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1

Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

2014-04-01

2

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

3

15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...manner for a specific industry sector or industrial process. The sector or industrial process...businesses in the industrial sector or businesses which use the...include optional second and third years in their...

2010-01-01

4

78 FR 7137 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards such a replacement project could be deemed...construct energy efficiency projects to meet the requirements...hazardous waste covered by Subpart EEE of this part. A unit that...come from pollution prevention projects that result in...

2013-01-31

5

76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...incorporated these corrections into the project database. For details...combustors (part 63, Subpart EEE), which includes boilers...is not covered by Subpart EEE. (n) Residential...come from pollution prevention projects that result in reduced...

2011-12-23

6

76 FR 15607 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...given included vendor data, real project costs, Best Achievable Control...Disposal Act or covered by subpart EEE of this part...may come from pollution prevention projects that result in reduced fuel...

2011-03-21

7

75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, telephone...For commercial and industrial solid waste incineration...Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711...Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711...Emissions standards for industrial, commercial, and...

2010-07-22

8

15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...this center will be the businesses in the industrial sector or businesses which use the industrial...providing services to those businesses, the NIST Manufacturing...include: Potential effectiveness and efficiency of proposed...

2010-01-01

9

77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA presented this information to the tribes prior to proposal of this rule via a call...percentage points of national averages, the African-American population exceeds the national...following categories: Racial (White, African American, Native American, Other...

2012-09-11

10

78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...area source boilers and the EPA projects that approximately an additional...Disposal Act or covered by subpart EEE of this part (e.g...of pollution control retrofit projects being undertaken for purposes...Disposal Act or covered by subpart EEE of this part...

2013-02-01

11

76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous air pollutants known to be persistent and bio- accumulative in the environment...facilities emitted any HAP known to be persistent and bio-accumulative in the environment...and the amount of time needed to switch between routine controls and any...

2011-12-27

12

15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...governments, state technology programs and...compliance and technologies and techniques...information and expertise and will avoid...pollution prevention technologies and techniques...in the target population. Understanding...activity. (3) Technology and information...Center (including staff expertise...Management experience and......

2010-01-01

13

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group) from Ahvaz-Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospe...

2009-01-01

14

15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... To improve the environmental and competitive...competitiveness with reduced environmental impact. (3...achieve the continued environmental improvement to...center will be the businesses in the industrial...resource center. Factors that may be considered...may include those internal to the...

2010-01-01

15

Industrial pollution prevention handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

16

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

Rafiei Masoud

2009-01-01

17

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997  

...March 2001) INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997 PART B GUIDANCE NOTES PROCESS IPRI REF...March 2001) INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997 PART B GUIDANCE NOTES (Contd.) PROCESS IPRI...

18

Pollution Prevention: A Resource Book for Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report contains pollution prevention success stories in the form of short case studies of California industries. The facility techniques are classified as pollution prevention through hazardous waste reduction, industrial waste reduction, solid waste ...

1990-01-01

19

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997  

Variation Notice with introductory note Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2013 Operator Name: The Foyle Food Group Ltd. Installation address: Lisahally Industrial ...

20

National pollutants emission limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and suspended solids above the maximum permissible limits. While the chemical and paints industries could be a potential source of lead pollution in Gaborone. Temperature and acidity generally were not a problem for industrial effluents. The pharmaceutical industries met all the maximum and minimum guidelines for wastewater discharge. COD, BOD, suspended solids and heavy metal levels should be monitored strictly by the Gaborone City Council in order to prevent environmental pollution and reduce health hazards caused by pollutants.

V. Emongor

2005-01-01

22

Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and beverage industries had significantly high COD, BOD and sus...

Emongor, V.; Nkegbe, E.; Kealotswe, B.; Koorapetse, I.; Sankwasa, S.; Keikanetswe, S.

2005-01-01

23

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997  

Variation notice with introductory note Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2013 Operator Name AES - Ballylumford Installation address Ballylumford Ferris Bay Road ...

24

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997  

Variation notice with introductory note Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2013 Kilroot Power Station Larne Road Carrickfergus Co. Antrim BT38 7LX Permit number ...

25

Rural industries and water pollution in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws in rural areas is not effective. This paper explains the reasons for this implementation gap. It argues that the factors that have underpinned the economic success of rural industry are precisely the same factors that cause water pollution from rural industry to remain such a serious problem in China. This means that the control of rural water pollution is not simply a technical problem of designing a more appropriate governance system, or finding better policy instruments or more funding. Instead, solutions lie in changes in the model that underpins rural development in China. PMID:17324495

Wang, Mark; Webber, Michael; Finlayson, Brian; Barnett, Jon

2008-03-01

26

Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

1973-01-01

27

Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

1996-12-31

28

Atmospheric pollution and industrial melanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution of melanic forms in two moth and two ladybird species has been analysed in relation to fourteen environmental variables by multiple regression. Local smoke levels emerge as important factors in Phigalia pedaria and Adalia bipunctata whereas in Biston betularia sulfur dioxide appears to be the more important. The importance of crypsis is indicated in P. pedaria but not in the warningly colored A. bipunctata; nor is it confirmed in B. betularia despite earlier experimental results. There is no evidence for industrial melanism in Adalia decempunctata.

Lees, D.R.; Creed, E.R.; Duckett, J.G.

1973-04-01

29

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

30

Noise pollution in iron and steel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iron and steel industry is characterized by high energy consumption and thus present remarkable problems from the point of view of noise pollution. The aims of this paper is to examine characteristic and acoustical emissions and immisions of some fundamentals iron and steel plants with several remarks on the possible measures to reduce noise pollution. For a large integrate iron and steel system, some surveys are shown with all devices running and, in addition, comparisons are made with other surveys when the main devices were out of service owing to great maintenance works

31

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene?s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei Masoud

2008-01-01

32

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing...

Pravin J, Deepak Sankar A.

2013-01-01

33

Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

1999-01-01

34

GUIDE TO INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents an overview of industrial assessments and the general framework for conducting an assessment. It describes combined assessments for pollution prevention and energy, "industrial assessments," providing guidance to those performing assessments at industrial o...

35

Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies, examination of pH-dependent desorption, distribution in grain-size fractions and sequential extraction. Our results show that the first factors determining the speciation of Pb in soil are: (1) the stability of the original speciation and (2) the contamination level, while soil characteristics are of secondary importance. In nine of ten soils Pb was concentrated strongly in the soil fines ( 50% extracted in step III (oxidizing) and IV (residual) of sequential extraction for all soils but one. A significant amount of exchangeable Pb existed only in severely contaminated soils, where the bonding capacity of organic matter and oxides was exceeded. Among soil constituents, Pb was observed to adsorb preferentially to feldspars and organic matter while presence of phosphate increased the strength of the Pb-bonding in phosphate-rich soils.

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2006-01-01

36

The Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial and Radiochemical Inspectorate) Charging ..  

The Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate) Charging Scheme (Northern Ireland) 2012 Department of the Environment 1 April 2012 A Charging Scheme made under Regulation 22 ...

37

Pollution performance of firms from pulp and paper industries  

Science.gov (United States)

The water pollution emissions by 13 of the largest pulp and paper companies, developed on the basis of monthly reports filed with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by these companies, indicate a wide disparity in the amount of pollution discharged by them into the nation's waterways. Furthermore, the net discharge of pollution in waterways by all firms is positive, which indicates that all the firms in the study pollute the nation's waterways to some degree. Information presented in this study will be useful for public issues, such as evaluating the effectiveness of the Clean Water Act, government's water pollution policy and abatement strategy, and management's effectiveness in abating water pollution.

Freedman, Martin; Jaggi, Bikki

1986-05-01

38

Pollution and energy management in tanning industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, hing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat in flue gases through a thermal wheel. Savings in the use of electrical and mechanical energy can carried out by using simple techniques. (author)

39

Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others.

Fournier, M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada)

1995-03-01

40

Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental isn is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Monitoring system for industrial gases pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system is designed for monitoring gas pollutants in air, in a chemical plant. It consists of gas detectors with transmitter and modules for environmental conditions measurement, data loggers and a central monitoring station which role is to collect data, generate alarms if pollutants concentration becomes over limit and create database. A dedicated software permits data collecting and processing in order to get solutions for minimising human and technological risks. The system role is monitoring the pollution sources and the surrounded areas that might be affected, for keeping gas pollutants concentration at an acceptable level and to minimise the pollution effects. (author)

42

Environmental pollution-effects on national development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

43

[Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future. PMID:16180772

Zhou, Qixing

2005-06-01

44

Background to Industrial Pollution Control Regimes  

Regulations replaced the pollution control regimes called Integrated Pollution \\Control. (IPC) and Local ... installations known as A(1) activities, which are \\regulated by the. Environment ... charges for Part A(2) installations set by the \\Secretary of State under. Regulation 22 of ... Self-monitoring will be at the \\operator's expense.

45

76 FR 42055 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List AGENCY...NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Accordingly, the amendment to Table 1of Appendix B to CFR Part 300 to...

2011-07-18

46

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

2013-06-01

47

Sound Pollution Caused by the Industrial Activity in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise pollution is the problem of the industrial world that along with noised induced by traffic has become a problem in human life.This is more problematic in Tehran because of the traffic and the accumulation of small or large industries. People are profoundly exposed to the high level noises and there are increasing demands to solve the problem of noise in Tehran or at least alleviate it.In the current article we will have a brief and quick look to the noise making industries, the reason behind the noise pollution and the strategies for facing the disturbing industries.

Mehrangiz shams

1999-03-01

48

UNIDO's work on pollution control and risk management in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important aspect of UNIDO's work is to learn from the experience of industrialized countries and to avoid severe health and environmental pollution problems through the transfer of appropriate technologies and pollution control mechanisms as an essential part of industrial development - which is UNIDO's main mandate. Moreover, UNIDO's role is to provide to the policy makers of developing countries a better understanding of environmental problems and appreciation of early remedial action. One way to achieve this is through the application of environmental impact assessment and risk assessment methodologies. Since 1972 UNIDO has developed and implemented about 172 projects related to industrial pollution control and management of environmental resources. Currently UNIDO implements about 60 projects in this area. This represents about 10 per cent of the total UNIDO technical assistance budget. Specifically, UNIDO's programme focuses attention on the following main areas: Developing Low- and Non-Waste Technologies, Reutilization and Recycling of Wastes, Energy Conservation and Promotion of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy; Control of Air, Waste and Solid Waste Pollution; Assistance in Environmental Planning, Environmental Impact Assessment, Elaboration of Integrated Planning Concepts for Industrial Areas; Industrial and Plant Safety and Emergency Planning Systems. Clearly toxic materials and waste management, energy resources development and conservation, low- and non-waste technology, risk assessment, industrial and plant safety and emergency planning, transboundary pollution, are foremost concerns of both industrial and industrializing countries at this time

49

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the printing and publishing industry. Background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The types of printing covered in this rule are publication rotogravure, product and packaging rotogravure and wideweb flexography. This document presents background information for the promulgated rule including changes made to the rule since proposal, a summary of public comments received and EPA`s response to those comments and a summary of the national impacts of the rule.

NONE

1996-05-01

50

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4

Beidou Xi; Hongjun Lei; Changjia Li; Xunfeng Xia

2012-01-01

51

76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...subsurface soils, structures and groundwater within the boundaries of these...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

2011-11-10

52

76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...and Site-wide Surface and Groundwater Quality (OU12) will remain...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

2011-05-24

53

77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...media (including soil and groundwater). DATES: Comments must...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

2012-08-02

54

75 FR 43115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...deletion pertains to the soil and groundwater of parcels 24, 27, 28...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

2010-07-23

55

Pollution Prevention of Metal Casting Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia 3 School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

M.Narasimha, Mahaboob Patel, R.Rejikumar

2014-05-01

56

Pollution measurement and control in the metallurgical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement and control of environmental pollution is a subject of increasing importance in industrial countries. The continual befouling of atmospheric air by combustion gases, by products of combustion or many other industrial processes is causing serious health problems particularly in urban environments. Technology exists today to provide accurate, automatic pollution control on the majority of industrial processes. The economics of such control varies with each plant and expert help should always be sought on the design of such equipment. This article attempts to summarise the equipment which can be used to monitor and detect toxic gases and effluents

57

Pollution prevention in the fabricated metals products industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US metal fabrication industry is an essential part of both domestic and international economies and plays a key support role in the appliance, automotive, defense, electronics, furniture, and other assembly industries. Identified as Standard Industrial Classification Code (SIC Code) 34, the industry processes and manufacturers a wide range of metal components including cans, cutlery, hand tools, general hardware, ordnance, forgings, stampings, and structural metal products. The industry`s environmental compliance problems arise from increasingly restrictive discharge limitations and from the product phaseout of ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) as mandated in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Hazardous raw materials in some metal fabrication operations are regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). Some facility discharges are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The major pollutants of concern are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone-depleting compounds (ODCs), hazardous air pollutants, heavy metals, acids, and oils.

Denny, D.; Frewerd, B.; Pava, T.H.; Appley, E. [Concurrent Technologies, Johnstown, PA (United States)

1995-09-01

58

Greening Industry: New Ideas in Pollution Regulation (NIPR)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greening Industry report, from New Ideas in Pollution Regulation (discussed in the January 24, 1997 Scout Report, is now available online. The culmination of six years of research, Greening Industry has found surprisingly positive results. Contrary to popular belief, factories in developing countries are actually cleaner and more environmentally aware than they were ten years ago, and emissions levels of pollution have also dropped. The report is available in html and .pdf formats and must be downloaded by chapter. In the html version, use the arrows in the top left corner of the screen to turn pages and move about the report.

59

ITEM 5 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION LIAISION ... - ARCHIVE: Defra  

ways of working to identify common solutions and share good practice and ideas. \\.... You will already have heard a lot about 'localism' from the new coalition ... \\such as the Environment Agency. .... example to help formulate a lobbying \\position for local government in response to key national ... policy officers below:.

60

Treatment of Some Hazardous Industrial Pollutants by Simple Oxidation Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Central treatment of Industrial wastewater requires pretreatment of some specific pollutants which may be not effectively degraded in down stream processes in central treatment unit. Some of the hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewater including acrylonitrile, pesticides and some commonly used dyes (active and acid dyes) have been subjected individually to oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions in acidic solution. Treatment efficiency was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using a specially developed concentration/COD curves. Initial concentrations (in terms of COD) were 910 PPM, 1348 and 530 ppm and the respective COD reductions were 91, 98 and 99%, for the pesticide, acrylonitrile and the reactive dye. Oxidative degradation of polared and acid green also reduced COD by 99 and 100% respectively. The obtained results confirm the appropriateness of oxidative degradation as a pretreatment for some hazardous pollutants prior to treatment in central facilities or municipal activated sludge stations

 
 
 
 
61

Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

62

Radiochemical studies on some industrial pollutants released to the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims at characterizing the industrial pollutants that may be released from: Abu-Zaabal fertilizer company, arab ceramic industry, Egyptian alum company near the compass of Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas and petroleum pipelines company at the start of lsmailia canal. The work concentrates on soil or/and sediment pollution, the lsmailia canal water stream pollution and plant pollution. Type of the element and its content are major parameters that are traced in the traced in the experimental work. The work stresses on the analysis of the raw materials used in the chosen Factories, their products of current use as well as their wastes and drainage. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique and radiometric determination of elements are adopted through this work. The selection of the technique is based on less time consumption, high accuracy, reliability, selectivity as well as chemical processing and separation need not to applied. Together with INAA determination of natural radioactivity are also adopted for accessing certain specific elements of importance to the fertilizer industry. Beside the mentioned techniques several classical analytical techniques as atomic absorption, spectrophotometric determination and volumetric methods are handled. 25 tabs., 80 figs., 117 refs

63

78 FR 56611 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State...available, i.e., Confidential Business Information or other...

2013-09-13

64

77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Deletion...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of...boxed information. The normal business hours are Monday through...

2012-11-14

65

78 FR 11620 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Deletion...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of...boxed information. The normal business hours are Monday through...

2013-02-19

66

77 FR 50069 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The EPA and the State of New...information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or...

2012-08-20

67

2001 national overview of the National Pollutant Release Inventory : recycling and energy recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) was established in 1992 as a national, legislated, publicly accessible inventory in Canada that provides information to Canadians on industrial pollution and their communities. Companies are required to report annually to Environment Canada any information on releases and transfers of pollutants. A list of substances for which reports are required is published each year along with reporting requirements and thresholds for each substance. Changes to the NPRI are considered on an annual basis. The NPRI covers about 100 sectors of industrial and commercial activity ranging from electric power generation to leather tanneries. In 2001, 2618 facilities reported to the NPRI. This report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001. A total of 857 facilities submitted data on off-site transfers for recycling and energy recovery totalling 1,126,461 tonnes, a decrease of 3,911 tonnes from 2000. The report summarizes off-site recycling and energy recovery activities in 2001 with reference to recycling activities (80.8 per cent); metals and metal compounds (10.2 per cent); acids or bases (5.6 per cent); solvents (1.0 per cent); catalysts (1.0 per cent); energy recovery (0.8 per cent); organic substances (0.3 per cent); inorganic materials (0.2 per cent); pollution abatement residues (0.1 per cent); and, used oil (less than 0.1 per cent). The report also includes a summary of the 25 NPRI-listed substancesa summary of the 25 NPRI-listed substances transferred off-site in the largest quantities for recycling and energy recovery in 2001. The substances that accounted for nearly 1,077,306 tonnes were hydrogen sulphide, sulphuric acid, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese. 2 tabs., 6 figs

68

Identification of the Water Pollutant Industries in Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to build up a logic ranked pattern between the most important industrial activities with respect the type of water pollution and the discharge ways or managing the wastewaters in these units. For this purpose all of the statistical data have been gathered by referring to the responsible organizations. After that, by using the desk study, field work and selecting some of the industrial units as studied cases and by referring to their production processes and obtaining the curtained analytical results, the industries have been separated to several groups including Food ,Textile , Pulp & Paper/, Chemical, Non-metallic mineral, Metal and Electricity & electronics Comparing the number of active industrial plants within the boundaries of Khuzestan province at 5 catchments area, indicates that Karun, Dez and Jarrahi basins with 1044. 324 and 290 active plants, respectively, are crowded with a lot of industries. Nature of the examined parameters has been selected in view of the production process type and includes pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chloride, sulfate, BOD, COD, TSS, iron. Results indicates that Dez river basin, being compared with the other two basins, impose the most degradable organic, nutrient substances and suspended particle loads to Dez River , and the metal pollution load at Karun basin is more than the other two basins , caused by the steel industries concentrated in Ahvaz city.

N Jafarzadeh, S Rostami, K Sepehrfar, A Lahijanzadeh

2004-10-01

69

Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

Vaz, N.

1995-12-31

70

Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

71

Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31

72

A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

73

Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the industrial sectors included in the E-PRTR pollutant register, emissions from the power generating sector contribute the largest share of the damage costs (estimated at EUR 66-112 billion). Excluding CO{sub 2}, the estimated damage costs from this sector are EUR 26-71 billion. Sectors involving production processes and combustion used in manufacturing are responsible for most of the remaining estimated damage costs. (LN)

Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

2011-11-15

74

76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-SFUND-1983-0002; FRL-9291-5] National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency...amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...Library, 10411 Merrill Road., P.O. Box 247, Hamburg, MI 48139, (810)...

