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1

Analysis of national pollutant release inventory data on toxic emissions by industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) provides information regarding pollutant on-site releases to air, water and land. The current list contains 230 substances of varying toxicity. The paper describes the methodology for analysing the NPRI data and provides a preliminary estimate of the toxic intensity of Canadian industries. Several indicators of toxic intensity of releases from each industry relative to employment are calculated. refs.

Olewiler, N.; Dawson, K.

1998-12-31

2

75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units;...

2010-06-09

3

75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

2010-07-22

4

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

5

Prevent industrial pollution through technical transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses regulations for the prevention of industrial pollution in China. The regulations attempt to integrate technical transformation (modernization) with the prevention of industrial pollution, environmental protection with production development, and environmental benefits with economic results. Advantages of preventing industrial pollution through technical transformation are that it can better bring environmental protection into the course of national economic development, it can increase the utilization rate of resources and energy, it can strengthen the results of technical transformation, and it requires small investment. The regulations summarize the experience on preventing industrial pollution in China during the last 10 years.

1983-01-01

6

A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., initions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

7

A recommended approach to completing the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environment Canada administers a facility-based inventory for national releases of pollutants. This document was prepared by the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Subcommittee of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to help its members meet reporting requirements of the NPRI. It is intended to be a supplement to Environment Canada's guides for reporting to the NPRI and provides CAPP members with specific oil, gas and oil sand examples and clarifies NPRI requirements as applied to oil, gas and oil sand facilities. Having all CAPP members use the procedures in the guide to determine their NPRI emissions contributes to consistent and comparable emissions reporting between upstream oil and gas companies. The NPRI was developed in the early 1990s. Owners and operators of facilities are required to report to the NPRI if they meet the reporting criteria determined by the Minister of the Environment. Criteria air contaminants (CAC) were reported for the first time in 2002 when all upstream oil and gas facilities with 20,000 employee-hours worked onsite had to report criteria air contaminants (CAC) releases. In 2003, the 20,000 man hours worked threshold exemption for the upstream oil and gas industry was removed for CAC reporting. There were no major changes to the NPRI for the 2004 reporting year. This report outlined the general reporting criteria to the NPRI with reference to all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items located on aructures and stationary items located on a single site, pipeline installations and offshore installations. The report addressed reporting exemptions and special considerations; generalized estimation methods; combustion sources and CAC; fugitive equipment leaks; process venting; hydrocarbon emissions from storage tanks; loading losses; spills and accidental releases; releases to underground injection; disposal and recycling; hydrogen sulphides; speciation of volatile organic compounds; particulate matter from cooling towers; in-situ oil sand operations; and common errors in reporting to the NPRI. 40 refs., 27 tabs., 4 figs

8

76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...water heating, power washing, or oil...opportunities for steam generation and...improving steam turbine operations and...v) Boiler-steam turbine cogeneration systems. (vi) Industry specific steam end-use...

2011-12-23

9

Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

Rafiei Masoud

2009-01-01

10

Physico-chemical studies of industrial pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution problem industrial estates in more acute in some areas and district Haripur is one of those places. Industrial wastewater generated form various industries is drained into the natural streams / nallahs, which ultimately join river Indus through river Haro. Effluent of different industries were collected periodically and analysed for pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity/ acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended and dissolved solids, ammonia and chlorine. cations like calcium, magnesium and iron, anions like phosphate, chlorides, sulphates and sulphides were also checked, using standard analytical techniques. Trace metals like arsenic cadmium, chromium cobalt copper lead manganese, nickel, tin and zinc were also detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the effluent samples. These results were evaluated and compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Effluent of the fertilizer industries in Haripur, (both phosphatic and nitrogenous) are producing pollution and causing damage to the flora and fauna in the area. Effluent of the phosphatic fertilizer is acidic, having pH 1.5-3.0 due to acid, while effluent of nitrogenous fertilizer is alkaline having pH 9.0 -10.5 due to ammonia. Suggestion for useful remedial measures and the effective control of the pollutants are discussed. (author)

11

National pollutants emission limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

12

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL (NI) ORDER 1997  

Variation notice with introductory note Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2013 Kilroot Power Station Larne Road Carrickfergus Co. Antrim BT38 7LX Permit number ...

13

the role of industry in air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

14

Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

1973-01-01

15

Factors controlling bioindicators for industrial pollution detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindicators of pollution containing industrial metals. Phytoplanktonic algae varied with waste type and with environmental and growth conditions. In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta species and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were cultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution. PMID:10674183

Ali, G H; Abd el-Salam, N F

1999-09-01

16

Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

1996-12-31

17

Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene?s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

Rafiei Masoud

2008-01-01

18

The Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial and Radiochemical Inspectorate) Charging ..  

The Pollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate) Charging Scheme (Northern Ireland) 2012 Department of the Environment 1 April 2012 A Charging Scheme made under Regulation 22 ...

19

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

20

Environmental assessment of pollutants released from industrial plants in helwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is mainly devoted to the study of air pollution due to the increasing amount of particulate matter entering the atmosphere during the process of cement manufacture in helwan industrial region, about 25 km south of greater Cairo City. Meteorological and atmospheric dispersion modelling are presented to study the concentration of dust in air (Mug/m) and at ground level (g/m2) emanating from cement stacks (helwan plant) at various distances and to evaluate the exposure to population living area. Computer program was developed for determining the hourly stability classes and evaluate the height of mixing layers. The model calculate the concentration from multi--sources stacks (Tourah, Helwan, and national company), which allow to make a comparison between measured and calculated results. The model used in this study could be applied to calculate the concentration of radioactive pollutants released from nuclear facilities

 
 
 
 
21

Environmental pollution-effects on national development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

22

Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating nufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process or activity. (author)

23

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System Using Labview And Gsm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority applications of pollution monitoring systems are in industries. The control of the parameters which causes pollution and deteriorates the industrial and natural environment pattern is a great challenge and has received interest from industries especially in Petro chemical industries, Paper making industries, Water treatment industries and Sugar manufacturing industries. The main objective of our project is to design an efficient and robust system to control the parameters causing pollution and to minimize the effect of these parameters without affecting the plant or natural environment. The proposed methodology is to model a system to read and monitor pollution parameters and to inform pollution control authorities when any of these factors goes higher than industry standards. A mechanism using GSM and LabVIEW is introduced in this proposed methodology, which will automatically monitor when there is a disturbance affecting the system. The system is implemented using LabVIEW software. The system investigates level of pH in industry effluents, level of CO gas released during industry process and temperature of the machineries. With the design of GSM, the signals can be effectively transferred and the actions in these cases can still be made accurate and effective. Thus through this project we try to prove that control of pollution can be computed and the data can be transferred online. Our proposed method is more accurate to derive the desired parameters. LabVIEW is the powerful and versatile programming language for operating and controlling the pollution monitoring system and GSM is suitable for interactive environment for signal transfer.

PRAVIN J, DEEPAK SANKAR A, ANGELINE VIJULA D

2013-06-01

24

Sound Pollution Caused by the Industrial Activity in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise pollution is the problem of the industrial world that along with noised induced by traffic has become a problem in human life.This is more problematic in Tehran because of the traffic and the accumulation of small or large industries. People are profoundly exposed to the high level noises and there are increasing demands to solve the problem of noise in Tehran or at least alleviate it.In the current article we will have a brief and quick look to the noise making industries, the reason behind the noise pollution and the strategies for facing the disturbing industries.

Mehrangiz shams

1999-03-01

25

Flared gases and other pollutants associated with air quality in industrial areas of Nigeria: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria, like any other developing nation, is faced with the twin problem of development without destruction. Industrialization, though an important component of development, has had a large share in the despoilation of air quality in the country by the release of high amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere. Petroleum hydrocarbons from refineries, flared gases, dusts, and fumes of metal-smelting and cement works, odorous gases of chemical and allied industries, carbon monoxide and oxides of sulfur and nitrogen of internal combustion engines, the charred particulates and sulfur dioxide emissions of the steel industries etc., all constitute pollutants or co-pollutants of the Nigerian atmosphere. This review article gives an insight into the phenomenal concentrations of some of these pollutants in the Nigerian atmosphere, which point to their unsafe levels and concomitant health risks. It is against this background that there should be continuous but sound monitoring exercise of the Nigerian environment, devoid of the peculiar mix of politics and science, in order to properly audit the quality of air, especially in areas of heavy industrial pollution. Such checks and balances would provide empirical data to assess the various trade-offs of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas of the country such as the Niger Delta region where oil and gas are produced. There should also be enforcement, thereof, of all existing and/or revised standards or regulations such as the compliance limits of the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) or the erstwhile Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). PMID:17191928

Osuji, Leo C; Avwiri, Greg O

2005-10-01

26

GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source,reduction and recycling. reatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in this guide. owever, because in the United States, ...

27

Nuclear industry and national security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central issue of the book is not nuclear power as such, but its effects on the country as a whole in terms of security and safety. The contributions to the book examine aspects of national security affected by nuclear power, and the measures taken to make nuclear power safe, with safety covering the engineering aspects, and security the social, economic, and legal aspects. Experts in their field explain the safety philosophies modified in the course of nuclear industry development, and how technological problems have been tackled. Physical protection of nuclear power plant is an aspect, and insurance for financial security another. Security problems in connection with nuclear weapons in the F.R.G. are discussed as well as the political dimension of nuclear power safety, which is explained by representatives of the parties in the Bundestag. The role of the general public in the democratic process of defining 'security' or 'safety', and security in the context of a constitutional state are further topics under investigation. The book gathers contributions from authors who are known for their advocating, oppositional, or sceptical attitude towards nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

28

Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

29

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

30

Effect of industrial pollution on growth of paints (photosynthesis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants need to do three functions: maintain their metabolic process; grow in size and reproduce. These processes depend on the photosynthesis that is directly or indirectly affected by man-made pollution that is Industrial discharge that include many toxic elements in air, water and land in Industrialized zones. To analyze the various pigments contained in chloroplast and to investigate the effect of industrial pollution on photosynthesis, sunny, semishady and shady leaves of different trees (30 samples) were collected at varying distances from the industrial area having power plants and other industries and the non-industrial area separately in Wah Cantt. The leaves were washed, dried and homogenized before undertaking analysis for different parameters. The result showed that average values of total chlorophyll varied in the range 21.6 - 35, chlorophyll a, 11-19, chlorophyll b, 15-17 and carotene content in the range of 13-33 mg/g of sample taken depending on the type of plant and distance from the industry. These values were in order of sunny> semishady>shady leaves and were comparatively lower as compared to the values in non-industrial area. The soil and water samples from different sites around the trees under study in industrial and non-industrial area were also analyzed for pH, EC, Cl/sup -1/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Pb, Na/sup +1/,K/sup +1/, turbidity and total alkalinity. Based on these analyses, the quality of water and soil samples of the industrial area were fooil samples of the industrial area were found to be satisfactory and within permissible limits. (author)

31

Influence of industrial air pollution on crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an industrial area several varieties of tulips were injured by gases; other varieties were injured to a much lesser extent. This experience in the field has been tested in fumigation chambers with HF and SO2. The air in the chambers (+/- 280 cubic feet) was replaced every one or two minutes. It was found that Parrot-tulips, injured by the gases in that industrial area, were also injured by a very low concentration of HF in the chambers, whereas another variety (Preludium), which was less sensitive to the gases in the field, was not injured in the same experiments with HF. Fumigating with SO2 resulted in the same sensitivity to SO2 of both varieties of tulips. The sensitivity of these tulip varieties has been compared with that of tomato and cucumber plants; at 13 ppb (0.013 ppm) Hf in 7 hours the Parrot-tulip was the only one which was injured (injury 1 cm down from the tip). With a higher concentration (0.2 ppm in 6 hours) Preludium was also injured, tomato and cucumber plants were not. In some areas, where the possibility of gas damage to crops exists, indicator plants for HF injury (Snowprincess-gladiolus), and indicator plants for SO2 injury (alfalfa) were used in experimental fields at different distances from the factories. Near some of these fields a HF and a SO2 absorption apparatus were placed, which absorb the HF resp. SO2 from the air. After one month exposure to the air the absorbent from each apparatus is replaced, and the HF- resp. SO2 content of the absorbent analyzed in the laboratory. Together with the analysis of the leaf samples from the trial plots for HF and SO2 content and the extent of injury of the gladiolus and alfalfa on the different fields it gives an impression of the contamination of the air with HF or SO2.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.

1957-01-01

32

Radiochemical studies on some industrial pollutants released to the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims at characterizing the industrial pollutants that may be released from: Abu-Zaabal fertilizer company, arab ceramic industry, Egyptian alum company near the compass of Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas and petroleum pipelines company at the start of lsmailia canal. The work concentrates on soil or/and sediment pollution, the lsmailia canal water stream pollution and plant pollution. Type of the element and its content are major parameters that are traced in the traced in the experimental work. The work stresses on the analysis of the raw materials used in the chosen Factories, their products of current use as well as their wastes and drainage. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique and radiometric determination of elements are adopted through this work. The selection of the technique is based on less time consumption, high accuracy, reliability, selectivity as well as chemical processing and separation need not to applied. Together with INAA determination of natural radioactivity are also adopted for accessing certain specific elements of importance to the fertilizer industry. Beside the mentioned techniques several classical analytical techniques as atomic absorption, spectrophotometric determination and volumetric methods are handled. 25 tabs., 80 figs., 117 refs

33

The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

34

[Influence of industrial and traffic pollution on reproduction of spermatophytes].  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of studies conducted, primarily, in Europe in last 30 years that deal with influence of anthropogenic environmental pollution on functioning of reproductive and, by comparison, vegetative organs of spermatophytes is presented. In the papers considered the impacts of typical industrial and traffic pollutants (compounds of iron, zinc, copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, as well as sulfur dioxide, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on plants via soil, water, air, and precipitation have been studied. Special attention is paid to effects of heavy metals on embryological structures and processes in staminate and pistillate reproductive spheres of plants (archesporium, meiosis, sporogenesis, gametophytogenesis, morphology and functioning of gametophyte, endospermogenesis, embryogenesis). Detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollution on reproductive sphere of spermatophytes are manifested through disorder in processes of cells fission and differentiation, abnormality in structures development at early stages of morphogenesis, broadening of anomalies spectrum, decrease in pollen fertility, derangement of seed-bearing and germination. PMID:20391752

Solntseva, M P; Glazunova, K P

2010-01-01

35

Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the industrial sectors included in the E-PRTR pollutant register, emissions from the power generating sector contribute the largest share of the damage costs (estimated at EUR 66-112 billion). Excluding CO{sub 2}, the estimated damage costs from this sector are EUR 26-71 billion. Sectors involving production processes and combustion used in manufacturing are responsible for most of the remaining estimated damage costs. (LN)

Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

2011-11-15

36

Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

37

Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer. PMID:22444064

López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

2012-05-01

38

Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

2014-07-01

39

Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies  

Science.gov (United States)

World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.

Amann, Christof.

2000-01-01

40

STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL POLLUTANTS IN KANO INDUSTRIAL AREAS, KANO STATE, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physicochemical pollutant indicators in Kano industrial area of Kano State Nigeria were determined. Effluents from tannery and textile industries and surface water samples were collected from the industrial areas on quarterly basis from June 2007 to May 2008 to reflect the seasonal factors. Effluents from ten industrial and water sample from eight sampling points in River Challawa were sampled to determined physicochemical pollutants. The physicochemical pollutant determined include pH, t...

Reuben, K. D.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abdulrahman, F. I.; Akan, J. C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (?g/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 ?g/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the ru> and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

42

Biomagnetic monitoring of industry-derived particulate pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clear association exists between ambient PM10 concentrations and adverse health outcomes. However, determination of the strength of associations between exposure and illness is limited by low spatial-resolution of particulate concentration measurements. Conventional fixed monitoring stations provide high temporal-resolution data, but cannot capture fine-scale spatial variations. Here we examine the utility of biomagnetic monitoring for spatial mapping of PM10 concentrations around a major industrial site. We combine leaf magnetic measurements with co-located PM10 measurements to achieve inter-calibration. Comparison of the leaf-calculated and measured PM10 concentrations with PM10 predictions from a widely-used atmospheric dispersion model indicates that modelling of stack emissions alone substantially under-predicts ambient PM10 concentrations in parts of the study area. Some of this discrepancy might be attributable to fugitive emissions from the industrial site. The composition of the magnetic particulates from vehicle and industry-derived sources differ, indicating the potential of magnetic techniques for source attribution. - Highlights: ? We use biomagnetic monitoring to map PM10 concentrations around an industrial site. ? SIRMs of tree leaves represent a quantitative proxy for PM10 around this site. ? Magnetically distinct proximal samples (10 levels in the prevailing wind direction from the site. ? Magnetic differences between vehicle and industry PM10 may enable source attribution. - Biomagnetic techniques are used for quantitative mapping of particulate pollution at uniquely high spatial resolution and to distinguish between differently-sourced PM10.

43

Air pollution perceptions and their impacts on the coal industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Perceptions of disaster caused by burning fossil fuels have reached such a pitch that they seriously threaten the very future of the industry. Coal is a dirty word. A leader in Business Day (January 19 2009) claimed 'There is no disputing that renewable and non-polluting energy sources are preferabl [...] e to the country-the true cost of so-called cheap coal-fired power stations is neither reflected nor accounted for by Eskom-the true and immediate but unacknowledged cost of continued coal mining is apparent in the catastrophic level of acidification from mining runoff of all significant natural water resources in the country-and their waters have been rendered unfit for human consumption. Air quality is in a similar state with-increases in pulmonary disease causing workforce absenteeism and compromised childhood development, among many other health problems recorded in areas polluted by coal mining.' The upshot is that our latest coal-fired power station, Kusile, is being required to use flue gas desulphurization. The costs are considerable, and the benefits minimal. Meanwhile, exports are being threatened by EU directives and an assumption that South African coal gives off excessive quantities of SOx and NOx when burned. The industry needs to arm itself with clear responses to these and similar misconceptions, and to communicate those responses loudly and clearly, if it is to survive.

P., Lloyd.

2011-08-01

44

A Study on Mining Industry Pollution in Chapagaon, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stone mining industries in Chapagaon, Lalitpur area is in regular operation since more than 35 years. In this long period, the operators of mines and stone crushing have cleared up the vast area of forest for the purpose of stone mining. As a result the fragile forest ecology, biodiversity and scenery beauty of this area have been widely devastated. Environment of Chapagaon indicates that the destruction of forest area has already affected the local population in terms of declining fresh water sources; drying of wells, reduction on ground water level, livestock productivity and loss of scenic beauty of the place. The agriculture crop yield has also decreased vastly and the area is gradually converting into dry land, the top soils have been eroding and crop plants are being covered with pollutants which are effecting directly or indirectly to the local people. In this paper, health impact of local people, environmental and economic impact of locality by mining industries are examined and evaluated considering questionnaire and available data from several sources such as government publications, related researches, websites and other references. This paper concludes with recommendations in order to control environment pollution, to reduce the impact of gravel, sand and stone mines.

Deshar Bashu Dev

2013-08-01

45

76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Air Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source...

2011-05-17

46

Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. PMID:12361052

Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

2002-01-01

47

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

2006-09-15

48

Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

1996-06-01

49

75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Science.gov (United States)

...subsequently published Part 2004, National Industrial Program Directive No. 1, pursuant to section...Federal Regulations, part 2004, as follows: PART 2004--NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 0 1. The...

2010-04-06

50

75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Science.gov (United States)

...Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part 2004 [NARA-09-0005] RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security...National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1. This correction assigns...

2010-01-12

51

75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public...

2010-12-23

52

77 FR 42679 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2040-AF22 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal...in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations at 40 CFR...are potential sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, pathogens, and other...

2012-07-20

53

78 FR 730 - State Program Requirements; Approval of Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Program...major category partial National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...EPA may approve a partial permit program...of a State's discharges if the...

2013-01-04

54

Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

Solimar Garcia

2014-07-01

55

MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

M. LUCA

2011-03-01

56

Automotive exhaust pollution: Italian National Institute of Health research activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research of the ISS (Italian National Institute of Health) in the field of automotive exhaust pollution is reviewed: five research lines of ISS and two research works financed by the Ministry of the Environment and Labour are in operation. Reference is also made to the evaluations on diesel and gasoline engine exhausts by the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC). Finally, the conclusions of the Italian National Committee on Toxic Substances (CCTN), on unleaded gasoline and on environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are presented.

