounts of the oxidant are required to lower the organic content of the solutions, the possibility of ozonation cannot be ruled out if partial degradation is the final goal wanted. In this sense, Zahn-Wellens biodegradability tests of the ozonated MPG solutions have been performed, and the possibility of a further coupling with a secondary biological treatment for complete organic removal is envisaged. PMID:16822610

Maldonado, M I; Malato, S; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Gernjak, W; Oller, I; Doménech, Xavier; Peral, José

2006-05-26

390

Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (alpha-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html] founded by the European Union that inquires into the potential coupling between chemical and biological oxidations for the removal of toxic or non-biodegradable contaminants from water. The evolution of pollutant concentration, TOC mineralization, generation of inorganic species and consumption of O3 have been followed in order to visualize the chemical treatment effectiveness. Although complete mineralization is hard to accomplish, and large amounts of the oxidant are required to lower the organic content of the solutions, the possibility of ozonation cannot be ruled out if partial degradation is the final goal wanted. In this sense, Zahn-Wellens biodegradability tests of the ozonated MPG solutions have been performed, and the possibility of a further coupling with a secondary biological treatment for complete organic removal is envisaged.

Maldonado MI; Malato S; Pérez-Estrada LA; Gernjak W; Oller I; Doménech X; Peral J

2006-11-01

391

The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, paper and energy and many other fields. Historically the industry started up in 1874 based on empiric knowledge on use of rennet in production of cheese from Switzerland and Germany and later enriched by scientific knowledge produced in the company and institutions all over the world. Important for the company was resources of calve stomachs from which the active stuff can be extracted. The private university, The Carlsberg Laboratory, established nearly at the same time, became after First World War a world leader in research of enzymes. And inspiration from here to the pharmaceutical company in insulin production, Novo, resulted in extraction of valuable enzymes from porcine pancreases used in production of insulin. Thethird company, Danisco, started its enzyme business up in the 1930s and is today one of the important players. An important question in the paper is about the future of the companies in Denmark. There is no definitive answer to this question. But a combination of raw materials, growing markets and a good understanding of production based on science based engineering seem to be a strong argument in this discussion.

Pedersen, JØrgen Lindgaard Technical University of Denmark,

392

Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

Haiyuan Qiu

2011-01-01

393

Disaggregation of industrial fossil fuel use in the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan: Methodology and results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methodology described here projects use of purchased boiler fuel from 1980 to 2030 for six industrial groups. Three types of information were required to generate these projections: a long-term forecast of total industrial fossil fuel use, forecasts of industrial activity, and relative growth rates of industrial energy intensity. The resulting projections were used as inputs to the Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model, one of the sector models of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. In our projections, we used long-term forecasts of fossil fuel use from the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NEPP provides projections of total industrial energy use from 1980 to 2010 for several fuel types and three economic growth scenarios (base, low, and high). To extend these projections to 2030, total energy use, electricity use, and renewable energy use were extrapolated. We constructed relative rates of growth for energy intensity in each industry group from historical data. Combining the three elements - fossil fuel use, industrial activity, and relative growth rate of energy intensity - yields a disaggregation of total purchased fossil fuel for each industry consistent with the NEPP forecast. Total fossil fuel use is then converted to boiler fuel use by applying some conversion factors constructed from 1980 census data and 1980 ICE model data. The results indicate negligible growth in boiler fuel use for most of the six industries represented in detail in the ICE model. Only the chemical industry has any significant growth in boiler fuel use in the base and high cases. This finding reflects the low growth in fossil fuel use projected by the NEPP, optimistic projections for the chemical industry by DRI, and significant conservation rates in the other industries.

Boyd, G.A.; Ross, M.H.; Macal, C.M.; Hanson, D.A.; South, D.W.

1986-01-01

394

Estimation of flashover voltage probability of overhead line insulators under industrial pollution, based on maximum likelihood method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of transmission line insulator is greatly affected by dust, fumes from industrial areas and saline deposit near the coast. Such pollutants in the presence of moisture form a coating on the surface of the insulator, which in turn allows the passage of leakage current. This leakage builds up to a point where flashover develops. The flashover is often followed by permanent failure of insulation resulting in prolong outages. With the increase in system voltage owing to the greater demand of electrical energy over the past few decades, the importance of flashover due to pollution has received special attention. The objective of the present work was to study the performance of overhead line insulators in the presence of contaminants such as induced salts. A detailed review of the literature and the mechanisms of insulator flashover due to the pollution are presented. Experimental investigations on the behavior of overhead line insulators under industrial salt contamination are carried out. A special fog chamber was designed in which the contamination testing of insulators was carried out. Flashover behavior under various degrees of contamination of insulators with the most common industrial fume components such as Nitrate and Sulphate compounds was studied. Substituting the normal distribution parameter in the probability distribution function based on maximum likelihood develops a statistical method. The method gives a high accuracy in the estimation of the 50% flashover voltage, which is then used to evaluate the critical flashover index at various contamination levels. The critical flashover index is a valuable parameter in insulation design for numerous applications. (author)