2011-04-13

75

Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (?g/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 ?g/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

76

Industrial cogeneration in the national energy context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the role of industrial cogeneration in the national energy context, focussing to the great unexploited potential related to modern conversion technology. Technological aspects, energy saving, environmental benefits of cogeneration are described, as well as regulation, authorization and tariff aspects that strongly affect the cogeneration development

77

Biomagnetic monitoring of industry-derived particulate pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clear association exists between ambient PM10 concentrations and adverse health outcomes. However, determination of the strength of associations between exposure and illness is limited by low spatial-resolution of particulate concentration measurements. Conventional fixed monitoring stations provide high temporal-resolution data, but cannot capture fine-scale spatial variations. Here we examine the utility of biomagnetic monitoring for spatial mapping of PM10 concentrations around a major industrial site. We combine leaf magnetic measurements with co-located PM10 measurements to achieve inter-calibration. Comparison of the leaf-calculated and measured PM10 concentrations with PM10 predictions from a widely-used atmospheric dispersion model indicates that modelling of stack emissions alone substantially under-predicts ambient PM10 concentrations in parts of the study area. Some of this discrepancy might be attributable to fugitive emissions from the industrial site. The composition of the magnetic particulates from vehicle and industry-derived sources differ, indicating the potential of magnetic techniques for source attribution. - Highlights: ? We use biomagnetic monitoring to map PM10 concentrations around an industrial site. ? SIRMs of tree leaves represent a quantitative proxy for PM10 around this site. ? Magnetically distinct proximal samples (10 levels in the prevailing wind direction from the site. ? Magnetic differences between vehicle and industry PM10 may enable source attribution. - Biomagnetic techniques are used for quantitative mapping of particulate pollution at uniquely high spatial resolution and to distinguish between differently-sourced PM10.

78

Air pollution control measures of the electricity industry in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pollution of air with SO2 and NOx constitutes a problem which can be regionally delimited and can be solved by a harmonization of pollution control standards at the highest possible level. The growing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, however, has possibly a strong impact on the global climate. In this context it has to be borne in mind in particular that it will be impossible to undo environmental damage once it has arisen. Once lasting changes of the world climate have been caused by the increased CO2 concentration, all the pollution control efforts will not achieve any short-term success but will produce desired effects only with a time-lag of decades at the earliest. All measures by a country to contain CO2 emissions on a national level are almost ineffective if a reduction of CO2 emissions is not aimed at by international agreements at the same time. All nations are therefore called upon to help solve the CO2 problem. National single-handed approaches are equally inappropriate as the oft-heard reference to the just marginal contribution by the respective countries to global CO2 emissions. In light of their possibilities and the magnitude of the problem, it is precisely the industrial nations that have the duty not only to cut CO2 emissions in their own countries but also to give the developing countries the assistance required to keep the CO2 content of the atmosphere from rising further. (author). 9 figs

79

Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-05-01

80

Air pollution perceptions and their impacts on the coal industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Perceptions of disaster caused by burning fossil fuels have reached such a pitch that they seriously threaten the very future of the industry. Coal is a dirty word. A leader in Business Day (January 19 2009) claimed 'There is no disputing that renewable and non-polluting energy sources are preferabl [...] e to the country-the true cost of so-called cheap coal-fired power stations is neither reflected nor accounted for by Eskom-the true and immediate but unacknowledged cost of continued coal mining is apparent in the catastrophic level of acidification from mining runoff of all significant natural water resources in the country-and their waters have been rendered unfit for human consumption. Air quality is in a similar state with-increases in pulmonary disease causing workforce absenteeism and compromised childhood development, among many other health problems recorded in areas polluted by coal mining.' The upshot is that our latest coal-fired power station, Kusile, is being required to use flue gas desulphurization. The costs are considerable, and the benefits minimal. Meanwhile, exports are being threatened by EU directives and an assumption that South African coal gives off excessive quantities of SOx and NOx when burned. The industry needs to arm itself with clear responses to these and similar misconceptions, and to communicate those responses loudly and clearly, if it is to survive.

P., Lloyd.

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh water sources; drying of wells, reduction on ground water level, livestock productivity and loss of scenic beauty of the place. The agriculture crop yield has also decreased vastly and the area is gradually converting into dry land, the top soils have been eroding and crop plants are being covered with pollutants which are effecting directly or indirectly to the local people. In this paper, health impact of local people, environmental and economic impact of locality by mining industries are examined and evaluated considering questionnaire and available data from several sources such as government publications, related researches, websites and other references. This paper concludes with recommendations in order to control environment pollution, to reduce the impact of gravel, sand and stone mines.

Deshar Bashu Dev

2013-08-01

82

Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control, 1971.  

Science.gov (United States)

Included in this directory are 204 national organizations, agencies, institutes, and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

83

Directory of National Organizations Concerned With Land Pollution Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Included in this directory are 133 national organizations, agencies, institutes and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

84

Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-05-01

85

Farms trump industry in worries about water pollution | EurActiv  

...Farms trump industry in worries about water pollution | EurActiv Spills on the magnitude of the one at the Ajka alumina plant are ...relatively rare and industrial pollution in many European rivers has declined since the 1960s. Tougher treatment laws, international cooperation and EU policies ...VIDEOS Home › Water Policy › News Farms trump industry in worries about water pollution [fr] -A + A Published 06 March 2012,...the one at the Ajka alumina plant are relatively rare and industrial pollution in many European rivers has declined since the 1960s. Tougher ...

86

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

2006-09-15

87

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR ON BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ITS USE IN THE NPDES (NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM) PERMIT PROGRAM HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 2, 1979  

Science.gov (United States)

This seminar brought together representatives from industry, state and local governments and biological monitoring consulting firms to present the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V perspective on biomonitoring requirements for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimina...

88

Green Design and Planning Resolutions for an Eco-Industrial Town: A Case Study of Polluted Industrial Estate in Rayong Province, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Map Ta Phut was designated for development in national policy as an Eastern Seaboard Industrial Port. It is located in Rayong Province with growing demand from Eastern Seaboard industries and is heavily affected by serious environmental problems as a"pollution control zone". While the Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry and Banking, representing the national business sector, claimed that the area generated total revenues of 1.1 trillion baht per year, or 11% of Thailand’s gross domestic product, and employed more than 100,000 workers, the declaration of the area as a pollution control zone severely limited investment and business operations. Thus, controversies arose among the investment business sectors, the residential sector (residents have been affected by a decrease in their quality of life and health and environmental concern sectors. This paper aims to find an efficient and practical mitigation practice to balance the purposes of the industrial port with protection of surrounding communities and natural resources. The author will apply physical design and planning such as the application of “buffer zones”, “greenbelts”, “set-back”, “green corridor”, “green wall” and “protection strips” along with environmental measurements such as the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI, which can be adapted for pollution protection as best practices of landscape architecture.

Ariya Aruninta

2012-11-01

89

Industrial air pollution: British progress—a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent Annual Reports on industrial air pollution issued by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive show that considerable progress has been made. Further "Presumptive Limits of Emission" and "Notes on Best Practicable Means" have been published by H.M. Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate. The lists given in this journal [9, 709 (1975)] are extended in the Appendices. An abstract is given of BPM for oil refineries. Heavy smoke from blue brick manufacture and from shaft lime kilns has been eliminated by gas firing. Steps have been taken to reduce emissions of vinyl chloride, PCBs, compounds of fluorine and of toxic metals, As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn and radioactives. Reduction of low-level emissions is a continuing problem in improving local amenity. Considerable attention has been paid to continuous monitoring of massive emissions and of concentrations of pollutants outside factories, including odours. Arrestment equipment supplied to small firms has given trouble through poor design of components and monitors, inadequate help by suppliers during commissioning, and by lack of training and correct maintenance by management; tight specifications requiring quality engineering should be prepared by purchasers. Lectures to workers, backed by booklets, are assisting in making difficult works better neighbours. The Inspectorate has six sampling teams, mainly for dust, and nine task groups for special programmes. A computer programme for calculation of ground concentrations from multiple sources is assisting inspectors to assess complex situations. It is the author's opinion that research workers on environmental problems should examine these Reports to find more industrial subjects for study.

Nonhebel, G.

90

Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

1996-06-01

91

Compliance plan for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). The facility is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio, on a 16.2-km2 (6.3-mile2) site about 1.6 km (1 mile) east of the Scioto River Valley at an elevation approximately 36.6 m (120 ft) above the Scioto River floodplain. The terrain surrounding the plant, except for the Scioto River floodplain, consists of marginal farmland and densely forested hills. The principal site process is the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. Support operations include the feed and withdrawal of material from the primary process, treatment of water for both potable and cooling purposes, steam generation for heating purposes, decontamination of equipment removed from the process for maintenance or replacement, recovery of uranium from various waste materials, and treatment of industrial wastes generated on-site. PORTS will comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations as a single facility as specified under ''Discussion of Source Categories, VI.A.4.d Definition of a Facility'' in Volume 54, No. 240 p. 51665 of the Federal Register. Continuous vent stack monitoring and dose modeling as specified in 40 CFR 61.93 of Subpart H will be used to demonstrate compliance with radionuclide NESHAP regulations. Ambient air monitoring stations near receptor sites and Health Physics monitoring in plant process buildings will be used to give assurance that unmonitored sources, or fugitive emission sources, are not emitting sufficient radionuclides to add a significant contribution to total plant emissions

92

78 FR 72676 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit...National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit...202) 566-9744 Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection...gov or in hard copy at the Water Docket, EPA/DC, EPA...

2013-12-03

93

75 FR 21625 - Notice of Availability of the Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permits...facility discharges to certain waters of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts...provisions of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA), as...

2010-04-26

94

GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a model monitoring network providing public administration, private subject, and general public information about air pollution by POPs that had not been previously regularly monitored and whose measurement is further required by global monitoring plan of the Stockholm Convention. The MONET network is international project with many participants. Monitoring in the MONET-CZ network started in 2004 with the pilot project and continues to the current days, MONET CEEC started in 2006 and continues nowadays, MONET Africa started in 2008. The database of the GENASIS systems currently covers MONET-CZ data until the year 2008. The MONET network currently covers 37 countries in the Europe, Asia and Africa with more than 350 sampling sites. The paper will discuss about following topics * Data Fusion in GENASIS: how can GENASIS maximize the value and accuracy of the information gathered from heterogeneous data sources? * Sensor types in GENASIS: which POPs can be measured; what are the physical limitations to achievable accuracy, reliability, and long-term stability of miniaturized sensors; which applications can (not) be realized within these limitations?

Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; H?ebí?ek, Ji?í; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

2010-05-01

95

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

96

Communities as informal regulators: new arrangements in industrial pollution control in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of studies in developing countries show that in the absence of strict environmental regulation and strong enforcement, communities have emerged as a new informal regulators. In Viet Nam local communities in some cases are successful in forcing industrial polluters to reduce pollution or to change production processes into more environmentally sound directions. New subpolitical arrangements are formed, involving innovative relations between communities, industrial polluters and state ...

Phung Thuy Phuong; Mol, A. P. J.

2004-01-01

97

National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

1998-09-01

98

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for source categories: Oil and natural gas production and natural gas transmission and storage. Background information for proposed standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The background information document provides the basic information which was used as background in the development of the two standards: (1) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities; and (2) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities. A description of the industries, control technologies available, cost of controls, modeling used in the estimation of national emission estimates and costs are included.

NONE

1997-04-01

99

Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

100

Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

AbdulFatai JIMOH

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

77 FR 58830 - State Program Requirements; Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant Discharge...  

Science.gov (United States)

...municipal and industrial storm water, for which the Oklahoma Environmental...discharges of pollutants and storm water to waters of the state, surface impoundments...land application of wastes and sludge, and other pollution originating at these...

2012-09-24

102

RFF council discusses voluntary pollution reduction by industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 2, 1992, the RFF Council - a group of individual, foundation, and corporate supporters of Resources for the Future - met at Kiawah Island, South Carolina, to discuss corporate responsibility and voluntary pollution reduction. Among the featured speakers were an assistant administrator from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), representatives of two US companies, and a consultant to the international environmental advocacy organization Greenpeace. They each addressed topics pertinent to voluntary pollution reduction by US corporations - that is, the practice of some corporations of reducing their emissions of regulated pollutants below permitted levels, or of voluntarily reducing emissions of other pollutants for which no regulatory limits have been established, or both.

1992-09-01

103

Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources. Highlights and achievements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of industries to national development is well recognized. However, for sustainable national development, the environmental impacts (particularly as it affects human health) of these industries must also be well monitored. Ingestion through food and water is one of the two major routes for these toxic pollutants to accumulate in man and thereby impact his health. The other major route being inhalation from the air

104

Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

105

Prosperity without Pollution: The Prevention Strategy for Industry and Consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Pollution prevention pays for everyone; What pollution prevention is-What waste recycling and other strategies are not; Achieving succcess by overcoming obstacles; Data tells the story-too much waste; The ozone groan-do we still have time; Harm ...

J. S. Hirschhorn, K. U. Oldenburg

1991-01-01

106

Oil industry and the problems with radioactive pollution on Absheron Peninsula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'Sustainable development' accepted by the international community as a basis of co-operation among countries envisages the necessity of rational national resource management that will minimize the damage to the future generations. As a fundamental guide towards this goal, a document identifying the principles of the global environmental security - 'Agenda 21 century'- was approved by the majority of states at the 1992 Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. Based on the principles of Agenda-21 century, Azerbaijan developed its National Environmental Concept, and passed a number of laws in support of environmental protection and sustainable development. At this stage of the country's development, the issue of national resource management is of paramount importance for the nation. The disastrous environmental situation inherited from the former Soviet Union is affecting every aspect of the country's life and presenting a clear threat to the health and well-being of the population. Considering the problem with the radioactive contamination and radioactive wastes we have to identify the primary reason of it existence on the territory of Azerbaijan, and particularly Apsheron Peninsula. The main contributor to intensive environment pollution is the technogenic and industrial wastes

107

Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

108

Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100?m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000?m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average ...

Sosa, G.; Vega, E.; Gonz Amp Xe Lez-avalos, E.; Mora, V.; Amp Xf Pez-veneroni, D. L.

2013-01-01

109

Relationship between technological progress, capital elasticity and emissions of industrial pollutants for the production sectors in Catalonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As is known, the Kyoto protocol proposes to reinforce national policies for emission reduction and, furthermore, to cooperate with other contracting parties. In this context, it would be necessary to assess these emissions, both in general and specifically, by pollutants and/or among productive sectors. The objective of this paper is precisely to estimate the polluting emissions of industrial origin in Catalonia in the year 2001, in a multivariate context that explicitly allows a distinction to be made between the polluter and/or the productive sector causing this emission. Six pollutants are considered, four directly related to greenhouse effect. A multi-level model, with two levels, pollutants and productive sectors, was specified. Both technological progress and elasticity of capital were introduced as random effects. Hence, it has been permitted that these coefficients vary according to one or the other level. The most important finding in this paper is that elasticity of capital has been estimated as very non-elastic, with a range that varies between 0.162 (the paper industry) and 0.556 (commerce). In fact, and generally speaking, greater the capital in the sector, lower the elasticity of capital estimated

110

Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.

Lope Virginia

2009-01-01

111

Problems of privatization of national power industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After introduction and general description of privatization processes the following problems: a controvation whether power industry should be privatized, specificity of power industry, aims and expectations of privatization, restructurization of power industry due to privatization program, privatization strategy, convergency and crossing of capitals, privatization advisement etc. are discussed in detail. Many conclusions are given

112

Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

2014-09-01

113

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

114

Analysis of Pollution Industrial Transfer Based on Environmental Regulation and Public Participation: China’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Referring to 1995-2011 China's provincial panel data, this paper constructs an econometric model consisting of environmental regulation, public participation and pollution industrial transfer, and mainly focuses on the role of environmental regulation and public participation in the pollution industries transfer using panel data unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test and panel regression analysis method. The results show that environmental regulation and public participation play an obvious role in promoting the pollution industries transfer both in the long-term and in the short-term. However, their influencing strength varies. The effect from environmental regulation is stronger, while public participation has a comparatively weak effect on the pollution transfer

Wen-bin Peng

2013-07-01

115

7 CFR 1260.113 - Established national nonprofit industry-governed organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...national nonprofit industry-governed organizations. 1260.113 Section 1260...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...national nonprofit industry-governed organizations. Established national...

2010-01-01

116

1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

1999-06-01

117

1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

2000-06-01

118

Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was the key soil characteristics determining the Cu removal rate.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2006-01-01

119

MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

120

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T2O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

 
 
 
 
121

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

1998-06-01

122

Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China. Estimation and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10-6 for TSP, and 4.2x10-6 for SO2, with standard deviations of 8.15x10-6 and 9.16x10-6, respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10-7 to 10-5. Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most importanllutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts. (author)

123

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU, tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU, textile: Dying Unit (DU and textile: Finishing Unit (FU in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

Muhammad Asif Hanif

2005-01-01

124

Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 ?g/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards. PMID:20658359

Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

2011-06-01

125

Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

NONE

1995-12-01

126

Method development for determining the malodor source and pollution in industrial park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malodor pollution emitted from industrial park has become an important environmental issue. However, the difficulty in investigating malodor pollution is in determining the malodor source. The objective of this study was to develop a model for determining the malodor source and pollution in industrial park, via multiple time and site measurements of odor intensity and air pollutants, together with wind direction in different seasons, and the critical environmental factors could be also identified by correlating the odor intensities with meteorological conditions and the concentrations of air pollutants. A high-malodor-polluted industrial park involving metal and petrochemistry processing industries was selected as the study subject, and sampling was performed close to residential districts. Nine sites were selected as sampling points by a chessboard design, with each site measured for 5 days in fall and spring, respectively. Odor intensity (ratings 0-5) and environmental factors, including meteorological condition, PM(10), PM(2.5), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ammonia and reduced sulfides, were evaluated six times daily. The results indicated that the incidences of odor ratings 1-5 were 71.9% and 81.0% in two seasons in the sampling area, and an open ditch for collecting industrial wastewater for feeding to the wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main odor source. Multiple regression analysis showed that the odor rating significantly correlated with TVOC concentration and wind speed (Pppb increase in TVOCs, and decreased by 0.154 units for each 1m/s increase in wind speed. This study developed a method to explore malodor pollution in industrial park, providing a novel thinking to understand and resolve malodor problems. PMID:22944219

Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Ru; Wang, Lee; Chen, Mei-Lien; Lai, Sin-Chen; Tsai, Chung-Jung

2012-10-15

127

The Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic importance of the Canadian nuclear industry in saving costs and creating jobs is expounded. The medical work of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is also extolled. The Canadian Nuclear Association urges the federal government to continue to support the industry at home, and to continue to promote nuclear exports. This report was prepared in response to the Federal Finance Minister's 'A New Direction for Canada'

128

Air pollution causes health effects and net national product of a country decreases: a theoretical framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with green accounting and accounts the health effects of air pollution. It shows that due to air pollution human capital can not be utilized properly and net national product of a country decreases. The willing to pay system among workers is beneficial to the government, factory owners and workers of a country. The marginal cost-benefit rule for an optimal level of air pollution creates negative health effects. The air pollution cause both direct disutility and indirect welfar...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2011-01-01

129

Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-06-01

130

75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants...Nevada. The preamble outlines the process that Clark...satisfies all of the requirements necessary to qualify...County for Specific Standards B. Clark...