Carere, A.; Turrio Baldassarri, L. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia)

1992-02-01

57

Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

58

Local air pollution sources and Canadian National Parks : an ecozone focussed summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a survey of local air pollution sources in national parks across Canada were presented, as well as recommendations for future monitoring and abatement programs. The aim of the survey was to collect information on the sources and nature of various pollutants. The survey was conducted primarily through the use of a questionnaire as well as through a comprehensive literature review, which was intended to provide an overview of long range and transport air pollution issues affecting national parks. A summary of 1998, 2001 and 2004 primary air pollution sources was presented. Data were presented on a park by park basis within specific eco-zones in order to assist in the understanding of air pollution sources and challenges common to each eco-zone in order to encourage the compilation, comparison and analysis of data on an eco-system basis and to serve as a baseline for other disciplinary studies. Emissions data from the Canadian Criteria Air Contaminant (CAC) Emissions Inventory for the parks and their surrounding regions were mapped. Significant issues of concern included continental and global air issues; meso-scale transport; acid deposition; tropospheric ozone formation; tropospheric transport of natural ozone; arctic haze; arctic ozone; greenhouse gases (GHGs) and climate change; and stratospheric ozone. The ecological impacts of pollution on soils, vegetation, wildlife and aquatic eco-systems were outlined for all parks. Complete emission inventories for all parks were recommended, as well as the implementation of a monitoring program. It was suggested that dispersion modelling of all local air pollution sources would help to determine the relative contribution of park air pollution sources versus off-site sources. Local air pollution sources included industry pollution, smoke and odour; vehicular traffic; biomass burning; campfires and residential heating; landfills, refuse burning and open air burning of household waste; and spray of chemicals on agricultural lands. An ongoing dialogue with neighbouring landowners to discuss chemical control measures was advised as well as a monitoring program to ensure that spraying is conducted under optimal meteorological conditions. 36 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

Welch, D. [Parks Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada); Schajnoha, S.; Douglas, M.; Duffin, K. [RWDI Air Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Speed, L.; Budgen, M. [Highwood Environmental Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Munro, N. [Victoria, BC (Canada)

2005-07-01

59

Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

AbdulFatai JIMOH

2006-07-01

60

Effect of industrial pollution on seafood content and dietary intake of total and methylmercury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total mercury and methylmercury content of seafood was studied in an area of the Adriatic Sea polluted with inorganic mercury from a local industrial plant. The industrial pollution has affected both the total and the methylmercury content of seafood, but only the difference in the total mercury level was statistically significant when compared with a control area with no local industry. Studies of seafood consumption patterns indicate that, when the subjects examined from both areas were matched by their seafood consumption, both total mercury and methylmercury intake was higher in the industrially polluted area. The percentage of subjects ingesting total mercury above the WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerance Intake (PWTI) of 300 micrograms was also higher in the industrially polluted area. However, the percentage of subjects whose methylmercury intake was above the PWTI of 200 micrograms was higher in the control area, primarily due to the increased number of subjects consuming fish more than 5 times a week. PMID:2717926

Buzina, R; Suboticanec, K; Vukusi?, J; Sapunar, J; Antoni?, K; Zorica, M

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

62

77 FR 64748 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Deletion of the Isle Royale Tailings and Michigan Smelter Tailings parcels of OU3, and Mason Sands Tailings parcel of OU1 of the Torch Lake Superfund...CFR part 300, which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

2012-10-23

63

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU), tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU), textile: Dying Unit (DU) and textile: Finishing Unit (FU) in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivi...

Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Nadeem Zafar

2005-01-01

64

Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.

Lope Virginia

2009-01-01

65

Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

66

Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology.

Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: mikoz@utu.fi; Eraenen, Janne K. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland); Zverev, Vitali E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland)

2007-07-15

67

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, s...

Houria Chettibi; Noureddine Bouzerna; Boutefnouchet Nafissa

2005-01-01

68

Industrial pollution and social deprivation: evidence and complexity in evaluating and responding to environmental inequality.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The local impacts of industrial pollution can take many forms andâ??whilst uncertain in their scale, severity and distributionâ??are widely recognised. The question of who in society potentially experiences these impacts through living near to emission sources has been little explored, at least in the UK. This paper reports on a study carried out for the Environment Agency, which examined the distribution of sites coming within the Industrial Pollution Control (IPC) regime against p...

Walker, Gordon; Mitchell, Gordon; Fairburn, John; Smith, Graham

2005-01-01

69

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

70

STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL POLLUTANTS IN KANO INDUSTRIAL AREAS, KANO STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physicochemical pollutant indicators in Kano industrial area of Kano State Nigeria were determined. Effluents from tannery and textile industries and surface water samples were collected from the industrial areas on quarterly basis from June 2007 to May 2008 to reflect the seasonal factors. Effluents from ten industrial and water sample from eight sampling points in River Challawa were sampled to determined physicochemical pollutants. The physicochemical pollutant determined include pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour, total suspended solid and oil and grease. The levels pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour, oil and grease and total suspended solid (TSS in the effluent and surface water samples were higher than the WHO limits. Statistical analysis shows that the concentrations of the above parameters were significant (p<0.05 between industries, but not significant between seasons. The above parameters measured for River Challawa are potential for profound effect on the water body itself and resident aquatic life.

K. D. REUBEN

2009-08-01

71

Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

2014-09-01

72

Analysis of Pollution Industrial Transfer Based on Environmental Regulation and Public Participation: China’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Referring to 1995-2011 China's provincial panel data, this paper constructs an econometric model consisting of environmental regulation, public participation and pollution industrial transfer, and mainly focuses on the role of environmental regulation and public participation in the pollution industries transfer using panel data unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test and panel regression analysis method. The results show that environmental regulation and public participation play an obvious role in promoting the pollution industries transfer both in the long-term and in the short-term. However, their influencing strength varies. The effect from environmental regulation is stronger, while public participation has a comparatively weak effect on the pollution transfer

Wen-bin Peng

2013-07-01

73

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

1988-07-01

74

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

75

Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

76

Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was the key soil characteristics determining the Cu removal rate.

Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina

2006-01-01

77

[Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].  

Science.gov (United States)

Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of environmental pollution in Pan-Yangtze River Delta, especially in the transition period. PMID:25639121

Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

2014-11-01

78

[Relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou: how about the EKC?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the study of the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou City in 1991-2005, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of the City was estimated by several kinds of function, with the cause analyzed. The results showed that the EKC of Suzhou was not a typical one. The industrial pollution of the City increased dramatically by scale effect of economic growth and the clear environmental benefit of industrial structure adjustment was not received obviously, while generalized discharge reduction technologies showed great results. In general terms, the pollution increase was comparatively slower than the GDP growth. As a whole, the environmental policy of Suzhou was in effect. However, the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge had not been a benign development yet. In order to achieve win-win situation of economic growth and pollution reduction, Suzhou needed to optimize its industry structure, push the energy conservation and discharge reduction policy deeply, increase environmental investment, and enforce the strictest environmental and industrial policy. In doing these, Suzhou could turn the traditional omega-shaped EKC into delta-shaped EKC. PMID:19565781

Ling, Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yin, Rong-Yao; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Jun

2009-04-01

79

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T2O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

80

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

1998-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 ?g/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards. PMID:20658359

Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

2011-06-01

82

Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

NONE

1995-12-01

83

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU, tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU, textile: Dying Unit (DU and textile: Finishing Unit (FU in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water pollutants. Environmental pollutants quantitatively analyzed include nickel, zinc, copper, iron, temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total acidity as CaCO3, total alkalinity as CaCO3, chloride, fluoride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, nitrate, nitrite, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results of present study revealed that effluents from all industries causing severe toxic metal pollution. While analysis of physico-chemical parameters showed that although all industries causing some type of physico-chemical pollution but textile industry (FU effluents were above permissible limits in most of physico-chemical parameters analyzed. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighboring water bodies. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace and assessment of pollution caused by effluents is therefore necessary for appropriate selection of treatment plan.

Muhammad Asif Hanif

2005-01-01

84

Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-06-01

85

Environmental policy and industrial competitiveness: The pollution haven hypothesis reconsidered  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis suggests that tight environmental standards reduce domestic producers' competitiveness and give rise to their relocating to countries with more lenient standards. This paper questions that relocation is always caused by reduced competitiveness at home. By using a signaling approach, I show that relocation can be undertaken for purely strategic reasons. Relocation is the producer's tool to convince the policy maker to refrain from a further tightening of environm...

Bommer, Rolf

1995-01-01

86

Industrial air pollution in the horticultural centre Ymond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Near the steelworks west of Amsterdam where flower bulbs are cultivated, investigations on air pollution by HF continued. During the growing season, F/sup -/ was monitored weekly by the limed paper method. Higher concentrations were measured in December 1974 and in January 1975 when mild weather coincided with prevailing wind from SW. The persistence of these conditions favorable for air pollution led to several complaints from growers of cut tulips. In April and May, claims by growers for crop losses of tulips (grown for bulb production) were received; in August, growers complained of damage to cut gladioli grown outdoors. From May until October, in the center of this area HF concentrations were measured by the silver pellets method to investigate the effects of chronic HF pollution on bulb and corm plants. Further prolonged fumigation trials with tulips in 1976 were to be based on these measurements in practice. In 1975 proportional incidence of mass concentrations of F/sup -/ higher than 0.3 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ was about 50% of the incidence in 1974.

Wolting, H.G.

1976-01-01

87

POLLUTION PREVENTION METHODS IN THE SURFACE COATING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface coating industry is rapidly changing to meet environmental and economic pressures. ome of the changes include new formulations which meet environmental regulations, higher performance finishes with improved properties, continued development of solventless technologies...

88

PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

89

Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

2012-01-01

90

The Effect of Uncertainty on Pollution Abatement Investments: Measuring Hurdle Rates for Swedish Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate hurdle rates for firms' investments in pollution abatement technology, using ex post data. The method is based on a structural option value model where the future price of polluting fuel is the major source of uncertainty facing the firm. The empirical procedure is illustrated using a panel of firms from the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and the energy and heating sector, and their sulfur dioxide emissions over the period 2000-2003. The results indicate that hurdle rates of inv...

Lo?fgren, A?sa; Millock, Katrin; Nauges, Ce?line

2008-01-01

91

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

92

Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

2008-03-15

93

Communication between the petroleum industry and First Nations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This video dramatization portrays a public meeting on a First Nations reserve involving two petroleum industry representatives, the chief of the reserve, councilors and residents of the reserve. They are discussing jurisdiction, compensation and sacred grounds. These are issues that are important to harmonious relations between native people and oil and gas companies that operate on First Nations and traditional lands. The purpose of the presentation was to show the importance of communications and to increase understanding between the industry and First Nations. Economic benefits of resource development on First Nations land such as jobs, training and in business opportunities were also explored

94

Monitoring of heavy pollutants from industrial emissions and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental facilities of internal beam PIXE, tube-excited ED-XRF, NAA, electrothermal AAS and DPASV have been established. The development of analytical procedures based on these principles is in progress for multielement trace analysis in different matrices including solid and liquid wastes. An intercomparison study of trace and minor element analysis in IAEA Soil and lake sediment standards was performed with source-excited ED-XRF method and good agreements were observed. Using the existing standard analytical techniques of source-excited ED-XRF and flame AAS, 34 effluent samples from paper, tannery and fertilizer industries were analyzed for about 15 elements with Z > 19 to obtain baseline information. Future studies will be directed to industrial emissions and effluents from fertilizer factories, paper mills, chemical industries, power plants and steel mills. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

95

Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

96

75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2010-03-08

97

32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1...Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

2010-07-01

98

75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2010-07-09

99

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

Islam Mir Sujaul

2013-01-01

100

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

 
 
 
 
101

Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

1977-02-01

102

Environmental policy, intra-industry trade and transfrontier pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses effects of domestic environmental policy on foreign emissions and on transboundary pollution. We use a Dixit-Stiglitz type model of monopolistic competition with an endogenous number of firms. Production generates environmental externalities which spill over to the other country. It is shown that environmental policy has an impact on market structure at home and abroad. These market structure effects induce changes in emissions abroad. In contrast to what has been derived in earlier contributions, it turns out to be possible that tighter environmental standards at home lead to less emissions abroad. The paper derives these results and provides the economic intuition behind them. Finally, conditions for optimal environmental policies are derived. 17 refs

103

Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in th...

Solimar Garcia; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

2014-01-01

104

Trade reforms, deforestation and industrial pollution in developing countries: One size does not fit all  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many developing countries possess comparative advantage both in natural resources and in labor-intensive industries, and experience both industrial pollution and natural resource degradation. We present a model that incorporates these stylized facts together with key spatial features and property rights failures typical of developing economies. We explore consequences of anticipated domestic and global trade policy and world price changes. Similar exogenous or policy shocks are seen to have c...

Coxhead, Ian; Jayasuriya, Sisira

2005-01-01

105

76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2011-05-13

106

78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2013-02-08

107

75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2010-10-25

108

76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2011-11-01

109

76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2011-02-07

110

77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

2012-10-17

111

78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2013-10-25

112

78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee...meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters....

2013-06-25

113

National seminar on industrial radiography. Gammatest'95  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The broad spectrum of problems connected with industrial radiography applications for material testing and product quality control has been presented and discussed. The technical solutions in modern X-ray and gamma radiographic instrumentation have been shown as well as the problems of radiation protection of personnel, some legal aspects and regulations to be in force at this topic have been performed

114

Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

2014-11-01

115

Particulate pollution levels in Katowice, a highly industrialized polish city  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulate measurements made in Katowice, Poland, in 1989 (prior to political changes in Eastern Europe and the resulting decrease in industrial production) indicate total suspended particulate levels that are 3-10 times higher than in other European cities. The concentrations of cadmium, nickel and manganese were also significantly higher than in other places in Europe. However, lead concentrations were comparable to European cities with high automobile traffice. The modes and concentration levels of the Katowice aerosol were highly direction dependent, which indicates that most of the sampled particles were locally or regionally emitted into the atmosphere.

Pastuszka, Jozef; Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Willeke, Klaus

116

Monitoring of heavy metal pollutants in industrial emission and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PIXE, ED-XRF, AAS and some other trace analysis techniques have been used to study trace elements in air particulates and other environmental samples. For the PIXE measurements, samples are collected with a 6-stage Batelle type cascade impactor using Nuclepore filters and MicroMatter calibration standards. Baseline measurements have been made in the laboratory environment, and field samples have been collected in a local tannery. Recent work has been mainly concerned with developing and testing the necessary analytical methodologies. Future studies will focus on industrial emissions from fertilizer factories, pulp and paper mills, a chemical complex, steel mills and an oil refinery. 2 figs, 6 tabs

117

MECHANISM OF GUARANTEED SETTLEMENT OF CUMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AT REORGANIZATION OF POLLUTED URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL TERRITORIES / ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is devoted to the settlement of environmental risks, in particular risk of increase of expenses on environmental reconstruction at reorganization of industrial territories, zones of existing developments and creation of mechanism of guaranteed settlement of cumulative environmental damage when returning polluted urban territories into economic turnover / ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ? ???????...

????? ????? ???????????, Yazhlev I. K.

2014-01-01

118

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

119

Reactions of dendriform plants to industrial pollutions of the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In connection with investigations regarding the genetic structure of a single population of common pine, the authors took an interest in the study of the origin-dependent variability of the sensitivity of those pine-trees from the European part of the distribution area to toxic air pollutions. So they tested the degree of sensitivity of 20 origin samples of common pine, making use of the 1982 IUFRO experiment. Seedlings from different origins were fumigated in SO/sub 2/-cabins and moreover planted, by way of field tests, near SO/sub 2/ and HF emittors. In both series of this experiment the differences between the individual origin samples as regards damage to the needles were statistically corroborated. Seedlings of northern origin (Sweden, USSR) and of southern origin (Yugoslavia, Turkey) proved less sensitive as compared to seedlings from origins of the central distribution part of the pines. There is high correspondence between the results of the cabin and field experiments. A comparison of the intensity of the net photosynthesis of control specimens with needle necroses from both test series confirms the existence of a statistically corroborated correlation.

Bialobok, S.; Karolewski, P.; Oleksyn, J.

1986-01-01

120

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved “critical receptor” stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

Bechtel Nevada

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Ecopetrol, motor of the national industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper refers to the production of parts in the city of Barrancabermeja, on the part of Ecopetrol, becoming the motor for the development of the small and medium companies (pyme) that now have the capacity to built pieces and supplies, that it requires the refinery and that before they were bought in the exterior. An analysis of this market is made in the national and international environment

122

Variation in the chemical constituents of soybean due to industrial pollution  

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Full Text Available The two varieties of soybean (Soybean Bragg and Soybean JS-71-05 were collected from an industrial site (IS and from a non-industrial site (NIS for the study of their chemical composition and fatty acids profiles by gas liquid chromatography (GLC. These studies revealed large changes in the major and minor fatty acids of the soybean seeds due to the effect of chemical pollutants. There was a significant decrease in the amounts of major and minor fatty acids, such as myristic acid (14:0, palmitic acid (16:0, stearic acid (18:0, oleic acid (18:1, linoleic acid (18:2, and linolenic acid (18:3, in the seeds from industrial site. The changes in the chemical composition due to chemical pollutants showed mixed results.

SATGUR PRASAD

2004-09-01

123

Marine pollution effects of pulp and paper industry wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

The scale of waste discharges to the marine environment from the pulp and paper industry in various parts of the world is outlined and a brief description of the major characteristics of such wastes is given. The information available on the direct toxicity of these wastes to marine fauna and flora is assessed including both lethal and sublethal effects. The environmental impact of waste discharge and subsequent ecosystem modifications are considered in detail; the complex adjustments to the nutrient and carbon budgets of the water column and sediment involved in direct alterations to their oxygen balance and other indirect eutrophication effects are described. It is concluded that whereas the direct toxicity of these wastes has minimal effect in the marine environment the complex problems created by increasing the oxygen demand of the receiving waters can have considerable impact in inshore areas. Methods of minimising the effect of such impacts and of forecasting their extent are outlined. “He saw its excreta poisoning the seas. He became watchful” (Hughes, 1970).

Pearson, T. H.

1980-03-01

124

Modeling of Ambient Air Pollutants through Artificial Neural Network in Industrial Area of Ujjain City  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was modeling of ambient air pollutants through ANN, in industrial area of Ujjain city in India and the study was carried out on modeling of air pollutants like Sox, Nox, SPM and RSPM using Artificial Neural Network. The ANN system was run by giving the inputs of meteorological data’s and giving the outputs of concentration of various pollutants and accordingly the estimation of Errors was done by this study. The monthly data’s in year from 2006 -2012 of meteorological data like Temperature, Humidity, wind pressure and rainfall and the pollutants concentration were collected from the State Pollution Control Board. The ANN system used as shown in figure 1 analyses all these data’s and find the error coming during the experiment. The study estimated the Mean Square Error (MSE from the inputs and outputs which were given to ANN in the industrial area of Ujjain City in India was found satisfactory being in the range of 0.01-0.03. The results shown here indicate that the neural network techniques can be useful tool in the hands of practitioners of air quality management and prediction. The models studied in this study are easily implemented, and they can deliver prediction in real time, unlike other modeling techniques.

Alka Srivastava*

2014-01-01

125

River pollution dynamics in a post-industrial urban catchment in Swansea, South Wales  

Science.gov (United States)

Inter- and intra-storm variations in organic pollution variables are investigated in a post-industrial urban catchment that lies in an area of Swansea (South Wales) that has been subject to landscape remediation and economic regeneration after three centuries of metal industry. Temporal variations in ammonium (and ammonia), nitrates, dissolved oxygen and pH in relation to stream discharge during 9 storm events of contrasting size and antecedent weather over the period July to November 2011 are explored. Substantial differences in response in terms of storm hysteresis pattern and pollution levels are found, with the worst ammonia pollution (with anticlockwise hysteresis in contrast to a normally clockwise pattern) recorded in a summer event that followed a significant dry period. Temporal patterns in nitrates (including the direction of hysteresis) often differed markedly from those for ammonia. Variations in peak pollution levels and the size and direction of hysteresis (as assessed by the HImid index) are found to be related in particular to antecedent precipitation variables. The sources and process mechanisms responsible for the patterns found are discussed and suggestions are made regarding possible ways of tackling the problems identified. The problems tend to be understated by the monthly sampling frequency of river pollution monitoring systems as it largely miss storm events.