2004-01-01

395

Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

2011-07-01

396

Environment: polluted industrial sites: The government puts the pressure on industrialists; Environnement: sites industriels pollues: l'etat met la pression sur les industriels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Environment announced that the government will bring proceedings against the industrialists responsible of land pollutions by industrial activities. In the same way, the inventory of used sites for two centuries of industrial activities will be continued. The old sites are inventoried in a data base (Basias, http://basias.brgm.fr) that actually covers 40% of the territory. (N.C.)

Anon.

2001-06-01

397

Thirty Years’ Financial Support for Chinese Industry Reform of National Defense Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The year of 2008 is the 30th anniversary of Chinese reform and opening-up. In thirty years, the defense science industry of China has achieved great accomplishments, and the practice and experience of defense science industry reform deserve retrospection. Financial support is one of necessary conditions for the reform and development of national defense science industry. In this article, we will review 30 years’ financial support of defense science industry from three stages including the probe and reform, i.e. the adjustment and transition, and the reform, i.e. the defense science industry in the new century, and the reform and the development, i.e. the road and objective of the advance, and put forward the future development direction of the defense science industry.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

398

Heavy duty gas turbines in Iran, India and China: Do national energy policies drive the industries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper for the first time systematically examines the heavy duty gas turbine (HDGT) industry in the context of developing countries. It provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. It contrasts their national strategies, the historical development of their technological capabilities, the similarities and differences in approach, the varying evolutionary paths and policy drivers and the reasons for their differing outcomes. This paper argues that a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature of HDGT industries in developing countries. It also argues that the development and evolution of the HDGT industries in these countries is closely interrelated with the countries’ national energy policies. It clarifies why such an advanced and sophisticated industry is a strategic choice in one country, while it is seen as an inferior choice in another. - Highlights: ? This paper for the first time systematically examines the HDGT industry in developing countries. ? This paper provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. ? The companies are state-owned and a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature. ? Due to national energy policies, HDGT is a strategic choice in Iran but an inferior choice in India and China. ? The policy drivers such as natural reserves and security of supply largely vary in these countries.

2012-01-01

399

Compliance, assurance, and pollution prevention at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) - process and operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is a multi-program laboratory operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ANL-E has incorporated its environmental compliance functions and pollution prevention (P2) activities into its processes. Examples of this include standard project and experimental reviews, targeted process analysis, and regulatory and oversight audits. ANL-E's implementation process has allowed them to meet regulatory drivers as well as internal goals with minimal resources. This paper reviews these processes and implementation of the environmental and pollution prevention requirements which have led to an award winning P2 program.

Kamiya, M. A.; Trychta, K.

2000-02-10

400

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

 
 
 
 
401

Global air pollution control in 1992 and its relationship to the solid waste industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Legislative winds keep switching direction in the global environment. In the 1970s, they were blowing strongest in Japan. In the 1980s, they were creating a surge of activity in Europe, and in the 1990s, they are blowing strongest in the United States. Hazardous waste and air pollution control regulations will be as stringent in the United States as anywhere else in the world thanks to recent congressional activity. These new laws have a profound effect not only on the health and welfare of US citizens, but on the competitive position of US pollution control manufacturers in the world market. 2 refs., 7 figs.

McIlvaine, R.W. (The McIlvaine Company, Northbrook, IL (USA))

1992-03-01

402

Knowledge Test : A discussion of literature on industrial networks and national innovation systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently.

SØrensen, Ole Henning

1998-01-01

403

Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Petroleum processes: oil refining and associated processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, (HMIP) focuses on petroleum processes such as oil refining and other associated processes. The various industrial processes used, their associated pollution release routes into the environment and techniques for controlling these releases are all discussed. Environmental quality standards are related to national and international agreements on pollution control and abatement. HMIP's work on air, water and land pollution monitoring is also reported. (UK).

1995-01-01

404

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

2011-01-01