2010-11-03

131

76 FR 46801 - Modification of the Expiration Date for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9447-5] Modification of the Expiration Date for the National Pollutant Discharge...EPA Region 4 is modifying the expiration date of the National Pollutant Discharge...The purpose of extending the expiration date is to ensure that there is...

2011-08-03

132

Industrial energy economy, national and international aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

VDI-report 1061 contains the papers given on the Conference of the same name in Essen on the 22 and 23.6.1993. German industry suffers not only from high wage and on-cost but high, energy costs as well. Waste disposal problems and impending taxes on wages are the cause of these difficulties. The EC believes that competition between energy supplies may help to reduce energy costs. This report deals with cost-efficient energy supply for the German industry and books at the background of this scenario. This industry puts forward its wishes and demands to politicians and energy economy. Representatives of energy suppliers discuss energy supplies, demand, availability, safety of supplies, competitiveness, quality and environmental aspects. The influence of energy costs and environmental taxation on the industrial and economic future of Germany and the situation in the Eastern States of Germany are a further subject of discussion. The views of the EC commission, the industry and the energy suppliers on energy transports across the EC are discussed as well. (orig./UA)

133

Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored

134

Environmental pollution and policies in China's Township and Village Industrial Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze economic and policy factors affecting pollution by Township and Village Industrial Enterprises (TVIEs) in China and to discuss problems and directions in environmental policies for them. With the rapid growth of TVIEs since the early 1980s, pollution has been spreading into the rural areas. The large number and small size of TVIEs makes it difficult for TVIEs themselves and the government to implement environmental measures. The econometric ...

Taketoshi, Kazuki

2001-01-01

135

The Effect of Uncertainty on Pollution Abatement Investments: Measuring Hurdle Rates for Swedish Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate hurdle rates for firms' investments in pollution abatement technology, using ex post data. The method is based on a structural option value model where the future price of polluting fuel is the major source of uncertainty facing the firm. The empirical procedure is illustrated using a panel of firms from the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and the energy and heating sector, and their sulfur dioxide emissions over the period 2000-2003. The results indicate that hurdle rates of inv...

Lo?fgren, A?sa; Millock, Katrin; Nauges, Ce?line

2008-01-01

136

Monitoring of heavy pollutants from industrial emissions and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental facilities of internal beam PIXE, tube-excited ED-XRF, NAA, electrothermal AAS and DPASV have been established. The development of analytical procedures based on these principles is in progress for multielement trace analysis in different matrices including solid and liquid wastes. An intercomparison study of trace and minor element analysis in IAEA Soil and lake sediment standards was performed with source-excited ED-XRF method and good agreements were observed. Using the existing standard analytical techniques of source-excited ED-XRF and flame AAS, 34 effluent samples from paper, tannery and fertilizer industries were analyzed for about 15 elements with Z > 19 to obtain baseline information. Future studies will be directed to industrial emissions and effluents from fertilizer factories, paper mills, chemical industries, power plants and steel mills. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

137

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

2008-03-15

138

Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

139

Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

140

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

 
 
 
 
141

Environmental policy, intra-industry trade and transfrontier pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses effects of domestic environmental policy on foreign emissions and on transboundary pollution. We use a Dixit-Stiglitz type model of monopolistic competition with an endogenous number of firms. Production generates environmental externalities which spill over to the other country. It is shown that environmental policy has an impact on market structure at home and abroad. These market structure effects induce changes in emissions abroad. In contrast to what has been derived in earlier contributions, it turns out to be possible that tighter environmental standards at home lead to less emissions abroad. The paper derives these results and provides the economic intuition behind them. Finally, conditions for optimal environmental policies are derived. 17 refs

142

STUDIES ON THE POLLUTION OF WATERBODY BY TEXTILE INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution arises from introduction of foreign materials capable of deteriorating water quality into a waterbody, hence, posing negative effects on aquatic lives and human health. Industrial effluents accounts for several point sources of water pollution. To quantify the impacts of these industrial discharges on water bodies, water samples from a stream polluted by a textile industry were collected at twelve sampling points with sampling intervals of 50 m. Samples were analyzed using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: temperature, turbidity, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC, color, total dissolved solids (TDS, suspended solids (SS, total solids (TS dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, metals (Chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, potassium (K and total coliform. Results showed that parameters: (colour, EC, SS, TDS, TSS, nitrate, phosphate, COD and TC recorded high values at the discharge point (0 m and points 50 m, 100 m after the discharge point respectively. Zero values of DO observed at these sampling points showed that the stream was heavily polluted and may not likely support aquatic lives. Metal values of the stream were generally low. This study also revealed that the values of most water parameters were higher than international permissible standards in drinking water, thereby, rendering the stream useless for domestic, agriculture and industrial purposes. This study, therefore, recommends that wastewater from the textile industry should be treated before being discharge into the water body.

ADENOWO, J.A.

2010-12-01

143

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

Islam Mir Sujaul

2013-01-01

144

Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of industrial cities in developed countries use automatic station networks for monitoring of Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), and the tremendous amount of data acquired are often used to verify that the concentrations are within safety levels and to warn the population in the other case. Furthermore, these data can be used to investigate the source-receptor relationship. In this study, the data were collected from automatic monitoring stations in Ulsan, the most industrialized city in South Korea. The dataset consists of hourly concentrations of five CAPs (SO2, CO, O3, NO2, and PM10) recorded at 13 monitoring stations in the city during a full year (March 2011-February 2012). Different types of sources were identified by studying the temporal (daily and seasonal) trends and spatial distributions of CAPs with wind directions. It was confirmed that SO2 pollution in Ulsan originated mostly from local industrial areas, whereas CO and NO2 were also substantially influenced by mobile sources. The high PM10 levels resulted from both local industries and traffic sources as well as from remote sources. The originality of this work comes from the study of the high episodes of pollutions on a case by case basis as well as on average data. Moreover, rather simple statistical tools developed in this study can be used for a real-time diagnosis of the local pollution in large urban and industrial areas.

Clarke, Kevin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

2014-10-01

145

Guides to pollution prevention: the automotive refinishing industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automotive refinishing shops generate a variety of wastes while performing typical auto body repair and refinishing operations such as welding, filling dents, body section adjustments, alignments, sanding and painting. Opportunities for waste reduction exist for the waste thinners, solvents, and paints generated as well as the air emissions and waste water discharges. Both source reduction and recycling opportunities are identified. Suggestions include improved paint application technology and substitute paints; recovery and reuse of solvents and thinners; and implementing good materials management and housekeeping practices. To help companies in the industry identify opportunities for waste reduction at their own shops, the guide includes a set of worksheets which take the user step-by-step through an analysis of the on-site waste generating operations and the possibilities for minimizing each waste. The guide and its worksheets would also be instructive to consultants serving the automotive refinishing industry and government agencies who regulate waste streams generated from these firms.

1991-10-01

146

Computer Industry as a National Task  

Science.gov (United States)

This article studies a forgotten research project of recent Finnish history of information technology by the name of “Suomalainen tietokoneprojekti”, in English “The Finnish Computer Project” (FICO). The FICO project was a government-sponsored research project initially aimed at producing a Finnish (mini) computer for international markets, especially in socialist countries. Researchers carried out the project in 1975-1976. However, after the researchers had produced their preliminary study report in six months time, the project was not continued. I argue that historians have misrepresented the FICO project in recent research and when properly studied, the project can offer new perspectives to an early development phase of present-like science and technology policy in Finland. Notwithstanding FICO’s topicality, this article focuses on examining what the involved people meant by the “national task” of the project. I further argue that we can best understand FICO as a continuation of earlier ideas on building high technology, in this case electronics and computers, capabilities and expertise as a Finnish national project. Moreover, focusing on these distinct national projections in action might offer one key to understanding similar attempts at “national projects” in other countries as well.

Paju, Petri

147

THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and carbon (CO and CO2. The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches; percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA

2013-03-01

148

Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

1977-02-01

149

Mortality analysis by neighbourhood in a city with high levels of industrial air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives Taranto, a city in south-eastern Italy, suffers serious environmental pollution from industrial sources. A previous cohort analysis found mortality excesses among neighbourhoods closest to industrial areas. Aim of this study was to investigate whether mortality also increased in other neighbourhoods compared to Apulia region. Methods Standardized mortality ratios were computed. Number of deaths and of person-years at risk by neighbourhood came from the previous cohort study for 199...

Vigotti, Maria Angela; Mataloni, Francesca; Bruni, Antonella; Minniti, Caterina; Gianicolo, Emilio A. L.

2014-01-01

150

Ecopetrol, motor of the national industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper refers to the production of parts in the city of Barrancabermeja, on the part of Ecopetrol, becoming the motor for the development of the small and medium companies (pyme) that now have the capacity to built pieces and supplies, that it requires the refinery and that before they were bought in the exterior. An analysis of this market is made in the national and international environment

151

Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

2014-11-01

152

Monitoring of heavy metal pollutants in industrial emission and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PIXE, ED-XRF, AAS and some other trace analysis techniques have been used to study trace elements in air particulates and other environmental samples. For the PIXE measurements, samples are collected with a 6-stage Batelle type cascade impactor using Nuclepore filters and MicroMatter calibration standards. Baseline measurements have been made in the laboratory environment, and field samples have been collected in a local tannery. Recent work has been mainly concerned with developing and testing the necessary analytical methodologies. Future studies will focus on industrial emissions from fertilizer factories, pulp and paper mills, a chemical complex, steel mills and an oil refinery. 2 figs, 6 tabs

153

7 CFR 1260.113 - Established national nonprofit industry-governed organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Established national nonprofit industry-governed organizations. 1260.113...Established national nonprofit industry-governed organizations. Established...which: (a) Are nonprofit organizations pursuant to...

2010-01-01

154

Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations. PMID:16963182

Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

2007-03-22

155

Effect of Sulphurdioxide Pollution on Immunoglobulins of the Industrial Workers and the Residents of the Vicinity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is caused by the increased concentration of any of its constituent above the normal value and this type of situation prevails in highly industrialized areas. SO2 is among the air pollutants which produces bad effects on human health. The value of IgG in industrial workers were high and IgM was low which might be due to repeated exposure to SO2 pollutant, IgM production was switched over to IgG which results in high level of IgG and low level of IgM. IgA level was low, which might be due to the transportation of circulatory IgA to the epithelial surface for defence.

Hina Syed

2000-01-01

156

Wastewater Pollution Abatement in China: A Comparative Study of Fifteen Industrial Sectors from 1998 to 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the management of wastewater pollutants in a number of Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2010. We use decomposition analysis to calculate changes in wastewater pollutant emissions that result from cleaner production processes, end-of-pipe treatment, structural changes in industry, and changes in the scale of production. We focus on one indicator of water quality and three pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD, petroleum, cyanide, and volatile phenols. We find that until 2002, COD emissions were mainly reduced through end-of-pipe treatments. Cleaner production processes didn’t begin contributing to COD emissions reductions until the introduction of a 2003 law that enforced their implementation. Petroleum emissions were primarily lowered through cleaner production mechanisms, which have the added benefit of reducing the input cost of intermediate petroleum. Diverse and effective pollution abatement strategies for cyanide and volatile phenols are emerging among industries in China. It will be important for the government to consider differences between industries should they choose to regulate the emissions of specific chemical substances.

Shinji Kaneko

2013-03-01

157

Protecting the Groundwater Environment of Tulkarem City of Palestine from Industrial and Domestic Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Domestic sewage, solid waste, industrial activities, and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides are the main sources of pollution that threaten the main groundwater aquifers of Tulkarem City of Palestine which add to the problem of water scarcity already experienced by the Palestinians in the West Bank. These aquifers are a vital groundwater resource that provides high quality water. This paper prese...

Amjad Aliewi; Najwan Imseih; Deeb Abdulghafour

2013-01-01

158

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

159

Construction of an environmental pollution map for some industrial sites using some bio-indicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with an environmental pollution through determination of the heavy metal pollutants namely Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ni,Pb and Zn which are known to cause hazard to plants and animals in water, soil and plants at different sites in Helwan and El-Tibben as old industrial areas and Toshki as pre-industrial area. In addition to, study physico-parameters of water, major anions and major cations. The thesis is divided into four main chapters (introduction, experimental, results and discussion, and comparison between Toshki, Helwan and el-Tibben)in addition to summary and conclusion, references, abstract and arabic summary. The first chapter of the thesis comprises the general introduction, which gives introduction on the subject under investigation . Also contains a brief account on the environmental pollution of water, soil and plants in addition to the impact of industrial pollution in egypt , previous work on heavy metal pollutants then the characteristic of the investigated heavy metal pollutants and natural radioactivity for the soil of the investigated areas. The second chapter contains a description of selected areas, the methodology of sampling, sample preparation for water, soil and plant and method of analysis of the selected heavy metals. The third chapter involves the results and discussion . The results revealed physico-chemical parameters measured in water samples collected from investigated areas as temperature, ph, dissolved oxygen(DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) , and total alkalinity as well as determination of the major anions and cations in water samples collected from investigated areas. Heavy metals determined in water, soil and plants in addition to natural radioactivity in soil samples for each of the studied industrial cities, Helwan, el-ti been and Toshki

160

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved “critical receptor” stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

Bechtel Nevada

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

75 FR 54779 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...now Murphy Beds and a Starbucks...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2010-09-09

162

77 FR 58321 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources...welfare, or the environment. Deletion from the...Environmental protection; Air pollution control;...

2012-09-20

163

77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources...welfare, or the environment. Deletion from the...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2012-01-20

164

76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...through the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED...welfare, or the environment. Deletion of a site...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-03-02

165

77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources...welfare, or the environment. Deletion of a site...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2012-05-25

166

75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), have determined...welfare, or the environment. Deletion of a site...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2010-09-13

167

75 FR 44920 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...welfare, or the environment. Sites on the NPL...human health and the environment are being protected...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2010-07-30

168

76 FR 32081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...welfare, or the environment. Sites on the NPL...human health and the environment and, therefore, additional...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-06-03

169

75 FR 54821 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List; Intent...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...of Public Health and Environment, have determined that...Public Health and the Environment, 4300 Cherry Creek...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2010-09-09

170

79 FR 32673 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Deletion of the B&B Chemical Co., Inc. AGENCY...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...Superfund, Water pollution control, Water...

2014-06-06

171

79 FR 17060 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...furans are also chemicals of concern (COCs...the addition of a pollution control device...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...Superfund, Water pollution control, Water...

2014-03-27

172

79 FR 32689 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...Deletion of the B&B Chemical Co., Inc Superfund...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...Superfund, Water pollution control, and...

2014-06-06

173

75 FR 43082 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...the screening criteria was arsenic, which slightly exceeded...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2010-07-23

174

77 FR 45968 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...as documented by the Final Pollution Report (POLREP) for the...percent of this risk is due to arsenic, with twenty-five percent...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water...

2012-08-02

175

Investigation of Pollutants Load in Waste Water of Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has not only provided the basic facilities for human being but also has generated different environmental problems. The environmental consequences of industrial estates are in the forms of air, water, soil and solid wate pollution. The industries play a vital role in the socioeconomic development of an area and provide one of the basic amenities of life and employment. Industrial development changes the social structure of an area, develops and promotes its infrastructure that's why man is bent on industrializing his domain from earlier. The environment acts like a source to supply raw materials for production processes. The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE, Peshawar, to investigate the individual industrial effluent load. All the industries were divided into five categories like Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical and Paper and three industry from each category were selected. The samples were collected from end-up-pipe of individual industrial process and were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Effluent of Marble, Match, Steel, Pharmaceutical, and Paper industries were analyzed for pH, Temperature, DO, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cu were investigated in the effluents of selected industries. The concentrations of BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Pb, Cr and Ni were found higher than NEQS for industrial discharges. The wastewater flow rate was also calculated for industrial effluent. Wastewater treatment facilities are not present in the industrial estate. The study suggests that huge quantities of wastewater is generating in industrial estate can be minimized through process modification, change in existing equipment, installation of recycling plants and selection of proper trained employees.

Sardar Khan

2002-01-01

176

77 FR 21870 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...250 Arsenic...manganese, cadmium, and arsenic. Operation and Maintenance...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water...

2012-04-12

177

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

Harris, Janet S.

2011-04-01

178

Modeling of Ambient Air Pollutants through Artificial Neural Network in Industrial Area of Ujjain City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was modeling of ambient air pollutants through ANN, in industrial area of Ujjain city in India and the study was carried out on modeling of air pollutants like Sox, Nox, SPM and RSPM using Artificial Neural Network. The ANN system was run by giving the inputs of meteorological data’s and giving the outputs of concentration of various pollutants and accordingly the estimation of Errors was done by this study. The monthly data’s in year from 2006 -2012 of meteorological data like Temperature, Humidity, wind pressure and rainfall and the pollutants concentration were collected from the State Pollution Control Board. The ANN system used as shown in figure 1 analyses all these data’s and find the error coming during the experiment. The study estimated the Mean Square Error (MSE from the inputs and outputs which were given to ANN in the industrial area of Ujjain City in India was found satisfactory being in the range of 0.01-0.03. The results shown here indicate that the neural network techniques can be useful tool in the hands of practitioners of air quality management and prediction. The models studied in this study are easily implemented, and they can deliver prediction in real time, unlike other modeling techniques.

Alka Srivastava*

2014-01-01

179

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved 'critical receptor' stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout)

180

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...telephone number for the Air Docket is (202) 566-1742...National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act...through the Technology Transfer Network Web site (TTN Web...exchange in various areas of air pollution...

2011-03-09

182

76 FR 55384 - Notice of Decision Not To Reissue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...  

Science.gov (United States)

...To Reissue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for the...such requirements. Authority: Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. Dated...2011. Troy C. Hill, Acting Director, Water Quality Protection Division, EPA...

2011-09-07

183

75 FR 76984 - Notice Regarding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General Permit for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General...to section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) from Hawaii and...EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management...EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater...

2010-12-10

184

Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

Uffia, I. Dan

2013-01-01

185

Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

186

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relations are shown used for calculating air and surface pollution in the METEO-2 computer programme. The programme may be used for computing both short-term and long-term stack emissions of conventional and radioactive industrial wastes into the atmosphere and their deposition in the neighbouring environment. The factors for pollution computation comprise vertical plume dynamics and heat capacity. Methods of dispersion data determination are given. The practical choice of a mesh point system used in the computations is discussed. (J.B.)

187

Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

188

The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general and technogenic hotspots. Airpollution- related health effects can be reduced through policies that curb emissions. Among measures that can be undertaken to achieve these reductions is the use technology in industry and programs to increase public awareness. However Kazakhstani society is more concerned about social problems; government does not want to disturb people, because environmental problems are far from a positive decision.

Vitaliy G. Salnikov

2011-01-01

189

Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry. Changes in chlorophyll content were investigated in selected plant species exposed to dust emitted by the cement industry. The concentration of chlorophyll in all the selected plant species i.e. Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species were investigated and noted that amount of chlorophyll in all plants that are away from cement plant have more chlorophyll than that of near to the industry. Control plants were found always with higher chlorophyll content in comparison to dusted plants. Up to 74.69% reduction was observed in studied plants. In general, pollution by the cement dust has caused adverse effects on the photosynthetic pigments.