Duffy, J..; Walsh, R. P. D.

2012-04-01

126

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved 'critical receptor' stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout)

127

The Evaluation of Industrial Cement Production Plant on the Environmental Pollution Using Magnetic Susceptibility Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different pollutants in soil, water, and other parts of the environment are so important in portraying environmental pollution, and could come from different source of pollutions including industrial activities. Entering metals into the soil by human activities is an important process in the geochemical cycling of heavy metals. Among the potentially toxic metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, selenium and chromium could be named as the most toxic. Each of these elements is used in industrial activities and most of them are considered as by-products of mining, refining and similar industrial activities. Although the establishment of cement factories is usually associated with job creation and other economic aspects, the purpose of economic interests, is inevitable environmental damage caused by cement factories. Therefore, research on pollution originated from factories appears to be necessary. In order to determine the effect of cement production on farmland around Shahrood cement factory, soil samples were taken from surface soils from depth of 0-30 cm. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer instrument after samples preparation using standard frequently used methods. Soil magnetic susceptibility of the samples was also measured using Saskopto meters MFK1-FA. The results showed that among the parameters studied, the element of Zinc has shown the lowest mean value equal to 0.31 mg·kg-1 and iron has shown the highest mean value equal to 6.36 mg·kg-1.

Hadi Ghorbani

2013-12-01

128

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

Harris, Janet S.

2011-04-01

129

Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2010-03-01

130

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relations are shown used for calculating air and surface pollution in the METEO-2 computer programme. The programme may be used for computing both short-term and long-term stack emissions of conventional and radioactive industrial wastes into the atmosphere and their deposition in the neighbouring environment. The factors for pollution computation comprise vertical plume dynamics and heat capacity. Methods of dispersion data determination are given. The practical choice of a mesh point system used in the computations is discussed. (J.B.)

131

Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

132

Pollution prevention/waste minimization program applications to the commercial nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Programs have been established for new facilities to encompass design, construction, operation and decommissioning of process and power plants, research and government facilities. With respect to Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization, operating nuclear facilities must consider ongoing operations; modifications to processes, systems or components; changes in operating practices; and eventual decommissioning. The primary emphasis of the programs, consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) definition of pollution prevention/waste minimization, is waste elimination, source reduction and/or recycling to minimize the quantity and toxicity of material before it enters the waste stream for treatment or disposal. The 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and 1990 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) passed by Congress have driven commercial nuclear utilities to consider formal pollution prevention/waste minimization programs. These programs typically contain four distinct phases in accordance with guidance from the US EPA: planning, assessment, feasibility, and implementation. Certain utilities, such as the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) have taken pro-active steps to provide the baseline for pollution prevention/waste minimization programs through waste characterization and assessment. In addition, the nuclear industry's efforts in evaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reavaluation of spent fuel and irradiated reactor core hardware storage and disposal also provide directly applicable baseline information

133

The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general and technogenic hotspots. Airpollution- related health effects can be reduced through policies that curb emissions. Among measures that can be undertaken to achieve these reductions is the use technology in industry and programs to increase public awareness. However Kazakhstani society is more concerned about social problems; government does not want to disturb people, because environmental problems are far from a positive decision.

Vitaliy G. Salnikov

2011-01-01

134

Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry. Changes in chlorophyll content were investigated in selected plant species exposed to dust emitted by the cement industry. The concentration of chlorophyll in all the selected plant species i.e. Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species were investigated and noted that amount of chlorophyll in all plants that are away from cement plant have more chlorophyll than that of near to the industry. Control plants were found always with higher chlorophyll content in comparison to dusted plants. Up to 74.69% reduction was observed in studied plants. In general, pollution by the cement dust has caused adverse effects on the photosynthetic pigments.

Sadhana Chaurasia

2013-12-01

135

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009 Using the LMDI I Method  

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Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N, between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity, structure effects (caused by change in economic structure and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector, using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I decomposition method. Results showed that: (1 the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2 the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3 the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4 the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction.

Beidou Xi

2012-06-01

136

Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching. PMID:21122984

Kim, Kyoung-Hun; Ihm, Son-Ki

2011-02-15

137

Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

138

32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].  

Science.gov (United States)

...Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)]. 2004.20 Section 2004.20 National Defense Other Regulations...ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security...

2010-07-01

139

77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY...following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting...

2012-06-11

140

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam totexture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

142

Who bears the environmental burden in China? An analysis of the distribution of industrial pollution sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A remaining challenge for environmental inequality researchers is to translate the principles developed in the U.S. to China which is experiencing the staggering environmental impacts of its astounding economic growth and social changes. This study builds on U.S. contemporary environmental justice literature and examines the issue of environmental inequality in China through an analysis of the geographical distribution of industrial pollution sources in Henan province. This study attempts to answer two central questions: (1) whether environmental inequality exists in China and if it does, (2) what socioeconomic lenses can be used to identify environmental inequality. The study found that: (1) race and income - the two common lenses used in many U.S. studies play different roles in the Chinese context; (2) rural residents and especially rural migrants are disproportionately exposed to industrial pollution. (author)

Ma, Chunbo [School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia)

2010-07-15

143

Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria  

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Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

Houria Chettibi

2005-12-01

144

Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations. But since the inception of the oil industry in Nigeria, more than twenty-five years ago, there has been no concerned and effective effort on the part of the government, let alone the oil operators, to control environmental problems associated with the industry'. The article reviews the meaning of water pollution, water pollution categories, point source pollution, non-point source pollution, ground water pollution, causes of water pollution, pathogens, chemicals and other contaminants, thermal pollution, transport and chemical reactions of pollution, measurement of pollution, sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, biological testing, control of water pollution, domestic sewage, industrial waste water, agricultural waste water, construction site storm water urban runoff (storm water, radiation pollution, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, The National Policy on Environment, The national environmental reference laboratory, Water resources management, Strategies under the National Policy on Environment, Industrial water pollution control programme, Industrial effluent standards to provide some information on the Nigeria situation.

A.T. Ekubo

2011-11-01

145

Aquatic Fungi Recovered from Water and Submerged Mud Polluted With Industrial Effluents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nineteen species were recovered belonging to 9 genera of aquatic fungi in addition to unidentified species of Aphanomyces, Pythium and Saprolegnia. These species were isolated from surface water and submerged mud samples collected from canal polluted with industrial effluents of Kima factory for fertilizers and River Nile during the period from January to December 1996 at Aswan region, using baiting technique of sesame seeds at 22+1 oC. Pythium, Nowakowskiel...

El-hissy, Farida T.; Nassar, Mortada S. M.; Khallil, A. M.; Abdel-motaal, Fatma F.

2001-01-01

146

Full automatic system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the full automatic monitoring system for control of industrial wastes polluted by organic compounds is presented. Continual preparation of samples and their analysis ensure the instrument PROSPEKT and liquid chromatograph/diode array detector UV (LC/DAD UV) in 'on-line' connection. Function of the PROSPEKT instrument is described. This system works at levels ?g dm-3 - mg dm-3 and it is programmed for detecting of 18 compounds

147

Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

2013-01-01

148

A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from 210Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ? 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our 14C and 210Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ? 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ? 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, ttrace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 ?g g-1. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution

149

The Photo-Degradation of Organic Pollutants Using Sulphonated Phtalocyanines of Zinc and Aluminium in Semi-Industrial and Industrial Reactors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aim of the work was to test the photocatalytical cleaning of organically polluted waters in a semi-industrial reactor, to optimise the reactors parameters (e.g. flow, initial concentrations of pollutant and catalyst, reaction mixture volume, etc.) and then to test the reactors for 4-chlorophenol (as a model substrate) decomposition.

Hejda, S.

2013-01-01

150

[Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

2014-11-01

151

Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m2/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

152

75 FR 47482 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...controls for the Site. Evaluating site conditions at least...Corporation. A search for potential corporate successors was...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2010-08-06

153

Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

154

Mercury isotope signatures in contaminated sediments as a tracer for local industrial pollution sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) may cause characteristic isotope signatures of different mercury (Hg) sources and help understand transformation processes at contaminated sites. Here, we present Hg isotope data of sediments collected near industrial pollution sources in Sweden contaminated with elemental liquid Hg (mainly chlor-alkali industry) or phenyl-Hg (paper industry). The sediments exhibited a wide range of total Hg concentrations from 0.86 to 99 ?g g(-1), consisting dominantly of organically-bound Hg and smaller amounts of sulfide-bound Hg. The three phenyl-Hg sites showed very similar Hg isotope signatures (MDF ?(202)Hg: -0.2‰ to -0.5‰; MIF ?(199)Hg: -0.05‰ to -0.10‰). In contrast, the four sites contaminated with elemental Hg displayed much greater variations (?(202)Hg: -2.1‰ to 0.6‰; ?(199)Hg: -0.19‰ to 0.03‰) but with distinct ranges for the different sites. Sequential extractions revealed that sulfide-bound Hg was in some samples up to 1‰ heavier in ?(202)Hg than organically-bound Hg. The selectivity of the sequential extraction was tested on standard materials prepared with enriched Hg isotopes, which also allowed assessing isotope exchange between different Hg pools. Our results demonstrate that different industrial pollution sources can be distinguished on the basis of Hg isotope signatures, which may additionally record fractionation processes between different Hg pools in the sediments. PMID:25437501

Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Jonsson, Sofi; Björn, Erik; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2015-01-01

155

Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

2004-09-15

156

Integrating Market Based Instruments for Pollution Control - Strategic Option for Enhancing Competitiveness within Energy Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize the efficiency of using market based instruments for both reducing pollution and enhancing competitiveness within the energy industry. Given the previous experience of European countries, as well as the characteristics of the main market based instruments, the paper is focused on developing two alternatives for combining green certificates schemes, white certificates schemes and emissions trading schemes (black certificates schemes in strategic options, aiming to increase the competitiveness of the energy industry and to decrease the emissions generated within this field. Each strategic option presented includes an integration scheme, as well as the main advantages and disadvantages deriving from the implementation of these mechanisms. The paper also demonstrates that an integrated market based instruments’ scheme is more efficient and even cost-effective than using single instruments. The whole analysis places a higher focus on white certificates, as these are the more recent market based instrument for enhancing competitiveness within energy industry.

Oana-C?t?lina ??PURIC?

2011-12-01

157

Analysis of black carbon, particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants in an industrial area in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), CO, NO 2, SO 2, benzene, toluene, and xylene were measured in an industrial area in Incheon City, Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that PC1 had high contributions from PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene (31.225%), and was strongly associated with vehicular emissions and industrial sources, the major contributors to air pollution in Incheon. PC2 was heavily enriched with NO 2 and BC (24.555%), and was attributed to emissions from vehicles such as buses, vans, taxis, cars, motorcycles, and trucks. PC3 was highly enriched with toluene and xylene (20.884%), and thus represented solvent usage. PC4 was enriched with SO 2 (12.884%), which could be attributed to the high S content in diesel fuel used in trucks, which may contribute to the high ambient levels of SO 2 in the city. Cluster analysis (CA) revealed four subgroups: Cluster 1 (SO 2), Cluster 2 (toluene and xylene), Cluster 3 (NO 2 and BC), and Cluster 4 (PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene), which agree with the PCA results. This study showed that benzene had a higher correlation with PM 2.5, PM 10, and CO than toluene and xylene, providing insights into source contributions that, together with a source-species atmospheric dispersion model, can be used to devise new control strategies for industrial urban areas. Our results suggest that appropriate vehicle emission management coupled with industrial air pollution control should be applied to fine particulate (PM 2.5) and gaseous pollutants including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in the study area.

Yoo, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jungkon; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

2011-12-01

158

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-07-01

159

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

S. Rodríguez

2011-03-01

160

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 ?m transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

162

Identification of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants in untreated industrial wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a generic protocol for the determination of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants on untreated industrial wastewaters involving the use of two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methodologies followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Untreated industrial wastewaters might contain natural and synthetic dissolved organic compounds with total organic carbon (TOC) values varying between 100 and 3000 mg/L. All polar, ionic and highly water soluble compounds comprising more than 95% of the organic content and with major contribution to the total toxicity of the sample cannot be analyzed by conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and LC-MS is a good alternative. In this work two extraction procedures were used to obtain fractionated extracts of the nonionic polar compounds: a polymeric Isolute ENV + SPE cartridge for the preconcentration of anionic analytes and a sequential solid-phase extraction (SSPE) method percolating the samples first in octadecylsilica cartridge in series with the polymeric Lichrolut EN cartridge. Average recoveries ranging from 72% to 103% were obtained for a variety of 23 different analytes. Determination of nonionic pollutants was accomplished by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS), while anionic compounds were analyzed by ion pair chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (IP-ESI-MS) and LC-ESI-MS. This protocol was applied to a pilot survey of textile and tannery wastewaters leading to the identification and quantification of 33 organic pollutants.

Castillo, M.; Alonso, M.C.; Riu, J.; Barcelo, D. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1999-04-15

163

Nineteenth century flooding and pollutant loadings from the first industrial city  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1750 and 1900 the city of Manchester was transformed. In the city and surrounding towns enormous volumes of fine-grained sediments (clays, silts and sands) were generated and much of this material, contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants, ended up in urban river channels that became choked with sediments. Water quality was dire. Urban channels were then periodically scoured by large floods from steep headwater catchments that evacuated sediments and deposited them on the wide rural floodplain downstream. The nature and extent of sediment pollution in the city and the volume of material transported by rivers can be established by studying floodplain deposits, a vital aspect of the history of the first industrial city that is now being explored. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Manchester Ship Canal (MSC) destroyed much of the valley floor of the Mersey-Irwell system downstream of the city. When the MSC opened at the beginning of 1894 it was the largest inland navigation of its kind in the world. We have identified well-preserved sedimentary records - that were not excavated or buried during the construction of the ship canal - that span this crucial period. High-resolution sampling of sediments has allowed reconstruction of large flood events, pollution history, and contaminant flux using detailed grain size and X-ray fluorescence analyses for the period up to 1887 when the construction of the MSC began. These constitute a geological archive of natural and anthropogenic environmental change before and during the Industrial Revolution. This paper presents natural baseline conditions for the Mersey-Irwell system, contaminant profiles for sediment-bound heavy metals, a record of exceptionally large floods for the nineteenth century, and the trajectory of change following the Industrial Revolution. This forms part of a larger project to establish the nature and extent of sediment pollution over the period of the Industrial Revolution in the Mersey-Irwell catchment, an important new proxy for the evolving quality of the river environment in the world's first industrial city.

Woodward, Jamie; Rothwell, James; Hurley, Rachel; Lewin, John

2014-05-01

164

Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

165

Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

Frances C. Moore

2009-03-01

166

Satellite remote sensing of industrial air pollution in the Cracow special protected area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cracow has been declared a special protected area in the ecological sense. To determine the industrial aerosol content in the air above the Cracow agglomeration, we interpreted satellite images, obtained mainly from the LANDSAT satellite. The ranges, trajectories, and height of smoke plumes visible on the satellite images were investigated in relation to meterological conditions and orography. Satellite images provided convincing evidence of the profound influence of orography on the propagation of industrial pollutants. River valleys create natural air corridors for smoke propagation and are visible especially in the so-called winter satellite images. The results of our direct measurements and interpretation of satellite images indicate that the Katowice and Cracow regions are the most polluted in Europe and that the atmosphere above them contains increasing amounts of aerosol particles. We also found that Cracow is always downwind from emitters. Depending on specific wind direction, emissions from nearby emitters cover either all or part of the urban area. Emissions from farther away may reach Cracow, depending on meterological conditions and orography. Satellite imagery is a very useful tool in monitoring smoke propagation in urban industrial regions. PMID:2095412

Chwastek, J; Dworak, T Z

1990-01-01

167

Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

Auer, M.R.

1996-05-01

168

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ? Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ? Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ? Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants

169

Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ? Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ? Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ? Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. ?–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants.

Zhu, Zongmin, E-mail: zhumin@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Bi, Xiangyang [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Langfang 065000 (China); Yu, Genhua [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2013-02-15

170

Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

171

Evaluation of Economic Development and Industrial Pollution in Chongqing in Recent Years Based on EKC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years Chongqing has made rapid economic development. But it also faces an enormous pressure in energy-saving and carbon emission reduction especially in the industrial fields. This paper constructs the models of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC with time series data of Chongqing from 1995 to 2006. The basic data include the industrial waste discharge per unit GDP, industrial waste discharge per capita GDP and corresponding environmental data. The relationship between typical environmental indexes and increase of GDP is analyzed. The results show that the industrial waste discharge per unit GDP displays general downward trend, which indicates the technological progress and readjustment of industrial structure have yielded significant environmental benefit. Meanwhile, on the whole the relationship of economic development and environmental pollution in recent years donot conform with the obvious characteristics of EKC. The fitting EKC curves of all environmental indexes have no tuming point. So the efficient environmental policy and huge environmental investment of Chongqing have to make the economic and environment develop sustainable and healthily.

LIU Cun-dong

2009-04-01

172

Trace metal content in airborne particulate matter measured at a polluted industrial site in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Many epidemiological studies have implicated the association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse human health effects, especially metal content as a possible harmful component of PM. Twenty four-hour samples of PM10 were collected on cellulose filters at a polluted industrial monitoring site for one month and analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The method was used to quantify airborne concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn. The results were compared with Croatian and European legislation. (author)

173

Analysis of nickel industrial wastes by nuclear techniques and its pollution assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of some heavy metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in nickel industrial wastes from Moa, northeastern Cuba, is determined. The analysis was performed by External Standard method of ED-XRF, using 238Pu (1.11 GBq) excitation source and laterite certified reference material as standards. The capability of INAA using neutrons from a Pu-Be (107 n/s) source and Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC is studied. The determined concentration values for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn shows a different pollution degree according to Dutch regulations and US NOAA guidelines. (Author)

174

Horse Hair as an Indicator of Pb Pollution Around Shiraz Oil Industry, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for using the horse hair as a bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Horse hair samples from different radial distances from oil and petrochemical industries of Shiraz were analyzed to determine their Pb content. Viz farms located in radial zone of 1-1.5, 1.5-5, 5-7, 7-10 km, respectively considered as group A, B, C and D. Group E (control farms) were far from exam place and roads. In order to sampling, each farm was v...

Mehrdad Pourjafar; Khalil Badiei; Mostafa Shakhse-Niaie

2008-01-01

175

Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and will discuss the findings in regard to noise control and management in details.

Parvin Nasiri

1999-03-01

176

[Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

2013-12-01

177

A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

178

76 FR 49324 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas of high erosion potential. The Site Entrance...the Initial and Final Pollution Report dated September...address all remaining potential risks in the residential...and adjacent land by evaluating the Site in its current...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-08-10

179

Nevada National Security Site Industrial Sites Project Closeout - 12498  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is responsible for environmental restoration (ER) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This includes remediation at Industrial Sites where past nuclear testing activities and activities that supported nuclear testing may have or are known to have resulted in the release of contaminants into the environment. Industrial Sites at the NNSS have included nuclear facilities that supported the nuclear rocket/missile development programs, gas stations, landfills, spill sites, ordnance sites, and numerous other waste disposal and release sites. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities neared completion at the end of fiscal year 2011 while other activities required under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and part of the same NNSS ER Project are forecasted to extend to 2027 or beyond. With the majority of Industrial Sites corrective action units (CAUs) completed (more than 250 CAUs and over 1,800 corrective action sites), it was determined that an activity closeout process should be implemented to ensure that the work completed over the past 15 years is well documented in a comprehensive and concise summary. While the process used to close each individual CAU is described in approved documents, no single document describes in summary fashion the work completed to close the many individual Industrial Sites. The activity closeout process will be used to develop an Industrial Sites closeout document that describes these years of work. This document will summarize the number of Industrial Sites closed under the FFACO and provide general descriptions of projects, contaminants removed, and sites closed in place with corresponding Use Restrictions. Other pertinent information related to Industrial Sites work such as the project history, closure decisions, historical declarations, remediation strategies, and final CAU status will be included in the closeout document, along with a table listing each CAU and corresponding corrective action sites within each CAU. Using this process of conducting the activity closeout and developing a closeout document may prove useful for other ER projects within the DOE complex in describing how a long period of ER can be summarized in a single document. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities were completed over the span of 15 years and involved the investigation, cleanup or Use Restriction, and closure of more than 260 CAUs and over 1,800 sites. These activities will conclude in FY 2012 (with the exception of one CAU). In order to capture the work completed over this length of time and document decisions made during the activities, a closeout effort was initiated. The closeout will review the work conducted during the Industrial Sites activities and produce a single document that summarizes Industrial Sites activities. This closeout is being conducted at an interim stage in the overall NNSA/NSO ER Project since the Soils and UGTA activities will continue for a number of years, but the completion of the Industrial Sites project warrants conducting a closeout now while personnel are available and information is still current. The process followed by NNSA/NSO in conducing project closeout for the Industrial Sites portion of the ER program may prove useful within the DOE complex in demonstrating how a large ER project can be summarized. (authors)

180

On the Financial Support for the Development of National Defense Science & Technology Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform and development of national defense science & technology industry have to depend on the powerful financial support. Emphasize on national defense science & technology industry’s financial support. Build up a stable national capital-increasing mechanism. Develop venture investments and collect venture capitals. Open more fields for investments. Follow a multiple financial way.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of Industrial Effluents Polluting the River Nile on Growth, Metabolism and Productivity of Triticum aestivum and Vicia faba Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of irrigation with industrial effluents was evaluated on growth, uptake of nutrients and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum Giza 164) and faba beans (Vicia faba Giza 461) plants. Also, irrigation by industrial effluents in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was used as biological control to overcome the harmful effects of pollution with heavy metals. Irrigation of plants with industrial effluents led to marked changes in growth criteria depending on plant and the...