Sadhana Chaurasia

2013-12-01

190

Evaluation of Indoor Air Pollution of Polyurethane Industries with Emphasis on Exposure with Methylene Diphenyle Diisocyanate (MDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diisocyanates are used as a initial chemical material in different factories such as surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders and sealants. In the polyurethane workplace there are aerosols of diisocyanates which has important to effect on workers. They can also be exposed to partial reaction of isocyanate-containing intermediates formed during polyurethane production. The main objective of this study pointed on assessment of exposure risk factors with MDI in the workplace, determination of MDI concentration and biomonitoring of MDA in polyurethane industries. NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 5522 sampling and analysis method was used by midget impinger contained dimethyl sulfoxide with tryptamine. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography was employed for air sampling analysis and GC (Gas Chromatography for urine analysis. Getting personality data was carried out by Health Surveillance Questionnaire and multiple linear regression models with ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis. The result of study showed that there was a diisocyanate pollution (MDI > 96.6?g/m³ and it have seen in the workers' urine. A new approach to assess isocyanate pollution in the workplace is risk factor assessment simultaneously with indoor air pollution and biological monitoring.

Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi

2010-01-01

191

Application of nuclear track membrane for the reduction of pollutants in the industrial effluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial pollution is growing at a faster rate due to the discharge of untreated effluent in the open environment. It is a serious threat to human health and aquatic life and causes deterioration of the environment. Untreated effluent is a cognizable offence under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) 1997. An experimental study has been carried out on ceramics, pulp/paper and textile/yarn effluents to assess the removal efficiency of the pollutants by the use of nuclear track membrane. The parameters such as flux, temperature, applied pressure, flow rates, density, concentration of the effluents and their interrelationships have been illustrated. Moreover, it was shown that the pollution parameters had been reduced quantitatively in post filtration effluents.

Husaini, S.N. [Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: husaini@pinstech.org.pk; Zaidi, J.H. [Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); Malik, F. [Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); Arif, M. [Department of Chemistry, B. Z. University, Multan (Pakistan)

2008-08-15

192

Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

193

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009 Using the LMDI I Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N, between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity, structure effects (caused by change in economic structure and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector, using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I decomposition method. Results showed that: (1 the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2 the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3 the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4 the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction.

Beidou Xi

2012-06-01

194

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

2012-05-01

195

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

Houria Chettibi

2005-12-01

196

Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

197

Pollution prevention and wastewater treatment in fish canning industries of Northern Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main environmental problems of fish canning industries are high water consumption and high organic matter, oil and grease and salt content in their wastewaters. This work aims to analyze the situation (water consumption, wastewater production, wastewater characterization, etc.) of different plants located north of Douro river, in Portugal, in order to propose various solutions to their problems. Thus, initially it was made an identification and implementation of prevent and control pollut...

Cristova?o, Raquel; Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui

2012-01-01

198

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mean horizontal wind velocity is defined and it is calculated that it varies little with height so that it may be considered as constant up to the reference level which corresponds to the height of the source of industrial pollution. The formula is given for the calculation of the mean dispersion values of the diffusion coefficient and of the dispersion factor. (J.P.)

199

Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

2014-11-01

200

Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m2/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

 
 
 
 
201

78 FR 49993 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C....

2013-08-16

202

78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C....

2013-08-12

203

77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C....

2012-10-23

204

78 FR 44512 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The...California, through the Regional Water Quality Control Board-- San...recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33...

2013-07-24

205

78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C....

2013-08-05

206

77 FR 43567 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C....

2012-07-25

207

78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C....

2013-07-30

208

77 FR 67777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...background or anthropogenic background wells. Arsenic did not exceed the MCL or Part 201...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply....

2012-11-14

209

77 FR 50044 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...groundwater criteria in the ROD had been met. Arsenic was detected in one well in excess...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated:...

2012-08-20

210

76 FR 30027 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Science.gov (United States)

...concluded that non-lead metals (including arsenic and manganese) in residential soils...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated:...

2011-05-24

211

76 FR 510 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...analyzed for semivolatile organics and arsenic. This was followed by a grid investigation...Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste...recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2011-01-05

212

Assessment of water pollution in different bleaching based paper manufacturing and textile dyeing industries in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paper industries using different raw materials such as hard wood, bamboo, baggase, rice-straw and waste papers and bleaching chemicals like chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, sulphite and oxygen were studied to estimate organic pollution load and Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX) per ton of production. The hard wood based paper industries generate higher Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads (105-182 kg t(-1)) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loads (32.0-72 kg t(-1)) compared to the agro and waste paper based industrial effluents. The bleaching sequences such as C-EP-H-H, C-E-H-H, C-E-Do-D1 and O-Do-EOP-D1 are adopted in the paper industries and the molecular elemental chlorine free bleaching sequence discharges low AOX in the effluent. The range of AOX concentration in the final effluent from the paper industries was 0.08-0.99 kg t(-1) of production. Water consumption was in the range of 100-130 m(3) t(-1) of paper production for wood based industries and 30-50 m(3) for the waste paper based industries. Paper machine effluents are partially recycled after treatment and pulp mill black liquor are subject to chemical recovery after evaporation to reduce the water consumption and the total pollution loads. Hypochlorite bleaching units of textile bleaching processes generate more AOX (17.2-18.3 mg l(-1)) and are consuming more water (45-80 l kg(-1)) whereas alkali peroxide bleaching hardly generates the AOX in the effluents and water consumption was also comparatively less (40 l kg(-1) of yarn/cloth). PMID:17294270

Ranganathan, K; Jeyapaul, S; Sharma, D C

2007-11-01

213

Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

214

Arsenic pollution at the industrial site of Reppel-Bocholt (north Belgium).  

Science.gov (United States)

An industrial site, polluted with As and heavy metals, was investigated by combining chemical (sequential extractions and pHstat leaching tests), physical and mineralogical characterization of soil samples and slag fragments, and by the analysis of soil porewater aimed at assessing the distribution, speciation and mobility of heavy metals and As. On the site itself, arsenic concentrations up to 3.6% in surficial soil samples and up to 22% in slag fragments were found, together with elevated concentrations (percentage level) of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn and Pb. High concentrations of arsenic (up to 38,000 microg/l) and heavy metals (up to 1700 microg/l Cu and 4700 microg/l Zn) were also found in the in situ sampled soil porewater, highlighting the considerable availability of As, Zn and Cu for uptake by plants and leaching to the ground water. Sequential extractions also indicated a high availability of arsenic and copper in most samples and slag fragments of the industrial site, although poorly reactive phases were encountered as well. pHstat leaching tests confirmed that the present leaching of contaminants is alarming. Moreover, soil acidification will enhance the leaching of contaminants, emphasizing that remediation of the industrial site is urgent. Small scale variability of total metal concentrations and metal speciation, both in the horizontal and vertical direction, and the occurrence of a camouflage layer underline the importance of elaborate sampling for pollution assessment on an industrial site. PMID:12186289

Cappuyns, V; Van Herreweghe, S; Swennen, R; Ottenburgs, R; Deckers, J

2002-08-01

215

Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winnersder themselves winners

216

Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

217

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-07-01

218

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-03-01

219

Analysis of black carbon, particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants in an industrial area in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), CO, NO 2, SO 2, benzene, toluene, and xylene were measured in an industrial area in Incheon City, Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that PC1 had high contributions from PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene (31.225%), and was strongly associated with vehicular emissions and industrial sources, the major contributors to air pollution in Incheon. PC2 was heavily enriched with NO 2 and BC (24.555%), and was attributed to emissions from vehicles such as buses, vans, taxis, cars, motorcycles, and trucks. PC3 was highly enriched with toluene and xylene (20.884%), and thus represented solvent usage. PC4 was enriched with SO 2 (12.884%), which could be attributed to the high S content in diesel fuel used in trucks, which may contribute to the high ambient levels of SO 2 in the city. Cluster analysis (CA) revealed four subgroups: Cluster 1 (SO 2), Cluster 2 (toluene and xylene), Cluster 3 (NO 2 and BC), and Cluster 4 (PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene), which agree with the PCA results. This study showed that benzene had a higher correlation with PM 2.5, PM 10, and CO than toluene and xylene, providing insights into source contributions that, together with a source-species atmospheric dispersion model, can be used to devise new control strategies for industrial urban areas. Our results suggest that appropriate vehicle emission management coupled with industrial air pollution control should be applied to fine particulate (PM 2.5) and gaseous pollutants including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in the study area.

Yoo, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jungkon; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

2011-12-01

220

Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS on the pollution abatement costs (PAC from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. Our findings are that SETPS failed to reduce PAC as a whole. During 2002 to 2011, SETPS increased APAC by 1310 RMB per ton on average and had an insignificant negative effect on MPAC. Nevertheless, the conclusions would be markedly different if we separately investigated the effects of SETPS each year of the pilot period. The positive effects of SETPS on PAC started to appear since 2009, and SETPS significantly reduced both APAC and MPAC, especially in 2009 and 2011.

Zhengge Tu

2014-10-01

222

Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

223

Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 ? g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 ? g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. ?(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region. PMID:23484131

Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

2013-01-01

224

Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation: A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrial disposal of effluents on land and the subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands – is a relatively new area of research. The environmental and socioeconomic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domestic sewage based irrigation practices, at least for a developing country like India. The disposal of effluents on land has become a regular practice for some industries. Industries located in Mettupala...

Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Nelliyat, Prakash

2006-01-01

225

Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances - overview and current issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia's National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) has operated since 1973. The objectives of the National Plan are based on Australia's obligations as a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 and a responsibility to protect natural and artificial (man made) environments from the adverse effects of oil pollution and minimise those effects where protection is not possible. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is the managing agency of the National Plan, working together with the States and Northern Territory governments, other Commonwealth agencies, ports, and the shipping, oil and exploration industries, to maximise Australia's marine pollution response capability. The 1990s have been a period of significant change for oil spill response arrangements in Australia. The National Plan was extended in 1998 to cover chemical spills and is currently in the process of implementing the oil spill response incident control systems (OSRICS). A fixed wing aerial dispersant spraying capability was implemented in 1996 and a research and development program has been put in place. The development of a computer-based National Oil Spill Response Atlas was a major project completed during 1999. (Author)

226

Nineteenth century flooding and pollutant loadings from the first industrial city  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1750 and 1900 the city of Manchester was transformed. In the city and surrounding towns enormous volumes of fine-grained sediments (clays, silts and sands) were generated and much of this material, contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants, ended up in urban river channels that became choked with sediments. Water quality was dire. Urban channels were then periodically scoured by large floods from steep headwater catchments that evacuated sediments and deposited them on the wide rural floodplain downstream. The nature and extent of sediment pollution in the city and the volume of material transported by rivers can be established by studying floodplain deposits, a vital aspect of the history of the first industrial city that is now being explored. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Manchester Ship Canal (MSC) destroyed much of the valley floor of the Mersey-Irwell system downstream of the city. When the MSC opened at the beginning of 1894 it was the largest inland navigation of its kind in the world. We have identified well-preserved sedimentary records - that were not excavated or buried during the construction of the ship canal - that span this crucial period. High-resolution sampling of sediments has allowed reconstruction of large flood events, pollution history, and contaminant flux using detailed grain size and X-ray fluorescence analyses for the period up to 1887 when the construction of the MSC began. These constitute a geological archive of natural and anthropogenic environmental change before and during the Industrial Revolution. This paper presents natural baseline conditions for the Mersey-Irwell system, contaminant profiles for sediment-bound heavy metals, a record of exceptionally large floods for the nineteenth century, and the trajectory of change following the Industrial Revolution. This forms part of a larger project to establish the nature and extent of sediment pollution over the period of the Industrial Revolution in the Mersey-Irwell catchment, an important new proxy for the evolving quality of the river environment in the world's first industrial city.

Woodward, Jamie; Rothwell, James; Hurley, Rachel; Lewin, John

2014-05-01

227

The US Environmental Protection Agency National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of the Lewis Research Center's storm, sanitary and industrial sewer systems, in compliance with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, is presented. The investigation of a proposed sampling and flow measurement system includes cost estimates to meet the Federal and State of Ohio requirements.

Earls, J. M.

1975-01-01

228

Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

Auer, M.R.

1996-05-01

229

EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. The joint EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook supports the reporting of emissions data under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. It provides expert guidance on how to compile an atmospheric emissions inventory. The Guidebook is published by the EEA with the CLRTAP Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections responsible for the technical content of the chapters. The present edition replaces all earlier versions. (Author)

Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

2013-08-15

230

Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method. PMID:16181728

Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

2006-04-01

231

National implementation plan on reduction and elimination of persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Macedonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Stockholm Convention' is to protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Currently the Convention lists twelve POPs. They have similar physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. They possess toxic properties, resist degradation, bio accumulate and are transported, through air, water and migratory species, across international boundaries and deposited far from their place of release, where they accumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To reach its objectives, the Convention groups POPs into three categories. Annex A lists those intentionally produced chemicals, whose production, use, import and export have to be eliminated. They are, on the one hand, organo chlorine pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, Dieldrin, Endrin, Hexachlorobenze, Heptachlor, Mirex, Toxaphene) and industrial chemicals (PCBs) on the other. Annex B of the Convention lists those chemicals, whose production, import, export and use are allowed but restricted. Currently only DDT is listed in Annex B. Annex C to the Convention details those chemicals which are formed and released unintentionally from anthropogenic sources. They are Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and di benzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Their releases should continuously be reduced, and where feasible, with the goal of their ultimate elimination. The Convention also aims to increase public awareness on POPs and on the rease public awareness on POPs and on the activities related to POPs. It also requests parties to develop a National Implementation Plan, which describes what measures the party will take, how much time and financial support would be required to meet the obligations of this treaty. Macedonia signed the Stockholm Convention on 23rd May 2001, and ratified it on March 19th 2004. With the fund from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and with the assistance of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning prepared the first NIP for Macedonia. The preparation took two years and the National POPs Office coordinated all the activities. The first part of this document summarizes the current status in Macedonia with regards to POPs. This is the baseline inventory. The second part of the NIP details all the actions which need to be undertaken in order to meet all the obligations of the Convention. (Original)

232

Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and setive non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

233

Removal of primary and secondary pollutants from the atmosphere of an industrial city by rain: A nonlinear model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a nonlinear model for removal of both primary and secondary air pollutants from the atmosphere of an industrial city by rain is proposed. We consider that there exist four interacting phases in the atmosphere i.e., the droplet phase, primary pollutant phase, secondary pollutant phase and the phase of these pollutants absorbed in the droplets. The dynamics of these phases is assumed to be governed by the ordinary differential equations with source (growth), nonlinear interaction and removal terms. In writing the model, the rates of absorption of pollutants by the droplet phase is assumed to be proportional to the concentrations of the respective pollutants and the number density of rain droplets. Also the removal term, due to falling of droplets on the ground, is considered to be proportional to the concentrations of both the pollutants in the absorbed phase as well as the number density of rain droplets in the atmosphere. It is shown that under appropriate conditions, the equilibrium concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere are lower due to rain washout than their corresponding original values and decrease as the rate of falling droplets on the ground increases. It is further shown that the pollutants form the atmosphere can be removed completely but it would depend upon the rate of emission of primary pollutant from various sources, rate of formation of secondary pollutant, rate of absorption and rate of falling droplets on the ground.

Shukla, J.B. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Naresh, R. [H.B. Technological Institute, Kanpur (India)

1996-12-31

234

Survey of risk reduction and pollution prevention practices in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1996 a survey of pollution prevention, environmental control, and occupational health and safety practices was conducted in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry sector. In conjunction with project partners, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management developed a multidimensional survey instrument to identify risk reduction opportunities. Investigators sought to characterize the range of environmental and industrial hygiene control employed by Rhode Island facilities for the purposes of focusing state technical and compliance assistance efforts. Data were collected on a diverse range of subject areas including work force demographics; source reduction; potential health hazards; worker protection and safety; solid and hazardous waste management; and air pollution control. Nearly one-half of the shops employ three or fewer people, and in many cases, spray painters double as body repair technicians thereby increasing their potential exposure to workplace contaminants. While nearly all of the shops reported that they use spray painting booths, only 38% own booths the more effective downdraft design. Based on the self-reported data, recently promulgated state air pollution control regulations (requiring the use of compliant coatings, enclosed or modified spray gun cleaners, and high-volume, low-pressure, spray guns) appear to be effective at motivating companies toward source reduction. A range of risk reduction opportunities were identified as input material changes, technology changes, and improved operating practices. Better methods of risk communication; a professional licensing requirement; and targeted training, compliance, and technical assistance would help to achieve greater levels of risk reduction in this mature, high-hazard industry. PMID:9697296

Enander, R T; Gute, D M; Missaghian, R

1998-07-01

235

Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and will discuss the findings in regard to noise control and management in details.

Parvin Nasiri

1999-03-01

236

Trace metal content in airborne particulate matter measured at a polluted industrial site in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Many epidemiological studies have implicated the association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse human health effects, especially metal content as a possible harmful component of PM. Twenty four-hour samples of PM10 were collected on cellulose filters at a polluted industrial monitoring site for one month and analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The method was used to quantify airborne concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn. The results were compared with Croatian and European legislation. (author)

237

Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

238

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

NSTec Environmental Technical Services

2007-06-01

239

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-02-01

240

Radiation-induced oxidation of biologically resistent organic pollutants in industrial waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidative ?-radiation-induced degradation of organic pollutants in industrial waste water is demonstrated with the biologically resistant chlorinated phenols as well as with a waste water containing organic dyes. Complete dechlorination of the chlorinated phenols is achieved with an absorbed dose of 6 Mrad. The organic chlorine is completely converted to chloride. In average 1 Mrad degrades 200 ppm of organic substrate. The final products of the radiation induced oxidation are degraded by activated sludge bacteria. The red coloured waste waters of biologically resistant anthraquinone dyes are completely decolourized after absorption of a ?-dose of 2.5 Mrad. With increasing irradiation time the TOC and COD values decrease. The irradiated decolourized solutions are not at all toxic for fish. - The radiation-induced oxidation of refractory industrial waste waters with non-biodegradable organic pollutants is discussed as a pretreatment to the activated-sludge process. The potential application of the Cs fission products or solified radioactive waste as radiation sources is briefly outlined. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
241

Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. PMID:25063882

Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

2014-10-01

242

Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

Timur, Emre

2014-05-01

243

76 FR 45432 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...included waste removal, water treatment, oil/water separation, and sludge stabilization. Approximately 250,000 gallons...and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: July 22, 2011. Al...

2011-07-29

244

76 FR 76314 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...included waste removal, water treatment, oil/water separation, and sludge stabilization. Approximately 250,000 gallons...and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: November 14, 2011. Al...

2011-12-07

245

CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (3RD) HELD AT ORLANDO HYATT HOUSE, KISSIMMEE, FLORIDA ON APRIL 14-16, 1980  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary points of the gathering were: The status of EPA's wastewater and solid waste regulations, and both EPA's and industry's research efforts to effectively address the ramifications of these regulations. Air pollution and energy recovery, financial pollution control alter...

246

Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park  

Science.gov (United States)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a (2300 square km) National Environmental Research Park that has been used for research and operational support of nuclear power. The Park includes scattered industrial operations and provides an ideal setting to study effects of industry on semi-arid environments. One of the facilities on the Research Park is the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center (INTEC). This facility reprocessed spent nuclear fuel from the US Navy, and its operations included heating acidic solutions to convert wastes to a solid form. The conversion released nitrogen oxides, low levels of other gases (including HF), and small amounts of solid particles through a facility stack. A fossil-fuel power plant also contributed airborne contaminants including sulfur dioxide. A 1985 study identified the effects of INTEC operations on the health of lichens Xanthoria polycarpa (quantified using electrolyte leakage), on levels of trace metals in the lichens X. polycarpa and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, and on the levels of trace metals in higher plants and soils. The study concluded that operations impacted the physiological health of X. polycarpa southwest of the plant, and that lead was significantly higher downwind of the plant relative to other locations. Effects of the plant were re-examined in 1999 as part of an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate the environmental effects of measures available to deal with radioactive waste at INTEC. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the facility decreased from approximately 375 tonsyear to approximately 10 tonsyear between the two studies. The re-examination of lichens showed that the measure of physiological health used in the previous study (conductivity of rinsates collected from lichen thalli) correlated well to the levels of potassium measured in rinsates collected from thalli. There, however, was no correlation between the levels of potassium/conductivity of such rinsates and the levels of total potassium in lichens or between levels of potassium/conductivity and macroscopic vigor of the lichens or between levels of potassium/conductivity in rinsates and chlorophyll ratios (another common indicator of the physiological health of lichens). This suggests that potassium levels in rinsates may not be a good indicator of physiological stress. X. polycarpa abundance varied with direction from the facility. The species was lacking from background locations at Craters of the Moon National monument. Cover on dead Artemisia tridentata twigs varied between 2 and 5% downwind and crosswind for the predominant wind direction, but approached 75% to the north and northeast (downwind) of the facility. This differential cover is striking but was not noted in the previous study and probably reflects increased abundance of the nitrogen loving X. polycarpa downwind from the facility between the two studies. Calcium levels in R. melanophthalma around INTEC were significantly higher than calcium levels in lichens from the background location at Craters of the Moon. This may reflect migration of the species to more buffered calcium carbonate substrates in response to acidified precipitation. Levels of calcium in R. melanophthalma fell between the two studies, possibly reflecting less substrate acidification during the later period. Lead was not significantly elevated during the second study, but mercury may be elevated downwind of the facility.

Marty, R. C.; Forman, A.; Crawford, R.; Tyler, T.

2001-12-01

247

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

1999-06-01

248

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

R. F. Grossman

2000-06-01

249

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

250

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2011-06-01

251

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2013-06-01

252

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides (2014)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2014-06-01

253

Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

2013-11-01

254

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

2007-07-01

255

Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failure.

I. M. Román-Sánchez

2013-06-01

256

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility

257

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility.

Y. E. Townsend

2002-06-01

258

Pollution strength in effluents of Telephone Industries of Pakistan (TIP) in Haripur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The telephone industries of Pakistan (TiP), being the oldest industry in District Haripur, is in is operation for the last forty years. Industrial wastewater is drained into a natural stream/nallah, which is either used for agricultural purposes of becomes part of an Ox-Bow lake in the midway used for fishing and it ultimately joins river Indus through river Haro. Effluents were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, hardness alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids and ammonia etc. Cations like nickel, copper, iron, chromium and anions like sulphates and nitrates were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Some trace metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, cobalt, arsenic and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. The results were interpreted an d compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). (author)

259

The British National Museum of Science and Industry: Ingenious  

Science.gov (United States)

The British National Museum of Science and Industry (NMSI) hosts the Ingenious website, which "brings together images and viewpoints to create insights into science and culture." Visitors can read articles covering over 30 topics, including travelling, communication, and the environment. The entries are organized so you can explore topics further. For example, the section on Understanding our World includes a discussion of "the beauty and utility of maths," which then leads to three other articles on mathematics. The image or "See" section, which includes over 30,000 images from the Science Museum, the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, the National Railway Museum, the Science & Society Picture Library and the Science Museum Library, can be searched or browsed by topic area. By completing the free registration form, you can join in the Debate on questions such as "Has technology given us a home life filled with opportunities?" Registered users can also go to the Create section to set up personalized links, saved images, e-cards, and web galleries.

260

Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

 
 
 
 
261

Metal body burdens and detoxifying enzymes in spiders from industrially polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and metal concentrations have been monitored in four species of spiders from differently contaminated localities in Southern Poland. A behavioural feeding activity and the life style decide on sensitivity and vulnerability of spiders. Wolf-spiders, more active than the web-spinners, cumulate higher amounts of metals, reflecting quantitatively and qualitatively the pollution level in their environment. Detoxifying systems in spiders appeared inducible and efficient to maintain normal physiological responses. Within web-spinning spiders the linyphiids seem to be the most effective regulators of metal burdens. Their detoxifying capabilities correlate well with increased industrial contaminants. The analysis of biochemical biomarkers of exposure confirmed earlier ecological findings that species of the family Linyphiidae are more favoured than the Araneidae. Differences in their feeding activity, behaviour of web-spinning and the size of animals would explain alterations in detoxifying abilities between Meta segmentata and Araneus diadematus. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilczek, G. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, P. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland)

1996-03-01

262

Heavy metals as stressing factors in the red wood ants (Formica polyctena) from industrially polluted forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relations between metal contaminations in social groups of ants from colonies of Formica polyctena, from 5 localities variously contaminated by industrial pollution, and their metabolic and detoxifying strategies have been investigated. Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu levels have been measured in social groups of workers and pupae throughout the season. Patterns of metabolic, transport and detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and phosphoadenine nucleotides and the energy charge (AEC) have been determined. The metal content is a measure of the level of contamination and has been the highest in foragers returning to the nest. Body burdens of Cd, Pb and Zn diminished progressively from the surface workers to those from the inner part of the hill. The concentration of total adenylates was slightly lower than stated in Finnish ants poisoned with Cd, but the AEC index was always above 0.8, with high variations between the social groups. Carboxylesterases showed a positive correlation of activity pattern with the metal load in foraging workers, with the highest value for cadmium load in ants from a locality in the middle of a pollution gradient. The pattern of superoxide dismutase activity has been site-dependent, but it did not correlate well with the metal load in workers. PMID:15067465

Migula, P; G?owacka, E

1996-03-01

263

Heavy metals as stressing factors in the red wood ants (Formica polyctena) from industrially polluted forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relations between metal contaminations in social groups of ants from colonies of Formica polyctena, from 5 localities variously contaminated by industrial pollution, and their metabolic and detoxifying strategies have been investigated. Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu levels have been measured in social groups of workers and pupae throughout the season. Patterns of metabolic, transport and detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and phosphoadenine nucleotides and the energy charge (AEC) have been determined. The metal content is a measure of the level of contamination and has been the highest in foragers returning to the nest. Body burdens of Cd, Pb and Zn diminished progressively from the surface workers to those from the inner part of the hill. The concentration of total adenylates was slightly lower than stated in Finnish ants poisoned with Cd, but the AEC index was always above 0.8, with high variations between the social groups. Carboxylesterases showed a positive correlation of activity pattern with the metal load in foraging workers, with the highest value for cadmium load in ants from a locality in the middle of a pollution gradient. The pattern of superoxide dismutase activity has been site-dependent, but it did not correlate well with the metal load in workers. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Migula, P. [Faculty of Biology, University of Silesia 40-007 Katowice, ul. Bankowa 9 (Poland); Glowacka, E. [Faculty of Biology, University of Silesia 40-007 Katowice, ul. Bankowa 9 (Poland)

1996-03-01

264

Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale. PMID:23416485

Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

2013-03-15

265

Air pollution studies by plants growing near some industrial objects of Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaves and seeds of many popular kinds of plants in Uzbekistan was used to study atmospheric pollution near such industrial objects as Tadjik aluminum factory (TadAF), Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent institute of nuclear physics (INP). Leaves of fruit plants: vineyard, tomato and apple, apricot, quince, peach, persimmon, pomegranate, mulberry trees as well as leaves of technical crops: cotton, corn, mint and clover, which grow near above specified objects and also seeds of water-melon, tomato, aubergine, bulgarian pepper, pumpkin, grapes, cherry and persimmon from areas near aluminum factory were sampled. The purpose of choice of so much investigated vegetation was to select plants which can be used as biomonitors and which best accumulate in themselves the most harmful pollution from soil and air in order to subsequent destruction of these collector plants will be made. Investigations were conducted by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical methods. Tashkent State Agrarian University has used the alternative methods. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant leaves and seeds have been developed. (author)

266

Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

267

76 FR 49324 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...contaminants of concern are lead and arsenic. Conservation Area IS&R...found in the Initial and Final Pollution Report dated September 10...residents' exposure to lead and arsenic in the environment. In July...mg/kg lead and 100 mg/kg arsenic. Excavation was...

2011-08-10

268

Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

269

The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

270

Growth of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Mimosaceae in Polluted Soils of Landhi and Korangi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth of Albizia lebbeck was observed in the polluted soils from towel, garment, rubber and ply board factories in the vicinity of Landhi and Korangi industrial areas of Karachi. Growth of A. lebbeck was reduced in most of the industrial area soils as compared to the control soil from Karachi University campus. The rubber factory soil reduced all the growth parameters as compared to the control soil. Percentage of soil pollutants (total soluble salts and available sulfate in all of the industrial area soils was higher than in the control area soil. Percentage of coarse sand, calcium carbonate, total soluble salts, available sulfate, and chromium was higher in soil of rubber factory then in the control area soil whereas percentage of water holding capacity, organic matter and zinc was lower in soil from rubber factory than in the control area soil. This showed that the soil of industrial areas of Landhi and Korangi particularly from rubber factory and ply board factory was contaminated by the pollutants in the area and drastically affected the plant growth. The findings of this research could be helpful in monitoring and controlling the pollutant levels in soils of the industrial areas. Such information could also be useful for landscaping and urban planning.

Syed Atiq-ur- Rehman

2011-06-01

271

[Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].  

Science.gov (United States)

The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor. PMID:24946611

Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

2014-04-01

272

New industrial titania photocatalysts for the solar detoxification of water containing various pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new series of titania industrial photocatalysts have been elaborated by Millennium Inorganic Chemicals and were denoted Millennium-PC/10, PC/25 and PC/50 with respective specific surface areas equal to 11, 23 and 43m{sup 2}g{sup -1}. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined and compared in the solar pilot CPC-photoreactor at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (Spain) in the photocatalytic degradation of four different representative pollutants (4-chlorophenol, nitrobenzene, 2-chlorobenzoic acid and hydrobutanedioic (malic) acid), whose degradation pathways had previously been elucidated in laboratory experiments with artificial light, using titania Degussa P-25 as a reference photocatalyst. The study concerned the influence of (1) the nature of organic pollutants, (2) the surface area and (3) the concentration of suspended TiO{sub 2}. The affinity of the pollutants for TiO{sub 2} and the presence of heteroatoms in the reactant molecules intervened on the activities of Millennium-PCs when compared to Degussa P-25. The higher the affinity of the organic pollutants for titania, the higher the efficiency of Millennium-PC/10 photocatalyst calibrated on the initial rate of pollutant disappearance. The degradation pathways were found similar for both photocatalysts and the primary steps of the degradation for the different types of molecules were discussed. 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP), a model pollutant for waste waters, was then chosen for the study of the influence of the surface areas and of the concentration of Millennium-PC photocatalysts. The initial apparent rate constants of 4-CP degradation in presence of all Millennium-PC catalysts were all higher than that obtained with Degussa P-25. When choosing the total organic carbon (TOC) disappearance rate as an overall kinetic parameter, Millennium-PC/10 and PC/25 appeared as less active than Degussa P-25, with longer solar exposures (by about 10%) necessary to obtain a total mineralisation. However, Millennium-PC/50 resulted as the best catalyst in all cases. The optimal slurry concentration (gl{sup -1}) has been determined for each Millennium TiO{sub 2} sample.While the optimum of Degussa P-25 had previously been found equal to 0.2gl{sup -1}, higher amounts of Millennium-PC samples were required. A twice higher concentration (0.4gl{sup -1}) increased the activities by factors equal to 1.2 and 1.5 for Millennium-PC/50 and PC/10, respectively. The rate constants of disappearance of intermediates and of TOC were quantitatively affected by factors in agreement with a multiple consecutive reactions model. In any case, titania Millennium-PC/50 appeared as the best catalyst among all those tested, including Degussa P-25.

Herrmann, Jean-Marie; Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean [URA au CNRS, Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environment, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, B.P. 163, 69131 Ecully -Cedex (France); Lehaut, Corinne [Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 85 Avenue Victor Hugo, 92563 Cedex Rueil-Malmaison (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, 04200 Tabernas (Spain)

2002-01-25

273

78 FR 24134 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...currently owns the Florence Wood Treating Facility. The Facility produces treated wood products, including...railroad, and construction industries. The primary wood preserving processes...and other chlorinated phenols, polycyclic...

2013-04-24

274

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONEMENT –THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN DÂMBOVI?A COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental degradation, effect of the irrational relations between man and nature, which have been maintained along time, has determined, on the basis of certain urgent environmental warnings given by different pluri- and multidisciplinary research works carried out in time, the change of attitude of national and international public opinion towards the quality of environmental factors. Pollution, with its multiple components (water, air, soil, habitat, knows no frontiers, which makes it absolutely necessary to unite our efforts and energies in order to assure the maintenance within normal limits of the ecological balance, both for the present and for future generations. Environmental protection is a relatively recent notion, the bad consequences on certain factors considered “destructive agents” (acid rains, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, escape gases, chemical fertilizers based on nitrogen, sulphur used in agriculture, pesticides, insecticides, insecto-fungicides, industrial waste, non-recyclable wrappers have led to major environmental misbalances, which triggered the prompt reaction of most of the world’s states. The complexity of environmental factors that influence and determine environmental balance justifies the need and opportunity of a environmental management system, organized as a component of the global system of public and private.

Valeriu-Mihail Fr??il?

2009-10-01

275

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

276

Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification.

Zverev, Vitali E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: vitzve@utu.fi; Zvereva, Elena L.; Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

2008-11-15

277

STUDY ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTED INDUSTRIAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waterways are contaminated with industrial waste containing different concentrations of heavy metals, solvents and various other organic substances. All these waste products reach the people after they have accumulated in the food chain for decades. Even worse, they gather in the groundwater from which most of the drinking water is sourced. In order to determine the contents of heavy metals - arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, zinc - from various sources of drinking water and groundwater, this paper analyzed 11 water sources of drinking water and groundwater. The results were interpreted according to European quality standards and national limits that should not be exceeded to protect ecosystems and human health. In relation to national quality standards for drinking water and groundwater, all the samples showed concentrations of heavy metals within limits. Lead, chromium and nickel had non-detect values in most samples.

Florica Morar

2012-11-01

278

76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National...discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES...ADDRESSES: Hilton Riverside Hotel, Two Poydras Street, Belle...submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO)...

2011-05-13

279

Effect of industrial pollution on soil-to-plant transfer of plutonium in a Boreal forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plutonium in a forest ecosystem was studied at different distances from the copper and nickel smelter at Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Soil and plant samples were collected 7 (site A), 16 (B), 21 (C) and 28 (D) km from the smelter and at a reference site situated in Finland, 152 km from Monchegorsk. The deposition of Cu in litter and in the organic layer decreased from 10700 mg/m2 at site A to 33 mg/m2 at the reference site, the deposition of Ni from 14300 to 29 mg/m2. From the reference site to site A, the volume of the litter layer increased almost five-fold. Most of the 239,241Pu in soil was found in the organic layer and in the litter layer. When industrial pollution increased, the content of 239,240Pu in the litter layer increased (from approx. 0.5 at site D to 15 Bq/m2 at site A) whereas, that in the organic layer decreased (from approx. 20 at site D to 5 Bq/m2 at site A). Four different plant species typical for the subarctic environment were collected at each sampling site: Deschampsia flexuosa (forest hair grass); Empetrum nigrum (crowberry); Vaccinium myrtillus (blueberry); and Vaccinium citis idaea (lingonberry). The concentration of 239,241Pu increased with pollution in Deschampsia flexuosa (from approx. 2 at site D to 7 mBq/kg at site A), Empetrum nigrum (from approx. 3 at site D to 14 mBq/kg at site A) and Vaccinium myrtillus (from approx. 1 at site D to 8 mBq/kg at site A). In Vaccinium vitis idaea, the Pu concentration did not have any clear trend of association with pollution. With the exception of Vaccinium vitis idaea, the aggregated transfer factors of plutonium (m2/kg) for the plants studied increased almost ten-fold from site D to site A, the range being 3 x 10(-5)-3 x 10(-4) m2/kg for Deschampsia flexuosa, 7 x 10(-5)-5 x 10(-4) m2/kg for Empetrum nigrum and 3 x 10(-5)-3 x 10(-4) m2/kg for Vaccinium myrtillus. The most likely explanation for the higher transfer factors of plutonium near the smelter is contamination of the plants by litter rather than root uptake. PMID:11669264

Riekkinen, L; Jaakkola, T

2001-10-20

280

75 FR 33724 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Superfund Site located in Houston, Texas (Harris County), from the National Priorities...the concurrence of the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...3617 Baer Street in Houston, Texas (Harris County). The Site also consists...

2010-06-15

 
 
 
 
281

Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

282

Sector Model of Development of the National Economy of Ukraine under Post-industrial Society Conditions ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article discloses provisions of the sector model of development of the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. It improves and expands theoretical foundations of the sector model of the national economy. It identifies specific features of the structure of the sector model of the national economy depending on the stage of country development. It provides results of this model modelling for the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society c...

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Pirog Olga V.

2013-01-01

283

Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39, which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92, residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38. In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76, whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

Aragonés Nuria

2011-01-01

284

Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

Alma Shehu

2013-12-01

285

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2012-06-01

286

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

287

Dietary intakes of essential and toxic elements in several groups of Nigerians consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollution sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dietary intakes of essential and toxic trace elements in various groups of the population consuming food exposed to specific industrial pollutants will be assessed. Industries with clear-cut marker elemental pollutants and which have been in operation for many years are selected. For the first year of study, the tin and lead smelting industry in Jos, Plateau state of Nigeria will be the focus. The common food products (and total diets) that are grown within the locality will be surveyed, sampled and analysed for the marker elemental pollutants. Other essential trace elements which could influence the absorption and metabolism of the marker pollutants will also be studied. Trace element analysis will be carried out mainly by the IAEA-donated TR-XRF system in our laboratory. Afterwards, food frequency questionnaires will be administered to 30 subjects each from 16 sub-groups of the population and their dietary intakes of the various elements of interest will be assessed. The sub-groups are chosen to take care of sociological differences in feeding habits as well as possible variation in the biological tolerance of toxic trace elements. For 5 subjects from each group, blood and headhair samples will be collected and analysed for the elements of interest. Previously obtained results from preliminary studies are presented. (author)

288

Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

289

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?polluted soils R2 and R3. Reduced diversity accompanied by apparent community shifts of both AOB and AOA populations was detected in R2 and R3 soils. AOB were dominated with Nitrosospira-like sequences, whereas AOA were dominated by Thaumarchaeal "group 1.1b (Nitrososphaera clusters)." We suggest that the significant reduction in abundance and diversity AOA and AOB could serve as relevant bioindicators for soil quality monitoring of polluted sites. These results could be further useful for better understanding of AOB and AOA communities in polluted soils. PMID:24554021

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

290

Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

291

Pollutant Monitoring of a Drainage Canal Receiving Industrial and Agricultural Wastewater Incukurova Plain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The TD-7 drainage channel has been exposed to wastewater discharges of different characteristics from multiple sources, due to industrial establishments and dense settlement in the vicinity. In this study, seasonal changes of the characterization of the water carried by the channel, which is also used for agricultural irrigation purposes, was examined for biological, physical and chemical characteristics in water samples, taken from five selected observation points along the channel. The observation points were decided, so as to demonstrate characteristic changes in water and sludge quality, reflecting the effects of wastewater discharge points and hydraulic profile. According to the result of monthly analyses performed on water of the drainage channel, maximum and minimum values of quality and pollution parameters were; suspended solids (SS, 30-210 mg L-1; electrical conductivity (EC, 734-1937 ?S; 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 97-305 mg L-1; chemical oxygen demand (COD, 174-429 mg L-1; total coliform, 250- >1100 EMS mL-1. Accumulations in the sediments were also observed for some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, sampled from the same observation points. The sets of analysis demonstrated that, with the present wastewater discharges the water drawn from the TD-7 drainage channel cannot be used for agricultural purposes according to existing regulations.