Wafaa Mohamed Shukry

2001-01-01

182

Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. PMID:25063882

Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

2014-10-01

183

Heavy metal pollutants released from abu-zaabal and 10 th of ramadan industrial regions in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

determination of some heavy metal pollutants (Cd,Co,Cr,Pb,Ni) released from selected industrial regions namely, Abu Zaabal-and the 10th of Ramadan was carried out . water, soil and plant samples were periodically collected from the selected areas during a period of one year. the samples were treated according to the standard operation procedure (SOP), digested and analyzed for the selected elements using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. the concentration of the studied heavy metal pollutants ws evaluated in both regions . the results showed that the levels of heavy metal pollutants released from Abu Zaabal region, in all collected samples , are higher than those released from the 10 th of Ramadan city except Cr in wastewater samples collected from the 10th of Ramadan city, which was two folds higher than that of Abu Zaabal region. this is due to construction of the new industrial cities according to the regulations and environmental laws. also ,the handling of the released pollutants at the 10th of Ramadan region is easier than that at Abu Zaabal region due to the governmental policy regarding collection of the different types of industrial wastes at the selected ares. the overall obtained results indicated that, although there are a lot of progresses regarding the handling of the released heavy metal pollutants in the 10th of Ramadan region, the requirements for more efforts to overcome the problem of indure efforts to overcome the problem of industrial pollutants at this region are still essential

184

A land use regression model incorporating data on industrial point source pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advancing the understanding of the spatial aspects of air pollution in the city regional environment is an area where improved methods can be of great benefit to exposure assessment and policy support. We created land use regression (LUR) models for SO2, NO2 and PM10 for Tianjin, China. Traffic volumes, road networks, land use data, population density, meteorological conditions, physical conditions and satellite-derived greenness, brightness and wetness were used for predicting SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentrations. We incorporated data on industrial point sources to improve LUR model performance. In order to consider the impact of different sources, we calculated the PSIndex, LSIndex and area of different land use types (agricultural land, industrial land, commercial land, residential land, green space and water area) within different buffer radii (1 to 20 km). This method makes up for the lack of consideration of source impact based on the LUR model. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with gaseous pollutant concentrations such as SO2 and NO2. R2 values of the multiple linear regression equations for SO2, NO2 and PM10 were 0.78, 0.89 and 0.84, respectively, and the RMSE values were 0.32, 0.18 and 0.21, respectively. Model predictions at validation monitoring sites went well with predictions generally within 15% of measured values. Compared to the relationship between dependent variables and simple variables (such as traffic variables or meteorological condition variables), the relationship between dependent variables and integrated variables was more consistent with a linear relationship. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and health effects assessment on the spatial distribution of air pollution in the city region. PMID:23513446

Chen, Li; Wang, Yuming; Li, Peiwu; Ji, Yaqin; Kong, Shaofei; Li, Zhiyong; Bai, Zhipeng

2012-01-01

185

77 FR 27269 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FAA-2011-0183] Access to Aircraft Situation...Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information...services within the National Air Space. Through...will be used by the National Air Space Data...

2012-05-09

186

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2013-06-01

187

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

2007-07-01

188

Effect of Environmental Taxes as Correcting Negative Externalities Caused by Water Pollution Applied to the Agro-Food Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Market failure involving pollution from wastewater discharges industrials, is corrected with the establishment of environmental taxes. Heterogeneity in the design of these taxes, with a different tax base for each EU member country, affects both the pollution parameters considered and their weight in the calculation of the tax payable. This paper presents a study on the variety of this tax in Belgium, Italy and Spain. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the same as correcting market failure.

I. M. Román-Sánchez

2013-06-01

189

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

1999-06-01

190

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

191

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility

192

Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

193

Mortality Associations with Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in a National English Cohort  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to a range of pollutants and causes of death in a national English cohort. Methods: A total of 835,607 patients aged 40–89 years registered with 205 general practices were followed from 2003–2007. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 (PM10) and less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km2 resolution, estimated from emission-based models, were linked to residential postcode. Deaths (n = 83,103) were ascertained from linkage to death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) for all- and cause-specific mortality for pollutants were estimated for interquartile pollutant changes from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and area-level socioeconomic status markers. Measurements and Main Results: Residential concentrations of all pollutants except ozone were positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02, 1.03, and 1.04 for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Associations for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were larger for respiratory deaths (HR, 1.09 each) and lung cancer (HR, 1.02, 1.06, and 1.05) but nearer unity for cardiovascular deaths (1.00, 1.00, and 1.04). Conclusions: These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality. However, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate. PMID:23590261

Carey, Iain M.; Kent, Andrew J.; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cook, Derek G.; Anderson, H. Ross

2013-01-01

194

Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

195

Metal body burdens and detoxifying enzymes in spiders from industrially polluted areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and metal concentrations have been monitored in four species of spiders from differently contaminated localities in Southern Poland. A behavioural feeding activity and the life style decide on sensitivity and vulnerability of spiders. Wolf-spiders, more active than the web-spinners, cumulate higher amounts of metals, reflecting quantitatively and qualitatively the pollution level in their environment. Detoxifying systems in spiders appeared inducible and efficient to maintain normal physiological responses. Within web-spinning spiders the linyphiids seem to be the most effective regulators of metal burdens. Their detoxifying capabilities correlate well with increased industrial contaminants. The analysis of biochemical biomarkers of exposure confirmed earlier ecological findings that species of the family Linyphiidae are more favoured than the Araneidae. Differences in their feeding activity, behaviour of web-spinning and the size of animals would explain alterations in detoxifying abilities between Meta segmentata and Araneus diadematus. PMID:15067463

Wilczek, G; Migula, P

1996-03-01

196

Metal body burdens and detoxifying enzymes in spiders from industrially polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and metal concentrations have been monitored in four species of spiders from differently contaminated localities in Southern Poland. A behavioural feeding activity and the life style decide on sensitivity and vulnerability of spiders. Wolf-spiders, more active than the web-spinners, cumulate higher amounts of metals, reflecting quantitatively and qualitatively the pollution level in their environment. Detoxifying systems in spiders appeared inducible and efficient to maintain normal physiological responses. Within web-spinning spiders the linyphiids seem to be the most effective regulators of metal burdens. Their detoxifying capabilities correlate well with increased industrial contaminants. The analysis of biochemical biomarkers of exposure confirmed earlier ecological findings that species of the family Linyphiidae are more favoured than the Araneidae. Differences in their feeding activity, behaviour of web-spinning and the size of animals would explain alterations in detoxifying abilities between Meta segmentata and Araneus diadematus. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilczek, G. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, P. [University of Silesia, Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Bankowa 9, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland)

1996-03-01

197

Proactive pollution prevention and safety solutions for the upstream oil and gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the development of zero spill technology which has provided a new standard in pollution prevention and health and safety for the upstream petroleum industry. The paper also outlines safety solutions for service rig floors, drill rig substructures, and well sites. Proactive oil field environmental protection solutions were also reviewed along with the associated tangible and intangible benefits. The 3 main problems that need to be continually addressed include workplace health and safety, environmental contamination, and economic losses resulting from personnel injury claims, drilling fluid costs, and environmental reclamation costs. Some of the solutions developed by Katch Kan were described, including: a new style mud bucket composed of polymers; tong hand protectors; lego-style floor mats; drilling fluid splash guards; and, a new style tray composed of polymers. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Holtby, Q.; Rondeau, E. [Katch Kan Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

198

77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the...National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL...repositories. Locations, contacts, phone numbers and viewing...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Townsend...maintains the NPL as the list of sites that...

2012-01-20

199

75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Partial Deletion...National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL...repositories. Locations, contacts, phone numbers and viewing...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Chergo...maintains the NPL as the list of sites that...

2010-09-13

200

77 FR 58321 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Priorities List: Deletion of the...National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL...repositories. Locations, contacts, phone numbers and viewing...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Beverly Hudson-Stepter...maintains the NPL as the list of sites that...

2012-09-20

 
 
 
 
201

Growth of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Mimosaceae in Polluted Soils of Landhi and Korangi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Growth of Albizia lebbeck was observed in the polluted soils from towel, garment, rubber and ply board factories in the vicinity of Landhi and Korangi industrial areas of Karachi. Growth of A. lebbeck was reduced in most of the industrial area soils as compared to the control soil from Karachi University campus. The rubber factory soil reduced all the growth parameters as compared to the control soil. Percentage of soil pollutants (total soluble salts and available sulfate in all of the industrial area soils was higher than in the control area soil. Percentage of coarse sand, calcium carbonate, total soluble salts, available sulfate, and chromium was higher in soil of rubber factory then in the control area soil whereas percentage of water holding capacity, organic matter and zinc was lower in soil from rubber factory than in the control area soil. This showed that the soil of industrial areas of Landhi and Korangi particularly from rubber factory and ply board factory was contaminated by the pollutants in the area and drastically affected the plant growth. The findings of this research could be helpful in monitoring and controlling the pollutant levels in soils of the industrial areas. Such information could also be useful for landscaping and urban planning.

Syed Atiq-ur- Rehman

2011-06-01

202

Air pollution studies by plants growing near some industrial objects of Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaves and seeds of many popular kinds of plants in Uzbekistan was used to study atmospheric pollution near such industrial objects as Tadjik aluminum factory (TadAF), Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent institute of nuclear physics (INP). Leaves of fruit plants: vineyard, tomato and apple, apricot, quince, peach, persimmon, pomegranate, mulberry trees as well as leaves of technical crops: cotton, corn, mint and clover, which grow near above specified objects and also seeds of water-melon, tomato, aubergine, bulgarian pepper, pumpkin, grapes, cherry and persimmon from areas near aluminum factory were sampled. The purpose of choice of so much investigated vegetation was to select plants which can be used as biomonitors and which best accumulate in themselves the most harmful pollution from soil and air in order to subsequent destruction of these collector plants will be made. Investigations were conducted by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical methods. Tashkent State Agrarian University has used the alternative methods. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant leaves and seeds have been developed. (author)

203

Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale. PMID:23416485

Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

2013-03-15

204

The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

205

Summer-time distribution of air pollutants in Sequoia National Park, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of air pollutants were monitored during the May November 1999 period on a network of forested sites in Sequoia National Park, California. Measurements were conducted with: (1) active monitors for nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3); (2) honeycomb denuder/filter pack systems for nitric acid vapor (HNO3), nitrous acid vapor (HNO2), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO4(2-)); and (3) passive samplers for O3, HNO3 and NO2. Elevated concentrations of O3 (seasonal means 41-71 ppb), HNO3 (seasonal means 0.4-2.9 microg/m3), NH3 (seasonal means 1.6-4.5 microg/m3), NO3 (1.1-2.0 microg/m3) and NH4+ (1.0-1.9 microg/m3) were determined. Concentrations of other pollutants were low. With increasing elevation and distance from the pollution source area of O3, NH3 and HNO3 concentrations decreased. Ammonia and NH4+ were dominant N pollutants indicating strong influence of agricultural emissions on forests and other ecosystems of the Sequoia National Park. PMID:11939282

Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tausz, Michael; Alonso, Rocio; Jones, David; Johnson, Ronald; Grulke, Nancy

2002-01-01

206

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

1990-07-01

207

The Industrial Pollution of the Moselle River : Birth, Development and Management of an Environmental Problem, 1850-2000  

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In the 1850s, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatised by the Prussian annexation of ...

Garcier, Romain

2005-01-01

208

Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inici?...

Nadal Lomas, Marti?

2005-01-01

209

Hygiene definition of a gamma - background, in ground by pollution solid industrial oil waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of protection environments from pollution by oil waste is actual in many sphere of science, including and hygiene. During industrial production of oil, its transportation, storage and processing objects of an environment (air, ground, water and etc.) both crude oil, and its different fractions (Kazimov M.A., and the co- author, 2000; Ivanov A.V. and co-author, 2001; Shor E.L., Hurshudov A.G.,2000; Zalesov S.V. and co - author,2000).As it is visible, despite of the rather vast literature about reglamentization pollution of environments oil by maximum deflections, about influencing some solid waste of oil, specially in aspect of hygiene, on an ecology is studied unsufficiently. Among these waste of oil the special place takes slime. The slime is a withdrawal, which one during industrial crude oil separates first of all on an incipient state, and on final, and consists of rather high-gravity chemical agents, mechanical sediment and small amount with groundwaters. At storage of hundreds tons preliminary clearing of oil in special tanks the slime will be derivated in a great many. During many years, on refineries and tanks of republic the accumulated slime without surveillance was rejected on nearly sites above-stated objects and on around of city. It is known, that the radioactive members (uranium - 238, radium-226, thorium- 232 and ets.) as both other stable member and their natural radionuclides. (potassium- 40, rubidium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samadium - 87, caesium - 48, cerium- 142, samarium -147 and ets) (Kazimov M.A., Samedov Sh. Kh., 2001). It is necessary to take into account, that in due course, sojourning in ground, changes which are included in its structure metals and metalloids will derivate different mineral connections the set of radioactive matters, is transformed into more than 30 different members (polonium -218, bismuth - 214, thallium - 218, iodine - 131, strontium - 89, zirconium - 95, niobium - 95 and ets). The present research was conducted on the basis of former, dismantle of shop OOGE - of Surakhani region on the first of petroleum refining (desalting and dehydration) and sites around of oil of the tanks (pollution by oil the slime) fathomed a level a gamma of a background and is compared to the hygienic standards. The researches were conducted both on sites rather contaminated by slime, and on sites contaminated by slime almost completely unmixed from 10-15 of limitation of ground. In a course research was clarified, that on sites fresh pollution oil by slime natural exceeds a background a gamma - irradiation at the altitude 0,5 m from a surface of ground (8-15 micro R/hours) in 3,5-4,5 times and reaches an abnormal background (60 - 120 micro R/hours) and from time to time reaches a level of radiological contamination (> 120 micro R/hours) On sites 10-15 years limitations of pollution oil by slime a level a gamma - background exceeds a natural background in 1,5-2,0 times, reaches 25-30 micro R/hours. As it is visible in second matter a level of a gamma of a background below, but in too time the radionuclides, creating it completely displaced with ground and occur rather deeper and consequently it is possible to suspect about migration these impurity through a vegetative cover and groundwaters. It is in case of the former clearing from oil of slime the contaminated sites is considerably more lighter, than in the second case. Extending above-stated, it is possible to reach such concluding that oil the slime which has accumulated on oil producing, objects, and also in oil tanks, cleaning, should be expose the analyses on an elemental composition and radioactivity and in case of indispensable is neutralized in places, specially retracted for it

210

Effects of industrial pollution on respiratory morbidity among female residents of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors evaluated the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function test results (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], and ratio of FEV1 to FVC [FEV1%]) of female residents of the critically polluted industrial estate of Vapi, Gujarat (state), India, and compared these with control information derived from a village 20 km away. The authors categorized the studied residents as living in Vapi, in town, or in villages proximal to the Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation; living 2 to 3 km away from Vapi; living 3 to 5 km away from Vapi; and being in the control group. The authors found no significant association between respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among Vapi residents. However, the obstructive type of abnormality was most predominant and significantly different among Vapi residents. The restrictive type was highly prevalent among residents living 2 to 3 km away from Vapi compared with the control group. These results suggest significant respiratory morbidity among residents that was associated with age and distance from the development corporation. PMID:18628080

Patel, Shruti; Ramaiah Nellore, Mohan Rao; Sadhu, Harsiddha G; Kulkarni, Pradeep K; Patel, Bhupendra D; Parikh, Dinesh J

2008-01-01

211

A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus ?-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a ?-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC ?-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms

212

New industrial titania photocatalysts for the solar detoxification of water containing various pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new series of titania industrial photocatalysts have been elaborated by Millennium Inorganic Chemicals and were denoted Millennium-PC/10, PC/25 and PC/50 with respective specific surface areas equal to 11, 23 and 43m{sup 2}g{sup -1}. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined and compared in the solar pilot CPC-photoreactor at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (Spain) in the photocatalytic degradation of four different representative pollutants (4-chlorophenol, nitrobenzene, 2-chlorobenzoic acid and hydrobutanedioic (malic) acid), whose degradation pathways had previously been elucidated in laboratory experiments with artificial light, using titania Degussa P-25 as a reference photocatalyst. The study concerned the influence of (1) the nature of organic pollutants, (2) the surface area and (3) the concentration of suspended TiO{sub 2}. The affinity of the pollutants for TiO{sub 2} and the presence of heteroatoms in the reactant molecules intervened on the activities of Millennium-PCs when compared to Degussa P-25. The higher the affinity of the organic pollutants for titania, the higher the efficiency of Millennium-PC/10 photocatalyst calibrated on the initial rate of pollutant disappearance. The degradation pathways were found similar for both photocatalysts and the primary steps of the degradation for the different types of molecules were discussed. 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP), a model pollutant for waste waters, was then chosen for the study of the influence of the surface areas and of the concentration of Millennium-PC photocatalysts. The initial apparent rate constants of 4-CP degradation in presence of all Millennium-PC catalysts were all higher than that obtained with Degussa P-25. When choosing the total organic carbon (TOC) disappearance rate as an overall kinetic parameter, Millennium-PC/10 and PC/25 appeared as less active than Degussa P-25, with longer solar exposures (by about 10%) necessary to obtain a total mineralisation. However, Millennium-PC/50 resulted as the best catalyst in all cases. The optimal slurry concentration (gl{sup -1}) has been determined for each Millennium TiO{sub 2} sample.While the optimum of Degussa P-25 had previously been found equal to 0.2gl{sup -1}, higher amounts of Millennium-PC samples were required. A twice higher concentration (0.4gl{sup -1}) increased the activities by factors equal to 1.2 and 1.5 for Millennium-PC/50 and PC/10, respectively. The rate constants of disappearance of intermediates and of TOC were quantitatively affected by factors in agreement with a multiple consecutive reactions model. In any case, titania Millennium-PC/50 appeared as the best catalyst among all those tested, including Degussa P-25.

Herrmann, Jean-Marie; Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean [URA au CNRS, Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environment, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, B.P. 163, 69131 Ecully -Cedex (France); Lehaut, Corinne [Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 85 Avenue Victor Hugo, 92563 Cedex Rueil-Malmaison (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, 04200 Tabernas (Spain)

2002-01-25

213

EFFECTS OF HEAVY INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN THE CHILDREN OF CUBATAO, BRAZIL; A PRELIMINARY REPORT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cubatao is located on the coast of Brazil 44 km from Sao Paulo. ts geography and wind patterns limit dispersion of air pollutants which result from heavy industrial activity within the city. ew York University and EPA in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo are conducti...

214

Designation of sulfur dioxide and Acid Rain Pollution Control Zones and its impacts on energy industry in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the data of SO{sub 2} emission, urban air quality, and acid precipitation, the status and characteristics of acid rain and SO{sub 2} pollution in China were analyzed. To prevent the further deterioration by acid rain and SO{sub 2}, pollution, the Acid Rain Control Zones and SO{sub 2} Pollution Control Zones (Two Control Zones called for short) were designated. The range of Two Control Zones was 1.09 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2}, 11.4% of the whole territory of China, with SO{sub 2} emissions of 14 million tons in 1995. The Acid Rain Control Zone involves 14 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities, with total area of 0.806 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2}. The SO{sub 2} Pollution Control Zone includes 63 cities with total area of 0.29 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2}. The control policies to be implemented in the Two Control Zones were formulated by the method of life cycle analysis on sulfur-in-coal. The impacts of the policy implementation on energy industry, including coal industry and power industry, were calculated and analyzed. It was proved that the policy implementation would improve the thermal power mix and promote the sustainable development of energy industry. The paper also analyzed the decrease of SO{sub 2} emission and the improvement of air quality in the cities in recent years, which were achieved by the control efforts.