Zeynep Zaimoglu

2006-01-01

292

Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca2+, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

293

Removal of organic pollutants and of nitrate from wastewater from the dairy industry by denitrification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was to remove nitrate-N and organic pollutants from wastewater of the dairy industry by denitrification. An artificially prepared wastewater, containing 250 mg/l nitrate-N and 1.5 g/l whey powder, was completely denitrified with removal of 90%-93% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the whey powder by suspended or immobilized mixed cultures and by a suspended or immobilized pure culture that was isolated from the mixed culture inoculum. For the above COD/nitrate-N ratio of 6:1, the results indicated that the organic compounds of the wastewater served as electron donors for complete denitrification and that there was no need to add an external carbon source. In batch denitrification assays the suspended or immobilized mixed cultures proved to be more active and reacted faster than the isolated pure cultures. In continuous denitrification processes with immobilized pure or mixed cultures, the alginate beads, used for immobilization, were not stable for more than 12 days of incubation. The mixed free cultures removed the nitrate-N and COD continuously with no change of their activity for at least 15 days at an optimum hydraulic retention time of 0.27 days with a loading rate of 900 mg nitrate-N l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. (orig.)

Zayed, G.; Winter, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Ingenieurbiologie und Biotechnologie des Abwassers

1998-09-01

294

[Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production. PMID:20391731

Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

2010-02-01

295

78 FR 69302 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the El Toro Marine Corps Air Station Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection...for the El Toro Marine Corp Air Station (Site), from the National Priorities...of the El Toro Marine Corp Air Station Site from the NPL. Because EPA...

2013-11-19

296

Air pollution control in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Imperial Government's approach to the control of air pollution in Iran is explained. The role of the Department of the Environment under the authority of the National Clean Air Regulations including control and abatement policies and programs implemented by the Department is described. The Department's approach of containment at the source using best practicable technology is also discussed. Programs include the establishment of a national air pollution surveillance network, promulgation of national industrial emission standards, control of mobile air pollution sources, and the establishment of ambient air quality standards.

Zerbonia, R.; Soraya, B.

1978-04-01

297

Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. PMID:24413251

Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-04-01

298

Pollution history of the Savannah Estuary. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dated cores collected from different sites in the Savannah Estuary were analyzed for 16 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 16 pesticides and 3 butylins. Time stratigraphy of the cores were determined by measurements of Pb-210 and Cs-137 activities down the cores. Those chemicals which showed significant temporal changes down dated cores in the Savannah Estuary included mercury, lead, chromium, PAHs, DDT isomers and metabolites, PCBs and dieldrin. The present study used cores from the Savannah Estuary, where the population is relatively low (approximately 150,000) and industrial growth has occurred over the past 30 years. Thus, the concentrations of most anthropogenic chemical found in the cores of the Savannah Estuary were comparatively low. An interesting aspect of the study, which has been noted by many pollution history studies, was the decrease in the concentration of anthropogenic chemicals during the past two decades suggesting that many pollution control laws have been effective, even while industrial and population growth continues in an area. In summation, the authors` studies present evidence of relatively large inputs of anthropogenic chemicals, including mercury, chromium, lead, polycycloic aromatic hydrocarbons, dieldrin, DDT isomers, and polychlorinated biphenyls, during the 1950s and 1960 into the Savannah Estuary followed by a gradual decrease of these chemicals during the past 20 to 30 years.

Alexander, C.; Ertel, J.; Lee, R.; Loganathan, B.; Martin, J.

1997-09-01

299

Pollution Control  

...Pollution Control...the potential to impact on air, water and land. This involves...processes subject to integrated central control under the Industrial Pollution Control (Northern Ireland) Order 1997, with...

300

Procuring the regional urbanization and industrialization effect on ozone pollution in Pearl River Delta of Guangdong, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The decade before 2006 was a period of growing regional urbanization and industrialization. Also, the 5-year plan period (2001-2005) is a half decade of fast regional urban expansion with high population growth within the PRD city clusters, At the same time, the PRD region becomes a leading manufacturing center of the world. Industrial expansion in this region of GD was characterized by the spread of industrial activities from hot spots in GZ city and around Foshan and Dongguan to widely distributed patches of industrial active districts, mostly in the seven newly agglomerate formed and urbanizing prefectural municipalities. To provide transportation communication between GZ city and the municipal cities, a system of highways was built and a region road-network surfaced for the connection of the expanding municipal cities and their sub-urban areas as well as the patches of industrial districts, within their municipalities Also, a network of power plants was built at its periphery. As a result, the ozone precursors, NO x and VOC emission from vehicles, industries and power plants increased region wide, and in particular in the newly formed prefectural municipalities. Hence, the whole region was undergoing a redistribution of O 3 precursors and ozone pollution, following the path of redistribution of population and industrial activity in the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong. Study and report on O 3 pollution before 2000 is rare and there were only a few case studies in 2000 and 2004. By 2006, O 3 data supplied by the newly established PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring Network become available for the study of regional O 3 pollution. Also relevant information on the new dimension of regional urbanization and industrialization for the PRD region of GD, as well as a highly resolved temporal and spatial PRD region NO x and VOC emission inventory surfaced. Thus, 2006 is a good year to procure the regional urbanization and industrial effect, and to produce a snapshot of the regional and area specific ozone pollution in the PRD region of GD. Patterns of annual ozone variation and seasonal ozone diurnal cycles for urban/sub-urban areas, for metropolitan city, for rural areas and for special area in the PRD region of Guangdong are presented for future reference.

Zhang, Y. N.; Xiang, Y. R.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Sang, X. F.; Wang, R.; Fu, H. X.

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Atmospheric Pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a biomonitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio aborda la aplicación de técnicas nucleares para analizar elementos traza en el monitor biológico Tillandsia usneoides (heno). El uso de monitores biológicos proporciona una alternativa ventajosa en el muestreo de material particulado en estudios de contaminación del aire, ya que no requ [...] iere dispositivos especiales de muestreo y el tiempo de monitoreo puede ser tan largo como se desee. T. usneoides que crece en todo el país, se utilizo para estudiar la calidad del aire del corredor Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) en el estado de Hidalgo. Esta área es considerada zona crítica debido a la alta concentración de contaminantes atmosféricos. Las plantas fueron trasplantadas desde un entorno limpio a cuatro sitios en el corredor de TVA y expuestas durante 12 semanas de febrero a abril de 2008. La acumulación de elementos traza en plantas sin lavar y secas se determino por PIXE y NAA. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diferencias en la distribución de elementos traza entre los sitios del corredor TVA y muestran que el monitoreo con T. usneoides permite establecer una primera aproximación de fuentes de contaminantes atmosféricos. Abstract in english This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sam [...] pling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout México, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central México. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by Particle induced X ray Emission PIXE and Neutron Activa-tion Analysis (NAA). Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor.

M.A., Martínez-Carrillo; C., Solís; E., Andrade; R.I., Beltrán-Hernández; K., Isaac-Olivé; C.A., Lucho-Constantino; M.C., López Reyes; L.C., Longoria.

302

Atmospheric Pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a biomonitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio aborda la aplicación de técnicas nucleares para analizar elementos traza en el monitor biológico Tillandsia usneoides (heno). El uso de monitores biológicos proporciona una alternativa ventajosa en el muestreo de material particulado en estudios de contaminación del aire, ya que no requ [...] iere dispositivos especiales de muestreo y el tiempo de monitoreo puede ser tan largo como se desee. T. usneoides que crece en todo el país, se utilizo para estudiar la calidad del aire del corredor Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) en el estado de Hidalgo. Esta área es considerada zona crítica debido a la alta concentración de contaminantes atmosféricos. Las plantas fueron trasplantadas desde un entorno limpio a cuatro sitios en el corredor de TVA y expuestas durante 12 semanas de febrero a abril de 2008. La acumulación de elementos traza en plantas sin lavar y secas se determino por PIXE y NAA. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diferencias en la distribución de elementos traza entre los sitios del corredor TVA y muestran que el monitoreo con T. usneoides permite establecer una primera aproximación de fuentes de contaminantes atmosféricos. Abstract in english This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sam [...] pling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout México, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central México. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by Particle induced X ray Emission PIXE and Neutron Activa-tion Analysis (NAA). Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor.

M.A., Martínez-Carrillo; C., Solís; E., Andrade; R.I., Beltrán-Hernández; K., Isaac-Olivé; C.A., Lucho-Constantino; M.C., López Reyes; L.C., Longoria.

2011-02-01

303

Removal of trace metals by Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus in a site polluted by industrial wastes: a field experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the perspective of full scale application of phytoremediation techniques, research is focusing on the optimization of agronomic practices. Two annual high biomass yield crops, Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus, were grown in a polymetallic soil. The experimental site, polluted by pyrite cinders, is located in an industrial site that has been listed in the clean-up national priority list since 2001. Specific aims of this work were to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removed by the crops. The field trial, arranged in a randomized block design, started in 2005. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.29, Co 50.9, Cu 1527 and Zn 980mg kg(-1). The crops grown on the polluted soil received mineral fertilization (Fert) and organic amendment (Org), while plants in control soil (Ctrl) did not receive anything. The plots were watered during the crop cycle during two drought periods, using a sprinkler irrigation system. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle and the plant biomass that was collected in each sampling date was ICP-analyzed. Plant-biomass growth curves were obtained. The concentrations of the metals in the shoots and in the total plant biomass were recorded. Finally, the metal removal was calculated for the harvestable parts of the crops. The amelioration of the nutritive status of the substrate that resulted, was highly effective for the biomass yield. However, fertilization and soil amendment did not heighten the concentration of metals in the harvestable tissue of the plants during the crop cycle. In some cases, organic matter appeared to bind the elements making them less available for the plants. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal was positive. Our results of metal removal are consistent with the results from other in situ experiments. The Zn removal by S. bicolor and H. annuus reached about 2000g ha(-1) and 1000g ha(-1), respectively. PMID:17507235

Marchiol, L; Fellet, G; Perosa, D; Zerbi, G

2007-05-01

304

Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater. PMID:24578265

Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

2014-05-01

305

Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

306

The Polluter Pays Principle under WTO law: The case of national energy policy instruments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study addresses the compatibility of the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) with obligations under world trade law as administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO). In particular we look at the instruments of German domestic and international energy policy, analysing the relationship between those instruments, the PPP and WTO rules. The main finding is that German national environmental policy instruments for the implementation of the PPP generally do not infringe upon WTO rules if properly designed and applied. In particular, German energy laws, which aim at reducing greenhouse gases, are compatible with international trade law. Command and control policies as well as labels do not discriminate against foreign suppliers. Aspects of possible incompatibility of national energy policy measures with specific WTO rules are discussed. (orig./CB)

Biermann, F.; Boehm, F.; Brohm, R.; Droege, S.; Trabold, H.

2003-07-01

307

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

308

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

NONE

1997-06-01

309

Place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the national economy of Ukraine ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine. It gives an estimate of the contribution of the fat-and-oil industry into dynamics and structure of volumes of production and sales of products of the food industry. It substantiates an exclusive role of the fat-and-oil industry in formation of the consumption fund, solution of problems of internal food supply security and increase of the export potential of the country and tax proceeds to the budget. It considers social significance of the fat-and-oil industry, products of which are included into a set of food products of the consumer basket. It substantiates a necessity of state support of the fat-and-oil industry on the basis of its place and role in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? «??????????????? ???????». ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????.

Manoylenko Aleksandr V.

2013-01-01

310

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

311

Transport of pollutants in plumes and PEPES: a study of transport of pollutants in power plant plumes, urban and industrial plumes, and persistent elevated pollution episodes. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the increased concern for the regional nature of secondary air pollutants (e.g., sulfates and oxidants) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a major field program in the northeastern United States during the summer of 1980. Two EPA field programs were actually carried out simultaneously. One addressed persistent elevated pollution episodes, and the other continued the 1979 northeast regional oxidant study in developing part of the data base for the regional oxidant model. Field activities were based in Columbus, OH. Ten research aircraft and several mobile and stationary surface-monitoring platforms from three EPA contractors, seven Federal Agencies, and four Universities participated in the intensive measurement program between 16 July and 15 August 1980. Pollutants measured included SO/sub 2/, NO, NOx, O/sub 3/, sulfate, nitrate, and aerosols. This report describes the contractors activities. Their aircraft logged over 350 flight hours in 100 missions ranging as far east as Laconia, NH, as far south as Montgomery, AL, as far west as Texarkana, AR, and as far north as Saginaw, MI. Descriptive analyses are summarized for urban plume missions and regional missions. The quality assurance program is described, showing the efforts made to develop a well coordinated data base. Sources for reports and data are provided.

Vaughan, W.M.

1985-04-01

312

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

1995-07-01

313

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

314

The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

Krystyna Czy?ewska

1992-12-01

315

76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

2011-03-17

316

76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

2011-04-18

317

77 FR 44494 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation for Concentrated Animal Feeding...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation...inspection and copying at the Water Docket, located at...recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control...POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM 0 1. The authority...Authority: The Clean Water Act, 33...

2012-07-30

318

76 FR 22882 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...  

Science.gov (United States)

...control, stabilization, and pollution prevention (see 40 CFR 450...erosion and sediment control, pollution prevention, and stabilization...naturally in the soil, such as arsenic or selenium, or they may...by appropriate controls. Pollution Prevention Measures:...

2011-04-25

319

77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...  

Science.gov (United States)

...erosion and sediment control, pollution prevention, and stabilization...naturally in the soil, such as arsenic or selenium, or they may...by appropriate controls. Pollution Prevention Measures: Permittees...implement, and maintain effective pollution prevention measures to...

2012-02-29

320

77 FR 66783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, to...considering the economic impacts of this action on small...significant economic impact on a substantial number...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control,...

2012-11-07

 
 
 
 
321

Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to strengthen potential market share, which is the focus of this article. What may at first appear in the Danish case as an absurd and non-productive relationship is actually significant, I would argue, despite its complexity. It has the potential to stimulate critical fashion design practice and give fashion designers a voice, allowing them to take an active part in contemporary public debates on important issues such as nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization.

Marie Riegels Melchior

2011-04-01

322

ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

Bialous, S.; Glantz, S.

2002-01-01

323

[Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil. PMID:24720220

Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

2014-01-01

324

air pollution: temporal and spatial distribution of delta /sup 13/C in plants of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of sigma-/sup 13/C in Eucalyptus (Safeda) plants from Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate and its surroundings. The leaves of the Eucalyptus plants were collected from four locations of the Gadoon Amazai area at regular intervals during January 1993 to June 1996. The greenish, old and whole leaf samples were air dried, homogeneously ground (40 mesh) and converted into CO/sub 2/ for SIGMA-13 analysis on isotope ratio mass spectrometer. /sup 13/C depletion in the plant leaves is more in industrial estate than its surroundings. This can be attributed to the depletion of /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased 13 of the ambient air CO/sub 2/ in the industrial area. These, in turn, influenced the plant /sup 13/C during photosynthesis. Temporal variation shows that CO/sub 2/ pollution is increasing in industrial zone with time. Furthermore, the pollution is less in plains side than the mountain side, which is proved by the Sigma-/sup 13/C results of the surroundings. (author)

325

Workers on the Line: Teaching Industrial History at the Tsongas Industrial History Center and Lowell National Historical Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Profiles activities and exhibits at the Tsongas Industrial History Center and Lowell National Historical Park. Follows a group of students as they participate in a situation simulating 19th-century working conditions and subsequent union organizing. Includes two documents from a resource kit illustrating worker's lives. (MJP)

Smith, Rick; O'Connell, Peter

1997-01-01

326

Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

None

1999-09-01

327

Changes of genetic structure of Pinus sylvestris L. populations exposed to industrial pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isoenzymatic variation of Pinus sylvestris was analysed in populations from a provenance trial (IUFRO 1982 in Kórnik and their replication in Lubo?. The two groups of populations originated from the same seed pool, but the one in Lubo? was exposed to pollutants emitted during the production of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, while the Kórnik provenance trial were used as a control group. The parameters determining the genetic structure of the studied populations - frequency of alleles and genotypes (average number of alleles and genotypes per locus, observed heterozygosity (Ho, and genotypic polymorphism index (Pg - have higher values in the group of trees tolerant to pollution. Also fixation index (F, which indicates that homozygotic genotypes underwent selection in this group, as well as dendrites and dendrograms according to Nei and Hedrick, suggest that the genetic structure of the populations exposed to pollution was changed. The obtained results indicate that populations characterized by a greater genetic diversity are more tolerant to pollution.

Aleksandra Wojnicka-Pó?torak

1997-03-01

328

Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot) also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with miti...

Moore, Frances C.

2009-01-01

329

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb S...

Lin, Henry W.; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

330

Anew applied approach for dynamic air quality simulation in industrial and nuclear polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution transport and diffusion and diffusion models are the only tools for inferring a quantitative deterministic relation between pollutant emissions and ambient air quality. This study deals with the simulation of pollutants transport and diffusion at shobra El-Khemia, where this site is considered the most public and polluted area in greater cairo city. The results of such a model matches to a great extent with the measured ones because it takes into consideration dry and wet deposition and first-order reaction chemistry. Specified time period was chosen to simulate the pollutant of sulphur dioxide over the studied area. The meteorological parameters were measured to calculate the hourly stability classes and height of mixing layer. Also, the concentration of sulphur dioxide was continuously measured at the faculty of agriculture to compare between its values and the estimated results. Yen's factory was taken to be the source of pollutant, thus, the emission rate and concentration of sulphur dioxide were measured at the top of their stacks. The analysis of estimated results provided that, at neutral condition, there was only one maximum concentration while at unstable conditions, there were more than one maximum concentration. The maximum estimated average hourly concentration and the average daily measuring concentration at shoubra Elkheima were within the air quality limit of egyptian law no. 4 (1994). The measured values are greater than the estimated ones by 15 to 30 % . This could be attributed to the effect of transportation, which was neglected during the application of model

331

The implications of Australia's carbon pollution reduction scheme for its National Electricity Market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the major implications for the National Electricity Market of the introduction of a domestic cap-and-trade carbon pollution reduction scheme in Australia. The electricity sector is the largest source of emissions in the Australian economy, and it is this sector, therefore, that will bear the brunt of the impact of the proposed scheme. The paper addresses core issues for the electricity market up to 2020 operating under the scheme. It focuses specifically on its impact on electricity prices and generation technology mix. These two variables have been assessed using a number of models, each applying different assumptions about key impact factors. In this paper we present a comparative summary of the results of the three highest-profile models and compare their assumptions in order to explain differences in projected outcomes. This comparison will give an indication of the likely range of impacts on the market of the current design of the scheme.

332

The implications of Australia's carbon pollution reduction scheme for its National Electricity Market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the major implications for the National Electricity Market of the introduction of a domestic cap-and-trade carbon pollution reduction scheme in Australia. The electricity sector is the largest source of emissions in the Australian economy, and it is this sector, therefore, that will bear the brunt of the impact of the proposed scheme. The paper addresses core issues for the electricity market up to 2020 operating under the scheme. It focuses specifically on its impact on electricity prices and generation technology mix. These two variables have been assessed using a number of models, each applying different assumptions about key impact factors. In this paper we present a comparative summary of the results of the three highest-profile models and compare their assumptions in order to explain differences in projected outcomes. This comparison will give an indication of the likely range of impacts on the market of the current design of the scheme. (author)

333

Does increasing energy or electricity consumption improve quality of life in industrial nations?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the world's nations, per capita energy and electricity consumption is highly correlated with diverse indicators of quality of life. This is often interpreted to mean that additional energy and electricity consumption causes improvements in life quality. Prior analyses of cross-sectional data question this interpretation for industrial nations that already have high per capita energy consumption. The present analysis with longitudinal data shows that among industrial nations, increases in per capita energy and electricity consumption over the past three decades are not associated with corresponding improvements in quality of life. - Research highlights: ? Increased energy and electricity use is essential for poor nations to improve wellbeing. ? This analysis is limited to industrial nations, already high in energy consumption. ? Changes in per capita energy/electricity use are not associated with improved wellbeing.

334

Sector Model of Development of the National Economy of Ukraine under Post-industrial Society Conditions ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discloses provisions of the sector model of development of the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. It improves and expands theoretical foundations of the sector model of the national economy. It identifies specific features of the structure of the sector model of the national economy depending on the stage of country development. It provides results of this model modelling for the national economy of Ukraine under the post-industrial society conditions. The offered sector model of the national economy of Ukraine provides achievement of the level of development of the developed world countries (EU-27 and takes into account structural and technological requirements of the post-industrial society.? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????. ????????????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? (??-27 ? ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????.

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.

2013-07-01

335

The role of the space industry in building capacity in emerging space nations  

Science.gov (United States)

The space industry in established space-faring nations is playing an increasingly important role in the development of capacity in emerging space nations. The role of industry ranges from provision of turn-key systems, to provision of training and joint development of satellites in partnership with emerging space countries. Ranked number 1 worldwide in terms of satellites ordered in 2006, Thales Alenia Space is at the heart of the most high performance satellite technologies in both civil and defense sectors. The company has been involved in parterships with a number of emerging space nations. This paper discusses several key factors for successful interaction of industry with national space programmes in emerging space nations.

Esterhazy, David

2009-11-01

336

An Employer Survey on Industrial Sector Involvement in Malaysian National Dual Training System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this survey is to get industrial employers’ feedback on the reasons for their lack of involvement in National Dual Training System (NDTS) organized by the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. Industrial employers’ involvement and support is very important in ensuring NDTS implementation success. Therefore, it is very critical to identify factors and barriers that hinder industrial sectors from participating in NDTS program. A survey q...

Baba Md. Deros; Suzana Mohammed Zohdi; Darliana Mohamad; Nor Kamaliana Khamis; Nizaroyani Saibani

2012-01-01

337

Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

338

Microsatellite DNA Mutations in Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) Associated with Exposure to PAH-Containing Industrial Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations. PMID:25153941

King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

2014-10-01

339

The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex coastal industrial site nearby populated areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and coastal terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a site already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at site. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and diffusion of pollutants emitted in the area of the industrial complex. All effects studied, although influenced by local conditions, characterize not only this industrial area but all areas located along the coastline. This location is highly frequent in Italy and the World, as most industrial complexes in the World occur at coastal sites, where access to harbors and transport networks are facilitated. The Valle del Biferno case may then yield important data to many industrial sites.

Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.

2010-09-01

340

National industry's interest in colorectal cancer screening programmes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interest of the largest 200 British industries in developing and financing colorectal screening services for employees was determined. A standard questionnaire asked if the company would advertise screening supply names of employees to local hospitals and finance faecal occult blood testing. The reasons for rejection were noted. Eighty-six companies returned the questionnaire (43% response rate) of which 78 firms (39% of the total mailed) were prepared to advertise screening programmes at...

Hart, A. R.; Barone, T. L.; Wicks, A. C.; Mayberry, J. F.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nutrition in industrial health at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nutritional status of an individual plays a key role in the reduction and prevention of illness. This involves maintenance of ideal body weight by using a diet that economically optimizes nutrients. The achievement and maintenance of good health in the industrial population helps us to avoid resource losses. The ORNL nutritional counseling program's major emphasis is to correct and control diet related risk factors to cardiovascular disease.

Casey, B.J.

1981-01-01

342

[Application of fungal metabolites for evaluation of pine stand vigor in conditions of industrial pollution].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two methods for evaluation of pine stand vigor were tested on permanent sample plots near Krasnoyarsk City: visual evaluation and exposure to fungal metabolites. In the first case, forest vigor was estimated using the six-point system of the Sanitary Regulations of the Russian Federation as the mean score for 200 trees on the sample plots. In the second case, the vigor was evaluated from the size of the necrotic spot on the tree cortex after inoculation of 22-25 randomly chosen pines with the extract of fungus Ceratocystis laricicola Red-fern and Miter. The necrotic spot size was significantly larger in pines from polluted forest as compared to background one. This points to the decrease in infection protection of trees affected by pollution, although visual evaluation of the stand vigor could not distinguish the polluted and background stands. PMID:16212271

Poliakov, V I; Poliakova, G G; Pashenova, N V; Stasova, V V

2005-01-01

343

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

344

National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

National inventories to estimate releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans have been undertaken since the mid 1980s. These inventories were scattered and hard to compare since there was no harmonized method available. With the conclusion of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and its entry into force, Parties to the Convention at the global level, have to establish PCDD/PCDF release inventories and report these results. UNEP Chemicals has developed a methodology that allows developing and developed countries to make estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases into the environment along all vectors. Presently, there are 23 national release inventories available that have been made with this methodology, the Toolkit. Among the most important sources, open fires in agriculture/forests as well as open burning of wastes have been identified as the major sources of PCDD/PCDF. The results from these inventories may serve as the starting point for interventions to reduce or eliminate sources of PCDD/PCDF by application of best available techniques and best environmental practices. The Toolkit will be updated as needs arise. PMID:17258267

Fiedler, Heidelore

2007-04-01

345

"The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA?s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

346

An investigation of the impact of inorganic air pollutants on soils in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental data related to the evaluation of inorganic air pollution input to the Saguaro National Monument ecosystem were collected over four years. The data specific to soils are presented in this document. The enrichment factor approach is employed to provide a framework for simplified interpretation of this large collection of data.

Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Duriscoe, D.M. [USDI National Park Service, Three Rivers, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

347

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

348

77 FR 65135 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY...Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources (CMAS...subject to the regulatory flexibility provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C....

2012-10-25

349

76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the...Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources (CMAS) on...1\\ Chemical Manufacturing Process Unit...Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act, I certify that...

2011-03-14

350

77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants; Extension...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being...Inorganic Chemicals Group (D243-02), Sector Policies and Programs Division,...

2012-01-19

351

78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous substances, Hazardous...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: March 11, 2013. Mathy...

2013-03-18

352

Strategic regulation of a multi-national banking industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the consequences of cross-border banking and entry of multi-national bank (MNB) subsidiaries for banking supervision and regulation. When a MNB expands internationally with subsidiaries, the MNB operates under the legislation of several countries - both the home country and the host countries. Although these countries have agreed upon minimum standards and supervisory principles, such as in the EU directives or the Basle Accords, substantial degrees of freedom are still ...

Dalen, Dag Morten; Olsen, Trond E.

2002-01-01

353

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-10-15

354

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

355

Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

356

Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

Weisburd, Melvin I.

357

Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

358

Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

Haiyuan Qiu

2011-08-01

359

Heavy metals in aquatic macrophytes from two small rivers polluted by urban, agricultural and textile industry sewages SW Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the results from a study of the comparison of 2 lowland rivers: the Olobok and the Pilawa in southwest Poland polluted by urban, agricultural, and textile industry sewages. pH and concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, and sulfate were measured in water samples and concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, and Zn were measured in stream bottom sediments and in the aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Callitriche verna, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton natans, and Ceratophyllum demersum from the river Olobok and Elodea canadensis, Polygonum amphibium, Potamogeton crispus, and Veronica beccabunga from the river Pilawa. The matrix of concentrations of 16 elements in 27 plant samples of 7 species from 15 sampling sites of 2 rivers and concentrations of 15 elements and pH in water samples and 16 elements and pH in bottom sediment samples of these sites was submitted to numerical classification, which revealed that sampling sites from the rivers were differentiated by the value of factor 1 of principal component analysis (PCA), which was related to the pH of water, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Ni in water and Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, P, and S in bottom sediments. More polluted parts of both rivers were differentiated from less polluted parts by the value of factor 2 of PCA, which was related to Pb, Zn, and sulfates in water and Ca and Zn in bottom sediments. Macrophytes from the Olobok and Pilawa rivers were differentiated by the value of factor 1, which was related to Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, N, Na, Pb, and S. Groups of macrophytes of more and less polluted parts of both rivers differed by the value of factor 2, which was related to P, K, and Mn. Downstream of the sewage outputs in both rivers, a significantly increased level of pollution occurs with elements correlated with factor 1: Among others were Cu and Cr, typical for the textile industry along the river Pilawa, and among others were Mn and Ni, typical for the urban and agricultural activities in the river Olobok. PMID:17549539

Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

2007-08-01

360

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Investigation and analysis of NORM source term in the phosphate industry based on the first nationwide pollution source survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents in all factories and mines nationwide in relation to phosphate, rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore and solid waste produced by the phosphate industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) investigation. It is concluded that the averages of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore are 396 Bq/kg, 26 Bq/kg and 403.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U and 226Ra contents in solid waste produced by the phosphate industry are both less than 200 Bq/kg, mostly. The range of U and 226Ra are 22.7-723.6 Bq/kg and 5.6-1042.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The 232Th content is very low. It is suggested that the phosphate industrial solid waste should be subject to sort management, and some phosphate industry factories and mines should carry out relevant investigation, radiation evaluation and research. (authors)

362

Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

2011-07-01

363

Impacts of air pollutants emitted from the oil shale industry on conifers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the emission quantities from chemical and power plants located in the town of Kohtla-Jaerve, and the results of atmospheric air quality calculations as well as monitoring data demonstrate that the role of acid deposition precursors among different air pollutants increased essentially during the period 1988-1995. Precipitation and soil analyses and morphometric al characteristics of Norway spruce and Scots pine on open land and in forest sites indicated serious changes in the morphology of conifers. A drastic aggravation of their state under the influence of the multicomponential air pollution complex was fixed in northern or northeastern areas at a distance of 2-3 km (Saka region ) from Kohtla-Jaerve. (author)

364

Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

Michael Sandvig

2011-01-01

365

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At ...

Rodri?guez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-pe?rez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; La Rosa, J.

2011-01-01

366

Performing technologies in industrial health for measuring diffusion and pollution in multiple places  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of occupational exposure is generally conducted by 2 methods: by atmospheric sampling on the work site and after analysis; by dosing metabolites when it is possible. The Service d'Hygiene Industrielle (SHI) has developed sampling monitors for measuring the local concentration of 4 pollutants near the machine tools and measurement by tracer in the work cell. The simultaneous utilization of tracer and mapping give possible the optimization of filtration in the work cell and reduce the exposure for workers

367

Changes of genetic structure of Pinus sylvestris L. populations exposed to industrial pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Isoenzymatic variation of Pinus sylvestris was analysed in populations from a provenance trial (IUFRO 1982) in Kórnik and their replication in Lubo?. The two groups of populations originated from the same seed pool, but the one in Lubo? was exposed to pollutants emitted during the production of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, while the Kórnik provenance trial were used as a control group. The parameters determining the genetic structure of the studied populations - frequency of ...

Aleksandra Wojnicka-Pó?torak

1997-01-01

368

Heavy duty gas turbines in Iran, India and China: Do national energy policies drive the industries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper for the first time systematically examines the heavy duty gas turbine (HDGT) industry in the context of developing countries. It provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. It contrasts their national strategies, the historical development of their technological capabilities, the similarities and differences in approach, the varying evolutionary paths and policy drivers and the reasons for their differing outcomes. This paper argues that a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature of HDGT industries in developing countries. It also argues that the development and evolution of the HDGT industries in these countries is closely interrelated with the countries’ national energy policies. It clarifies why such an advanced and sophisticated industry is a strategic choice in one country, while it is seen as an inferior choice in another. - Highlights: ? This paper for the first time systematically examines the HDGT industry in developing countries. ? This paper provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. ? The companies are state-owned and a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature. ? Due to national energy policies, HDGT is a strategic choice in Iran but an inferior choice in India and China. ? The policy drivers such as natural reserves and security of supply largely vary in these countries.

369

Alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluição industrial em moradores e industriários de Cubatão, SP (Brasil Hematological changes induced by industrial pollution in residents and industrial workers in Cubatão, SP (Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram analisados 496 indivíduos de Cubatão, SP (Brasil, cidade com alto teor de poluição industrial, com o objetivo de verificar alterações hematológicas induzidas por poluentes industriais. Dos estudos citológicos dos eritrócitos dessa população estudada, foram observadas 188 (38% com alterações, isoladas ou combinadas em um único indivíduo, das quais 26% apresentaram policromatofilia, 24% com pontilhados basófilos, 15% com corpos de Heinz, e 8% com reticulocitose. As freqüências de metahemoglobinemia e sulfohemoglobinemia foram,respectivamente, de 35% e 32% em moradores da vila Parisi - um bairro cercado pela maioria das indústrias de Cubatão - 15% e 5% em operários das indústrias, e 12% e 4% em habitantes de áreas distantes entre 3 e 8 km do polo industrial. Esses resultados indicam que as alterações são causadas por poluentes tóxico-oxidantes e que as conseqüências fisio-patológicas no sangue dos moradores de Cubatão parecem indicar que estão relacionadas com o tempo de exposição e com a proximidade dos focos emissores de poluentes.Blood samples from 496 people living or working in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, a city with high levels of industrial pollution, were analysed in order to verify hematological changes induced by industrial pollution. Citological studies of erythrocytes showed that 188 people (38% had hematological changes, single or compound. Of the total sample 26% had polychromatophilic red cells, 24% had basophilic stippling, 15% had Heinz bodies, and 8% had reticulocytosis. The frequencies of methemoglobinemia and sulfohemoglobinemia were; respectively, 35% and 32% in inhabitants of vila Parisi a township in the neighbourhood of Cubatão surrounded by various industries; 15% and 5% in industrial workers, and 12% and 4% inhabitants that live between 3 and 8 km from the industrial complex. These results indicate that the hematological changes are caused by toxi-oxidant polluents and that the physio-pathological consequences in the blood of the population of Cubatão show a direct relationship to exposure time and to proximity to the sites of origin of the polluents.

Paulo Cesar Naoum

1984-08-01

370

The problem of land pollution. Sanitation of the brown coal industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of the East German brown coal industry has been assured by the privatisation of Laubag and Mibrag and by the continuation of production, but the revegetation of abandoned mines is still problematic. (orig.)

371

A contemporary national nitrogen inventory as a benchmark for future progress in mitigating nitrogen pollution in the USA  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to land, air, and water in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory is currently being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed -- amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Alexander, R. B.

2011-12-01

372

Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile ...

Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy; Bijjam Kotaiah; Nanaga Siva Prasad Reddy

2008-01-01

373

Activities of the National Institutes of Health relating to energy efficiency and pollution prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is one of the world's premier biomedical research centers. Although NIH owns and operates more than 1,300 acres and 197 buildings across the country, the main campus is in Bethesda, Maryland. This campus consists of over 312 acres and 75 laboratories and other buildings, which consume vast amounts of energy. Aware of the NIH role in setting biomedical research agendas and priorities, its administrators strive to set good examples in energy efficiency and pollution prevention. Three current projects are presented as "best practices" examples of meeting the stated commitment of NIH to leadership in environmental stewardship: a) design and current construction of a 250-bed clinical research hospital designed to allow conversion of patient care units to research laboratories and vice-versa; b) design and construction of a six-story research laboratory that combines energy-saving innovations with breakthroughs in research technologies; and c) a massive, $200-million modernization of the campus utility infrastructure that involves generation systems for steam and chilled water and distribution systems for chilled water, steam, potable water, electricity, communications and computer networking, compressed air, and natural gas. Based on introduction of energy-efficiency measures, millions of dollars in savings for energy needs are projected; already the local electric utility has granted several million dollars in rebates. The guiding principles of NIH environmental stewardship help to ensure that energy conservation measures maximize benefits versus cost and also balance expediency with efficiency within available funding resources. This is a committee report for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. PMID:11121359

Ficca, S A; Chyun, Y D; Ebrahimi, M; Kutlak, F; Memarzadeh, F

2000-12-01

374

First report of the National Pollutant Release Inventory multi-stakeholder work group on substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through consultations with Canadian stakeholders, and especially the members of the previous multi-stakeholder National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Ad Hoc Work Group on Substances, Environment Canada has established a permanent process for modifying the NPRI. The public is to be notified yearly of proposed changes by Environment Canada, and input on the proposed changes is to be obtained via an appropriate consultation process. Three major topics are addressed in this report: Integration of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) into the NPRI for the 2002 reporting year, other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year, and future agenda items for the Work Group. Specifically, the CACs to be added are nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter including total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers an particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers. Following an introduction, the document presents the addition of criteria air contaminants - proposed substance definitions and thresholds in section 2, as well as other data elements in section 3. A review of existing exemptions is presented in section 4. Other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year are discussed in section 5 and the future agenda items for the work group relevant to the 2003 reporting year appear in section 6. tabs

375

Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types

376

Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

NONE

1997-01-01

377

Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

378

Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

2011-07-15

379

Respiratory Health Effects Caused by the Proximity to an Industrially Polluted Area of the Aries River Basin, Transylvania, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study represents the efforts in identifying a possible connection between the close proximity of one village, Mihai Viteazu, Transylvania, Romania, to the former industrial platform of the Turda city and the causes of the population’s respiratory health condition, study based on survey data. Consequently, 150 health face-to-face interviews were undertaken in Mihai Viteazu in August 2009 (out of which only 117 were relevant and 50 from the control area, in search for indicators of significant respiratory symptoms due to exposure to chemical compounds and/or conditioned by periods of employment in one or more of the polluting industrial plants. The two main objectives were to first determine whether there was a significant difference between the health of the population living in the exposed area as compared to the control population represented by the Mice?ti village, situated on the other side of the two towns, out of the exposed area’s influence, and second, to identify whether those involved in industrial activities would be the most affected. The results concluded that close proximity to the industrial area and employment at the former plants can be associated with higher risk for chronic respiratory diseases, the exposed village registering a 57% of its surveyed population manifesting at least one sign of acute and/or chronic respiratory disease (tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis asthma, pulmonary emphysema and/or higher incidence of irritant respiratory symptoms. From discussions, it also seems that the population is generally aware of the possible effects, but would still prefer being employed and working for the former plants, the industry representing for most of them employment stability and better living conditions.