Hao, J.M.; Wang, S.X.; Liu, B.J.; He, K.B. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

2001-09-01

215

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

216

75 FR 53222 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Science.gov (United States)

...is being published in a major local newspaper, [Enter major local newspaper of general circulation]. The newspaper notice announces the 30-day public...a sanitary landfill receiving both municipal and industrial wastes. Disposal...

2010-08-31

217

76 FR 51266 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...published in a major local newspaper, El Norte y Puerto Rico Daily Sun. The newspaper notice announces the...approved to receive both municipal and industrial waste...announcement through local newspaper advertisement on the...

2011-08-18

218

77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Oil and Hazardous...Royale Stamp Tailings and Michigan Smelter Tailings parcels of OU3 and the Mason Sands parcel of OU1...the National Oil and Hazardous...the surface tailings, drums and...and the Mason Sands parcel of...

2012-10-23

219

Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (?-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

220

Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

2006-11-16

 
 
 
 
221

Recommended integrated monitoring system for pollutants on US national parks designated as biosphere reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosphere reserves have been established worldwide as part of the United Nations' Man and the Biosphere Program. A portion of this program involves the development of an inexpensive pollutant monitoring system that can be used in a variety of biosphere reserves and that can produce data that are comparable between reserves. This report discusses the design of a pollutant monitoring system that has been successfully used in the United States and provides detailed instructions for its application and use. Mathematical models were applied to help determine the optimum monitoring system design. The modeling technique is briefly described, and results are shown using lead as an example. Analytical procedures were chosen for sample analyses because of their ability to detect suspected pollutants and for their cost effectiveness. Multielemental analytical techniques were used whenever possible, and multiorganic analytical techniques were used when available. Samples of air, water, soil, vegetation, and forest litter were collected. The sampling design is discussed, including the layout of sampling blocks, subsampling, sample handling, and sample preservation. Detailed instructions are provided for obtaining samples and operating the necessary equipment. Finally, the maintenance of field log books and the timing of sample collections are discussed, and conclusions regarding the use of an integrated pollutant monitoring system for biosphere reserves are presented. 27 referencephere reserves are presented. 27 references, 25 figures

222

Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

223

78 FR 51804 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FAA-2011-0183] Access to Aircraft Situation...Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information...The National Business Aviation...security interests of airspace system users under...that the competing airspace user sought...

2013-08-21

224

Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60 min HRT. In conclusion, results confirmed that the application of the proposed sequential treatments removed almost all COD, BOD5, high molecular weight compounds, and silica from RAKTA and El-Ahlia influents and produced high-quality effluents, thus achieving the main objective of this study. PMID:18716811

El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

2008-11-01

225

77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated...repositories. Locations, contacts, phone numbers and viewing hours...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: C. Mark Aguilar, Remedial...maintains the NPL as the list of sites that appear...

2012-05-25

226

76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated...repositories. Locations, contacts, and phone numbers are: U.S...New Mexico 87102, Contact: John Vittal; and...maintains the NPL as the list of sites that...

2011-03-02

227

78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...part 300, which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances...extracting the elements from monazite sands and other ores. These operations...generation of radioactive mill tailings. Radioactive ore, tailings and process wastes from...

2013-02-19

228

76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Spiegelberg Landfill Superfund Site (Site) located in Green Oak Township, Michigan from the National Priorities List...Regulations'' section of today's Federal Register, we are publishing a direct final Notice of Deletion of the Spiegelberg...

2011-04-13

229

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2012-06-01

230

Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER. Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. Conclusion The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.

Pollán Marina

2008-08-01

231

Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

Alma Shehu

2013-12-01

232

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

233

Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

234

Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollu...

Salama, Hediat M. H.; Al-rumaih, M. M.; Al-dosary, M. A.

2011-01-01

235

Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

236

Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

2003-03-28

237

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. Also the topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the north-west contribute to the influence of the industries located in the north onto this region. The region selected in this work includes a oil-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centred in a oil powered station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hung. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For a 9 month period and every three months, one transplant of each set was collected. We have no knowledge of any other study on differentiation elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata where the component wind direction is taken into account. Some information on local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The transplants were analysed by INAA. Contents on Cl, Na, Ca, V and Zn are mapped and discussed. (author)

238

Seasonal variations in mutagenic activity of air pollutants at an industrial district of Silesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic material from airborne particulate pollutants collected over a 7-month period at a highly industrialized region in Silesia (Poland) was tested for mutagenicity using the Ames test. Sequential elution solvent chromatography (SESC) was used for the separation of crude benzene extracts. Five out of 8 fractions showed mutagenic activity with differential direct and indirect responses. The mutagenicity of each active fraction was tested during the whole sampling period (from August to February 1984/1985) and seasonal variations were observed. All of the fractions, except fraction 3, showed only quantitative distinctions in mutagenic potential, expressed as a number of revertants per m3 of air. Over a period of 7 months, a steady increase of activity of fractions 2 and 4 was observed but the type of mutagenic response, indirect and direct respectively, remained unchanged in the summer and winter months. Fraction 3 (the most abundant component, probably containing polar derivatives of PAHs and heterocyclics) differed quantitatively and qualitatively between summer and winter time. From August to December samples showed enhanced mutagenic potency upon addition of rat liver microsomal enzymes, whereas in January a 4-5-fold increase in direct response was noted. This significant increase in direct mutagenic activity was accompanied by a considerable decrease in mean air temperature and resulted most probably from the intensive use of coal for domestic heating. PMID:2739681

Motykiewicz, G; Szeliga, J; Cimander, B; Chora?y, M

1989-06-01

239

Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. PMID:24413251

Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-04-01

240

75 FR 44920 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification...m. to 5 p.m., Phone: 212-637-4308...Brook, New York 11790, Phone: 631-444-0240. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Dannenberg...the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL...

2010-07-30

 
 
 
 
241

Pollution history of the Savannah Estuary. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dated cores collected from different sites in the Savannah Estuary were analyzed for 16 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 16 pesticides and 3 butylins. Time stratigraphy of the cores were determined by measurements of Pb-210 and Cs-137 activities down the cores. Those chemicals which showed significant temporal changes down dated cores in the Savannah Estuary included mercury, lead, chromium, PAHs, DDT isomers and metabolites, PCBs and dieldrin. The present study used cores from the Savannah Estuary, where the population is relatively low (approximately 150,000) and industrial growth has occurred over the past 30 years. Thus, the concentrations of most anthropogenic chemical found in the cores of the Savannah Estuary were comparatively low. An interesting aspect of the study, which has been noted by many pollution history studies, was the decrease in the concentration of anthropogenic chemicals during the past two decades suggesting that many pollution control laws have been effective, even while industrial and population growth continues in an area. In summation, the authors` studies present evidence of relatively large inputs of anthropogenic chemicals, including mercury, chromium, lead, polycycloic aromatic hydrocarbons, dieldrin, DDT isomers, and polychlorinated biphenyls, during the 1950s and 1960 into the Savannah Estuary followed by a gradual decrease of these chemicals during the past 20 to 30 years.

Alexander, C.; Ertel, J.; Lee, R.; Loganathan, B.; Martin, J.

1997-09-01

242

Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO2, and metals

243

75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Science.gov (United States)

...enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States...capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance to meet the needs of the sheep or goat industry for infrastructure...

2010-12-07

244

Health disturbance and air pollution in metropolitan Tokyo, an analysis of the national health insurance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

National health insurance bills were examined for 1971 on 6776 insurants in the highly polluted area of Kojiya (A) and on 8735 insurants in the relatively less polluted area (B) to obtain information on health insurance and air pollution. The year's average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and floating dust were 5.0(2.0), 4.4(3.7), 5.5(3.7), 4.0(3.0) pphm, 3.3(3.1) ppM, and 0.14(0.07) mg/cu m. Parenthetical values belong to area B. The age-adjusted incidence (average frequency of new consultation/person/year) of all respiratory and otogenic diseases was higher in area A. Common colds in infants, rhinitis, and chronic and acute bronchitis were more frequently found in area A. The increase of cases of chronic respiratory diseases was noticed in younger men in area A. An increase of otitis media was noted in insurants in area A younger than 20, suggesting a relationship to diseases in upper airway.

Adachi, S.; Okubo, T.

1975-02-01

245

Atmospheric Pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a biomonitor and nuclear analytical techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio aborda la aplicación de técnicas nucleares para analizar elementos traza en el monitor biológico Tillandsia usneoides (heno). El uso de monitores biológicos proporciona una alternativa ventajosa en el muestreo de material particulado en estudios de contaminación del aire, ya que no requ [...] iere dispositivos especiales de muestreo y el tiempo de monitoreo puede ser tan largo como se desee. T. usneoides que crece en todo el país, se utilizo para estudiar la calidad del aire del corredor Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) en el estado de Hidalgo. Esta área es considerada zona crítica debido a la alta concentración de contaminantes atmosféricos. Las plantas fueron trasplantadas desde un entorno limpio a cuatro sitios en el corredor de TVA y expuestas durante 12 semanas de febrero a abril de 2008. La acumulación de elementos traza en plantas sin lavar y secas se determino por PIXE y NAA. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diferencias en la distribución de elementos traza entre los sitios del corredor TVA y muestran que el monitoreo con T. usneoides permite establecer una primera aproximación de fuentes de contaminantes atmosféricos. Abstract in english This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sam [...] pling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout México, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central México. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by Particle induced X ray Emission PIXE and Neutron Activa-tion Analysis (NAA). Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor.

M.A., Martínez-Carrillo; C., Solís; E., Andrade; R.I., Beltrán-Hernández; K., Isaac-Olivé; C.A., Lucho-Constantino; M.C., López Reyes; L.C., Longoria.

2011-02-01

246

Water Pollution Control  

...0800 807060 Roles and Responsibilities • Pollution investigation and response • Pollution prevention • Water Quality Monitoring • Enforcement of Environmental...Order Consents (domestic and industrial Water Pollution Hotline 0800 807060 NIEA Water Pollution Incident Statistics • 19th November 2009...further 23 unconfirmed reports of water pollution. Water Pollution Hotline 0800 807060 NIEA Water Pollution Incident Statistics – Erne Melvin Catchment...

247

Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control. PMID:24649687

Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

2014-01-01

248

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

249

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

250

Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

1995-07-01

251

Place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the national economy of Ukraine ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine. It gives an estimate of the contribution of the fat-and-oil industry into dynamics and structure of volumes of production and sales of products of the food industry. It substantiates an exclusive role of the fat-and-oil industry in formation of the consumption fund, solution of problems of internal food supply security and increase of the export potential of the country and tax proceeds to the budget. It considers social significance of the fat-and-oil industry, products of which are included into a set of food products of the consumer basket. It substantiates a necessity of state support of the fat-and-oil industry on the basis of its place and role in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? «??????????????? ???????». ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????.

Manoylenko Aleksandr V.

2013-01-01

252

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?soils R2 and R3. Reduced diversity accompanied by apparent community shifts of both AOB and AOA populations was detected in R2 and R3 soils. AOB were dominated with Nitrosospira-like sequences, whereas AOA were dominated by Thaumarchaeal "group 1.1b (Nitrososphaera clusters)." We suggest that the significant reduction in abundance and diversity AOA and AOB could serve as relevant bioindicators for soil quality monitoring of polluted sites. These results could be further useful for better understanding of AOB and AOA communities in polluted soils. PMID:24554021

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

253

Air pollution and associated human mortality: The role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (? 2.5?m aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-hour daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8±0.16 ?g/m3 and 30±0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5±0.19 ?g/m3 (+25±0.30 ppbv), +0.4±0.17 ?g/m3 (+0.5±0.28 ppbv), and -0.02±0.01 ?g/m3 (+4.3±0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

2012-12-01

254

Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increases in surface ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter (?2.5 ?m} aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5 are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860 times and the global present-day (2000 premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4 concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year have increased by 8 ± 0.16 ?g m?3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS, climate (CLIM and CH4 concentrations (TCH4. EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5(O3 to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 ?g m?3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv, +0.4 ± 0.17 ?g m?3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv, and ?0.02 ± 0.01 ?g m?3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv, respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0–2.5 million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592 thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3, respectively. However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

Y. Fang

2012-09-01

255

Study of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in the industrial region of the Sado estuary using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from north-west contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located north. The region selected includes an oil power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in that region within a rectangle of 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km; centred in the power station. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every three months, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the first campaign - after 3 months suspension - was collected. The lichen transplants of this campaign were cleaned, freeze-dried, and ground in a Teflon mill. Pellets were prepared for INAA and PIXE analysis. The elemental concentrations are mapped and discussed. As far as we know it is the first study on differentiation of elemental uptake of Parmelia sulcata according to wind direction; this study can furnish some insight towards the phenomena behind lichen elemental uptake. At the same time, also information upon local and distant sources is expected to be accessible. The absence of direct rainwater on the lichens during this study must be stressed too. In a previous work these two conditions - wind direction and absence of direct rainwater - were not taken into account, therefore we also aim to compare the results of both studies. (author)

256

Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in marine sediment from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of parent and alkyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediment samples collected from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah were determined by using GC-MS. The ratio of anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene, fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene, benz[a]anthracene to benz[a]anthracene plus chrysene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene plus benzo[g,h,i]perylene, compounds were used to identify the sources of PAHs pollution. The total concentration of parent and alkyl PAHs are ranged from 121.7 to 191.5 ng/ g dry weight. The concentrations of PAHs pollution in sediments were categorised as a moderate polluted. The ratio values of PAHs compound indicate the origin source of PAHs pollutions in marine sediment sample of Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park were originated from fossil fuel combustion (pyrolytic). (author)

257

The Development of Financial and Industrial Groups in the National Economy ???????? ?????????-???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the historical development of the first big integrated industrial and financial capitals was analyzed. The definition, the organizational structure of financial and industrial groups and the features of banking and industrial capitals integration in Ukraine were defined. The present state and foundation trends of financial and industrial groups were analyzed. The key problems of development, also the level of financial and industrial groups influence on the national economy and investing activities were determined. The principal directions of activating and raising the level of development of financial and industrial groups in Ukraine were defined.? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ?????????-???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????. ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ?????. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ? ???????.

Chelombitko Tatiana V.

2012-04-01

258

The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Labora...

Rodri?guez Nozal, Rau?l

2011-01-01

259

77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

2012-06-21

260

77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

2012-10-03

 
 
 
 
261

75 FR 20592 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...Lower Charles River Phosphorus TMDL (``the TMDL...Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (``NPDES...Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits for...management plan and a phosphorus reduction plan,...

2010-04-20

262

Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry ? A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

For Frank Princiotta?s book, Global Climate Change?The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

263

La prevención de la contaminación industrial como asignatura para la formación ambiental universitaria / Prevention of industrial pollution as a course for environmental development at university level  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Es generalmente aceptado que la actividad industrial es la principal responsable de las emisiones atmosféricas, la producción de los desechos peligrosos, la generación de efluentes líquidos, así como de producir contaminación térmica y sónica. Siendo el hombre el principal modificador de su [...] entorno, es necesario generar en él una actitud responsable respecto al tema de la contaminación. El curso “Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial”, asignatura electiva enmarcada en los programas de estudio de las diferentes carreras de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, busca suministrar a los futuros profesionales, las herramientas para entender y generar cambios en las políticas industriales de sus futuros centros de trabajo en relación con el ambiente. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar el curso “Prevención de la Contaminación Industrial” como una propuesta a nivel universitario que conduce a la formación y sensibilización del futuro profesional en el problema de contaminación generado por los procesos industriales de los cuales formará parte en su futuro laboral. Incluye los principales objetivos que se pretenden obtener con este curso, los contenidos programáticos incluidos, así como las estrategias enseñanza-aprendizaje y de evaluación que se aplican. De igual modo, se presentan dos casos de estudio desarrollados por dos participantes del curso en su última edición del período abril-julio-2005. Abstract in english Abstract It is generally accepted that the industrial activity is the main responsible for atmospheric emissions, production of dangerous wastes, generation of liquid effluents, as well as to produce thermal and sonic pollution. Man is the principal modifier of his environment, and it is necessary t [...] o generate a responsible attitude with respect to the environment. The course “Prevention of Industrial Pollution”, an elective course in the curricula of various programs of Universidad Simón Bolívar, seeks to offer to the future professionals the tools to understand and generate changes in the environmental policies of their future work centers in connection with the environment. The objective of this paper is to present the course “Prevention of Industrial Pollution” as a proposal at university level to lead to the development and self-consciousness regarding the contamination problem generated by the industrial processes that he will encounter in his professional future. It includes the main objectives that are intended to cover in this course, including the program contents, as well as the teaching-learning and assessment strategies that are applied. Also included are two case studies by two participants in the last issue of the course for the term April-July, 2005.

Rosa, Reyes Gil; Andrea, De Souza; Jan, Petersen.

2006-09-01

264

air pollution: temporal and spatial distribution of delta /sup 13/C in plants of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of sigma-/sup 13/C in Eucalyptus (Safeda) plants from Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate and its surroundings. The leaves of the Eucalyptus plants were collected from four locations of the Gadoon Amazai area at regular intervals during January 1993 to June 1996. The greenish, old and whole leaf samples were air dried, homogeneously ground (40 mesh) and converted into CO/sub 2/ for SIGMA-13 analysis on isotope ratio mass spectrometer. /sup 13/C depletion in the plant leaves is more in industrial estate than its surroundings. This can be attributed to the depletion of /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased /sup 13/C in the ambient CO/sub 2/, which has gone lower than the normal value. Burning of petroleum products decreased 13 of the ambient air CO/sub 2/ in the industrial area. These, in turn, influenced the plant /sup 13/C during photosynthesis. Temporal variation shows that CO/sub 2/ pollution is increasing in industrial zone with time. Furthermore, the pollution is less in plains side than the mountain side, which is proved by the Sigma-/sup 13/C results of the surroundings. (author)

265

National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

Heidari, Farzin

266

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

Hall, L.; Biermann, A

2000-06-27

267

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

Gerard, Morgan Evan

2011-12-01

268

Influence of industry on pollution of the environment and human population with natural radionuclides and heavy metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of fallout of 226Ra depending on the distance from industrial emission sources has been evaluated. Contamination of soil with natural radionuclides in industrial and rural regions of Poland has been compared with the concentration of radionuclides in ash of aerophytic plants. An increase of airborne pollutants in precipitation in Southern Poland has been compared with an increase of the concentration of pollutants in pine trees. Samples of human bones from Southern Poland have been checked for contents of lead. It has been found that in 20th century concentration of lead decreased to a level not much higher than natural. The level of 226Ra in Polish population had been decreasing during the last 100 years. This points to the conclusion that human skeleton is well protected as the level of radionuclides was not related to the level of environmental pollution. The concentration of 226Ra in air is steadily increasing and an upward transport leads to its wide distribution. (E.G.M.)

269

CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS FROM PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY USING OZONE  

Science.gov (United States)

Major pollutants from pulp and paper mills include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as methanol and total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS) such as dimethyl sulfide. The conventional treatment technologies including incineration or catalytic thermal oxidation are energy intens...

270

Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

None

1999-09-01

271

75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Science.gov (United States)

...the production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States...capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance...the production and marketing of sheep, goats, and their products in the...

2010-07-23

272

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb S...

Lin, Henry W.; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

273

The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges [Updated  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is an update to "The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges." It provides statistics on the welding workforce, projections and future educational needs.

Kim, Jongyum

274

76 FR 78328 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration [Docket No. FAA-2011-0183] Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI) Data AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

2011-12-16

275

Place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the national economy of Ukraine ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers the place and role of the fat-and-oil industry in the agro-industrial complex and national economy of Ukraine. It gives an estimate of the contribution of the fat-and-oil industry into dynamics and structure of volumes of production and sales of products of the food industry. It substantiates an exclusive role of the fat-and-oil industry in formation of the consumption fund, solution of problems of internal food supply security and increase of the export potential of the...

Manoylenko Aleksandr V.; Zhadan Tatyana A.

2013-01-01

276

Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities

277

Assessment of heavy metal pollution from the industrial dust on the reforestation of pine (Pinus halipensis Mill in the Tell Setif  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze heavy metals in the cones, bark and needles of Aleppo pine in 05 stations in the area of Ain El Kebira in order to evaluate pollution level and impact on reforestation. Analysis of heavy metals showed that the concentration of lead rose to 1.61 mg/l at the station of the BCR which is above the accepted international standards of 1mg / l. Fe concentrations are at the upper limit of the WHO standards of 1.5 mg / l at the station on the edge of the forest ranging from 1.03 to 1.65mg/l against the cement between 1.36 and 2.21 mg / l and the BCR between 1.31 and 2.19 mg / l are the most polluted. It is noted that with the exception of the BCR is to say that the industrial zone where the values found on analysis of copper are too high between 1.11 and 2.59 mg/l and far exceed the required standards set 1 mg / l. The levels of zinc at the station of the BCR and are highest between 3.05 and 6.47 mg / l where the required standards are 5 mg / l. We can infer from our results that urgent care should be initiated to preserve the national park above the Babors bordering our study area and is ranked world reserve.

Tedjar Lamri

2012-04-01

278

Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

2014-12-01

279

Investigation of a solvent polluted industrial site on a deep sandstone-mudstone sequence in the UK. Part 2. Contaminant sources, distributions, transport and retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

A single industrial site has been investigated in detail to gain information on sources and movement of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent (CHS) pollutants in groundwater under the industrialized city of Conventry in the UK. A soil gas survey identified the most polluted area of the site where two types of investigation borehole were drilled; open boreholes lined with plain and slotted casing, and a single dedicated borehole incorporating gas samplers and gas-driven water samplers. Specially designed sampling techniques using pumps and packers were employed to determine vertical pollution profiles in the open boreholes. Core material was collected for sorption and diffusion experiments. An assessment of field investigation procedures suggests that soil gas sampling is a useful method for reconnaissance surveying of pollution by volatile organic compounds, but the results reflect only shallow pollution in the vertical profile. Open boreholes were found not to be satisfactory for accurate groundwater profile sampling and dedicated boreholes are recommended for such studies. Many uncertainties are involved in such a study of solvent pollution owing to the limited number of boreholes drilled and the complex spatial and temporal variations of pollutants. Despite the limitations of the investigation, several useful conclusions are drawn concerning sources and movement of solvent pollution. The main pollution source at the site is identified as the solvent storage tanks and pollution has resulted from poor use practices. Vertical pollution profiles indicate that the downward migration of 1,1,1-trichloroethane is following that of trichloroethene, reflecting their history of use on the site. The overall quality of groundwater abstracted in the system is set to deteriorate, as high pollution loads, presently at shallow levels in the system penetrate deeper, little attenuated by sorption or degradation. Diffusion of pollutants between mobile fissure and immobile pore waters will result in poor quality groundwater under this site for the foreseeable future. This trend is expected to be reflected throughout the urban area as a whole, with most groundwaters falling below drinking water standards for CHSs.

Bishop, Philip Keith; Lerner, David Nicholas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Gosk, Edmund; Burston, Mark William; Chen, Tong

1993-08-01

280

An Employer Survey on Industrial Sector Involvement in Malaysian National Dual Training System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this survey is to get industrial employers’ feedback on the reasons for their lack of involvement in National Dual Training System (NDTS) organized by the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. Industrial employers’ involvement and support is very important in ensuring NDTS implementation success. Therefore, it is very critical to identify factors and barriers that hinder industrial sectors from participating in NDTS program. A survey q...

Baba Md. Deros; Suzana Mohammed Zohdi; Darliana Mohamad; Nor Kamaliana Khamis; Nizaroyani Saibani

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Estimation of flashover voltage probability of overhead line insulators under industrial pollution, based on maximum likelihood method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of transmission line insulator is greatly affected by dust, fumes from industrial areas and saline deposit near the coast. Such pollutants in the presence of moisture form a coating on the surface of the insulator, which in turn allows the passage of leakage current. This leakage builds up to a point where flashover develops. The flashover is often followed by permanent failure of insulation resulting in prolong outages. With the increase in system voltage owing to the greater demand of electrical energy over the past few decades, the importance of flashover due to pollution has received special attention. The objective of the present work was to study the performance of overhead line insulators in the presence of contaminants such as induced salts. A detailed review of the literature and the mechanisms of insulator flashover due to the pollution are presented. Experimental investigations on the behavior of overhead line insulators under industrial salt contamination are carried out. A special fog chamber was designed in which the contamination testing of insulators was carried out. Flashover behavior under various degrees of contamination of insulators with the most common industrial fume components such as Nitrate and Sulphate compounds was studied. Substituting the normal distribution parameter in the probability distribution function based on maximum likelihood develops a statistical method. The method gives a high accuracy in the estimation of thes a high accuracy in the estimation of the 50% flashover voltage, which is then used to evaluate the critical flashover index at various contamination levels. The critical flashover index is a valuable parameter in insulation design for numerous applications. (author)

282

An investigation of the impact of inorganic air pollutants on soils in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental data related to the evaluation of inorganic air pollution input to the Saguaro National Monument ecosystem were collected over four years. The data specific to soils are presented in this document. The enrichment factor approach is employed to provide a framework for simplified interpretation of this large collection of data.

Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Duriscoe, D.M. [USDI National Park Service, Three Rivers, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

283

"The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA?s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

284

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

Guy, K. [Wise Guys Ltd., Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Boekholt, P. [Technopolis, Innovation Policy Research Associates, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaellen, E. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Norway); Downing, T. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Verbruggen, A. [University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

2002-02-01

285

Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new ction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

286

Loyalty (The National Principles): Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2) that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP) on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as p...

Romzi A.; Ahmad Tarmizi A. R.; Mansur T.; Anna Lynn A. B.; Budi Anto M. T.; Nordin, M.

2011-01-01

287

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

288

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-10-15

289

Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry. PMID:20421141

Leonardo, Lucio; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina; Saiki, Mitiko; Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria

2011-10-01

290

Studying the pollution of Barada river environment with poisonous elements resulting from leather industry (i.e. tanning industry)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada river environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of chrome in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring. (Author)

291

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

292

A national survey of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutants in the United States milk supply.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study measured 21 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutants in the US milk supply. Since milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to PBTs, it is important to understand their levels in this food. Nationwide samples were collected from 45 dairy plants in July of 2000 and again in January 2001. The levels of all chemicals in the chlorobenzene, pesticide and other halogenated organic groups were determined to be below their detection limits in all samples. National averages were computed for 11 chemicals or chemical groups found above the detection limits. The national average CDD/CDF and PCB TEQ concentrations were 14.30 and 8.64 pg/l, respectively, for a total of 22.94 pg/l. These levels are about half the values found in a similar study conducted in 1996. If this difference is in fact indicative of declining milk levels and assuming exposure levels from nondairy pathways have remained the same over this time period, this would result in an overall decrease in adult background dioxin exposure of 14%. Six PAHs were detected with national averages ranging from 40 to 777 ng/l. Cadmium concentrations ranged from 150 to 870 ng/l with a national average of 360 ng/l. Lead concentrations were consistently higher than those of cadmium, ranging from 630 to 1950 ng/l with a national average of 830 ng/l. PAHs showed the strongest seasonal/geographic differences, with higher levels in winter than summer, north than south and east than west. Average adult daily intakes from total milk fat ingestion were computed for all detected compounds and compared to total intakes from all pathways: CDD/CDF/PCB TEQs: 8 vs. 55 pg/day, PAHs: 0.6 vs. 3 micro g/day, lead: 0.14 vs. 4-6 micro g/day, and cadmium: 0.06 vs. 30 micro g/day. PMID:12743612

Schaum, John; Schuda, Laurie; Wu, Chieh; Sears, Rhonda; Ferrario, Joe; Andrews, Kimberlea

2003-05-01

293

Reception and treatment facilities for waste oils and oil-polluted waters from marine and industrial activities in Gothenburg, Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the beginning of the 1980s, comprehensive solutions were found to problems associated with the handling of oil-polluted water from marine and industrial sources in the Gothenburg area. The treatment plant in the oil harbour has permission to treat 700,000 m3/yr of sludge, ballast, slops and other oil-contaminated waters. Following treatment by chemical flocculation, flotation and dual-media filtration, the treated water must not contain more than 5 ppm of oil. Work to improve treatment results has been carried out from the start, in close co-operation with environmental authorities and with the waste generators themselves. Through increased consciousness, improvements in control, and greater source separation, it will be possible to bring about a significantly lower concentration of pollutants in the incoming waste streams. Recent plans include separate treatment of waste streams containing aromatic compounds and heavily polluted waters. Complementary treatment methods, such as activated carbon and air stripping, are under evaluation. (author). 10 figs

294

Migration Mechanism of Organic Pollutants in National Water-body Sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-body sediments are a main part of water biological system, sinks and sources of many water-body nutritional substances and pollutants, and carriers, end-results and cumulating places for large amount of contaminants. The article makes a summary of pollution of organic matters in natural water sediments, to provide scientific basis for dealing with polluted sediments.

Haiyuan Qiu

2011-08-01

295

SUMMARY OF GAS STREAM CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR MAJOR POLLUTANTS IN RAW INDUSTRIAL FUEL GAS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes coal gasification and clean-up technology with emphasis on methods of producing a clean industrial fuel gas as defined by agreement for study purposes. The coal-derived industrial fuel discussed produces no more than 0.5 lb of SO2, 0.4 lb of NOx, and 0.1 lb ...

296

Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 {mu}g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural sources dominated trace element input in large perialpine lakes before the European industrial revolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WWTP implementation in the 1970s significantly decreased the metal pollution at the deepwater sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva is heavily contaminated by heavy metals due to WWTP emissions after 1964. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead isotopic composition highlights industrial pollution sources over the last 200 years.

Thevenon, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Thevenon@yahoo.fr [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Graham, Neil D. [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Pote, John [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland)

2011-12-15

297

Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

Michael Sandvig

2011-01-01

298

Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,' (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

299

Investigation and analysis of NORM source term in the phosphate industry based on the first nationwide pollution source survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents in all factories and mines nationwide in relation to phosphate, rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore and solid waste produced by the phosphate industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) investigation. It is concluded that the averages of U, 232Th and 226Ra in phosphate ore are 396 Bq/kg, 26 Bq/kg and 403.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U and 226Ra contents in solid waste produced by the phosphate industry are both less than 200 Bq/kg, mostly. The range of U and 226Ra are 22.7-723.6 Bq/kg and 5.6-1042.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The 232Th content is very low. It is suggested that the phosphate industrial solid waste should be subject to sort management, and some phosphate industry factories and mines should carry out relevant investigation, radiation evaluation and research. (authors)

300

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

302

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

303

The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, paper and energy and many other fields. Historically the industry started up in 1874 based on empiric knowledge on use of rennet in production of cheese from Switzerland and Germany and later enriched by scientific knowledge produced in the company and institutions all over the world. Important for the company was resources of calve stomachs from which the active stuff can be extracted. The private university, The Carlsberg Laboratory, established nearly at the same time, became after First World War a world leader in research of enzymes. And inspiration from here to the pharmaceutical company in insulin production, Novo, resulted in extraction of valuable enzymes from porcine pancreases used in production of insulin. Thethird company, Danisco, started its enzyme business up in the 1930s and is today one of the important players. An important question in the paper is about the future of the companies in Denmark. There is no definitive answer to this question. But a combination of raw materials, growing markets and a good understanding of production based on science based engineering seem to be a strong argument in this discussion.

Pedersen, JØrgen Lindgaard Technical University of Denmark,

304

Strategic regulation of a multi-national banking industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the consequences of cross-border banking and entry of multi-national bank (MNB) subsidiaries for banking supervision and regulation. When a MNB expands internationally with subsidiaries, the MNB operates under the legislation of several countries - both the home country and the host countries. Although these countries have agreed upon minimum standards and supervisory principles, such as in the EU directives or the Basle Accords, substantial degrees of freedom are still ...

Dalen, Dag Morten; Olsen, Trond E.

2002-01-01

305

Detecting Industrial Pollution in the Atmospheres of Earth-like Exoplanets  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ~1.2 days (~1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ~10 times the current terrestrial level.

Lin, Henry W.; Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Loeb, Abraham

2014-09-01

306

Industrial Measuring of Pollution Effects on the Operation of High Voltage Insulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High voltage insulators are exposed to different ambient and climate conditions the interactions of ambient condition and insulator contamination led the insulators themselves become a proper medium for conduction of current, leaving their effects on the power system. Presently, approximate and empirical numbers are used to determine the level of contamination of the insulation. As a result ,creep internals in some area do not accord to ambient conditions and are below the design level. In this power by periodic ESDD and NSDD measurements, two method direction dust gauge DGG are used to measure the intensity of the ambient pollution on the insulator and OLCA to display and record the leaking current as appropriate criteria for the degree and type of pollution.

Mohammad Mehdi Ghanbarian

2010-01-01

307

Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

2011-07-01

308

Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At ...

Rodri?guez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-pe?rez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; La Rosa, J.

2011-01-01

309

Multi-exposure and multi-pollution. Application in industrial and urban environment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Can we give a specific indicator of human exposure in many nuisances (noise nuisance + chemical pollution) ? This work aims to improve the question of multi-exposure (noise and odour) in situ, with a collaboration CRESSON (Research Centre on Sonic Space and Built Environment)-GRECA (Environment Research Group in Applied Chemistry). The case study is the Rhôdia chemical complex of Pont-de-Claix (France, Isère, today in the core of the town) Nuisances problems are mainly tackled by two approa...

Piscot, Re?gis

2008-01-01

310

Mechanism of Social Vulnerability to Industrial Pollution in Peri-Urban Danang City, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial development has been defined as the key development paradigm in Vietnam which brings to the country both opportunity and challenge. Although economic growth has been introduced to Danang city since the Hoa Khanh Industrial Zone (HKIZ was set up, local communities around the HKIZ, such as Hong Phuoc village - the study sites have become more vulnerable due to the industrialization process. In the research, observations, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect primary data. The study founds that the community is vulnerable because the HKIZ has made them lack access to local resources, such as livable space, land resources, job and diversity sources of income. The community health is at risk while they lack access to the better healthcare systems. Therefore, the development of industrial activities has given little priority to the maintenance of local livelihoods.

Pham Thi Bich Ngoc

2014-02-01

311

The problem of land pollution. Sanitation of the brown coal industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of the East German brown coal industry has been assured by the privatisation of Laubag and Mibrag and by the continuation of production, but the revegetation of abandoned mines is still problematic. (orig.)

312

Heavy duty gas turbines in Iran, India and China: Do national energy policies drive the industries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper for the first time systematically examines the heavy duty gas turbine (HDGT) industry in the context of developing countries. It provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. It contrasts their national strategies, the historical development of their technological capabilities, the similarities and differences in approach, the varying evolutionary paths and policy drivers and the reasons for their differing outcomes. This paper argues that a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature of HDGT industries in developing countries. It also argues that the development and evolution of the HDGT industries in these countries is closely interrelated with the countries’ national energy policies. It clarifies why such an advanced and sophisticated industry is a strategic choice in one country, while it is seen as an inferior choice in another. - Highlights: ? This paper for the first time systematically examines the HDGT industry in developing countries. ? This paper provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. ? The companies are state-owned and a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature. ? Due to national energy policies, HDGT is a strategic choice in Iran but an inferior choice in India and China. ? The policy drivers such as natural reserves and security of supply largely vary in these countries.

313

Spatial Patterns in Antibiotic Resistance among Stream Bacteria: Effects of Industrial Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The spatial distribution of antibiotic resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was examined in natural bacterial communities of two streams. The proportion of resistant bacteria was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in the midreaches of an industrially perturbed stream, but no such pattern was apparent in an undisturbed reference stream. The highest relative frequency of resistance was found at the confluence of a tributary draining a nuclear reactor and industrial complex. Antibiotic resistan...

Mcarthur, J. Vaun; Tuckfield, R. Cary

2000-01-01

314

Water pollution: its management and control in the South African gold mining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The South African mining industry is subjected to pressure from the authorities, the media and the public regarding the impact of mining operations on the water environment. In order to respond to these developments the mining industry needs to have a good understanding of water quality management issues which apply to its operations. Important issues in this regard are discussed. 40 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs

315

Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research: provision against climate change and environmental pollution (Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research (KNLTER was initiated in 2004 by the Korean Ministry of Environment. This project entered its third and final phase in 2010. Committee members have suggested that the project needs to be assessed in terms of its achievement and advised regarding its refinement. In this review, we recapitulated the last 7 years of KNLTER progress for developing further program improvements. We reviewed ecological research before the existing LTER, project initiation, the increase in the number of research sites, and research topics. Then, we briefly examine the status of KNLTER and discuss areas for improvement and avenues for further research. The KNLTER established 20 research sites covering 80 topics related to terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, and animal ecology. To strengthen its role in LTER research, KNLTER participants need to confirm standard protocols and data formats for an efficient interaction with other LTER programs. All participants should enhance communication at both the domestic and international levels to reach out and collaborate on research and multidisciplinary studies. Climate change and environmental pollution issues will be solved with a global research network and long-term research projects focusing on this issue.

Gea-Jae Joo

2011-03-01

316

First report of the National Pollutant Release Inventory multi-stakeholder work group on substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through consultations with Canadian stakeholders, and especially the members of the previous multi-stakeholder National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Ad Hoc Work Group on Substances, Environment Canada has established a permanent process for modifying the NPRI. The public is to be notified yearly of proposed changes by Environment Canada, and input on the proposed changes is to be obtained via an appropriate consultation process. Three major topics are addressed in this report: Integration of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) into the NPRI for the 2002 reporting year, other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year, and future agenda items for the Work Group. Specifically, the CACs to be added are nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter including total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers an particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers. Following an introduction, the document presents the addition of criteria air contaminants - proposed substance definitions and thresholds in section 2, as well as other data elements in section 3. A review of existing exemptions is presented in section 4. Other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year are discussed in section 5 and the future agenda items for the work group relevant to the 2003 reporting year appear in section 6. tabs

317

Knowledge Test : A discussion of literature on industrial networks and national innovation systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently.

SØrensen, Ole Henning

1998-01-01

318

Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types

319

Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

320

Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study

 
 
 
 
321

Organic pollutant removal versus toxicity reduction in industrial wastewater treatment: the example of wastewater from fluorescent whitening agent production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial wastewater treatment in the chemical industry aims at eliminating organic contaminants, as these pollutants may be persistent and ecotoxic. In a case study performed in collaboration with the chemical industry, we investigated the removal of a fluorescent whitening agent and its side products in the wastewater-treatment system. Adsorption to activated carbon and biological treatment were simulated in laboratory tests. Algae toxicity tests were performed to quantify the toxicity of the wastewater mixture and of single components. The contaminants identified accounted for up to 82% of the wastewater's total organic carbon (TOC). Adsorption to activated carbon eliminated the TOC and the single contaminants only slightly. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the wastewater decreased by 40%. In contrast, biological treatment reduced the TOC by up to 80%, and the whole effluent toxicity increased. These results indicate that new ecotoxic metabolites were formed during the biological treatment. They also illustrate that mere reduction of the TOC in the wastewater-treatment system is not sufficient for ensuring a reduction of environmental impact. Therefore, simultaneously conducting TOC measurements and toxicity tests, as demonstrated in the current work, is recommended. PMID:16749712

Köhler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie; Escher, Beate I; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2006-05-15

322

Response of stress indicators and growth parameters of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. exposed to air and soil pollution near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed in the vicinity of the industrial complex of Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response of 'manaca da serra' Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), a common species of secondary Atlantic Rain Forest vegetation, to the impact of complex air pollution. Emphasis was given to changes of biochemical parameters such as ascorbic acid concentration, peroxidase activity, contents of water-soluble thiols, pH of leaf extract and buffering capacity. These plant factors are often used as early indicators of air pollution stress. Field experiments included sampling of leaves from mature trees in areas with different air pollution load (passive monitoring), exposure of saplings cultivated in uniform soil at these areas (active monitoring) and a study on the combined effects of contaminated soil and air pollution. In general, metabolic response of saplings was more accentuated than that of mature trees. Leaf extract pH and buffering capacity showed no or only small alterations in plants exposed to industrial emissions. In contrast, air pollution resulted in a distinct decrease in ascorbic acid contents and an increase in peroxidase activity and thiol concentrations in leaves. Cultivation of saplings in soil types from contaminated regions frequently caused the same modifications or enhanced the effects produced by air pollution. Growth analysis of exposed saplings demonstrated that a change of the relationship between above-ground and below-ground plant parts was the most obvious effect of air pollution and soil contamination. The experiments showed that even T. pulchra, a species considered resistant to air pollution, suffers metabolic disturbances by the present ambient air and soil quality. Although biochemical and physiological alterations were not related to a certain air pollution type, they could be used to estimate the overall pollution load and to map zones with different air quality. PMID:10682379

Klumpp, G; Furlan, C M; Domingos, M; Klumpp, A

2000-01-31

323

The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

Sayeda M. Ali

2011-01-01

324

Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

325

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

2003-06-01

326

Environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.)

327

Waste minimization and pollution prevention in D ampersand D operations at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is implementing waste minimization and pollution prevention activities into its conduct of decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. Many of these activities are rather straight forward and simple approaches, yet they are often overlooked and not implemented as often as they should or could be. Specific activities involving recycling and reuse of materials and structures, which have proven useful in lowering decommissioning and disposal costs on D ampersand D projects at ANL are presented

328

The Welding Industry: A National Perspective on Workforce Trends and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive report, created by the National Center for Welding Education and Training, provides a quick look at the employment needs of the welding industry and the educational requirements needed to meet those demands. It looks at short-term, long-term, wage distribution, projected retirements, and the pipeline of new entrants back into the workforce. The report examines four industry occupations: welder, welding technicians, welding inspector and welding engineer. This report is a thorough examination of the welding industry and its future needs.

329

Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

2008-12-01

330

Pollution Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop an understanding of modern industrial technologies that clean up and prevent air pollution, students build and observe a variety of simple models of engineering pollutant recovery methods: scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cyclone and baghouse. In an associated literacy activity, students become more aware of global environmental problems and play a part in their solution by writing environmental action campaign letters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

331

Loyalty (The National Principles: Strengthening Eco-Tourism Industry in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the youth’s perception on the influences of the second National Principles (Rukun Negara no. 2 that is ‘loyalty to the king and country’ towards the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. This study aims to determine the positive and negative influences of the second National Principles (NP on the eco-tourism industry; and to determine the factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia. The data were collected through a self administered questionnaire and later analyzed using SPSS. In this study, 100 youth were selected as respondents with a mean age of 27. This study found that there is a positive influence but no negative influence of the second NP on the eco-tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia. The factor associated most with the success of eco-tourism industry in relation to the second NP as perceived by youth in Sabah, Malaysia is ethical and moral values. In accordance, professional experience, and the use of a specific formula may provide a suitable basis for change in this industry when dealing with the local perception on their responsibility to make this industry develop in relation to their feeling of concern towards ‘loyalty to the king and country’.

Romzi A.

2011-04-01

332

Bioaccumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Maize, Oat and Sorghum Plants, grown in industrially polluted region  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) by maize, oat and sorghum plants cultivated, under field conditions, in industrially polluted soils was studied. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness the crops were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts - roots, stems, leaves and grains, were determined after dry ashing. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A clearly distinguished species peculiarity existed in the accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied crops. Sorghum plants accumulated larger heavy metal quantities compared to maize and oat plants, as the major part of heavy metals was retained by roots and a very small part was translocated to epigeous parts. The studied crops may be considered as metal-tolerant crops and may be cultivated on soils which are low, medium or highly contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium, as they do not show a tendency of accumulating these elements in epigeous parts and grains above the maximum permissible concentrations. The possible use of aboveground mass and grains for animal food guarantees the economic expedience upon the selection of these crops. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, Project DO-02-87/08.

Angelova, Violina; Ivanova, Radka; Ivanov, Krasimir

2010-05-01

333

75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...  

Science.gov (United States)

...are required to test for toxic pollutants...permit application forms. Table IV-1...Form or request Applicant type...pollutant- specific test [[Page 35718...approved alternative test procedures...Information Collection Request (ICR) to the...applicants to complete Forms 1, 2A,...

2010-06-23

334

Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species. PMID:17140640

Berlizov, A N; Blum, O B; Filby, R H; Malyuk, I A; Tryshyn, V V

2007-01-01

335

Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative externntly separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

336

Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species.

Berlizov, A.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauki, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine)]. E-mail: berlizov@kinr.kiev.ua; Blum, O.B. [National Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1, Timiryazevskaya str., 01014, Kiev (Ukraine); Filby, R.H. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4630 (United States); Malyuk, I.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauki, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine); Tryshyn, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauki, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine)

2007-01-01

337

Radiometic Comparison Between a National Laboratory and an Industrial Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the disciplines that Fluke-Hart Scientific has is radiometric calibration. Part of this program involves use of a radiation thermometer with a pyroelectic detector. It is used as a radiometric transfer standard between a set of liquid-bath variable temperature blackbodies and a flat-plate infrared (IR) calibrator. The flat-plate calibrator is designed for use in the calibration of handheld IR thermometers. The traceability of the variable temperature blackbodies is realized by contact thermometry through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A verification of these blackbodies is a comparison between a calibration done by the Radiance Temperature Laboratory at NIST and the blackbodies at Fluke-Hart Scientific. This comparison uses a transfer radiation thermometer (TRT) as a check standard. It would be more desirable to use radiometric traceability as an indication of the blackbodies' radiometric temperature. However, contact thermometry provides much better uncertainties. These uncertainties are needed for the radiometric transfer from the blackbodies to the flat-plate calibrators. Thus, the NIST radiometric calibration of the TRT is used for verification of normal equivalence. This article discusses Fluke-Hart Scientific's blackbody traceability. It covers the Fluke-Hart Scientific and the NIST radiometric calibration procedures. It discusses the radiometric uncertainty budgets at both Fluke-Hart Scientific and at NIST. It then discusses the results of this comparison and analyzes the results. The comparison is in the temperature range of -15 °C to 500 °C. It showed a normal equivalence of less than 1.00 at all points. The article concludes with a set of future actions to ensure quality in Fluke-Hart Scientific's radiometric calibration program.

Liebmann, F. E.; Kolat, T.; Coleman, M. J.; Wiandt, T. J.

2011-12-01

338

Development of Electronic Nose and Program for Monitoring Air Pollutions and Alarm in Industrial Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the development of electronicnose and program for monitoring air pollutions and alarm inindustrial area. The design of electronic nose depends onphysical connectivity of the sensors, relating to the datamanagement, computing management and informationmanagement. Therefore, the sampling, filtering and sensorsmodule, signal transducers and acquisition, data preprocessing,feature extraction and feature classification are applied in thedesign of an electronic nose. There are 4 sensors areinvestigated to use as electronic nose in this experiment whichconsist of TGS2620, TGS2620, TGS2442 and TGS832. Thesesensors are operated with LabVIEW program. The experimentresults show that these sensors can classify and sensitive to thedifferent gas such as Methanol n-Propanol, Hexane andDichloromethane. The PCA is also used to classify group of gassensor. The system also performs the warning and alarm systemwhen the gas is leak.

J. Srinonchat

2013-02-01

339

Inter graded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700-3100 ty-1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The co composting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32%) by the application of Fenton and another 10-28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final co composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

340

PIXE study on atmospheric pollution caused by indigenous zinc-smelting industry at MAGU region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atmospheric particulates were collected with a 8-stage cascade impactor in the spring of 1988 at MAGU region. The samples were analyzed by the PIXE technique. The mass concentrations and respective size distributions for 18 elements were determined. Size distribution parameters of mass concentrations for these elements were calculated with the numerical fitting method. From the point of view of effects on human health a new assessment of atmospheric quality was suggested, i.e., according to the deposit-retaining model the deposit amount in the lung during a whole day, as an index, was determined from the mass concentrations and size distribution parameters. On the basis of the assessment method mentioned above the pollution effects on atmospheric quality were assessed and discussed. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric diffusion is discussed of industrial gaseous emissions and the concepts are reviewed by various authors of the diffusion parameters. The power laws are presented for the practical calculations of atmospheric diffusion and analytical formulae are given for calculating the dispersion of gaseous wastes in the atmosphere. The fundamental equations are complete with extensive references. The averaging is presented of dispersion parameters for use in numerical solution. (L.O.)

342

Spectral characteristics of wind and air pollution data in an industrial area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison is made between the spectral features of sulfur dioxide concentration and zonal and meridional components of wind speed over a highly industrialized area situated on the coast. The paper focuses on the characteristic times of the meso-synoptic scale. Diurnal and longer period oscillations were identified. Variations of ground-level SO2 concentrations are attributed to local sea-breeze circulation and to the synoptic weather period of wind speed

343

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

344

A Study on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain- A Comparative Analysis between Small Scale Industries in India and Developed Nations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental pollution is the major problem that mankind faces in present state, the major emission of toxic gases is from vehicles and manufacturing industries. The thesis study focuses on three different types of Small Scale Industries (SSI) in India that are bumper manufacturing industry, dyeing industry and food processing industry. The product life cycles of the process for each industry are identified and their final green waste disposal methods are investigated. The industries are ide...

Selvaraj, Ranjith Karthick

2011-01-01

345

Fourth International Seminar and Fourth National Workshop 'Use and development of Health Related Industrial Isotope Products'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the main subjects was tackled during the Fourth International Seminar and Fourth National Workshop 'Use and development of Health Related Industrial Isotope Products' which took place on December 7th, 8th and 9th 2010, devoted to the XV Anniversary of the Isotope Centre is showed in the paper.(author)

346

National Inspection Program of Conventional Industries: implement, results and evaluation- 1981 to 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology adopted by the Instutute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry to implement the National Inspection Program of Conventional Industries is present. This methodology is being efficient because of many technical and administrative problems about radiation protection could be identified, analysed and solved gradually. Many workplaces of gammagraphy are analysed in relation to radiation safety, geographyc localization and social-economics aspects. (Author)

347

Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pan?evo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pan?evo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

Vukmirovi?, Zorka B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Lazi?, Lazar; Toši?, Ivana

348

Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nanofiltration system has many potential uses in removing chemical and biological contaminants from water. - During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed

349

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2014-06-04

350

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2012-06-19

351

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2013-06-10

352

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

353

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2011-06-30

354

Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. There are six critical receptor locations on the NTS that are actually pseudocritical receptor locations because they are hypothetical receptor locations; no person actually resides at these onsite locations. Annual average concentrations of detected radionuclides are compared with Concentration Levels (CL) for Environmental Compliance values listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. Compliance is demonstrated if the sum of fractions (CL/measured concentrations) of all detected radionuclides at each pseudo-critical receptor location is less than one. In 2007, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the NTS has demonstrated that the potential dose to the public from radiological emissions to air from current and past NTS activities is well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected onsite at each of the six pseudo-critical receptor stations on the NTS had average concentrations of nuclear test-related radioactivity that were a fraction of the limits listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. They ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 20 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS.

Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

2008-06-01

355

Training and application of energy audit and prevention of air pollution in Czechoslovak industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mission of training and auditing, on a French-Czechoslovak parity level, was conducted in three phases. First phase: two weeks of theoretical and application instruction, held, in France, from 9{sup th} to 21{sup st} July 1990, by the Institut Francais de l'Energie with the support of Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l'Energie (AFME). Second phase: three weeks of energy audit with industrial firms from Czechoslovakia, from 22{sup nd} July to 12{sup th} August 1990. Ten energy teams covering six towns; a mobile environment team. Third phase: final synthesis report.

Breniere, F. (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (FR)); Maugain, P.; Zibell, L. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (FR))

1990-11-01

356

Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

Testoni, A. L.

2011-10-19

357

ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (1ST), HELD AT LAKE BUENA VISTA, FLORIDA ON JANUARY 17-19, 1978  

Science.gov (United States)

Subject report contains technical research papers given at the First Annual Conference on Advanced Pollution Control for the Metal Finishing Industry. This conference was held in January, 1978 and was co-sponsored by the USEPA and the American Electroplaters' Society (AES). Repor...

358

CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (4TH), PRESENTED AT DUTCH INN, LAKE BUENA VISTA, FLORIDA - JANUARY 18-20, 1982  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Fourth Conference on Advanced Pollution Control for the Metal Finishing Industry' was held in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, January 18-20, 1982. This broad-scoped colloquium was jointly designed by the American Electroplaters' Society and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

359

Highlighting of pollutants elements of atmospheric air and industrial wastewater in Antananarivo and Analysis of a forest plants of the east coast of Madagascar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work has for objectives to determine the polluting elements of air, of the industrial waste waters of the urban environment (Antananarivo) and in the leaves of a plant forest called Noronhia of the rural environment (East Coast of Madagascar) and to identify the sources of these pollutants. The method of analysis by total refection X-ray fluorescence at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN) have been used for the measures of the present elements in the samples, the pHmeter and the conductimeter for the measures of pH and the electric conductivity. In 2000, the average concentrations of lead in the aerosols collected in Andrefan'Ambohijanahary in Antananarivo are 137±4 ng.m-3 during the day and 51±2 ng-m-3 during the night. They are lower than the guideline values adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average PM10 concentrations diurnal and nocturnal (equal to 194 ?g.m-3 and 145 ?g.m-3 respectively) in the aerosols are extensively superior to the guideline values 70 ?g.m-3 adopted by the WHO in Dakar (1999).Therefore, the site of Andrefan'Ambohijanahary is to be classified saturated zone according to canadian government rule. In 2002, the immobilization of nearly all cars in the capital show that the report of reduction of the concentration of lead in 2002 in relation to the peri lead in 2002 in relation to the period 2000 is equal to 38. The present work confirms the introduction of unleaded gasoline in Madagascar. Physico-chemical measures of the samples of waste waters in the different sites of Antananarivo are made. The chromium is a toxic metal for the environment associated to the tannery. Its concentration of 2712.1 ?g.L-1 is superior to the national norm of 2000 ?g.L-1. The presence of the chromium in the downstream samples is also noted. Regarding to the textile factories, the higher value of the conductivity (equal to 4 670 ?S.cm-1) of the waste water sample discharged by this factory exceeds extensively the national norm of 200 ?S.cm-1. The use of important quantity of chemical products in the cycle of production can contribute the origin of this elevation of conductivity. The basic pH (equal to 8.0) of waste water seems to come from the use of caustic sodium necessary to the production. Lead having a maximal concentration of 251.0 ?g.L-1 doesn't respect the national norm of 200 ?g.L-1 and Belgium norm (100 ?g.L-1). The analysis of the leaves of Noronhia of the East coast of Madagascar has been devoted to incite the promoters of the development of Madagascar to choose the orientation of the valorization of an endemic plant of Madagascar. The mineral elements, calcium and potassium, constitute the major elements having an average content superior to 1000 ?g of elements by gram of analyzed dry leaves. There is no lead in none part of leaf. The present study puts in inscription that by comparison to the rural environment, the urban environment is disrupted by the polluting elements of the environmental samples. Thus, Noronhia is a candidate presenting an interesting future like phyto-medicine.

360

76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories CFR Correction...should I be aware of? Terms used in this subpart...required properties. New source means any affected source the construction or...limited to: antimony, arsenic, beryllium,...

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

75 FR 67960 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...  

Science.gov (United States)

...permit. Water Quality-Based Effluent Limitations...constitute the water quality-based effluent limitations...include water quality-based effluent limitations...requiring additional controls in order to achieve...the control of toxic pollutants...

2010-11-04

362

75 FR 5788 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...  

Science.gov (United States)

...permit. Water Quality-Based Effluent Limitations...constitute the water quality-based effluent limitations...inclusion of water quality-based effluent limitations...requiring additional controls in order to achieve...the control of toxic pollutants...

2010-02-04

363

75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY...existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The amendments...existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. 40...

2010-06-30

364

75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to...proposed rule for mercury emissions from the gold mine ore processing and production area source category. We are...

2010-05-20

365

Metabolic signatures associated with environmental pollution by metals in Doñana National Park using P. clarkii as bioindicator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioindicators can reflect the effects of pollutants on their metabolism, being widely used to assess environmental stress. In this sense, the crab Procambarus clarkii has been previously proposed to monitor the contamination in Doñana National Park (southwest Spain) using conventional biomarkers. In this work, a metabolomic approach based on direct infusion mass spectrometry, which allows an easy and quick study of a large number of metabolites in a single run, was used for pollution assessment of this area, considering the biological response of this organism to contamination. In addition, metal accumulation in crab tissues was determined. Thus, the integrated analysis of metabolomic and metallomic data enabled the study of metabolic response of the organism against pollution. Several metabolites were discovered as potential biomarkers of pollution, such as decreased levels of carnosine, alanine, niacinamide, acetoacetate, pantothenic acid, ascorbate, glucose-6-phosphate, arginine, glucose, lactate, phospholipids, and tryglicerides, as well as elevated levels of acetyl carnitine, phosphocholine, choline, and uric acid. In this way, metal-induced toxicity could be related to metabolic impairments, principally oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. PMID:24756666

Gago-Tinoco, Amanda; González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Blasco-Moreno, Julián; Bebianno, M J; Gómez-Ariza, José-Luis

2014-12-01

366

Effect of trees on the decomposition rate of cellulose in soils under industrial pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of spruce and birch on the spatial distribution of the decomposition rate of pure cellulose in the region of the Middle Urals copper smelter near the town of Revda in Sverdlovsk oblast (southern taiga) was studied. The contamination of the soil by heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn) decreased the decomposition rate by 2.7 (spruce-fir forests) to 5.4 (birch forests) times and increased its spatial variation (the coefficient of variation reached 80-226%). The trees in the forests could not be considered as the main determinants of the horizontal structure of the soil microbocenosis, because the position of a test point with respect to the tree stem explains less than 10% of the total spatial variance of the cellulolytic activity. The decomposition rate of the cellulose in the spruce-fir forests was higher than in the birch forests; it was higher in the undercrown areas than in the forest canopy gaps. It was supposed that this was related to the buffering role of the litter, which smoothed the fluctuations of the water content. Under the pollution conditions, the differences between the coniferous and deciduous biotopes increased, and those between the undercrown areas and canopy gaps decreased.

Vorobeichik, E. L.; Pishchulin, P. G.

2011-05-01

367

Survey of Dissolved Air Flotation System Efficiency for Reduce of Pollution of Vegetable Oil Industry Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD , total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L-1 in this research. Mean removal for the parameters of oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced , but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

H. Keramati

2008-01-01

368

Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015. PMID:19137873

Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

2008-10-01

369

Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report February 2008.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

2008-03-01

370

Association of outdoor air pollution with chronic respiratory morbidity in an industrial town in northern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was performed in one industrial (study) and one non-industrial (reference) town in Punjab State, northern India. Ambient air quality samples were collected and analyzed each week for 2 yr. Subjects were 3,603 individuals >15 yr old who were interviewed and whose lung functions were measured spirometrically. Their biomarkers were categorized in terms of obstructive or restrictive defects. Levels of total suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone were significantly higher in the study town than in the reference town. The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, breathlessness, or wheezing) was 27.9 and 20.3% in the study and reference towns, respectively (p < 0.05). That of obstructive ventilatory defect was 24.9 and 11.8% (p < 0.05), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that residence in the study town was independently associated with chronic respiratory symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 1.8; p < 0.001) and spirometric ventilatory defect (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 2.0, 2.9; p < 0.001) after controlling for other demographic effects. PMID:16381489

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Manoj; Srivastva, Ashok; Thakur, Jarnail S; Jindal, Surinder K; Parwana, Harjinder K

2004-09-01

371

NO2 pollution of the atmosphere and the influence of industrial processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, the concentration of N2O is the highest (about 306 ppm and due to the high global warming potential (GWP = 320 nitrous oxide belongs to important greenhouse gases. Moreover, N2O contributes also to the ozone layer depletion. Nitrous oxide is produced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, where combustion plays an important role. Two analytical methods ( IR spectrophotometry and gas chromatography have been used for the analysis of N2O emissions from various industrial sources. Carbon monooxide at the concentration above 500 ppm interferes the IR analysis. The emission factors for combustion processes typical for Czech Republic have been calculated. Emission concentrations depend on the type of the combustion process (the highest is for the fluid-bed combustion as well as on the output of the combustion unit. In an identical unit, the emission factor increases when the output decreases. A high concentration of nitrous oxide have been found in emissions from the chemical industry where catalytic denitrification is used.

Kula Petr

1998-09-01

372

Risk-based assessment of multimetallic soil pollution in the industrialized peri-urban area of Huelva, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peri-urban soils of Huelva, one of the first industrial cities in Spain, are subject to severe pollution problems primarily due to past poor management of industrial wastes and effluents. In this study, soil cores were collected in seven sites potentially contaminated with toxic chemicals arising from multiple anthropogenic sources, in order to identify trace elements of concern and to assess human health risks associated with them. In most soil core samples, total concentrations of As (up to 4,390 mg kg(-1)), Cd (up to 12.9 mg kg(-1)), Cu (up to 3,162 mg kg(-1)), Pb (up to 6,385 mg kg(-1)), Sb (up to 589 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (up to 4,874 mg kg(-1)) were by more than one order of magnitude greater than the site-specific reference levels calculated on the basis of regional soil geochemical baselines. These chemicals are transferred from the hazardous wastes, mainly crude pyrite and roasted pyrite cinders, to the surrounding soils by acid drainage and atmospheric deposition of wind-blown dust. Locally, elevated concentrations of U (up to 96.3 mg kg(-1)) were detected in soils affected by releases of radionuclides from phosphogypsum wastes. The results of the human health risk-based assessment for the hypothetical exposure of an industrial worker to the surface soils indicate that, in four of the seven sites monitored, cancer risk due to As (up to 4.4 × 10(-5)) is slightly above the target health risk limit adopted by the Spanish legislation (1 × 10(-5)). The cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard index ranged from 2.0 to 12.2 indicating that there is also a concern for chronic toxic effects from dermal contact with soil. PMID:21604196

Fernández-Caliani, J C

2012-02-01

373

76 FR 70833 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Primary Lead Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

...multi-pathway exposures from industrial sources like primary and...Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommended practices...The reports must include a calculation of the percentage of time...

2011-11-15

374

Evidence given by the National Radiological Protection Board to the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March of 1976 The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution informed the Board that they had decided to enquire into the organisation for radiological safety in this country, with particular regard to the environmental hazards from radioactivity that might arise from the increasing use of nuclear energy for the generation of electrical power. The Board was invited to submit evidence on any aspects with which it was concerned and, in particular, on its powers and responsibilities and relationships with other bodies; the Board was also asked to discuss the assessment of radiation hazards and the application in practice of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This is the Board's response. The constitution, functions and responsibilities of the Board are discussed in Chapter 1 as is the involvement of its staff in national and international affairs in the field of radiological protection. Chapter consists of a short statement of the various sources of radiation to which the people of the UK are exposed. The Board does not claim any special experience or expertise in one of the matters referred to in the third area of concern, namely, the criteria used for the siting of nuclear power stations. But in the related field of assessing the environmental consequences of reactor accidents, the Board has been actively involved with the Medical Research Council in their latest review of Emergency Reference Levels - a report on which is shortly to be published. This subject is referred to in Chapter 3 which deals with the methods by which the basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are translated into values that can be applied to particular forms of practice. Chapter 4 discusses the current position of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes arising from nuclear power cycles. It also briefly discusses the way in which this position may change in future and touches on the problems of decommissioning obsolete nuclear plants. Chapter 5 outlines problems arising from the need to protect workers and the public from the biological effects of plutonium. The evidence concludes with Chapter 6 which consists of a short statement on the position regarding the transport of radioactive materials

375

Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

NONE

1997-03-01

376

Aerosols Analysis by LIBS for Monitoring of Air Pollution by Industrial Sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the air quality improvement, there is an increasing need to monitor gas and particle emissions originating from exhaust stacks (incinerators, foundries, etc.) for regulation enforcement purposes. Lots of pollutants are targeted; among them, heavy metals are mostly found in particulate forms. Hence, there is a need to promote the development of suitable on line analytical techniques. To that end, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a good technique. Indeed, it is quantitative, fast (?1 min), requires no sample preparation, and can be performed at remote distance. The instrumentation is compact and offers the possibility to be used for continuous and in-situ monitoring. Two different approaches have been tested by several authors to analyze aerosols by LIBS, by focusing the laser either on particles collected on a filter or directly into the aerosol. In this work, these two approaches, aiming at measuring the mass concentration of micrometer metallic particles in air, are investigated and compared. The experimental setup includes an aerosol source (an ultrasonic nebuliser producing a diluted aerosol of CuSO4 particles); two sampling lines for particle sizes and, for reference concentration measurements, a line for direct LIBS analysis; and a fourth one devoted to filter sampling for subsequent LIBS measurements. Calibration curves were obtained with those two experimental approaches and the results are compared. In teches and the results are compared. In terms of sampling particles number, indirect analysis appears to be more efficient than direct analysis for our experimental conditions. Better detection limits were found with direct analysis when comparing the two approaches under similar sampling conditions (analysis time and sampling flow). (authors)

377

The effects of industrial pollution on soils in the Western Alps, Chamonix area, France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In France low pH values were measured by field testing in soils of later Pleistocene and Holocene age. Data from laboratory investigations showed high electric conductivities (mainly from high SO42-) and pH values as low as 3.9 in epipedons of Inceptisols and Spondosols. Proximityto coal-fired power plants and other industrial activities may generate excess output of SO42- ions. As the rock in the area is largely an acidic crystalline complex of granite and gneiss, the tendency for lower pH values in the surface soils may have a disastrous effect on the coniferous forests in the area. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs

378

Physical parameters of groundwater as indicators of pollution in industrial areas of Taxila, Wah and Hasanabdal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Wah area historically famous for having sweet aquifer system is greatly effected due to environmental activities, such as industrialization and poor sewage system in the recent past. Thirty water samples have been collected from dug wells penetrating to shallow two layers in a multi layered aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is located at a depth of 45-85 feet and composed of very fine grained sand to silt in two layers separated by silty clay. To assess the contamination problems, physical parameters of groundwater such as temperature, color, turbidity, odour and taste have been estimated fifty percent of the dug wells have been found as contaminated and not fit for human consumption according 10 WHO standards. High values of electrical conductance determined in fifty percent of wells show trends of chemical contamination and their probable sources near by these wells against the general recharge pattern prevailing in the area can be located. (author)

379

The industrial organization is the key to a national self-reliant program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has developed a unique industrial model that is the root cause of the success of the French Nuclear Program. This model relies on the strong relations between: the design, the procurement and the operation feedback. Doing so, France has developed a self reliant industry. EDF has built its nuclear fleet at the average pace of 5 units per year, between 1979 and 1990, 50000 MWe representing 80% of the nuclear fleet, have been brought on line. In terms of technical and economic performance, the French nuclear fleet has achieved the following: 1. a high standard of nuclear safety management; 2. an efficient and competitive KWh; 3. an environmental protection; 4. a powerful national industry. The success of the French nuclear program is based on an efficient industrial organization that EDF has set up, in order to realize a standardization effect and a permanent improvement thanks to the feedback from the operation experiment. It is called the industrial control. In this article, the principles of the industrial control and the means of the industrial control are introduced in detail

380

78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...injects dry alkaline sorbent (dry injection) or sprays an...exhaust stream forming a dry powder material. Sorbent...used as control devices in fluidized bed boilers and process heaters...included in this definition. A dry scrubber is a dry...

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
381

15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... To improve the environmental and competitive performance...competitiveness with reduced environmental impact. (3...achieve the continued environmental improvement to meet...source center will be integrated into the system...internal evaluation for management control, external...

2010-01-01

382

76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...emission standards for control of mercury and polycyclic organic matter...Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion...Method for Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Gaseous Fuels (Lead Acetate...Reapproved 2006), Test Method for Mercury Sampling and Measurement...

2011-03-21

383

75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...organizations appropriate to contact for purpose of consultation...conduct stack tests at the maximum normal operating load while burning the type...enforce this subpart. You should contact your EPA Regional Office to...

2010-06-04

384

Effects of heavy industrial pollution on respiratory function in the children of Cubatao, Brazil: a preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under a cooperative agreement between New York University and the Environmental Protection Agency, and in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo (USP), a study is ongoing in Cubatao, Brazil, to try to establish exposure-response relationships on the impact of specific industrial effluents on respiratory function in school-age children. Cubatao, located on the coast about 44 km from the city of Sao Paulo, is surrounded by U-shaped mountains (approximately 800 m) covered with subtropical forests. Its area is approximately 160 km2, and it has a population of approximately 90,000. The geography is such that it causes a consistent diurnal land-sea breeze pattern and the opposite during the night, with low dispersion of the air pollutants. In a small area (approximately 40 km2) against the mountains there is a concentration of over 20 large plants: oil refinery; iron and steel mill; fertilizer, cement, and gypsum production; coke kilns; and chemical, paint, and many other ancillary plants. During the 1988 school year, March through June, August through November, 600 six-year-old children, attending six different kindergarten schools, underwent monthly spirometry tests. Because the children live within a 500 m radius of their school, pollution monitors were located on each of the six schools. Particles were collected using dichotomous stacked filter units placed on 20 m towers to reduce the influence of dust from unpaved roads. The units use different pore size filters for coarse, 2 to 10 microns, and fine particles, (dp) less than 2 microns, and took separate samples for day and nighttime.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1954940

Spektor, D M; Hofmeister, V A; Artaxo, P; Brague, J A; Echelar, F; Nogueira, D P; Hayes, C; Thurston, G D; Lippmann, M

1991-08-01

385

Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2008a). At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2008, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.9 mrem/yr; well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six pseudo-critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61 (CFR, 2008a). Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 19 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. Potential dose to the public from NLVF was also very low at 0.00006 mrem/yr; more than 160,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

386

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2010-06-11

387

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

388

Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2008a). At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2008, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.9 mrem/yr; well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six pseudo-critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61 (CFR, 2008a). Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 19 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. Potential dose to the public from NLVF was also very low at 0.00006 mrem/yr; more than 160,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

2009-06-30

389

The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos, which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. This created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

El asociacionismo farmacéutico industrial, al igual que ocurriera con otras actividades empresariales, experimentó un notable auge durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la II República. La Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, desde Barcelona, representó a la industria química nacional hasta su asimilación definitiva por la Organización Sindical franquista, en 1939. Dentro de esta asociación, los asuntos relacionados con los productos farmacéuticos, a los que prestaremos especial atención en este trabajo, fueron gestionados por la Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico- Farmacéuticos, que defendió los intereses de los productores de medicamentos industriales ante las autoridades gubernamentales, utilizando para ello recursos y mecanismos también manejados por otros grupos empresariales de presión. La inclusión de la farmacia industrial en el entramado químico nacional desligó a los fabricantes de especialidades farmacéuticas del ejercicio tradicional de esta profesión y de su entorno corporativo, circunstancia que generó encuentros, desencuentros, conflictos de intereses y, en definitiva, relaciones de amor-odio con sus colegas de oficina de farmacia y, por supuesto, con el grupo asociativo que les representaba: la Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl

2011-12-01

390

Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term energy crisis has resulted in increased combustion of biomass fuel in industrial and household sectors in Pakistan. We report results of a study on the emission characteristics of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse since they are frequently used as biomass fuel and differed remarkably in physico-chemical and combustion characteristics. Emission concentrations and emission factors were determined experimentally by burning the biomass fuel using a burning tower. Modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse was >0.97 indicating that combustion was dominated by flaming mode. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 for rice straw were calculated to be 17.19 ± 0.28, 1090.07 ± 24.0, 0.89 ± 0.03, 1.48 ± 0.04, 3.16 ± 0.08 and 0.38 ± 0.03 g kg-1 respectively which were significantly (p bagasse (12.39 ± 0.08, 937.03 ± 9.07, 0.36 ± 0.03, 1.44 ± 0.02, 2.57 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.02 g kg-1). Total emissions of CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 were estimated to be 3.68, 230.51, 0.05, 0.36, 0.60 and 0.03 Gg for rice husk, 33.75, 2140.35, 1.75, 2.91, 6.20 and 0.75 Gg for rice straw, 1.11, 76.28, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03 Gg for corncobs and 42.12, 3185.53, 1.22, 4.90, 8.74 and 0.61 Gg for bagasse respectively. Rice straw, however, had significantly (p Bagasse had the highest values of total emissions followed by rice straw, rice husk and corncobs. Rice straw and bagasse, on cumulative basis, contributed more than 90% of total emissions of gaseous pollutants. Results reported in this study are important in formulating provincial and regional emission budgets of gaseous pollutants from burning of agricultural residues in Pakistan.

Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; -Rahman, Naveed-ur; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

2014-02-01

391

Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (RI) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with RI value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza

2014-02-01

392

Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared with wet (65 vs. 35%) which is due to significantly smaller precipitation in this country. Considering total deposition during transboundary atmospheric transport, it should be noted that 80.3% of transported sulphates will be deposited over territories of Kazakhstan, 13.8% - Russia, about 2% each - Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and less than 1% over other countries. Among considered 14 Regions of Kazakhstan and 8 Federal District of Russia, the highest concentrations and depositions were identified in the Atyraus and Magistaus regions of Kazakhstan as well as in the South Federal District of Russia. For Kazakhstan, the lowest values were identified in the Almaty, East-Kazakhstan, Dzhambul and Pavlodar regions. Among most populated cities the city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan (Russia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) showed the largest concentrations during transboundary atmospheric transport.

Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

2012-04-01

393

Distribution and mobility of the heavy metals cadmium, copper and zinc in industrially polluted, calcareous soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a region that had been polluted with heavy metal emissions by a brass foundry for decades the chemical aspects of the mobility of cadmium, copper and zinc in calcareous soils were investigated. This was done by analysing the distribution of the heavy metals in the soil profile and the amount sorbed at the different binding sites. Adsorption and desorption experiments were performed under varying environmental conditions. The soil water of the affected area was analysed. This data was then related to investigations of plant availability, transport and mass balance. In the top soil of the area close to foundry the heavy metal contents are 37.5 nmol g-1 cadmium, 23.6 ?mol g-1 copper, and 24.9 ?mol g-1 zinc (extracted with 2M HNO3). These contents are more than 70% of cadmium, and more than 90% of copper and of zinc of the amounts in the soil body with a thickness of 1 m. The mobility of the examined heavy metals is dominated by the high sorption capacity of the soil that is rich in lime and clay. Sorption experiments with unpolluted fine subsoil material in 0.001 M Mg(NO3)2 at 25o C resulted in a sorption coefficient Kf of 900 ml g-1 for cadmium and 3300 ml g-1 for zinc. Additional examinations of the binding forms showed that less than 5% of the accumulated copper and zinc, but up to 45% of cadmium are bound in an exchangeable form. The sorption of cadmium hangeable form. The sorption of cadmium and zinc on the unpolluted calcareous material of the subsoil can be described by two-step Freundlich-isotherms. The first step is dominated by adsorption processes combined with calcium-ions exchange. The second step is dominated by the precipitation of cadmium- and zinc-carbonates or hydroxide-carbonate mixed crystals, respectively, together with a decrease in pH. (author) figs., tabs., 102 refs

394

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

395

CARTELS OR FAIR COMPETITION? THE ECONOMICS OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the heart of the Great Depression, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA suspended U.S. antitrust laws and helped coordinate government sponsored cartels in most manufacturing industries in the American economy. The potential effect, detrimental or beneficial, of cartels is a topic of debate in the recent theoretical literature of cartels, though few historical examples of large-scale, economy-wide cartels exist. This study uses the NIRA cartel experience to test the competing hypotheses of the effects of cartels on economic variables.

Jason Taylor

1999-01-01

396

Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

NONE

1998-01-01

397

Screening and characterization of pollution potential from solid industrial waste dumps  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid industrial waste dumps, being an anthropogenic part of the vadose zone, are potential non-point sources of ground water contamination. The early warning provided from qualitative and quantitative information on contaminant migration within a dump is an essential element in monitoring and screening sites for hazardous waste deposition that prevents degradation of recoverable ground water resources and permits to avoid either false positive or false negative errors in evaluation and prediction of the extent of environmental hazard. Multilevel sampling of dump and vadose zone cross-sections in the defined points of known waste age and dump construction delivers direct information on vertical distribution of contaminants as a function of time, that is a resultant of a dump and vadose zone hydrogeology, as well as of the mechanism and dynamics of constituent release, interaction and biogeochemical transformation in pore solution. The current presentation describes a procedure for multilevel sampling, pore solution extraction and examination and provides data (vertical profiles of contaminants distribution from a selected landfill site) that exemplify necessity of dump/vadose zone multilevel sampling for correct assessment of contaminants migration rate, understanding processes and conditions affecting contaminant transport, and enhancement of remedial response measures.

Twardowska, Irena; Szczepanska, Jadwiga

1993-03-01

398

Laboratory manual on the use of radiotracer techniques in industry and environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments in this laboratory manual are divided into three general types, detection, tracer, and environmental. Seven detection experiments are presented with emphasis on those fundamentals of radiation detection required in tracer applications. These include experiments on (1) radiological safety practices pertinent to tracer applications, (2) Geiger-Mueller counter characteristics and counting statistics, (3) external and inherent parameters of radiation detectors, (4) scintillation detector characteristics, (5) the preparation and standardization of radioisotope sources, (6) gamma-ray spectroscopy, and (7) activation analysis. Seven basic experiments illustrating the most common engineering or industrial applications of radioactive tracers are included. These are (1) turbulent flow rate in pipes, (2) laminar flow rate in straight, circular tubes, (3) the determination and analysis of residence time distributions in process vessels, (4) the detection of dead space and channelling, (5) batch mixing processes, (6) multiple-parameter, residence time distributions, and (7) the simulation of continuous, open-cycle ball mills. Two experiments illustrating the common uses of radioactive tracers in environmental applications are included. These are the use of radioactive tracers in the measurement of (1) flow rate in open-channel streams and (2) dispersion in large bodies of water

399

Assessment of some industrial pollutants and their impact on the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained by the analysis of raw materials and product samples collected from the three industries in Abu Zaabal area for the elements U, Th, La, Ce, Gd, Cr, Sb, Sc, Hf, Na, Fe, Lu, Zn and Au in the samples under study are presented and discussed. U content (in ppm) was found to be as follows: phosphate ore = 72.6, GSSP = 50.45, SSP = 42.65, DCP = 8.36, Gypsum = 5.31 and GNPK = 4.664. The La content in the phosphate ore is 40.0 ppm. The Cr content in fertilizers is in the range 12.12 - 19.56 ppm except gypsum that has the lowest value of 0.406 ppm. In the alum company as well as ARACEMCO samples all the important elements have been analyzed either in the raw materials or in the products using NAA, namely U, Th, lanthanides as well as other elements. U, Ce, Co La, Cr,... etc. contents in the reference water samples are compared with two drainage water samples. Also U, Ce, Cr and Th have been analyzed. All the elements content in the leaf samples collected from AZFC zone are higher than their values in the reference leaf samples from Mounofia. Also, the elements content of the unwashed sample is higher than the values found in the same but washed sample. The measurements of the natural radioactivity in phosphate ore and in some fertilizer samples from AZFC are compared with the corresponding values obtained by NAA technique for the same samples. The comparison shows a negligible difference as regards the uranium content for each sample. (author)nt for each sample. (author)

400

Assessment of some industrial pollutants and their impact on the environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The results obtained by the analysis of raw materials and product samples collected from the three industries in Abu Zaabal area for the elements U, Th, La, Ce, Gd, Cr, Sb, Sc, Hf, Na, Fe, Lu, Zn and Au in the samples under study are presented and discussed. U content (in ppm) was found to be as follows: phosphate ore=72.6, GSSP=50.45, SSP=42.65, DCP=8.36, Gypsum=5.31 and GNPK=4.664. The La content in the phosphate ore is 40.0 ppm. The Cr content in fertilizers is in the range 12.12-19.56 ppm except gypsum that has the lowest value of 0.406 ppm. In the alum company as well as ARACEMCO samples all the important elements have been analyzed either in the raw materials or in the products using NAA, namely U, Th, lanthanides as well as other elements. U, Ce, Co La, Cr,... etc. contents in the reference water samples are compared with two drainage water samples. Also U, Ce, Cr and Th have been analyzed. All the elements content in the leaf samples collected from AZFC zone are higher than their values in the reference leaf samples from Mounofia. Also, the elements content of the unwashed sample is higher than the values found in the same but washed sample. The measurements of the natural radioactivity in phosphate ore and in some fertilizer samples from AZFC are compared with the corresponding values obtained by NAA technique for the same samples. The comparison shows a negligible difference as regards the u