Camelia-Maria KANTOR

2010-06-01

380

Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

 
 
 
 
381

Soil pollution on railway sites in The Netherlands: a national survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Dutch environmental policy, an important objective is to obtain a national overview of the enviromental quality of the soil before the end of 2004. The Dutch Railways Foundation for Soil Remediation (SBNS) has completed its share of the 'national survey' in december 2002 and now has a clear picture of its workload. The main purpose of this lecture is to present an overview to a broad audience, as well as first analysis of the national survey concerning the Dutch Railway sites. A second purpose is a brief description and evaluation of the chosen approach. In 1995 the Dutch Railways (NS) were privatised. All grounds, which formerly were property of the NS, were divided between two new landowners, NS Railinfra and NS Real Estate. The total costs for soil remediation were estimated on about 1.6 billion EUR. Therefore, the topic of soil pollution was separated and put into the hands of the newly founded, independent SBNS. With its annual budget of 23 million EUR, its workfield and its number of sites, the SBNS is one of the major Dutch organisations dealing with soil remediation. Preliminary investigations on 608 sites pointed out that 35% of the 15,903 investigated suspected spots is heavily contaminated. When clustered to 'cases of serious soil contamination', 3,096 cases can be identified for remediation. This means, that on the average Dutch railway site 5 'cases of serious soil contamination' are present. However, these figures look more serious then they actually are, because for 88% of all cases no actual environmental risks are present. For the cases with environmental risks (12%), remediation has to be carried out with priority in the following years; cases without risks can be postponed and combined with other civil works. On basis of these results the SBNS now has calculated the total costs of remediation on about half the amount, that was estimated in 1995. A main cause for this lower estimate is the soil quality, which has proved to be better than expected. Another main reason is the present, more pragmatic legislation on soil remediation in The Netherlands. Presently, SBNS expects to perform its task in about 30 years. (orig.)

Stokman, G.N.M.; Natris, H.W.M. de; Huigen, P.M.J. [Stichting Bodemsanering, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2003-07-01

382

Response of stress indicators and growth parameters of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. exposed to air and soil pollution near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed in the vicinity of the industrial complex of Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response of 'manaca da serra' Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), a common species of secondary Atlantic Rain Forest vegetation, to the impact of complex air pollution. Emphasis was given to changes of biochemical parameters such as ascorbic acid concentration, peroxidase activity, contents of water-soluble thiols, pH of leaf extract and buffering capacity. These plant factors are often used as early indicators of air pollution stress. Field experiments included sampling of leaves from mature trees in areas with different air pollution load (passive monitoring), exposure of saplings cultivated in uniform soil at these areas (active monitoring) and a study on the combined effects of contaminated soil and air pollution. In general, metabolic response of saplings was more accentuated than that of mature trees. Leaf extract pH and buffering capacity showed no or only small alterations in plants exposed to industrial emissions. In contrast, air pollution resulted in a distinct decrease in ascorbic acid contents and an increase in peroxidase activity and thiol concentrations in leaves. Cultivation of saplings in soil types from contaminated regions frequently caused the same modifications or enhanced the effects produced by air pollution. Growth analysis of exposed saplings demonstrated that a change of the relationship between above-ground and below-ground plant parts was the most obvious effect of air pollution and soil contamination. The experiments showed that even T. pulchra, a species considered resistant to air pollution, suffers metabolic disturbances by the present ambient air and soil quality. Although biochemical and physiological alterations were not related to a certain air pollution type, they could be used to estimate the overall pollution load and to map zones with different air quality. PMID:10682379

Klumpp, G; Furlan, C M; Domingos, M; Klumpp, A

2000-01-31

383

Loyalty (The National Principles: Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2 that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia. The data were collected through a self administered questionnaire and later analyzed using SPSS. In this study, 100 youth were selected as respondents with a mean age of 27. This study found that there is a positive influence but no negative influence of the second NP on the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. The factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia is ethical and moral values. In accordance, professional experience, and the use of a specific formula may provide a suitable basis for change in this industry when dealing with the local perception on their responsibility to make this industry develop in relation to their feeling of concern towards ‘loyalty to the king and country’.

Romzi A.

2011-04-01

384

Potential polluters in Northern Ireland  

...Oil Care campaignPotential PollutersUK SpillPollution...ManagementStormwater ManagementPotential polluters in Northern IrelandLast updated: 14...management of effluent.Potential Water Polluters include:Industrial PremisesOil...

385

Potential polluters in Northern Ireland  

...Oil Care campaignPotential PollutersUK SpillPollution...Opportunity Scheme (ESOS)Potential polluters in Northern IrelandLast updated: 14...management of effluent.Potential Water Polluters include:Industrial PremisesOil...

386

Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

2008-12-01

387

Health risk from exposure to industrial air pollution for a point source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health risk to a population exposed to toxic air emissions from industrial sources was evaluated, in order to suggest mitigation strategies according to the social and economic situation. We estimate the chronic noncancer risk due to SO2 emissions using the EPA-validated Health Risk Assessment methodology. The concentration distribution around the source was simulated with the Gaussian ISCST model using real meteorological data for seven consecutive days. The area with the highest concentration of SO2 was found in the south to southwest direction. For exposure evaluation, two Reference Doses were considered, one strong and the other attenuated. Exposure was evaluated for industrial workers inside the facility containing the emission source, for residents in the neighborhood of the source, and for children under twelve years old. The groups with the higher risk from the Reference Doses were children and industrial workers. The area with the highest risk and impact was towards the south-southwest from the reference source. The estimated Noncancer Hazard Rates indicate risk for the industrial workers exposed to average concentrations for a thirty-year period. In the case of children the period is twelve years, and seventy-five years in residents.

Hugo W. Valera D.

2003-01-01

388

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

2003-06-01

389

Clean technology using cogeneration concepts for simultaneous production of electricity, steam, and industrial gases: a route to zero pollution discharge - A case study for enhanced oil recovery in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the most critical factor for the growth of a nation's economy. However, its use has a major impact on the environment, especially by discharging air pollutants into the atmosphere. In addition, energy production from fossil fuel, the world's most important fuel, is recently known to be the key contributor of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas) resulting in global warming problems. This article is an extension of our earlier research work to demonstrate how cogeneration concepts can be used to reduce production costs and simultaneously produce electricity, steam, as well as industrial gases such as CO2. With cogeneration, there is very little air pollution discharged into the atmosphere. We discuss a case study of an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. (author)

390

Mitigation of pollutants for clean environment: proceedings of the fifteenth national symposium on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main theme of this volume is mitigation of pollutants for clean environment. The topics covered are technologies for clean environment, monitoring and modeling of pollutants and their transport, environmental radioactivity, environmental awareness, education and regulatory aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

391

Evaluation by chemical parameters of the pollution state of the agricultural-industrial settlement of the Fucino Plain.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work are reported the results of a monitoring on a vast scale, carried out through evaluation of opportune chemical parameters, of the pollution state of the agricultural-industrial settlement of the Fucino Plain. The parameters took into consideration have been the presence of wide consumption pesticides and of ionic species as Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, the quantification of the dissolved oxygen, of the temperature, of the conductivity, of pH and eH. Collected data are used for chemometric elaboration. The water systems examined, by means of drawing campaigns carried out at regular intervals in winter, spring, summer, and autumnal seasons, are represented by superficial waters constituting a network of irrigation canals fed by stratum and meteoric waters. In this work are reported the results relative to the drawing campaigns. PMID:16342733

Ruggieri, Fabrizio; Fanelli, Maria; Di Pasquale, Dorina; Burri, Ezio; Petitta, Marco; Mazzeo, Pietro

2005-01-01

392

Use of radioactive tracers to study the risks of environmental pollution from iron and steel industry wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is proposed of storing non-recyclable waste from the iron and steel industry in alternate layers with a view to reducing the risks of environmental pollution caused by the toxic metals contained in the waste dumped on slag heaps. In order to check the effectiveness of this technique, the migration of toxic metals (Cd, Zn and Cr) in slag and slurry from blast furnaces was studied in laboratory columns using radioactive tracers (115Cdm, 65Zn and 51Cr). The non-destructive method used enabled the evolution of the metals in the columns to be monitored under different feed conditions. Furthermore, the Impact calculation code, which links geochemistry and hydrodynamic flow, was used to check the assumptions made about metal-waste interaction mechanisms. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

393

Soil to plant uptake of fallout 137Cs by plants from boreal areas polluted by industrial emissions from smelters.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the impact of industrial pollution on the soil-to-plant uptake of fallout-radiocesium in a boreal forest ecosystem, four study sites were selected at distances of 7, 16, 21 and 28 km from the large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula (Russia). At each site, soil and selected plant species were sampled from five plots and analysed separately for 137Cs and 40K. The data show that the root-uptake of 137Cs, as characterised by the median aggregated transfer-factor T(ag), decreased significantly (P Deschampsia flexuosa (from 0.013 to 0.031 m2 kg-1). For Vaccinium vitis-idaea a significant trend for the T(ag) was not observed. The median 40K activity concentrations in these plants also decreased significantly (P Deschampsia flexuosa (from approx. 270 to 40 Bq kg-1 dry wt.). For Vaccinium vitis-idaea such a continuous significant trend was not observed. The results for the Cu-Ni polluted soils thus show: (1) that the soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium can be significantly modified; (2) that these modifications are quite specific; and (3) that modifications of the uptake of potassium do not always correspond to those of radiocesium. PMID:10507160

Bunzl, K; Albers, B P; Shimmack, W; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Puhakainen, M; Rahola, T; Steinnes, E

1999-08-30

394

Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species.

Berlizov, A.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauki, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine)]. E-mail: berlizov@kinr.kiev.ua; Blum, O.B. [National Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1, Timiryazevskaya str., 01014, Kiev (Ukraine); Filby, R.H. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4630 (United States); Malyuk, I.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauki, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine); Tryshyn, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauki, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine)

2007-01-01

395

Study of environmental pollution in some industrial area in A.R.E. by nuclear and radiological techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to a wide range of lead compounds can involve inhalation and ingestion, and has been shown to effect memory and other mental function in industrial workers at and above a blood level of around 30 ?g / d I. This level is commonly exceeded among the majority of workers in lead - using industries such as smelters and battery factories. In our study, the aerosol samples were collected from a factory of battery manufacture in Giza sector, produces batteries for automobile and trucks. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the spatial distribution of atmospheric lead in the factory area. Nine sites ib four major processes (indoor) and three sites (outdoor) were selected for air lead pollution study. Also, three sites were studied 10 m away from the factory to study the air lead levels affecting the population living nearby this area. The accuracy of XRF technique was checked in comparison with AAS as a reference analytical procedure. Also precision precision and MDC for Pb was determined. The air lead levels determined in all sites inside the departments at the factory range from 128 to 1077 ?g /m3 which exceed the occupational permissible limits (50 ?g/m3). The outdoor sites showed also high Pb level due to their location in the vicinity of strong pollution sources. High concentrations of Pb were detected in the residential area around the factory 10 ? g/m3 . This concentration is more than 10 times theoncentration is more than 10 times the air quality standard exceed the quality limits recommended by WHO.3.8 tabs.,3.30 figs.,40 refs

396

Inter graded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700-3100 ty-1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The co composting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32%) by the application of Fenton and another 10-28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final co composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

397

Development of Electronic Nose and Program for Monitoring Air Pollutions and Alarm in Industrial Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the development of electronicnose and program for monitoring air pollutions and alarm inindustrial area. The design of electronic nose depends onphysical connectivity of the sensors, relating to the datamanagement, computing management and informationmanagement. Therefore, the sampling, filtering and sensorsmodule, signal transducers and acquisition, data preprocessing,feature extraction and feature classification are applied in thedesign of an electronic nose. There are 4 sensors areinvestigated to use as electronic nose in this experiment whichconsist of TGS2620, TGS2620, TGS2442 and TGS832. Thesesensors are operated with LabVIEW program. The experimentresults show that these sensors can classify and sensitive to thedifferent gas such as Methanol n-Propanol, Hexane andDichloromethane. The PCA is also used to classify group of gassensor. The system also performs the warning and alarm systemwhen the gas is leak.

J. Srinonchat

2013-02-01

398

Exploring prenatal outdoor air pollution, birth outcomes and neonatal health care utilization in a nationally representative sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of air pollution on fetal growth remains controversial, in part, because studies have been limited to sub-regions of the United States with limited variability. No study has examined air pollution impacts on neonatal health care utilization. We performed descriptive, univariate and multivariable analyses on administrative hospital record data from 222,359 births in the 2000, 2003 and 2006 Kids Inpatient Database linked to air pollution data drawn from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. In this study, air pollution exposure during the birth month was estimated based on birth hospital address. Although air pollutants were not individually associated with mean birth weight, a three-pollutant model controlling for hospital characteristics, demographics, and birth month identified 9.3% and 7.2% increases in odds of low birth weight and very low birth weight for each ?g/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) (both P<0.0001). PM(2.5) and NO(2) were associated with -3.0% odds/p.p.m. and +2.5% odds/p.p.b. of preterm birth, respectively (both P<0.0001). A four-pollutant multivariable model indicated a 0.05 days/p.p.m. NO(2) decrease in length of the birth hospitalization (P=0.0061) and a 0.13 days increase/p.p.m. CO (P=0.0416). A $1166 increase in per child costs was estimated for the birth hospitalization per p.p.m. CO (P=0.0002) and $964 per unit increase in O(3) (P=0.0448). A reduction from the 75th to the 25th percentile in the highest CO quartile for births predicts annual savings of $134.7 million in direct health care costs. In a national, predominantly urban, sample, air pollutant exposures during the month of birth are associated with increased low birth weight and neonatal health care utilization. Further study of this database, with enhanced control for confounding, improved exposure assessment, examination of exposures across multiple time windows in pregnancy, and in the entire national sample, is supported by these initial investigations. PMID:23340702

Trasande, Leonardo; Wong, Kendrew; Roy, Angkana; Savitz, David A; Thurston, George

2013-01-01

399

Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transportation system has contributed significantly to the development of human civilization; on the other hand it has an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. In this paper the air and noise pollution at selected sites along three sections of National Highway was monitored. Pakistan National Highway Authority has started a Highway Improvement program for rehabilitations and maintenance of National highways to improve the traffic flows, and would ultimately improve the air quality along highways. The ambient air quality and noise level was monitored at nine different locations along these sections of highways to quantify the air pollution. The duration of monitoring at individual location was 72 h. The most of the sampling points were near the urban or village population, schools or hospitals, in order to quantify the air pollution at most affected locations along these roads. A database consisting of information regarding the source of emission, local metrology and air quality may be created to assess the profile of air quality in the area. PMID:17385053

Ali, Mahboob; Athar, Makshoof

2008-01-01

400

Investigating the Electro-Fenton (EF) Process Performance in Treating Highly Formaldehyde-Polluted Industrial Wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Formaldehyde is a toxic substance and harmful to human beings and the environmental health. Therefore, the effluents containing formaldehyde have to be efficiently treated before discharging into the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the efficiency of Electro-Fenton (EF) Process in pre-treating industrial wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde.Materia...

Amir Bagheri; Gholamreza Moussavi; Ali Khavanin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Pollutant Monitoring of a Drainage Canal Receiving Industrial and Agricultural Wastewater Incukurova Plain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The TD-7 drainage channel has been exposed to wastewater discharges of different characteristics from multiple sources, due to industrial establishments and dense settlement in the vicinity. In this study, seasonal changes of the characterization of the water carried by the channel, which is also used for agricultural irrigation purposes, was examined for biological, physical and chemical characteristics in water samples, taken from five selected observation points along the channel. The obse...

Zeynep Zaimoglu; Yavuz Sucu, M.; Davutluoglu, Orkun I.; Irfan Hazir; Ahmet Yuceer

2006-01-01

402

Indoor suspended particulate matter pollution and elemental analysis of heavy metals in selected Fars industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this research was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the indoor workplace of selected industries in Fars. These industries were selected based on their activities which was related in using materials with heavy metal contents. Exposure to suspended particulate matter even at low levels, has adverse effects on human health. The results of this research for selected industries have shown that. The concentration of pB in some factories is much more than the WHO guidelines(100.8? g/m3). The concentration of Mn in all of these factories was lower than the WHO guidelines. (0.77? g/m3). The concentration of Ni in all of these factories was lower than the WHO guidelines. (0.5?g/m3). The concentration of Cd in two factories was higher than WHO guidelines. (50ng/m3).The concentration of Fe was high only in one factory. (56.5? g/m3). The concentration of Zn except two factories , was lower than the WHO guidelines.(114.8? g/m3)

403

Pollution Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop an understanding of modern industrial technologies that clean up and prevent air pollution, students build and observe a variety of simple models of engineering pollutant recovery methods: scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cyclone and baghouse. In an associated literacy activity, students become more aware of global environmental problems and play a part in their solution by writing environmental action campaign letters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

404

Targets and criteria for the effective participation of national industry in a domestic nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interest in maximum use of national resource is common to all countries, the highly industrialized as well as the developing ones. Although benefits can be expected from national participation in a domestic nuclear power programme and may not be limited to this programme, such national participation is restricted by constraining factors: economic, financial, technical and political. Considering the various natures of activities - design, procurement, manufacturing, erection -, their technical difficulties, their potential spin-off effects on the overall industrial development of a country, the paper reviews the materials and components of a nuclear power plants which can be selected as targets for domestic production. The paper also reviews criteria which must be considered in setting these Target materials and components in order to overcome restricting factors to national participation such as cost of national products, financing, investment capability, adequate market size, availability of qualified manpower, industrial capability and quality standards, availability of technology and know-how, conflicts of interests. Some concrete examples drawn from previous experience will illustrate France efforts to overcome these limiting factors

405

Industrial pollution in the region of Paripe-Salvador: effects on the distribution of electric power and possible damages to human health; Poluicao industrial na regiao de Paripe-Salvador: efeitos sob a distribuicao de energia eletrica e possiveis danos a saude humana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the area of Paripe, in the suburb of Salvador, Bahia, the distribution of electric power of the Company of Electricity of the State of Bahia (COELBA) is facing serious problems with the industrial pollution. That pollution affects the whole distribution net, causing fortuitous lack of energy, in many cases even daily in their feeders. The problem happens due to the accumulation of material associated along the net and more precisely in the distribution insulators, generating a type of dirt, no removable for normal procedures, in the surface of that insulator and it will cause escape currents, causing the lack of energy of the whole distribution electric net. The subject presented in that paper refers to the project of Research and Development (P and D), about Atmospheric Pollution in Insulators of Distribution. The results of the research showed that the atmospheric pollution could cause problems to the population that lives close the polluted area. The purpose of that article is to present relevant data related to the distribution net of COELBA, where there are many lacks of energy and the possibility of do not respect the criterion of quality of the National Agency of Electric power (ANEEL), besides the damages caused the population. (author)

Chaves, Cleuber Sobreira da Silva; Bomfim, Mario Antonio Duarte; Pereira, Osvaldo Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Regulacao da Industria de Energia], e-mail: cchaves@coelba.com.br, e-mail: osoliano@unifacs.br

2008-07-01

406

Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nanofiltration system has many potential uses in removing chemical and biological contaminants from water. - During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed