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Changes in Wellbeing and Professional Values among Medical Undergraduate Students: A Narrative Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Educators are concerned by the high prevalence of emotional distress among medical students, and by the alleged decline in their humanitarian values. Objective To re-examine these concerns by reviewing studies of medical students' wellbeing and development. Method Narrative review of the literature. Main findings: (a) Medical…

Benbassat, Jochanan

2014-01-01

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Oral complications of targeted cancer therapies: a narrative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the available literature regarding the oral side effects or adverse events associated with targeted cancer therapy. Common oral toxicities include the terms mucositis, stomatitis, dysphagia, xerostomia, pharyngitis, and taste alterations. Aims of treatment included molecules and pathways involved in carcinogenesis reported in the literature were EGFRI, VEGF, mTOR, mAbs, TKIs, and multi-kinase inhibitors. Common targeted therapies used in clinical practice or under-investigation included cetuximab, panitumumab, erlotinib, sorafenib, sunitinib malate, imatinib mesylate, bevacizumab, trastuzumab, lapatinib, and mTORs. One hundred and forty-three articles were considered relevant and included in this review. The majority of studies did not specifically address oral toxicities or include an oral clinical exam, which may lead to underreported and under-investigated oral toxicities. Further investigation is necessary to determine if the initial impression that targeted therapy produces milder oral toxicities than conventional cancer treatment is accurate. PMID:21514211

Watters, A L; Epstein, J B; Agulnik, M

2011-06-01

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Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan. A narrative review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The medical ramification of fasting among patients with diabetes is largely unknown; the purpose of the review is to find out how diabetes mellitus is managed during the month of Ramadan.

Methods: Literature published on diabetes management during the month of Ramadan in the Middle-East are aimed at getting a global picture of this condition at a time when diabetes is having an adverse effect on health care delivery. I hope the review will be a useful and comprehensive source on the subject (diabetes mellitus for researchers, academics and clinicians who care for the increasing number of diabetic patients and help health care providers curb the tide of the diabetes epidemic. The search includes available articles published, by using the keywords “Diabetes Mellitus”, “Ramadan” and “fasting” covering epidemiology, clinical, management and complication profile.

Results: Studies have shown that fasting among diabetic patients carries the potential risk of dangerous hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis and thrombosis. The EPIDIAR study was the largest study where 50% of the whole sample changed their treatment and hypoglycemia was the only observed event. There are also few studies which evaluated specific management modalities.

Conclusion: It follows from this review that Ramadan fasting is acceptable for well balanced diabetic patients, conscious of their disease and compliant with their diet and drug intake. Patients willing to fast must be advised to undertake control of their glycaemia several times a day to prevent hypoglycemia risks during daytime fasting or hyperglycemia during the night.

Rajdeep Das

2011-09-01

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Families Parenting Adolescents With Substance Abuse-Recovering the Mother's Voice: A Narrative Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol and substance dependency are complex, problematic phenomena, which are growing worldwide. In particular, drug use and abuse among young people is a significant concern. Although addiction presents as a problem of dependent individuals, families are also profoundly affected by the family member's addiction. In this narrative literature review, we review published research from 1937 to 2014 to capture a narrative and historical perspective of addiction and family. We condense and analyze the experiences of parents with alcohol- and drug-dependent children, to emphasize the need for a more specific, in-depth exploration of mothers' experiences. Such exploration may advance nurses' understandings of individual, familial, and social complexities of parenting an addicted child. PMID:25342471

Smith, Jackie M; Estefan, Andrew

2014-11-01

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A framework of counseling for patients with stroke in nursing: a narrative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stroke is a major cause of death in developed countries. Its prevalence and disability burden are expected to increase in the future because of an aging population. The consequences of stroke are specific to the individual. Whereas some patients experience long-term functional and cognitive deficits, others may recover completely and be discharged quickly. Counseling is needed to help patients and their families cope with the effects of stroke after discharge. This is a systematic literature review with a narrative analysis. The purpose was to describe the content and characteristics of stroke patients' counseling. A review of studies published between January 2000 and February 2013 describing stroke patients' counseling was conducted by CINAHL and Medline databases. Studies were selected based on inclusion criteria, and the quality of the included studies was assessed. The final data (n = 33) were extracted and synthesized. Seven prominent themes were identified in the literature relating to (a) information about the disease and concerns regarding stroke, (b) the aims of counseling, (c) counseling methods, (d) interaction as a method for counseling, (e) the stroke nurse as a counselor, (f) emotional support, and (g) decision making in patients' care. The results of the review show that stroke patients' counseling is a multifaceted phenomenon with distinctive characteristics. The findings of the review can be used to develop counseling for patients with stroke and their families. In addition, the review can be used when educating stroke nurses for stroke units. PMID:25188689

Oikarinen, Anne; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi

2014-10-01

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Changes in wellbeing and professional values among medical undergraduate students: a narrative review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Educators are concerned by the high prevalence of emotional distress among medical students, and by the alleged decline in their humanitarian values. Objective To re-examine these concerns by reviewing studies of medical students' wellbeing and development. Method Narrative review of the literature. Main findings (a) Medical students' emotional distress increases during their undergraduate training. However, although higher than in the general population, the prevalence of distress among medical students is similar to that among other university students. (b) Medical students' distress is independently related to endogenous factors (personality traits and life events) and to their perception of the medical learning environment. (c) Medical students do not display a measurable increase in moral reasoning, empathy and tolerance of uncertainty. (d) Students' wellbeing, moral development, reflectivity and tolerance of uncertainty have been shown to be interrelated, and associated with clinical performance. Conclusions The findings of this review endorse the concerns about the wellbeing and development of undergraduate medical students. The design of the reviewed studies does not permit inferences about causality. Yet, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that medical training causes emotional distress that delays students' development and affects their clinical performance. PMID:24615278

Benbassat, Jochanan

2014-10-01

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Use of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services: A Narrative Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mobile text messages are a widely recognized communication method in societies, as the global penetration of the technology approaches 100% worldwide. Systematic knowledge is still lacking on how the mobile telephone text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been used in health care services. Objective This study aims to review the literature on the use of mobile phone text message reminders in health care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of studies on mobile telephone text message reminders. The data sources used were PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, Proquest Databases/ PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and hand searching since 2003. Studies reporting the use of SMS intended to remind patients in health services were included. Given the heterogeneity in the studies, descriptive characteristics, purpose of the study, response rates, description of the intervention, dose and timing, instruments, outcome measures, and outcome data from the studies were synthesized using a narrative approach. Results From 911 initial citations, 60 studies were included in the review. The studies reported a variety of use for SMS. Mobile telephone text message reminders were used as the only intervention in 73% (44/60) of the studies, and in 27% (16/60) of the remaining studies, SMS was connected to another comprehensive health intervention system. SMS reminders were sent to different patient groups: patients with HIV/AIDS (15%, 9/60) and diabetes (13%, 8/60) being the most common groups. The response rates of the studies varied from 22-100%. Typically, the text message reminders were sent daily. The time before the specific intervention to be rendered varied from 10 minutes (eg, medication taken) to 2 weeks (eg, scheduled appointment). A wide range of different evaluation methods and outcomes were used to assess the impact of SMS varying from existing databases (eg, attendance rate based on medical records), questionnaires, and physiological measures. About three quarters of the studies (77%, 46/60) reported improved outcomes: adherence to medication or to treatment reportedly improved in 40% (24/60) of the studies, appointment attendance in 18% (11/60) of the studies, and non-attendance rates decreased in 18% (11/60) of the studies. Other positive impacts were decreased amount of missed medication doses, more positive attitudes towards medication, and reductions in treatment interruptions. Conclusions We can conclude that although SMS reminders are used with different patient groups in health care, SMS is less systematically studied with randomized controlled trial study design. Although the amount of evidence for SMS application recommendations is still limited, having 77% (46/60) of the studies showing improved outcomes may indicate its use in health care settings. However, more well-conducted SMS studies are still needed. PMID:25326646

Koivunen, Marita Hannele; Välimäki, Maritta Anneli

2014-01-01

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The (mis)Measurement of M&A Performance : A Systematic Narrative Literature Review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper seeks to further the understanding of the variety of meanings M&A scholars attach to the label “M&A performance” by providing an alternative way to interpret the claimed inconsistency of M&A research findings. While many scholars contend that the problem stems from the multiplicity of M&A performance measures, we believe the problem rests in trying to compare different measures as if they were measuring the same feature of the organization. Through our narrative review of empirical research we analyze factors shaping the M&A – as well as the organizational – performance measurement process. The conclusion is that it is not possible to talk about M&A performance as if it was a universal construct.

Risberg, Annette

2011-01-01

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[Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].  

Science.gov (United States)

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. PMID:23623464

Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

2013-01-01

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Human Papilloma Virus and oral cancer: Narrative review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection is now more common sexually transmitted diseases, with an incidence of 5.5 million worldwide, with 85% of the carrier of this virus adult population. Their oncogenic potential and increased oral lesions associated with oral HPV infection have led us to make a narrative of the literature on the role of HPV in oral cancer, especially types 16 and 18. Here we refer to the possible routes of infection, oncogenic mechanisms, both benign and potentially malignant oral lesions associated with the infection, different methods used for detection, prediction and prevention of infection. We stress the importance of the role of the dentist to identify individuals considered high risk and ease of performing detection in the oral cavity, through a quick and easy method as exfoliative cytology. RESUMEN El Virus Papiloma Humano (VPH en la actualidad constituye la infección por transmisión sexual más frecuente, presentando una incidencia de 5,5 millones en el mundo, siendo un 85% de la población adulta portadora de este virus. Su potencial oncogénico y el aumento de lesiones orales asociadas a infección oral por VPH nos han llevado a realizar una narración de la literatura referente al rol del VPH en el cáncer oral, especialmente de los subtipos 16 y 18. Nos referiremos a sus posibles vías de contagio, mecanismos oncogénicos, lesiones orales tanto benignas como potencialmente malignas asociadas a su infección, diferentes métodos utilizados para su detección, pronóstico y prevención de contagio. Destacamos la importancia del rol del odontólogo para identificar individuos considerados de alto riesgo y la facilidad de realizar su detección en la cavidad oral, a través de un método rápido y sencillo como es la citología exfoliativa.

Alejandra Fernández

2014-08-01

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Sleep–wake disturbances in cancer patients: narrative review of literature focusing on improving quality of life outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suzanne S Dickerson, Laurie M Connors, Ameera Fayad, Grace E Dean School of Nursing, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, NY, USA Purpose: Evidence suggests a high prevalence of sleep–wake disturbances in patients with cancer, occurring at diagnosis, during treatment, and continuing to survivorship. Yet associations between sleep–wake disturbances and the impact on quality of life outcomes is less clear. The purpose of this narrative review of the literature is to evaluate sleep–wake disturbances in patients with cancer, to describe the influence of poor sleep on quality of life as an outcome, and to evaluate the evidence to recommend future interventions. Framework and methods: This review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA approach. Four databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched using terms "cancer OR neoplasm", "sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep disorders or insomnia", and "quality of life"; the search included all years, English language, and peer-reviewed articles on research studies. Studies included measurements of sleep and quality of life in cancer patients at a minimum of two time points and demonstrated relationships between sleep and quality of life. Data were collected on date, patient demographics, cancer type and treatment, timeframe, design, measurement, variables, and results. Results: This narrative review demonstrates that sleep–wake disturbance is a major problem/symptom in patients with cancer. Of the 18 studies included, measurement of sleep-related variables included objective and subjective measures; however, direct measurement of the associations between sleep and quality of life was not common. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia and mind–body interventions demonstrated feasibility when implemented into cancer care settings. In addition, the majority of interventions exhibited moderate effectiveness in improving sleep–wake disturbance and quality of life outcomes. Conclusion: The studies predominantly reported that poor sleep negatively impacts quality of life. The intervention studies included nonpharmacologic interventions such as cognitive behavioral treatment and mind–body and exercise interventions with moderate-to-high levels of evidence for improvement in sleep measures and quality of life. Keywords: sleep–wake disturbance, quality of life, cancer, cognitive behavioral therapy, mind-body interventions, insomnia

Dickerson SS

2014-07-01

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Music Interventions for Children with Autism: Narrative Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely reported that music can be beneficial to individuals with autism. This review was undertaken to determine the evidence base for the use of music as an intervention for children with autism. After searching relevant databases, 128 articles were identified of which 20 articles met the study's inclusion criteria. Composed songs and…

Simpson, Kate; Keen, Deb

2011-01-01

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Tensions and Paradoxes in Electronic Patient Record Research: A Systematic Literature Review Using the Meta-narrative Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context: The extensive research literature on electronic patient records (EPRs) presents challenges to systematic reviewers because it covers multiple research traditions with different underlying philosophical assumptions and methodological approaches.

2009-01-01

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Literature Reviews  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

Rhoades, Ellen A.

2011-01-01

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Combined immunodeficiency presenting with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis: a case report and narrative review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurologic abnormalities compatible with vaccine-related poliovirus infection (VAPP) may be a first presentation of some primary immunodeficient patients. The risk of VAPP rises from 1 case per 750?000 in normal population to 1 per 7000 times higher, particularly for persons with agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. However, there is no appropriate estimation for VAPP occurrence in patients with cellular immunity defects. Herein we report a case of combined immunodeficiency with paralytic complication due to oral polio vaccine and we present a literature review on this topic. PMID:24294834

Shaghaghi, Mohammadreza; Parvaneh, Nima; Ostad-Rahimi, Pouya; Fathi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

2014-01-01

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Narrative review of the literature on adherence to disease-modifying therapies among patients with multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

While no curative treatment exists for multiple sclerosis (MS), several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have been developed to reduce relapse rates, slow disability progression, and modify the overall disease course. However, because of the chronic nature of the disease, long-term therapy adherence can be challenging for some patients with MS. Low adherence to DMTs has been shown to be associated with higher rates of disease relapses and progression as well as with an increase in medical resource utilization. As new MS treatments are developed, a comprehensive understanding of current adherence rates and the impact of adherence on clinical and economic outcomes is of particular interest. Our objective was to conduct a review of the published literature to evaluate rates of adherence to DMTs in MS and the impact of adherence on both clinical and economic outcomes from the patient and payer perspectives. Systematic literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials. Studies were limited to those completed on human subjects, written in the English language, and published between May 1, 2001, and May 1, 2011. Additional inclusion criteria required that studies involve a population of patients with MS, utilize the administration of DMTs, and report a measurement of adherence. Studies reporting persistence measures (e.g., treatment discontinuation rates) or rates of switching between DMTs (with no other measure of adherence reported) were excluded if they did not also assess adherence. Among the 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria, adherence to DMTs ranged from 41% to 88%. Weighted mean adherence rates were higher for intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFN?-1a) administered once a week (69.4%), and subcutaneous (SC) IFN?-1b administered every other day (63.8%) than for SC IFN?-1a administered 3 times a week (58.4%) and glatiramer acetate administered daily (56.8%). There was a numerically greater risk of MS relapse or disease progression among patients nonadherent to therapy versus adherent patients, with findings statistically significant in 2 of 4 studies. Additionally, 2 studies showed statistically significant reductions in inpatient or emergency room utilization and total MS-related medical costs among patients adherent to therapy compared with nonadherent patients. Higher patient out-of-pocket copayments and coinsurance were significantly associated with lower adherence to DMTs, while the use of interventional or disease therapy management programs were associated with improved adherence. Lack of medication adherence remains a problem among patients with MS. Improvements in adherence have the potential to improve patient and payer burden in terms of improved clinical outcomes and lower nonpharmacy medical resource utilization.   PMID:23383731

Menzin, Joseph; Caon, Christina; Nichols, Christine; White, Leigh Ann; Friedman, Mark; Pill, Michael W

2013-01-01

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Acute and chronic pain: a narrative review of the literature / Dolor agudo y crónico: revisión narrativa de la literatura / Dor aguda e crônica: revisão narrativa da literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as repercussões orgânicas, emocionais e psíquicas prevalentes em pacientes com dor aguda e dor crônica e pontuar os principais instrumentos de avaliação para essas dores. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionado [...] s a medição da dor, cuidados de enfermagem, sinais e sintomas, totalizando 184 artigos. As bases eletrônicas pesquisadas foram LILACS e MEDLINE, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2010. Esta revisão pontuou uma série de estudos conclusivos sobre as repercussões orgânicas mais freqüentes nos quadros álgicos agudos e crônicos e o uso de escalas de avaliação distintas para ambas as situações. Acredita-se que esses achados possam ser de grande valia para as equipes de saúde, contribua com melhores práticas e satisfação do cliente nos cenários intra hospitalar e domiciliário. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las repercusiones orgánicas, emocionales y psíquicas prevalentes en pacientes con dolor agudo y dolor crónico y puntuar los principales instrumentos de evaluación para esos dolores. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, utilizándose descript [...] ores relacionados a la medición del dolor, cuidados de enfermería, signos y síntomas, en un total de 184 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILACS y MEDLINE, entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2010. Esta revisión puntuó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las repercusiones orgánicas más frecuentes en los cuadros álgicos agudos y crónicos y el uso de escalas de evaluación distintas para ambas situaciones. Se cree que esos hallazgos podrán ser de gran valía para los equipos de salud y que contribuya con mejores prácticas y satisfacción del cliente en los escenarios intra hospitalario y domiciliario. Abstract in english The study objectives were to identify the organic, emotional and psychic prevalent consequences in patients with acute and chronic pain and punctuate the main assessment tools for these pains. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using descriptors related to pain measurement, signs and [...] symptoms, totalizing 184 articles. The electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS were searched from January 2000 to December 2010. The review pointed out a series of conclusive studies about the organic repercussions more frequent in acute and chronic pain conditions and the use of different rating scales for both situations. It is believed that these findings could be of great values for health teams, could contribute with a better practice and with customer satisfaction in the hospital scenario and at home.

Ana Maria Calil, Sallum; Dayse Maioli, Garcia; Mariana, Sanches.

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Literature Review Organizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors provide an explanation of a literature review and a form and frame of reference for organizing references for a literature review. There are several aspects of a literature review that can be streamlined with proper organization of the reference information. A review of why a literature review is needed is provide. Problems a writer of a literature review may encounter is also discussed. The form is divided into sections with questions and helpful hints on what should be included in each section.

Charles Edward Notar

2010-11-01

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Review of Biblical Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Published in both print and electronic formats by the Society of Biblical Literature, the Review of Biblical Literature (RBL) is a "review of monographic literature in the field of biblical and related studies as well as reference works, commentaries, dictionaries, and biblical translations." This site hosts a database of over 400 reviews from 1996 to 1998. Users can browse by year, subject, author, or title. The database is also searchable by author, title, subject, reviewer, and keyword. Unlike most sites parallelling print publications, the review database appears to be current with the print version, with new reviews added on a regular basis. Additional resources include a Books Received Database and Instructions for Contributors.

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Elementary Science Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The critical use of narrative and literature in gerontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is now widely accepted that ‘‘age’’ and ‘‘ageing’’ are cultural concepts that are open to question. The thinking encouraged by critical gerontology has been crucially important in provoking questions about the complexities of later life, age and ageing. Similarly, the interrogation of stories of age and ageing via narrative approaches and as found in literature are increasingly recognised as an important source of knowledge for mining the intricacies of later life. There ar...

Hannah Zeilig

2012-01-01

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A Wikipedia Literature Review  

CERN Document Server

This paper was originally designed as a literature review for a doctoral dissertation focusing on Wikipedia. This exposition gives the structure of Wikipedia and the latest trends in Wikipedia research.

Martin, Owen S

2011-01-01

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The critical use of narrative and literature in gerontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that ‘‘age’’ and ‘‘ageing’’ are cultural concepts that are open to question. The thinking encouraged by critical gerontology has been crucially important in provoking questions about the complexities of later life, age and ageing. Similarly, the interrogation of stories of age and ageing via narrative approaches and as found in literature are increasingly recognised as an important source of knowledge for mining the intricacies of later life. There are close links between the interests of critical gerontologists and those who engage in narrative and literary gerontology. However, the potential that critical gerontology has for illuminating and probing these stories of age has often been neglected. The central argument of this article is that narrative and literary approaches to age and ageing when allied to perspectives from critical gerontology can furnish scholars with important perspectives for interpreting and re-configuring ‘‘age’’. The focus is upon how a genuinely dialogic relationship between critical gerontology and narrative and literary gerontology can be forged. In this way, the full potential of these stories of ageing; their epistemological status for enriching theoretical work on ageing, might be better exploited.

Hannah Zeilig

2012-03-01

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Homework. Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Although homework is assigned for a variety of academic and non-academic purposes, there is disagreement within the educational community about the value of homework and the amount of homework students should be assigned. This Literature Review summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of homework and examines how much time students should and…

Blazer, Christie

2009-01-01

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When Counter Narratives Meet Master Narratives in the Journal Editorial-Review Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The author shares her experiences with the editorial-review process while publishing a qualitative research study on the teaching experiences of African American faculty members at two predominantly White research universities. She likens the experiences of African American faculty members to counter narratives, troubles master narratives in the…

Stanley, Christine A.

2007-01-01

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Economic Value Added (EVA) - Literature Review and Relevant Issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to present a narrative literature review of 112 papers published on the EVA from 1994 to 2008. It provides a classification scheme, identifies the gaps in existing literature and suggests the direction for future research. Studies are classified and presented on the basis of the time period, ...

Sharma, Anil K.; Satish Kumar

2010-01-01

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Periimplantitis treatment: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to review in theliterature the aim modalities of periimplantitis treatment. They were study the use of buccal antiseptics, antimicrobial treatment, open debridment,close debridment, osseous grafts, the use of membranes, combination with osseous grafts and membrane technique and laserteraphy.Literature review: The most of studies showed cases about these treatment types but only one related a specific protocol of peri-implantar disease. All of other demonstrated treatment associations had success on the most absolute cases, independent of treatment. Conclusion: The techniques association of treatment is valid and necessary, but to have a more specific conclusion should be done more studies in humans.

Leonardo FRANCIO

2008-08-01

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Lysimeter literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs

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Lysimeter literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (US)

1993-08-01

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Terapia cognitivo-conductual en esquizofrenia: una revisión narrativa de la literatura Cognitive Behavioral Therapy In Schizophrenia: A Narrative Review of Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La esquizofrenia es un trastorno grave e incapacitante. Aunque el tratamiento farmacológico ha sido efectivo, hasta 60% de los pacientes muestran una respuesta insuficiente. Desde el inicio de las terapias psicológicas ha existido interés en el uso de estas intervenciones en pacientes con psicosis. Objetivo: Revisar los aspectos más importantes de la terapia cognitivo conductual (TCC en el tratamiento de pacientes con esquizofrenia y los datos más relevantes que sustentan su utilidad en este trastorno. Desarrollo: El psicoanálisis, la terapia conductual, la terapia de apoyo y las intervenciones familiares fueron las únicas intervenciones psicológicas durante largo tiempo. Se llegó al consenso de que el psicoanálisis no está indicado en estos pacientes. Las terapias conductuales más ortodoxas hicieron aportes importantes, pero han estado dirigidas a compensar el déficit comportamental. La terapia de familia ha demostrado efectos positivos en resultados clínicos importantes, como recurrencias psicóticas, rehospitalización y cooperación con el tratamiento. La TCC ha sido implementada para compensar algunos déficits y, principalmente, para complementar los tratamientos farmacológicos, así como para tratar síntomas positivos, emocionales y negativos. Conclusiones: Varios estudios controlados y metaanálisis han demostrado que la TCC es útil para reducir los síntomas positivos y tratar las alteraciones emocionales; también ha tenido impacto en los síntomas negativos.Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe and disabling disorder. Although pharmacological treatment has been effective for this condition, up to 60% of patients show an insufficient response. Since the beginnings of psychological therapies, there has been an interest in these interventions in psychotic patients. Objectives: This paper reviews the most important aspects of CBT in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and the most relevant data supporting its usefulness in this severe disorder. Development: Psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, supportive therapy and family interventions were the only available psychotherapies for a long time. Consensus was reached in that psychoanalysis is not indicated in patients with schizophrenia. Orthodox behavioral therapy made valuable contributions, but was mostly aimed at compensating behavioral deficits. Family therapy has shown positive effects in important clinical outcomes like psychotic relapse, rehospitalization and medication compliance. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT has been introduced not only for helping to compensate certain deficits of schizophrenia, but also to complement medication in the treatment of positive, emotional and negative symptoms. Conclusions: Several controlled studies and metanalysis have shown that CBT is useful in reducing positive symptoms, for treating emotional disorders, and has had some impact on negative symptoms.

Claudia Gutiérrez Ciceri

2008-12-01

31

Terapia cognitivo-conductual en esquizofrenia: una revisión narrativa de la literatura / Cognitive Behavioral Therapy In Schizophrenia: A Narrative Review of Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La esquizofrenia es un trastorno grave e incapacitante. Aunque el tratamiento farmacológico ha sido efectivo, hasta 60% de los pacientes muestran una respuesta insuficiente. Desde el inicio de las terapias psicológicas ha existido interés en el uso de estas intervenciones en pacientes [...] con psicosis. Objetivo: Revisar los aspectos más importantes de la terapia cognitivo conductual (TCC) en el tratamiento de pacientes con esquizofrenia y los datos más relevantes que sustentan su utilidad en este trastorno. Desarrollo: El psicoanálisis, la terapia conductual, la terapia de apoyo y las intervenciones familiares fueron las únicas intervenciones psicológicas durante largo tiempo. Se llegó al consenso de que el psicoanálisis no está indicado en estos pacientes. Las terapias conductuales más ortodoxas hicieron aportes importantes, pero han estado dirigidas a compensar el déficit comportamental. La terapia de familia ha demostrado efectos positivos en resultados clínicos importantes, como recurrencias psicóticas, rehospitalización y cooperación con el tratamiento. La TCC ha sido implementada para compensar algunos déficits y, principalmente, para complementar los tratamientos farmacológicos, así como para tratar síntomas positivos, emocionales y negativos. Conclusiones: Varios estudios controlados y metaanálisis han demostrado que la TCC es útil para reducir los síntomas positivos y tratar las alteraciones emocionales; también ha tenido impacto en los síntomas negativos. Abstract in english Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe and disabling disorder. Although pharmacological treatment has been effective for this condition, up to 60% of patients show an insufficient response. Since the beginnings of psychological therapies, there has been an interest in these interventions in psychot [...] ic patients. Objectives: This paper reviews the most important aspects of CBT in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and the most relevant data supporting its usefulness in this severe disorder. Development: Psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, supportive therapy and family interventions were the only available psychotherapies for a long time. Consensus was reached in that psychoanalysis is not indicated in patients with schizophrenia. Orthodox behavioral therapy made valuable contributions, but was mostly aimed at compensating behavioral deficits. Family therapy has shown positive effects in important clinical outcomes like psychotic relapse, rehospitalization and medication compliance. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been introduced not only for helping to compensate certain deficits of schizophrenia, but also to complement medication in the treatment of positive, emotional and negative symptoms. Conclusions: Several controlled studies and metanalysis have shown that CBT is useful in reducing positive symptoms, for treating emotional disorders, and has had some impact on negative symptoms.

Claudia, Gutiérrez Ciceri; María Victoria, Ocampo Saldarriaga; Juliana, Gómez Franco.

32

Music therapy in dementia : A narrative synthesis systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review uses a narrative synthesis format to determine evidence for effectiveness and provide insight into a model of action. Method The narrative synthesis framework consists of four elements: (i) theory development; (ii) preliminary synthesis of findings; (iii) exploration of relationships between studies; and (iv) assessment of the robustness of the synthesis. Results Electronic and hand searches identified 263 potentially relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria. Three distinctive strands of investigations emerged: eight studies explored behavioural and psychological aspects, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings may improve the well-being of people with dementia.

McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia

2013-01-01

33

Disabilities: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physical barriers may hamper persons with disabilities (PWDs movement in built environment. The needs of physical barrier- free environment are internationally acknowledged. This study explores the Malaysian scenario on access and facilities for PWDs by reviewing relevant legislation and guidelines, and literatures that examined the access and facilities provided in public buildings. This study identifies that Malaysia has plays its roles by establishing the relevant acts and legislation on PWDs needs and requirements. Nevertheless, previous studies on PWDs in Malaysia, demonstrated that there are still lacking on the implementation of the practice towards the acts and legislations. This study suggests that the application of the acts and legislation should be comprehensive covering all types of public buildings in Malaysia. In addition, enforcement by the local authorities and government agencies is crucial in order to successfully creating a barrier-free environment for all.

Kamarudin H.

2014-01-01

34

Real Options Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After 30 years of discussion and research, the academic community has established a complete theoretical system of real options and provided an excellent framework for the use of real options theory in the investment appraisal of high-tech projects. An option is an entitlement without any obligation and it has been used to describe a variety of management decisions in business investment. The description of management is effective and proper. Due to the introduction of real options theory, there has been a major breakthrough in the investment area. Project evaluation is the core content of bank credit risk assessment and business evaluation. The core content never changes from the investment evaluation framework to the credit risk evaluation framework. The project evaluation meets various needs of subject s in different ways. In this paper, the importance of real options is analyzed and the literature is reviewed

Shuai Zhang

2011-03-01

35

CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical model develop from one waste-filter combination will more than likely not be applicable to another combination. It appears that filtration performance varies as wide as the range of the types of slurry wastes that exist. However, conclusions can be elicited from existing information so that filter performance can be better understood, and hopefully improved. Those conclusions and recommendations for the planned tests are listed.

Duignan, M.

2011-01-01

36

A Systematic Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a wide recognition that, innovation is a key and strategic process, that is, essential for the survival and growth of individual firms, and also, for sustainable national and regional economic growth. Meanwhile, on the one hand, collaboration is a necessary approach for the innovation process in today's environment, and, on the other hand, information technology (IT tools are indispensable means for collaboration across different boundaries. Web 2.0 is a new generation of web tools that are providing new ways for work and new opportunities for interaction and collaboration. These new tools are increasingly being used by various organizations to enhance collaboration, to the end of, supporting and improving the innovation process. This review aims to assess the extent and scope to which the literature has examined web 2.0 tools in the context of the innovation process. For this purpose, scholarly articles, published from 2002 to 2012, on each of the topics of innovation and web 2.0, were collected by the literature search. The study here adopted the systematic approach of lexical analysis for extracting relevant articles from the corpus and for the analysis of those articles.

Loay ALTAMIMI

2014-01-01

37

A Narrative Review of Greek Myths as Interpretative Metaphors in Educational Research and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews a series of Greek myths put forward as cultural narratives that could be used as metaphors or interpretative similes for explanatory and evaluative purposes in educational research and evaluation. These myths have been used in educational research literature, and most of them were found by carrying out an exhaustive search of…

Fernandez-Cano, Antonio; Torralbo, Manuel; Vallejo, Monica; Fernandez-Guerrero, Ines M.

2012-01-01

38

Balloon sinuplasty: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal surgery showed a rapid development over the past two decades; but cicatricial stenoses secondary to surgical manipulation still occur, even in the hands of experienced surgeons and, especially, in narrow regions such as the frontal recess. The balloon sinuplasty uses the principle of dilatation of the sinus ostia by balloons guided by catheter. Objective: To present and discuss the surgical technique, indications, costs and results of the balloon sinuplasty, through articles published so far on the subject. Literature's Review: The balloon sinuplasty is an alternative in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. It is not substitute for the functional paranasal sinuses surgery. The use of balloon combined with endoscopic surgical approach may minimize surgical complications such as cicatricial stenosis, especially in regions such as the frontal recess. ICU Patients with a higher anesthetic risk and presenting isolated sphenoid disease may also benefit from the use of the balloon. The possibility of carrying out the dilation with local anesthesia is another advantage. As for the risks, they appear to be low, although there is a possibility of lesion to noble structures as the orbit and skull base. Conclusions: The balloon sinuplasty appears to be a feasible, safe and effective procedure in selected patients. It presents itself as an ancillary therapy and complementary to FESS. It has greater prospects in the treatment of the disease related to the frontal recess, febrile patients in ICU with sinus focus and patients at high anesthetic and bleeding risk.

Carreirão Neto, Waldir

2008-12-01

39

Literature Review and Scientific Figures  

Science.gov (United States)

To prepare for this writing assignment, students do a series of discussion section and homework assignments designed to familiarize them with scientific literature, literature reviews and the reading and interpretation of scientific papers and figures. In class students received a lecture on the example literature review providing continuity of topical content, in more depth than class lecture. The condensed literature review exercise serves as preparation for their term project, which includes a term paper and a presentation on a climate related topic of their choice. The topic content could be exchanged for any other for this writing exercise.

Feakins, Sarah

40

Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cosmic electrons. [literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

The published literature on cosmic electrons is summarized. The primary and secondary sources of cosmic electrons are discussed, and the propagation of the electrons in the interstellar medium is studied with respect to energy loss mechanisms, age distributions, and spectral modifications during flight. Various portions of the electron and positron spectra are then considered in relation to problems of astrophysics. New information is presented on such topics as the origin of low-energy positrons, the decay kinematics of the pi-mu-e process, the application of age distributions for nuclear cosmic rays to cosmic electrons, and the possibility of nonidentical sources for cosmic electrons and protons.

Ramaty, R.

1974-01-01

42

School effectiveness: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the reader embarks on the first part of the review of school effectiveness research. The aim of the review is to offer a clearer picture on whether, which, and how much teacher and school variables impact student achievement, as there is currently no wider and accepted consensus on this matter, in spite of the wealth of various school effectiveness studies. An introduction is followed by a section on fragmented research paradigms. Four subsequent sections describe and critique findings from these paradigms, namely from student background, input-output, effective-schools, and instructional effectiveness studies. The paper concludes with the section on synthesis of findings, which implicate student background variables as the most important for student achievement, followed by instruction and teacher-related variables (in very poor developing countries, input-output factors are also relevant for student success. Subsequent paper will showcase more recent school effectiveness studies that use appropriate methodology and conceptual framework for identification of the most important school effectiveness factors.

Teodorovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

43

Trust Management: Literature Review  

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Full Text Available The concept of trust has become popular in public debate andacademic analysis. In high income countries this interest is associatedwith concern for the decline of trust in governments andprofessionals, and in developing countries has been promptedby debates around the motion of social capital. Trust has beenidentified as a major factor influencing such things as capital investment,relationship marketing, cross-cultural communication,learning and various types of cooperation. Trust management isbecoming also very important inside the organization. The studywill review empirical research on organizational trust. The purposeof the study will be also evaluation of the advancements andsetbacks in current empirical research in terms of managementorganizational trust. This paper will analyze the theoretical approach,the conceptualization and the measurement issues coveredin studies on management organizational trust. Althoughtrust has emerged as an important factor in organizational relationships,there are still major conceptual and methodologicalchallenges to be met when studying this complex concept.

Joanna Olga Paliszkiewicz

2011-12-01

44

Fissure minerals, literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

45

Critical narrative review to identify educational strategies promoting physical activity in preschool.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes. Literature search was conducted between April and August 2010 in English and German databases (PubMED, PsychINFO, PSYNDEX, ERIC, FIS Bildung). Outcomes considered were time and intensity of physical activity, motor skills or measures of body composition. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten stu...

Kreichauf, S.; Wildgruber, A.; Krombholz, H.; Gibson, E. L.; Vo?gele, Claus; Nixon, C. A.; Douthwaite, W.; Moore, H. J.; Manios, Y.; Summerbell, C. D.; on behalf of the Toybox study group

2012-01-01

46

A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Depression is among the most common psychiatric conditions in primary health care, and constitutes an important part of the global disease burden. However, it is difficult to obtain comparable data on depression worldwide and models for treatment and intervention need to be locally adapted. We conducted a narrative review of research literature on factors that influence depression screening, diagnosis and treatment among the Vietnamese population. This explorative approach included studies de...

Niemi, Maria; Ma?lqvist, Mats; Giang, Kim Bao; Allebeck, Peter; Falkenberg, Torkel

2013-01-01

47

Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples  

Science.gov (United States)

The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review. This article discusses how to organize and write an integrative literature review and cites examples of published integrative literature reviews

Torraco, Richard J.

2005-01-01

48

Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reporting bias represents a major problem in the assessment of health care interventions. Several prominent cases have been described in the literature, for example, in the reporting of trials of antidepressants, Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to gain an overview of reporting bias in the medical literature, focussing on publication bias and selective outcome reporting. We explore whether these types of bias have been shown in areas beyond the well-known cases noted above, in order to gain an impression of how widespread the problem is. For this purpose, we screened relevant articles on reporting bias that had previously been obtained by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in the context of its health technology assessment reports and other research work, together with the reference lists of these articles.We identified reporting bias in 40 indications comprising around 50 different pharmacological, surgical (e.g. vacuum-assisted closure therapy), diagnostic (e.g. ultrasound), and preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines) interventions. Regarding pharmacological interventions, cases of reporting bias were, for example, identified in the treatment of the following conditions: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, pain, migraine, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolaemia, thyroid disorders, menopausal symptoms, various types of cancer (e.g. ovarian cancer and melanoma), various types of infections (e.g. HIV, influenza and Hepatitis B), and acute trauma. Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of efficacy and the underestimation of safety risks of interventions.In conclusion, reporting bias is a widespread phenomenon in the medical literature. Mandatory prospective registration of trials and public access to study data via results databases need to be introduced on a worldwide scale. This will allow for an independent review of research data, help fulfil ethical obligations towards patients, and ensure a basis for fully-informed decision making in the health care system. PMID:20388211

McGauran, Natalie; Wieseler, Beate; Kreis, Julia; Schüler, Yvonne-Beatrice; Kölsch, Heike; Kaiser, Thomas

2010-01-01

49

Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Reporting bias represents a major problem in the assessment of health care interventions. Several prominent cases have been described in the literature, for example, in the reporting of trials of antidepressants, Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to gain an overview of reporting bias in the medical literature, focussing on publication bias and selective outcome reporting. We explore whether these types of bias have been shown in areas beyond the well-known cases noted above, in order to gain an impression of how widespread the problem is. For this purpose, we screened relevant articles on reporting bias that had previously been obtained by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in the context of its health technology assessment reports and other research work, together with the reference lists of these articles. We identified reporting bias in 40 indications comprising around 50 different pharmacological, surgical (e.g. vacuum-assisted closure therapy, diagnostic (e.g. ultrasound, and preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines interventions. Regarding pharmacological interventions, cases of reporting bias were, for example, identified in the treatment of the following conditions: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, pain, migraine, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolaemia, thyroid disorders, menopausal symptoms, various types of cancer (e.g. ovarian cancer and melanoma, various types of infections (e.g. HIV, influenza and Hepatitis B, and acute trauma. Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of efficacy and the underestimation of safety risks of interventions. In conclusion, reporting bias is a widespread phenomenon in the medical literature. Mandatory prospective registration of trials and public access to study data via results databases need to be introduced on a worldwide scale. This will allow for an independent review of research data, help fulfil ethical obligations towards patients, and ensure a basis for fully-informed decision making in the health care system.

Kölsch Heike

2010-04-01

50

Workplace Learning: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

As we move into being a knowledge society, the way an organisation learns can be key to its innovation and profitability. This literature review examines the nature of workplace learning, with a focus on nonprofessional occupations, including those closely associated with workplace training. It identifies the conditions that facilitate workplace…

Vaughan, Karen

2008-01-01

51

Dental materials: 1996 literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This critical review of the published literature on dental materials for the year 1996 has been compiled by the Dental Materials Panel of the UK. It continues the series of annual reviews started in 1973 and published in the Journal of Dentistry. Emphasis has been placed upon publications which report upon the materials science or clinical performance of the materials. The review has been divided by accepted materials classifications (fissure sealants, glass polyalkenoate cements, dentine bonding, dental amalgam, endodontic materials, casting alloys, resin-bonded bridges and ceramo-metallic restorations, ceramics, denture base resins and soft lining materials, impression materials, implants materials, orthodontic materials, biomechanics and image processing, resin composites and casting investment materials and waxes). Three hundred and thirteen articles have been reviewed. PMID:9594471

Strang, R; Whitters, C J; Brown, D; Clarke, R L; Curtis, R V; Hatton, P V; Ireland, A J; Lloyd, C H; McCabe, J F; Nicholson, J W; Scrimgeour, S N; Setcos, J C; Sherriff, M; van Noort, R; Watts, D C; Woods, D

1998-03-01

52

Dental materials: 1997 literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of the published literature on dental materials for the year 1997 has been compiled by the Dental Materials Panel of UK. It continues a series of annual reviews started in 1973. Emphasis has been placed upon publications, which report upon the materials science or clinical performance of the materials. The review has been divided by accepted materials classifications (fissure sealants, glass polyalkenoate cements, dentine bonding, dental amalgam, endodontic materials, casting alloys, ceramometallic restorations and resin-bonded bridges, ceramics, denture base resins and soft lining materials, impression materials, dental implant materials, orthodontic materials, biomechanics and image processing, resin composites, and casting investment materials and waxes). Three hundred and thirty three articles have been reviewed. PMID:10399409

Whitters, C J; Strang, R; Brown, D; Clarke, R L; Curtis, R V; Hatton, P V; Ireland, A J; Lloyd, C H; McCabe, J F; Nicholson, J W; Scrimgeour, S N; Setcos, J C; Sherriff, M; van Noort, R; Watts, D C; Wood, D

1999-08-01

53

Tourette syndrome: Review of literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Tourette Syndrome (TS) was described for the first time in 1825, and it is a neuropsychiatry disease, initially begins in childhood, affects more males, characterized by remarkable social and psychological commitment, impacting the lives of patients and family. Until recently, this disease were considered a rare condition, but current studies show that the prevalence rate may vary in 1% to 2,9% in a few groups. Objective: Perform a review of literature over the main aspects rela...

Teixeira, Larissa Lane Cardoso; Pantoja Ju?nior, Jose? Mariano Soriano; Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier; Targino, Mauricio Neres; Palheta, Ange?lica Cristina Pezzin; Felipe Araújo da Silva4

2011-01-01

54

Employee Engagement: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and references on some of the conceptual and practical work undertaken in the area of the employee engagement practices.

Dharmendra MEHTA

2013-12-01

55

Literature Reviews and the Hermeneutic Circle  

Science.gov (United States)

Conducting a literature review is a vital part of any research. Library and information science (LIS) professionals often play a central role in supporting academics in their efforts to locate relevant publications and in teaching novice researchers skills associated with literature reviews. This paper examines literature review processes with the…

Boell, Sebastian K.; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

2010-01-01

56

The Impact of Short-Term Professional Development on Participant Outcomes: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

A narrative literature review was conducted to identify the design features of effective short-term face-to-face professional development (PD) events. The 23 reviewed studies described PD with durations of 30 hours or less and involved participants in education or human service-related professions. Design features associated with positive impacts…

Lauer, Patricia A.; Christopher, Debra E.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Buchting, Francisco

2014-01-01

57

Continuous auditing: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent fraud scandals involving highly known corporations like Enron, WorldCom, and Xerox have eroded public confidence in financial reporting. At the same time, the auditing profession has suffered a big hit. In this scenario, Continuous Auditing (CA seems to have emerged as a response to recover the credibility of the auditing profession as well as meeting Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX requirements. This study, that adopts an exploratory approach, analyzes the existing literature on this topic. First, we address the concepts, models and implications of CA. After, throughout a search on the journals indexed at the CAPES's Basis, a literature review is conducted. A total of 57 articles were selected. We analyze authorship, affiliation, publications, year and type of research of papers that have addressed CA. Findings evidence that most articles addressing CA are non-empirical and adopt a conceptual approach. Also, there is an increasing tendency of continuous auditing studies. Rutgers University seems to be the World's leading research center on CA. This study aims to contribute to the Accounting Science by evidencing possibilities for research and publication in CA.

Flávia Cruz de Souza

2008-09-01

58

A literature review of idea management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of the paper is primarily to conduct a state-of-the-art literature review of Idea Management and secondary to point out unanswered questions which are left behind in the reviewed literature. Scientific knowledge is primarily represented in innovation management literature but also considerably in literature on software and IT. On the background of the literature review, there are some weaknesses in the literature to be considered. These weaknesses concern the understanding of how people interact with idea management in their daily work practices and how different types of ideas are included or excluded in the idea management processes.

Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

2012-01-01

59

WOUND INFECTION - SISTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To review, identify and analyze the main aspects of the scientific production of healthcare professionals about wound infection, providing an update of relevant technical information for improving their capabilities for a better injury care. Methods: This is a review of the literature contained at bireme and pubmed databases published from 2002 to 2008. Results: The results revealed nineteen publications and all the information data were subjected into thematic analysis, divided into three distinct categories: the best evidence for the prevention and control of the infections, the association between infections and the places where the injuries are present and the indication of the best healing implementation techniques. Conclusion: There is a consensus that professional nurses must always update themselves for the promotion of the correct epidemiological studies about the patient’s social and demographic profiles in order to improve adequate identification of the microorganisms probably concerned to these infections. The development of new standardized protocols leading to uniform practices into reliable results are necessary for delineating a pattern of a specialized nursing care in the search for the total quality being the nurse the prime agent in this question.

Edmar Jorge Feijó

2008-11-01

60

Patients’ privacy: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of privacy, which is used in many disciplines, is a basic human need and also is recognized as an important concept in nursing. The concept of privacy has been described in various dimensions including physical, psychological, social and informational privacy. In this article we review these dimensions. Most of the studies related to the privacy have been carried out in the area of physical privacy. One of the basic areas of privacy in hospitals is related to data protection and the prevention of information inaccuracies. Major factors that threaten the privacy include intrusion upon the seclusion or physical boundaries and unnecessary physical touch. In order to decrease these problems, health worker need to find a new approach of working with patients. Review of the literature showed that only a few studies about the privacy of patients have been carried out. To encourage research in this field, accurate instruments should be developed in order to measure different aspects of the privacy, an aim that is difficult to achieve because of the complex nature of the concept. It is also important that necessity of observing patients’ privacy systematically be thought to medical students

Mehrdad N

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - References  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Assessment Literature Review: References The National Children's Survey (NCS) Literature Review used the following citations throughout the pages in this section. Literature Cited 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, 81-90,

62

Review of Literature on Environmentally Conscious Design.  

Science.gov (United States)

In support of current research tasks, IDA has reviewed the literature and prepared annotated abstracts of bibliographical information directly related to environmentally conscious design. This literature compilation focuses on industrial ecology, Design f...

J. C. Rigby

1995-01-01

63

Soldier occupational load carriage: a narrative review of associated injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed. PMID:24028439

Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia

2014-12-01

64

Geopressured habitat: A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

Negus-de Wys, Jane

1992-09-01

65

CSR within SMEs: Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although CSR has traditionally been associated with big business, the SME business sector is such a significant sector worldwide in terms of the economic, environmental and social impact it makes, that attention has been turned to discussion and analysis of principles and practice of CSR in small and medium size businesses. SMEs are not merely small versions of big businesses, so as a result a particularly fast-growing body of academic work has become focused on commitment to CSR in the sector. As a result, the aim of this article is to set out an analysis of the main work carried out on the subject of CSR in SMEs. The analysis is a four part summary. In the first part, we explore the definition and the main CSR practices found in SMEs. The second part relates to determining characteristics of commitment to CSR within SMEs. Next we set out the challenges for SMEs and the constraints made upon them by CSR. Finally, the last section deals with positive examples of CSR in SMEs. Taking this literature review summary as a structural basis we then go on to demonstrate 3 research methodologies.

Amina Kechiche

2012-06-01

66

Tourette syndrome: Review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Tourette Syndrome (TS was described for the first time in 1825, and it is a neuropsychiatry disease, initially begins in childhood, affects more males, characterized by remarkable social and psychological commitment, impacting the lives of patients and family. Until recently, this disease were considered a rare condition, but current studies show that the prevalence rate may vary in 1% to 2,9% in a few groups. Objective: Perform a review of literature over the main aspects related to Tourette syndrome. Data synthesis: The TS is a genetic disorder, associated with neuroanatomical and neurophysiological alterations, characterized by compulsive phenomenon, whose etiology is still unknown. The clinical profile is composed, mostly, by motor tics and vocal tics, that which are divided in simple and complex. Its association with Obssessive Compulsive Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is very commom. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and do not exist. Until now, there is no specific laboratory test that confirm this pathology. The treatment is based mainly on psychological theory. However when there is need for the use of drugs, the most widely used are the antagonists of dopamine receptors. Conclusion: The TS causes many damages as psychosocial and educational for the individual and the family. However, the diagnosis and the early treatment are able to minimize or cancel this damages. This way, knowing the general aspects that guide the TS is of utmost importance to preserve the quality of life for the patients with the disease.

Teixeira, Larissa Lane Cardoso

2011-10-01

67

Methodology - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This review examines studies conducted mainly in industrialized, developed countries and published in English between 1982 and December 2003 for pregnant or lactating women, infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. For school age children and adolescents, our search built on a recent review of the literature through 2000 (1) and focused primarily on literature published since that time.

68

MTA versus Portland cement: review of literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Both Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) have been highlighted because of their favorable biological properties, with extensive applications in Endodontics, including the possibility of using into root canal filling. Objective: This article reviews literature related to MTA and PC comparing their physical, chemical and biological properties, as well as their indications. Literature review: Literature reports studies revealing the similarities between these ...

Naiana Viana Viola; Mário Tanomaru Filho; Paulo Sérgio Cerri

2011-01-01

69

Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18 on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.

May Carl R

2008-07-01

70

SHOPPER MARKETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shopper marketing is a recent concept and it has been gaining importance and attention among managers and researchers. Due to its youth and increasing relevance, the purpose of this paper is to analyze, categorize, compile and analyze the existing knowledge concerning shopper marketing. The main finding of this paper is that the literature on shopper marketing is complementary and coherent, and also raises several research and managerial challenges. Besides that, there is a structural common trace on the literature, recognizing that shoppers are citizens with specific needs beyond consumption, which should be effectively analyzed and satisfied, adopting a shopper marketing approach. The main contributions provided are the compilation of shopper marketing literature, its analysis and the identification of major issues and directions for future research.

Paulo Duarte Silveira

2014-01-01

71

The use of "stabilization exercises" to affect neuromuscular control in the lumbopelvic region: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well-established that the coordination of muscular activity in the lumbopelvic region is vital to the generation of mechanical spinal stability. Several models illustrating mechanisms by which dysfunctional neuromuscular control strategies may serve as a cause and/or effect of low back pain have been described in the literature. The term "core stability" is variously used by clinicians and researchers, and this variety has led to several rehabilitative approaches suggested to affect the neuromuscular control strategies of the lumbopelvic region (e.g. "stabilization exercise", "motor control exercise"). This narrative review will highlight: 1) the ongoing debate in the clinical and research communities regarding the terms "core stability" and "stabilization exercise", 2) the importance of sub-grouping in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from such therapeutic interventions, and 3) two protocols that can assist clinicians in this process. PMID:24932016

Bruno, Paul

2014-06-01

72

Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was found across all body systems. From a Public Health perspective, interdisciplinary work on utilizing benefits of Nature regarding health promotion, disease prevention, and nature-based therapy should be optimized in order to eventually diminish given methodological limitations from mono-disciplinary studies.

Daniela Haluza

2014-05-01

73

SIX SIGMA: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite stiff international competition in the global market, world-class manufacturers are increasing their market share and profits through low-cost production, waste reduction in manufacturing, production of high quality products, and exceptional customer service. Six Sigma has been successfully implemented in this regard. In this paper, a selected survey of Six Sigma literature is presented to illustrate the wide scope of the application of the concept. This cou...

Oke, S. A.

2012-01-01

74

Learning from preventable deaths: exploring case record reviewers' narratives using change analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if applying change analysis to the narrative reports made by reviewers of hospital deaths increases the utility of this information in the systematic analysis of patient harm. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of causes and contributory factors underlying patient harm in 52 case narratives linked to preventable deaths derived from a retrospective case record review of 1000 deaths in acute National Health Service Trusts in 2009. PARTICIPANTS: 52 preventable hospital deaths. ...

Hogan, H.; Healey, F.; Neale, G.; Thomson, R.; Black, N.; Vincent, C.

2014-01-01

75

Dialogic Narrative Discourse in Austen's Emma: A Bakhtinian Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the inherent multiple-voicedness of the genre of novel, novelists, via taking oppositional textual positions, can create twofold narratives which serve to convey two different intentions simultaneously, the direct intention of the character who is speaking and the refracted intention of the author. Such narratives could be created through using the disguise of carnivalesque character whose discourse is intentionally dialogized by means of an ironic discourse which embeds a potential unfolded dialogue of two (opposing world views. Austen draws on such potential inherent in novelistic discourse by creating carnivalesque characters, layering of masquerades, and multiple mimesis to disguise her real intention. Following Bakhtin's theories of dialogism and carnivalesque, the present research investigates Austen's Emma through tracing carnivalesque character, extremely mocked by the objective narrator in the novel, who serves to disguise the real intention of the author and to create a double-voiced discourse leading the readers towards a double reading of the narrative

Soghra Nodeh

2013-01-01

76

Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

Cumming, Brett

2012-01-01

77

Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular dysfunction: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction and objective: Several studies have associated temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and fibromyalgia (FM) finding a wide variation of results. The aim of this study was to review the literature about the relationship between TMD and FM. Literature review: For many years, TMD and FM were considered different clinical entities, but recently, some authors have reported that these two clinical situations have similarities. It is important to emphasize that both in FM and TMD pain is the...

Byanka Porto Fraga; Emanuella Barros dos Santos; Thalyta Porto Fraga; José Caetano Macieira; Jader Pereira de Farias-Neto; Lucindo José Quintans Júnior

2011-01-01

78

MTA versus Portland cement: review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Both Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and Portland cement (PC have been highlighted because of their favorable biological properties, with extensive applications in Endodontics, including the possibility of using into root canal filling. Objective: This article reviews literature related to MTA and PC comparing their physical, chemical and biological properties, as well as their indications. Literature review: Literature reports studies revealing the similarities between these materials’ properties, including both biocompatibility and bone repair induction. Moreover, there is the need for the development of a root canal sealer based on these materials (MTA and PC. Conclusion: MTA and CP show promissory perspective both in Dentistry and Endodontics.

Naiana Viana Viola

2011-10-01

79

Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem. PMID:11022508

McAllister, M M

2000-01-01

80

The Stigmatization of Problem Drug Users: A Narrative Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A stigma is a long-lasting mark of social disgrace that has a profound effect on interactions between the stigmatized and the unstigmatized. Factors governing the extent of stigmatization attached to an individual include the perceived danger posed by that person and the extent to which she/he is seen as being to blame for the stigma.…

Lloyd, Charlie

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cocaine and thrombosis: a narrative systematic review of clinical and in-vivo studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To systematically review the literature pertaining to the link between cocaine and either arterial or venous thrombosis. Procedures Narrative systematic review of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Psycinfo and Cochrane databases supplemented by hand trawling of relevant journals and reference lists up to April 2007. In-vivo studies and those with clinical endpoints were included in the review. Results A total of 2458 abstracts led to 186 full-text papers being retrieved. 15 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. The weight of evidence would support cocaine as a pro-thrombotic agent. There is evidence of it activating thrombotic pathways. The effect of cocaine upon clinical endpoints has not been quantified though there is evidence of an association between cocaine and myocardial infarction particularly amongst young adults. Cocaine may also be a causal agent in cerebrovascular accident though studies lacked sufficient power to determine a statistically significant effect. There is a gap in the evidence pertaining to the issue of cocaine and venous thrombosis. Conclusion Clinicians should consider questioning for cocaine use particularly amongst young adults who present with cardiac symptoms. More epidemiological work is required to quantify the effect of cocaine upon both arterial and venous clotting mechanisms.

Elworthy Rebecca

2007-09-01

82

Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

Randles, Clint

2012-01-01

83

Purchasing Organization and Design: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comprehensive literature review of the organization of purchasing covering the period from 1967 to 2009. The review provides a structured overview of prior research topics and findings and identifies gaps in the existing literature that may be addressed in future research. The intention of the review is to a synthesize prior research, b provide researchers with a structural framework on which future research on the organization of purchasing may be oriented, and c suggest promising areas for future research.

Christoph H. Glock

2011-12-01

84

Trace element emissions. Literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of fossil fuels by various utilities results in the emission of trace elements to air, water and solid waste streams. Elements present in coal are released as particles or as vapours during coal combustion or gasification. Owing to the increased consumption of coal, especially for power generation, huge quantities of potentially hazardous trace elements are released into the atmosphere every year. It is necessary to evaluate the emissions of each trace element from coal-fired combustion or gasification systems, and their effects on the environment. Present research interests should be aimed at determining the sources, concentrations, and environmental impact of trace elements related with energy generation and relevant control technologies. Two of the emerging advanced coal gasification technologies, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) are presently experiencing potential difficulties due to trace element emissions. In order to control the levels of these contaminants within regulatory limits and to ensure the efficient operation of fuel cells, it is necessary to determine the type and quantity of trace elements emitted from coal gasification-based systems as a function of system, operating conditions, and type of coal. The partitioning of the trace elements is influenced by the gasification conditions. In general, the following gasification conditions are expected to influence the distributionare expected to influence the distribution of trace elements between various product streams. (a) reducing and oxidizing environments (b) gas phase composition, pressure and temperature. The present report was aimed at finding and identifying gaps existing in the literature on the trace element transformations during gasification. Also included in the report is the modelling of relevant transformation mechanisms of the trace elements during gasification as a function of coal type and process conditions. 7 figs., 6 tabs., 69 refs

85

Invisible Colleges: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generation and consumption of information are among the functions unique to higher education. Scholarly communication plays an essential role in this process to such a degree that some consider it as being the cornerstone of science. Thus it could be said that no education could be realized without communication. Scientometrists analyze and assess formal scientific communications by studying the level of citation of such scientific outputs as books, journals and etc. Nevertheless, there is a special type of communication that lacks any external manifestation such as citations. Informal learning and education are indebted to such communication. This kind of informal communication for generating knowledge leads to an informal association among the scholars, which is called as "The invisible college". There are various definitions and interpretations concerning an invisible college. According to Price’s opinion, an invisible college is comprised of over a hundred colleagues that are engaged in communication with one another. He believed that members in such an association are reasonably in touch with and could consult and influence one another. The present paper, by reacquainting with the concept of invisible college, would review the role of informal links in the production of knowledge and higher education system, various assessment methods and critical notes, as well as the impact of modern ICT tools on the concept of invisible college.

Rassoul Zavaraqi

2010-09-01

86

Review literature on uterine carcinosarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is a rare gynaecological neoplasm, which is also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor. Traditionally this tumour has been regarded as a subtype of uterine sarcoma, and its origin remains controversial. The exact nature and prognosis was not clear in the past. It is believed that uterine carcinosarcoma have a Mullerian duct origin and have a capacity to differentiate into various mesenchymal and epithelial components. Regarding the histogensis, various theories have been given; of which 'conversion theory' was broadly accepted. Carcinosarcoma are mostly of monoclonal origin with the carcinomatous component being the driving force. This type of tumor is broadly divided into two groups, homologous and heterologous, depending on the characteristics of the stroma or mesenchymal components of endometrial tissue. It is more frequent in black women and postmenopausal women. Radiation is a possible etiological factor but the exact etiology is not known yet. However, tamoxifen may induce carcinogenesis in some patients. Its clinical feature is very similar to endometrial carcinoma i.e. postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, have a very aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. This pelvic malignancy is treated by multimodality therapy including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here we are reviewing old concepts about the disease and modern understandings of the origin, classification, pathogenesis and recent advances in the treatment of the uterine carcinosarcoma. PMID:25313723

Singh, Rajendra

2014-01-01

87

Genetic polymorphisms of vein wall remodeling in chronic venous disease: a narrative and systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic venous disease encompasses a spectrum of disorders caused by an abnormal venous system. They include chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, lipodermatosclerosis, postthrombotic syndrome, and venous ulceration. Some evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to chronic venous disease from gene polymorphisms associated mainly with vein wall remodeling. The literature exploring these polymorphisms has not been reviewed and compiled thus far. In this narrative and systematic review, we present the current evidence available on the role of polymorphisms in genes involved in vein wall remodeling and other pathways as contributors to chronic venous disease. We searched the EMBASE, Medline, and PubMed databases from inception to 2013 for basic science or clinical studies relating to genetic associations in chronic venous disease and obtained 38 relevant studies for this review. Important candidate genes/proteins include the matrix metalloproteinases (extracellular matrix degradation), vascular endothelial growth factors (angiogenesis and vessel wall integrity), FOXC2 (vascular development), hemochromatosis (involved in venous ulceration and iron absorption), and various types of collagen (contributors to vein wall strength). The data on associations between these genes/proteins and the postthrombotic syndrome are limited and additional studies are required. These associations might have future prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:25006132

Bharath, Vighnesh; Kahn, Susan R; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

2014-08-21

88

Mashups: A Literature Review and Classification Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolution of the Web over the past few years has fostered the growth of a handful of new technologies (e.g. Blogs, Wiki’s, Web Services. Recently web mashups have emerged as the newest Web technology and have gained lots of momentum and attention from both academic and industry communities. Current mashup literature focuses on a wide array of issues, which can be partially explained by how new the topic is. However, to date, mashup literature lacks an articulation of the different subtopics of web mashup research. This study presents a broad review of mashup literature to help frame the 1subtopics in mashup research.

Dawn Gregg

2009-12-01

89

System Related Interventions to Reduce Diagnostic Error: A Narrative Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Diagnostic errors (missed, delayed, or wrong diagnosis) have gained recent attention and are associated with significant preventable morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the recent literature to identify interventions that have been, or could be, implemented to address systems-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic error. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search using multiple search strategies. We first identified candidate articles in English between 2000 and 2009 from a PubMed search that exclusively evaluated for articles related to diagnostic error or delay. We then sought additional papers from references in the initial dataset, searches of additional databases, and subject matter experts. Articles were included if they formally evaluated an intervention to prevent or reduce diagnostic error; however, we also included papers if interventions were suggested and not tested in order to inform the state-of-the science on the topic. We categorized interventions according to the step in the diagnostic process they targeted: patient-provider encounter, performance and interpretation of diagnostic tests, follow-up and tracking of diagnostic information, subspecialty and referral-related; and patient-specific. Results We identified 43 articles for full review, of which 6 reported tested interventions and 37 contained suggestions for possible interventions. Empirical studies, though somewhat positive, were non-experimental or quasi-experimental and included a small number of clinicians or health care sites. Outcome measures in general were underdeveloped and varied markedly between studies, depending on the setting or step in the diagnostic process involved. Conclusions Despite a number of suggested interventions in the literature, few empirical studies have tested interventions to reduce diagnostic error in the last decade. Advancing the science of diagnostic error prevention will require more robust study designs and rigorous definitions of diagnostic processes and outcomes to measure intervention effects. PMID:22129930

Singh, Hardeep; Graber, Mark L.; Kissam, Stephanie M.; Sorensen, Asta V.; Lenfestey, Nancy F.; Tant, Elizabeth M.; Henriksen, Kerm; LaBresh, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

90

Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

Aphramor Lucy

2010-07-01

91

A systematic narrative review of consumer-directed care for older people: implications for model development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer-directed care is increasingly becoming a mainstream option in community-based aged care. However, a systematic review describing how the current evaluation research translates into practise has not been published to date. This review aimed to systematically establish an evidence base of user preferences for and satisfaction with services associated with consumer-directed care programmes for older people. Twelve databases were searched, including MedLine, BioMed Central, Cinahl, Expanded Academic ASAP, PsychInfo, ProQuest, Age Line, Science Direct, Social Citation Index, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and Google were also searched. Eligible studies were those reporting on choice, user preferences and service satisfaction outcomes regarding a programme or model of home-based care in the United States or United Kingdom. This systematic narrative review retrieved literature published from January 1992 to August 2011. A total of 277 references were identified. Of these 17 met the selection criteria and were reviewed. Findings indicate that older people report varying preferences for consumer-directed care with some demonstrating limited interest. Clients and carers reported good service satisfaction. However, research comparing user preferences across countries or investigating how ecological factors shape user preferences has received limited attention. Policy-makers and practitioners need to carefully consider the diverse contexts, needs and preferences of older adults in adopting consumer-directed care approaches in community aged care. The review calls for the development of consumer-directed care programmes offering a broad range of options that allow for personalisation and greater control over services without necessarily transferring the responsibility for administrative responsibilities to service users. Review findings suggest that consumer-directed care approaches have the potential to empower older people. PMID:23465034

Ottmann, Goetz; Allen, Jacqui; Feldman, Peter

2013-11-01

92

Nipple Shields: A Review of the Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nipple shields have become commonplace in the United States for a wide range of breastfeeding problems. This article is a summary of the current literature describing the evidence for nipple shield use. The authors reviewed all available articles on nipple shields and selected 13 studies for inclusion. The studies were organized into three categories: physiologic responses, premature infants, and mothers' experiences. This review concludes that current published research does not provide evid...

Mckechnie, Anne Chevalier; Eglash, Anne

2010-01-01

93

Nipple shields: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nipple shields have become commonplace in the United States for a wide range of breastfeeding problems. This article is a summary of the current literature describing the evidence for nipple shield use. The authors reviewed all available articles on nipple shields and selected 13 studies for inclusion. The studies were organized into three categories: physiologic responses, premature infants, and mothers' experiences. This review concludes that current published research does not provide evidence for safety or effectiveness of contemporary nipple shield use. PMID:20807104

McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Eglash, Anne

2010-12-01

94

Information literacy in Europe: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examines the developments in information literacy in Europe and provides an overview of the concepts used and discussed by European authors. Some examples of information literacy initiatives in schools and the higher education sector, as well as of institutions and organizations, projects and conferences concerned with information literacy, are given. Some research initiatives are also introduced. The overview is based on literature reviews and personal observations and involvement and presents a selective review.

Sirje Virkus

2003-01-01

95

International Entrepreneurship: A Review of Existing Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the existing international entrepreneurship research literature, paying specific attention to theoretical foundations and methodological issues. The review suggests that resourcebased theory has been the largest contributor to the emergence of international entrepreneurship research, and that cross-border activity is best viewed as a function of entrepreneurial cognition and entrepreneurial orientation. It is further suggested that the creation of new value should be at the...

Turcan, Romeo V.; Carter, Sara

2009-01-01

96

TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

Langton, C.

2012-05-11

97

Pair Programming in Education: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in…

Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

2011-01-01

98

Academic Integrity: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a literature review on academic integrity, which encompasses the values, behaviour and conduct of academics in all aspects of their practice. This is a growing area of academic research as a result of the expansion of higher education on a global basis and concerns about standards of professional conduct. The article maps the…

Macfarlane, Bruce; Zhang, Jingjing; Pun, Annie

2014-01-01

99

Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study (NCS), investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat, a survey research firm, to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. This work was a collaborative effort of the NIH and Johns Hopkins investigators with Westat nutritionists, and was sponsored by the NCS Program Office.

100

A literature review on wet deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature on wet deposition or precipitation scavenging have been reviewed with special reference to predicting the radiological consequences of accidental contamination. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIAF-423-DK(SD). (author)

 
 
 
 
101

EOSINOPHILIC OTITIS MEDIA A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition

Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

2013-01-01

102

Disease and Stigma: A Review of Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a review of literature pertaining to disease and stigma. Specifically, a definition of stigma is provided along with an historical overview of disease and stigma and research trends related to three public health perils-AIDS, mental illness, and obesity.

Pettit, Michele L.

2008-01-01

103

Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

Brown, Barry N.

2009-01-01

104

High School Flexibility Enhancement: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review is intended to help inform the development and implementation of innovative, educationally sound high school redesigns in Alberta. It is provided as a support resource for school administrators involved in Alberta Education's High School Flexibility Enhancement Project. Support is provided in the following ways: (1) a brief…

Alberta Education, 2009

2009-01-01

105

Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

2013-01-01

106

SUGARCANE BURNING AND HEALTH EFFECTS: LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a literature review on the theme of health effects of air pollution derived from sugarcane burning. In the first part, studies are classified by methods employed. In the second part, health risks by toxic pollutants derived from biomass burning are described.

Helena Ribeiro

2012-10-01

107

Autonomy and Motivation: A Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common theme in justifications for autonomy in language learning is that autonomous learners become more highly motivated and work more effectively. This paper reviews the literature on motivation and suggests that an important link exists between autonomy and some theories of motivation that could explain the claimed power of autonomy. (24…

Dickinson, Leslie

1995-01-01

108

Is endocervical curettage necessary? A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Invasive cervical cancer develops from a pre-invasive state named cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN.CIN 1 represents mild dysplasia and is now classified as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL; CIN 2 and 3lesions encompass moderate-to-severe dysplasia and are now classified as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(HGSILs based on the Bethesda cervical cytology reporting system. Most LGSIL lesions resolve spontaneously, whereasHGSIL lesions are more likely to progress to invasive cervical cancer. However, HGSILs are typically detected an averageof 10 to 15 years before invasive cervical cancer. In women, the typical age range for diagnosis of invasive cancer isgreater than 40 years. High-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HRHPV infection is required for the development of virtuallyall cervical cancer, and the time from initial HPV infection to development of cervical cancer usually exceeds 10 years.Colposcopies that are performed for abnormal papanicolaou (pap smears of LGSIL and HRHPV can include ectocervicaland endocervical biopsies. Given the likelihood of (a spontaneous resolution of LGSIL and HRHPV, (b the time todevelopment of cervical cancer after initial diagnosis of HPV and (c the improbability of invasive cervical cancerdeveloping in women less than 40 years of age, there is evidence to suggest that endocervical curettage at the time ofcolposcopy is not necessary in a subgroup of women who are at low risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. At thecurrent time, no evidence based guidelines exist about the necessity of endocervical curettage (ECC at the time ofcolposcopy in women who are at low risk for invasive cervical cancer. Therefore, a literature review was conducted toanalyze literature as it related to ECC at the time of colposcopy in who are at low risk for invasive cervical cancer. Aparticular subgroup of women that are at low risk for development of cervical cancer are less than 35 years of age withLGSIL or HRHPV cytology, and women who are less than 35 years of age are at an even lower risk of developing invasivecervical cancer because of their more robust immune system. The purpose of the literature review was to summarizefindings about endocervical curettage at the time of colposcopy to propose a study that could be conducted to establishevidence based guidelines for ECC that could be utilized in practice.Methods: The literature review summarizes current empirical and theoretical knowledge related to ECC at the time ofcolposcopy in women who are less than 35 years of age with LGSIL or HRHPV cytology. Concepts and keywords of theproposed literature review include: ECC-based diagnosis in each of three categories (benign, CIN 1 and CIN >1,ectocervical-based biopsy in each of three categories (benign, CIN 1 and CIN >1, LGSIL, HRHPV, colposcopy, andcervical cancer. Primary and secondary literature was examined to elucidate gaps in the literature related to evidence basedguidelines for ECC at the time of colposcopy.Results: The literature review includes an analysis of the literature related to ECC at the time of colposcopy in womenwho were less than 35 years of age with Cervical Cytology of LGSIL or HRHPV. Additionally, the literature reviewprovides a critique of the studies that were reviewed, details gaps in the literature and enumerates the problem of noevidence based guidelines for ECC curettage at the time of colposcopy.Conclusions: There is an absence in the literature about evidence based guidelines for performing ECC at the time ofcolposcopy in women who are less than 35 years of age with LGSIL or HRHPV; and additionally a paucity exists in theliterature about ECC at the time of colposcopy in this same subgroup of women. Therefore, the literature reviewestablishes the foundation and background for future studies that examine the need for ECC in Women less than 35 yearsof age with Cervical Cytology of LGSIL or HRHPV at the time of colposcopy.

Karen Herold

2012-03-01

109

Integrated team working: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: This literature review was conducted to provide a background understanding of the literature around integrated health and social care prior to a research project evaluating two integrated health and social care teams in England, UK.Methods: A systematic literature search of relevant databases was employed to identify all articles relating to integrated health and social care teams produced in the last 10 years in the UK.Results: 16 articles were found and reviewed; all were reviewed by the first reviewer and half by the second reviewer.Discussion: Key themes identified were: drivers, barriers and benefits of integrated working; staff development; and meeting the needs of service users.Conclusion: Recommendations for integrated working include; a focus on the management of integrated teams; a need to invest in resources for the successful integration of teams; a need for the development of clear standards for monitoring the success and failure of integrated teams; and the need for further empirical evidence of the processes used by integrated teams. These findings will be valuable for practitioners who are establishing services or want to improve integrated care in their own practice.

Sian E. Maslin_Prothero

2010-04-01

110

Impact of perioperative hyponatremia in children: A narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than 50 years, hypotonic fluids (crystalloids) have been the standard for maintenance fluid used in children. In the last decade, several studies have evaluated the risk of hyponatremia associated with the use of hypotonic vs isotonic fluids, which has lead to an intense debate. Children undergoing surgery have several stimuli for release of antidiuretic hormone, which controls renal water handling, including pain, nausea, vomiting, narcotic use and blood loss. The body's primary defense against the development of hyponatremia is the ability of the kidneys to excrete free water and dilute urine. Increased levels of antidiuretic hormone can result in hyponatremia, defined as a plasma sodium level draw in excess water and swell. This manifests as central nervous system symptoms such as lethargy, irritability and seizures. The risk for symptomatic hyponatremia is higher in children than in adults. It represents an emergency condition, and early diagnosis, prompt treatment and close monitoring are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. The widespread use of hypotonic fluids in children undergoing surgery is a matter of concern and more focus on this topic is urgently needed. In this paper, we review the literature and describe the impact of perioperative hyponatremia in children. PMID:25374805

Andersen, Cheme; Afshari, Arash

2014-11-01

111

Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited

112

Carbon Price Drivers: An Updated Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the creation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) in 2005, a burgeoning academic literature has emerged to identify the factors that shape the price of carbon, where one European Union Allowance is equal to one ton of CO2-equivalent emitted in the atmosphere. Thus, there is a need for an updated and thorough literature review on the state-ofthe-art on topic that this paper aims to fulfill. Namely, we consider the main econometric studies that have been recently publis...

Chevallier, Julien

2011-01-01

113

Acknowledging the back patient : A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment.

Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

114

Dental materials: 1996 literature review. Part 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This critical review of the published literature on dental materials for the year 1996 has been compiled by the Dental Materials Panel of the UK. It continues the series of annual reviews started in 1973 and published in the Journal of Dentistry. Emphasis has been placed upon publications which report upon the materials science or clinical performance of the materials. The review has been divided by accepted materials classifications (fissure sealants, glass polyalkenoate cements, dentine bonding, dental amalgam, endodontic materials, casting alloys, resin-bonded bridges and ceramo-metallic restorations, ceramics, denture base resins and soft lining materials, impression materials, implants materials, orthodontic materials, biomechanics and image processing, resin composites and casting investment materials and waxes). Three hundred and thirteen articles have been reviewed. PMID:9611932

Strang, R; Whitters, C J; Brown, D; Clarke, R L; Curtis, R V; Hatton, P V; Ireland, A J; Lloyd, C H; McCabe, J F; Nicholson, J W; Scrimgeour, S N; Setcos, J C; Sherriff, M; van Noort, R; Watts, D C; Woods, D

1998-05-01

115

Gender discrimination and nursing: ? literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to examine gender stereotypes in relation to men in nursing, discuss gender discrimination cases in nursing, and explore methods used for promoting equal educational opportunities during nursing studies. The literature review was based on related databases, such as CINAHL, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and EBSCO. Legal case studies are included in order to provide a more practical example of those barriers existing for men pursuing nursing, as well as statistical data concerning gender discrimination and male attrition to nursing schools in relation to those barriers. These strengthen the validity of the manuscript. Literature review showed that gender discrimination is still prevalent within nursing profession. Nursing faculty should prepare male nursing students to interact effectively with female clients as well. Role modeling the therapeutic relationship with clients is one strategy that may help male students. In general, the faculty should provide equal learning opportunities to nursing students. PMID:21272837

Kouta, Christiana; Kaite, Charis P

2011-01-01

116

Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1 accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2 the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs, and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure that key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their effect on policy and practice change throughout the health service, and the public health, immigration and community sectors. Discussion Narrative-synthesis methods of systematic review facilitate understanding and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical location. They also enable understanding of the shaping of differences between reported outcomes and study designs related to childbearing populations, and the development and implementation of maternity services and health interventions across diverse settings. PROSPERO registration Number 2185.

Higginbottom Gina M A

2012-05-01

117

Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no ch...

Chin-Hsiao Tseng; Tien-Chun Chang; Wei-Yih Chiu; Shyang-Rong Shih

2012-01-01

118

Prevention of pressure ulcers : Systematic literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treating a pressure ulcer takes lots of nursing personnel's time and is costly both in terms of human suffering and use of resources. The purpose of this study was to collect and assamble research data about the prevention of pressure ulcers. The study was done as a systematic literature review. With the results, the knowledge and know-how of pressure ulcers' prevention can be increased and updated. The results can be utilised by everyone working with pressure ulcers. The systematic ...

Kavonen, Heidi

2009-01-01

119

Human responses to electricity: A literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

An extensive review of literature on research concerning biomedical sensors is presented for establishing standards for current limiting devices. The physiological and pathological responses of the human, when exposed to electricity are reported including the thresholds: for perception of electricity, pain by electric current, induction of muscular contraction by electric shock, and ventricular fibrillation. The passive electrical properties of cells and tissues are also reported.

Turner, H. S.

1972-01-01

120

Towards Sustainable Facility Location – A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facility location methods play a crucial role in specifying the optimum location options for various types of facilities. A question that arises is what makes a facility location decision a sustainable one? Facility location, also known as location analysis, is a known concept in the literature, but sustainable facility location is not. This requires appropriately defining the concept and framing the problem in order to address the relevant issues. Facility location models in the existing literature do not effectively include all the requirements of sustainable development. This paper serves as a discussion of the current literature concerning the sustainability aspects of the location problem. The aim is to conduct a comprehensive literature review to identify the characteristics of the sustainable facility location problem and propose a framework for classification of sustainability characteristics. The study shows that the location literature has steadily progressed toward considering not only economic but also social and environmental criteria in location decisions; but that many steps remain to be taken toward developing location models that integrate all three aspects of sustainability into decision making. The main motivation for the current study is to provide a foundation from which issues of sustainable development can be built into facility location and siting models.

Seyyed Amin Terouhid

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evidence-Based Practice for Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Part 1 Narrative Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This article provides a comprehensive narrative review of intervention studies for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Its companion paper (Baker & McLeod, 2011) provides a tutorial and clinical example of how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) for this clinical population. Method:…

Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne

2011-01-01

122

Embedded Academic Librarianship: A Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives – The purpose of this review is to examine the development of embedded librarianship, its multiple meanings, and activities in practice. The review will also report on published outcomes and future research needs of embedded librarian programs.Methods – A search of current literature was conducted and summarized searching PubMed, CINAHL, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, and ERIC (EBSCO through August 23, 2012. Articles wereselected for inclusion in the review if they reported research findings related to embedded librarianship, if they provided unique case reports about embedded librarian programs, or if they provided substantive editorial comments on the topic. Relevant study findings were assessed for quality and presented in tabular and narrative form.Results – Currently, there is disparity in how embedded librarianship is being definedand used in common practice, ranging from embedding an online component into asingle course to full physical and cultural integration into an academic college orbusiness unit of an organization. Activities of embedded librarians include creatingcourse integrated instruction modules for either face-to-face or online courses, providingin depth research assistance to students or faculty, and co-locating within colleges orcustomer units via office hours for a few hours to all hours per week. Several case reports exist in the recent literature. Few high quality research studies reporting outcomes of librarians or library programs labeled as embedded exist at this point. Some evidence suggests that embedded librarians are effective with regards to student learning of information literacy objectives. Surveys suggest that both students and faculty appreciate embedded librarian services.Conclusion – Most published accounts discuss librarians embedding content and ready access to services in an online course management system. A few notable cases describe the physical and cultural integration of librarians into the library user environs. Future research using valid quantitative methods is needed to explore the impact of large scale, customized, embedded programs.

Stephanie J. Schulte

2012-12-01

123

A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing a faulty literature review is one of many ways to derail a dissertation. This article summarizes some pivotal information on how to write a high-quality dissertation literature review. It begins with a discussion of the purposes of a review, presents taxonomy of literature reviews, and then discusses the steps in conducting a quantitative…

Randolph, Justus J.

2009-01-01

124

Understanding Knowledge Management: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM characterizing the various terminologies and aims to explore the world of KM in a different way, to review the current status andanalyze the main contributions, agreements and disagreements among researchers and practitioners. It provides a high-level overview of a number of key terms, concepts, traditional definition and theoryinvolved with KM, which are critically reviewed and their features are highlighted. Approaches to KM process are considered and their connections and differences are discussed. There are a number of different approaches to the KM process such as those by Dagnfous & Kah(2006, Lee et.al.(2005, Wong & Aspinwall (2004, Bukowitz & Williams (2003, Mc Elory (1999, Meyer & Zack (1996, and Wiig(1993. By comparing and doing the critical analysis of these approaches, the major stages are identified as Knowledge capture and creation, Knowledge organization and retention, Knowledge dissemination and Knowledge utilization. At the end we have summarized the benefits of KM. The main contribution of this study is the compilation of literature on KM and to understand the basic concepts and different approaches, depending on their more descriptive perspective.

Apurva Anand

2011-02-01

125

Social Marketing and Breastfeeding: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. Results: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Conclusions: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally.

Manuela Schmidt

2013-01-01

126

A literature review of safety culture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of safety culture, organizations have a better chance of understanding, evaluating, and making positive changes towards safety within their own organization.

Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

2013-03-01

127

Why residents should teach: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resident doctors contribute significantly to the quality of undergraduate medical training and it is assumed that by participating in the process, they also improve their own professional competency. We decided to investigate whether there is evidence to support this assumption. Our hypothesis, the physician-as-teacher rule, stated that 'A skilled teacher has an increased likelihood of becoming a competent clinician, than a skilled clinician has of becoming a competent teacher' . We conducted a literature review to search for evidence to confirm or refute this assumption. Twenty-four articles written after 1990 were identified as relevant from 132 references we generated by searching Medline. The identified articles were qualitatively reviewed to identify key research conclusions and/or main discussion points. The findings from the review were collated and discussed. None of the studies showed specific evidence of how teaching results in improved professional competence. However, there was evidence that teaching ability correlated positively with the perception of clinical competency. There was also need for improved supervision and training programmes for residents in teaching skills. The review provided evidence that teaching influenced the perceived professional competency of physicians positively. Physicians who were perceived as competent were those who taught effectively, and who had a basic understanding of teaching and learning. The review shows that training in teaching is essential for physicians, and that further research is still needed to demonstrate the effect of good teaching on professional competency.

Busari J

2004-07-01

128

[Cold urticaria: case series and literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold urticaria is one of the five most common causes of chronic urticaria and is grouped as a physical urticaria. It can occur after exposure to cold, either through solid objects, air or liquids. Patients may have symptoms of urticaria, angioedema, respiratory distress and even anaphylaxis when the skin is exposed to a cold environment, such as handling refrigerated objects, swimming in cold water or entering an air-conditioned room. Five cases of cold urticaria are presented, followed by a brief literature review. PMID:22159532

Sánchez, Jorge Mario; Ramírez, Ruth Helena; Tamayo, Liliana María; Chinchilla, Carlos Fernando; Cardona, Ricardo

2011-06-01

129

Adolescent suicide: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the literature on the risk factors related to teen suicide in the United States and Puerto Rico. Findings indicate the interplay of multifactors including depression, homosexuality--due to the hostility that is often experienced by the person--, sexual abuse, lack of coping, social and problem-solving skills stemming from family dysfunction, feelings of isolation and helplessness, contagion, gender differences, alcohol and drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, biological factors, as well as natural disasters. Included in this report are some statistics on the prevalence of suicide among teens and in the military. PMID:10846286

McQuillan, C T; Rodríguez, J

2000-01-01

130

IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF VITILIGO: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vitiligo is a morbidity characterized by depigmentation of body parts from the loss or reduction of melanocytes. The disease affects an average of 1% of the world population, usually individuals with mean age of 20, affecting both men and women regardless of race. Within existing therapies, there are many treatments being offered, however, improvements upon treatments vary from person to person and cure is rare to obtain. The etiology of vitiligo is still not clear, there are many hypothesis for his cause. Then, this study aimed to review literature regarding the latest immunological mechanisms involved in the onset of vitiligo.

A. E. Silva

2014-09-01

131

Iron sulfide crystal growth: a literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iron pyrite (FeS2) is often found on trays and in heat exchangers in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) plants used to extract D2O from fresh water. A critical review of the literature was made to find: (i) what is known about FeS2 crystal growth; (ii) which techniques could be used to study FeS2 crystal growth experimentally; (iii) potential chemical additives that could be used in trace amounts to poison FeS2 crystals and reduce their growth rate in G.S. plants. (author)

132

Conforto: revisão de literatura Comfort: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A autora apresenta uma revisão de literatura sobre o tema conforto. Retrata analiticamente a concepção, as definições encontradas e os estudos que focaram o conforto sob a perspectiva dos sujeitos. Destaca algumas lacunas existentes nesta área do conhecimento e sugere aspectos importantes a serem considerados no desenvolvimento de pesquisas.The authoress presents a literature review on the comfort theme and analytically describes conceptualizations, discovered definitions, and studies focusing comfort from the subjects' perspective; a number of existing gaps within this area of knowledge are emphasized and suggestions are made concerning the important aspects in the research development.

Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

1996-08-01

133

Otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of cystic fibrosis: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic Fibrosis is the most common recessive autosomic genetic disease among Caucasians. It's caused by mutations in the gene that decodes regulatory protein for transmembrane conductance, resulting in defective transport of chlorine. Objective: Review the literature about Cystic Fibrosis, with emphasis on otorhinolaryngologic manifestations. Method: The online Pub Med databases were researched and we applied the following search terms Fibrosis Cystic and Sinusitis, and Mucoviscidosis and Sinusitis. Conclusions: Although it is not the main cause of death, the otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of the Cystic Fibrosis bring important morbidity to these patients.

Carvalho, Carolina Pimenta

2008-12-01

134

Emphysematous gastritis: case report and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis that results from infection of the stomach wall by gas-forming organisms. Diagnosis of this commonly fatal condition rests on radiological demonstration of gas within the stomach wall. This can be observed on plain radiographs or CT scans of the abdomen. Only by prompt diagnosis and treatment can mortality be avoided. A new case of empysematous gastritis, diagnosed on CT scan by the demonstration of both intramural and portal venous gas, is presented and the literature is reviewed. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

135

[Psychological factors in psoriasis: review of literature].  

Science.gov (United States)

Psoriasis is an inflammatory and proliferative disease, which is seen in most classifications of psychocutaneous disorders as being mainly due to genetic and environmental factors. Over decades of observation, physicians and patients have learned that it's course is strongly influenced by psychological stress. Review of literature shows, however, that this relationship is multifactorial. Psoriasis itself may cause depression as a stigmatizing disease. Also there is evidence that depression and anxiety disorders can be the cause of psoriasis. Because of this fact, additional treatment with psychotherapy and/or medication may be advisable and worth further exploration. PMID:11842614

Szuma?ski, J; Kokoszka, A

2001-01-01

136

Cherubism: case report with review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cherubism is a rare hereditary fibro-osseous lesion characterized by painless expansion of jaws in childhood and is known to regress without treatment after puberty. Wait and watch approach has been advocated by many authors. The disease starts early in life manifesting itself fully in the second decade of life and is almost regressed in the third decade. Here, we report two cases of cherubism with clinico-radiographic presentation of its classical features in their third and fourth decade of life respectively and review the literature. PMID:22379324

Mehrotra, Divya; Kesarwani, Abhishek; Nandlal

2011-03-01

137

Military parachuting injuries: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a literature review of the aspects of military parachuting related to occupational medicine and focuses on 'conventional' military static line parachuting using a round parachute. The analysis of injuries resulting from military parachuting provide an excellent example of military occupational medicine practice. The techniques of military parachuting are described in order to illustrate the potential mechanisms of injury, and a number of 'classical' parachuting injuries are described. Finally some recommendations are made for the recording of parachute injuries which would assist in the international comparison of injury rates and anatomical distribution. PMID:10451583

Bricknell, M C; Craig, S C

1999-01-01

138

[Autism and pain - a literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were under exploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care. PMID:20808970

Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria

2010-01-01

139

Bariatric surgery and pregnancy: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.

Pedro Ferrand Miranda

2014-01-01

140

A literature review on innovation management tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of a complex phenomenon such as innovation, influences and effects of which are tangible in manifold contexts, traditionally requires the integration of different levels of analysis and the interaction among distant disciplines. The enterprise appears to be the fundamental agent of economic change; in this context, innovation, by intervening in the sphere of technology, constitutes a fundamental dimension also for social change. In addition, it interacts in the circle of a complex matrix of cultural, economic and institutional factors which are the base of social and economical evolution. In this context, the research questions (RQ investigated by the authors are: “what is innovation?” [RQ 1] and “which are the main evolutions of innovation management models?” [RQ 2]. Literature on this matter has exponentially evolved in recent years. Nevertheless, innovation literature presents a large heterogeneity of results, while the innovation process concept itself is still poorly understood. In order to investigate the first research question, authors review forms and structures of innovation models developed throughout the years. At the end a discussion on the characteristics of literature evolution, through a strength-weakness analysis, is presented by the authors.

Marco Botarelli

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease: literature review  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease is a rare syndrome that affects tissues with melanocytes like eyes, central nervous system, skin and inner ear. It affects primarily Asians, Indians and Latin Americans and also women. Objective: To review in the literature the several aspects of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease focusing on its cause and also to study its otolaryngology aspects through online databases Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, OMIM e SciELO. Literature Review: This exact cause remains unknown, but there are evidences of an autoimmune process against an antigenic component on the melanocyte configuring an inflammatory T-cell-mediated immune response. The HLADRB1* 0405 allele is the one that is most associated to the disease. The clinic manifestations are divided in four: prodromal, uveitic, chronic and recurrence stages. The otolaryngology's aspects occur at the uveitic stage. Hearing loss is sensorineural bilateral and quickly progressive and could be associated with tinnitus. The vestibular component is less affected with vertigo, nystagmus and abnormal vestibular reflex. The otolaryngology's manifestations do not influence the recurrences or complications and they also have great prognosis with the treatment established. The diagnosis of this syndrome is based on clinical criteria, but audiological test could help. The therapy is corticosteroid-based. Final Comments: The most important factor for prognosis is the immediately treatment. The rarity of this syndrome makes its diagnosis a challenge and the presence of deafness, tinnitus and vertigo must consider its diagnosis.

Pereira, Talita Valleska de Campos

2008-09-01

142

Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

Roman-Rodriguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Sola-Ruiz, Maria F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

2014-01-01

143

Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period.Material and methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed.Results: In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described.Conclusions: The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression.

Indre Graunaite

2011-09-01

144

Atlantic ocean disposal sites: literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concepts Development Incorporated (CDI) has reviewed the literature and summarized the environmental data base available for two possible waste disposal sites off the northeast coast of the United States. These sites include the 106-Mile Ocean Waste Disposal Site (DWD 106) located due east of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, and the Cape Hatteras Site (CHS). DWD 106 is now used for the disposal of industrial wastes. CHS was identified through a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) program to locate regions suitable for the marine disposal of large structures, within the exclusive economic zone of the United States (200 nautical miles or less from the coast), in deep (>4000m) water. DWD 106 has been the subject of EPA and NOAA environmental studies in conjunction with industrial waste disposal at the site, and CHS has been described by Hollister, Bruce and Chandler (1979) and considered in a study of dissolved contaminant dispersal by Kupferman and Moore (1981). The prime objective of this study was to identify and review published accounts of environmental studies pertaining to DWD 106 or CHS. A secondary objective was to identify studies conducted within the general region (taken to be the NW Atlantic) so that in cases where site-specific data are unavailable one could identify the nearest available data set of a given category. Additionally, some effort was directed toward assembling references which would aid in the characterization of waste contaminated with traces of natural radioactive material.This document presents literature search site characterization summary material; brief discussion of the result of the waste characterization review; and a listing of bibliographic references identified to date

145

Narrative Review: Evolving Concepts in Potassium Homeostasis and Hypokalemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiology in Medicine review article. Fluctuations of potassium would abruptly alter plasma potassium concentration if not for rapid mechanisms. This articles describes insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. Given the clinical importance of dyskalemias in patients, these novel experimental paradigms invite renewed clinical inquiry into this important area.

Megan Greenlee (University of Florida College of Medicine)

2009-06-01

146

Reviewing Literature to Inform Policy: Some Complexities and Tensions  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on the experience of carrying out a literature review commissioned to support the Review of Teacher Education in Scotland, this paper discusses the role of literature reviews within the movement for "evidence-based policy" making. The first part of the paper discusses the purposes of such reviews and some of the misconceptions that may be…

Menter, Ian; Hulme, Moira

2012-01-01

147

Narrative-Based Career Counseling Perspectives in Times of Change: An Analysis of Strengths and Limitations  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an ongoing movement in the career development counseling field that focuses on narrative-based approaches. The purposes of this article are to analyze the factors that led to a turn to narrative career counseling, to examine the strengths of narrative, and to outline potential limitations. The literature review examined scholarly work in…

Stebleton, Michael J.

2010-01-01

148

Coherence of Personal Narratives across the Lifespan: A Multidimensional Model and Coding Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal narratives are integral to autobiographical memory and to identity, with coherent personal narratives being linked to positive developmental outcomes across the lifespan. In this article, we review the theoretical and empirical literature that sets the stage for a new lifespan model of personal narrative coherence. This new model…

Reese, Elaine; Haden, Catherine A.; Baker-Ward, Lynne; Bauer, Patricia; Fivush, Robyn; Ornstein, Peter A.

2011-01-01

149

Queilitis: Revisión bibliográfica / Cheilitis: Literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza una actualización bibliográfica de la queilitis, en la que se analizan las formas clínicas más generales de su presentación. Se muestran los datos recogidos de mayor interés sobre su sinonimia, clasificación, etiología y patogenia. Se muestran los diferentes métodos terapéuticos utilizado [...] s incluyendo la medicina natural y tradicional, la homeopatía y el láser como alternativas de tratamiento. Abstract in english A literature review of cheilitis was made in which the most general clinical forms of presentation were analyzed. Interesting data on synonyms, classification, etiology and pathogeny were presented. Various therapeutic methods including herb and traditional medicine, homeopathy and laser technique w [...] ere offered as treatment options.

Eneida, García López; Antonio O., Blanco Ruiz; Luis Orlando, Rodríguez García; Delis, Reyes Fundora; Jorge, Sotres Vázquez.

2004-08-01

150

In Search Of Passion– Review Of Literature  

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Full Text Available As business environment is changing faster than before, organizations are concentratingmore on their manpower to cope up with such rapid changes. Now days, organizationwants “Passion” in their employees as it is one trait which can turn failure into success.Passion is no more a word which has its place only in the area of romance or perusinghobbies but it has taken an important position in the realm of work also. The presentpaper intends to provide a systematic review of literature on the concept of passion, itstypes and outcomes. The dualistic model of passion (Vallerand, 2003 suggests thatpassion can be Harmonious and obsessive. Past researches reveals that passion can leadto both positive and negative outcomes depending upon the type of passion one has.Results of previous studies conducted in the area of non-work activities and work settingsare presented in this paper.

Rupali Johri

2012-08-01

151

Transportation Shock and Vibration Literature Review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT-13OR08220112, "Report Documenting Experimental Activities." The purpose of this report is to document the results of a literature review conducted of studies related to the vibration and shock associated with the normal conditions of transport for rail shipments of used nuclear fuel from commercial light-water reactors. As discussed in Adkins (2013), the objective of this report is to determine if adequate data exist that would enable the impacts of the shock and vibration associated with the normal conditions of transport on commercial light-water reactor used nuclear fuel shipped in current generation rail transportation casks to be realistically modeled.

Maheras, Steven J.; Lahti, Erik A.; Ross, Steven B.

2013-06-06

152

Root Resorption in Orthodontics: Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a literature review about external root resorption and the biological and mechanical factors that predispose its appearance in orthodontic patients. Genetic, systemic and pharmacological factors, chronological and dental age, nutritional status, gender, race, habits, tooth morphology, size and number, resorptions and dental trauma previous to periapical infections, occlusal factors and specific vulnerability to resorption are described. Among mechanical factors, the type of appliances, the type of movement, duration of forces, and duration of treatment are included. Since external root resorption is considered an undesirable side effect associated with orthodontic movement, it is responsibility of the orthodontist to be aware of all these risk factors for external root resorption, for its timely prevention or interception.

María Alexandra Lozano-Chourio

2009-12-01

153

[Nipple confusion and breastfeeding: a literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the ten steps to successful breastfeeding advocated by the WHO and UNICEF, steps six and nine clearly state that formula supplementation and pacifier use, except when medically necessary, should be avoided. Early formula supplementation may not only interfere with the mother's lactation but also result in nipple confusion on the part of the baby. To avoid nipple confusion, the encouragement of cup feeding and the non-provision of pacifiers or bottles are required nursing practice in baby-friendly hospitals. However, the relationship between nipple confusion and the duration of breastfeeding has not been well examined. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between three methods of feeding (i.e. pacifier, bottle feeding, and cup feeding), nipple confusion, and duration of breastfeeding. A hypothetical framework is proposed to explain these relationships on the basis of a review of the literature. PMID:16602050

Huang, Ya-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

2006-04-01

154

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Objective: to know the scientific literature on head injury in children. Method: this study is an integrative review of published articles in the database SciELO the period 2000-2010. Results: 10 articles were analyzed, from which emerged four categories: causes of traumatic brain child infant prognosis of traumatic brain child, treating children victims of child head injury and complications of therapy used for child victims of traumatic brain injury in children. Conclusions: there is consensus among the authors investigated the factors associated with better prognosis of traumatic brain child, remain vague and uncertain. They add that the success of this customer service related to the control of complications arising from cerebral trauma and mostly are treatable and / or preventable.

Denismar Borges de Miranda

2013-09-01

155

Intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer: literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A literature review was performed on intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer. The strength and attractiveness is established of techniques of partial irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. The benefit is originated to restrict the area immediate of radiotherapy to the tumor bed or quadrant index and identifying the benefit of being applied during the radiotherapy while surgical lumpectomy. The impact of local recurrence has been established using intraoperative radiotherapy. The advantages of intraoperative radiotherapy was compared in the management of the conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer with external radiotherapy. Different methods of intraoperative radiotherapy have been compared and individual impact on local recurrence ranges. Intraoperative radiotherapy has had many advantages: radiobiological, technical, clinical, psychological and economical in the handling of conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer, compared with external radiotherapy

156

Renal leiomyoma: Case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumours of the kidney originating from muscle cells. They are usually found by an autopsy, whether the patient is asymptomatic or has symptoms (i.e., abdominal/flank pain, hematuria, palpable mass). Today the widespread use of ultrasonography and computed tomography has increased the detection of clinically asymptomatic renal leiomyomas. The differential diagnosis between leiomyomas and other malignant lesions (above all renal cell carcinoma or leiomyosarcoma) is still possible by histological examination. Radiological examinations are not sufficient for the differential diagnosis. Renal leiomyomas have no aggressive behaviour and they usually do not metastasize. The prognosis, after surgery, is excellent without recurrence. We report a case of leiomyoma in a 31-year-old man who presented hematuria and flank pain. We also review the literature and provide a summary of clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:22511443

Brunocilla, Eugenio; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Schiavina, Riccardo; Vagnoni, Valerio; Caprara, Giacoma; Martorana, Giuseppe

2012-04-01

157

Queilitis: Revisión bibliográfica / Cheilitis: Literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza una actualización bibliográfica de la queilitis, en la que se analizan las formas clínicas más generales de su presentación. Se muestran los datos recogidos de mayor interés sobre su sinonimia, clasificación, etiología y patogenia. Se muestran los diferentes métodos terapéuticos utilizado [...] s incluyendo la medicina natural y tradicional, la homeopatía y el láser como alternativas de tratamiento. Abstract in english A literature review of cheilitis was made in which the most general clinical forms of presentation were analyzed. Interesting data on synonyms, classification, etiology and pathogeny were presented. Various therapeutic methods including herb and traditional medicine, homeopathy and laser technique w [...] ere offered as treatment options.

Eneida, García López; Antonio O., Blanco Ruiz; Luis Orlando, Rodríguez García; Delis, Reyes Fundora; Jorge, Sotres Vázquez.

158

Software ecosystems – a systematic literature review.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A software ecosystem is the interaction of a set of actors on top of a common technological platform that results in a number of software solutions or services. Arguably, software ecosystems are gaining importance with the advent of, e.g., the Google Android, Apache, and Salesforce.com ecosystems. However, there exists no systematic overview of the research done on software ecosystems from a software engineering perspective. We performed a systematic literature review of software ecosystem research, analyzing 90 papers on the subject taken from a gross collection of 420. Our main conclusions are that while research on software ecosystems is increasing (a) there is little consensus on what constitutes a software ecosystem, (b) few analytical models of software ecosystems exist, and (c) little research is done in the context of real-world ecosystems. This work provides an overview of the field, while identifying areas for future research.

Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

2013-01-01

159

Dense plasma focus - a literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

160

UNDERSTANDING OF SUPPLY CHAIN: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supply Chain Management is a network of facilities that produce raw materials, transform them into intermediate goods and then final products, and deliver the products to customers through a distributionsystem. The management of the supply chain and the roles of various actors involved differ from industry to industry and company to company. As a result Supply Chain Management (SCM has become a vital issue for manufacturers, professionals and researchers. It is felt that to manage the supply chain effectively entire structure of upply chain must be understood properly. This paper attempts to rovide the reader a complete picture of supply chain management through a systematic literature review. It presents main activities of supply chain and the step-by-step approach for understanding a complete picture of supply chain.

Rajendra Kumar Shukla,

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cryptococcosis in Colombian children and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0.122 cases/100,000 (p Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI 85.3%, VNII 8.8%) was isolated in 94.1% of cases and Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) was isolated in 5.9% of cases. These data are complemented by a literature review, which overall suggests that cryptococcosis in children is an unusual event worldwide. PMID:25317708

Lizarazo, Jairo; Escandón, Patricia; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth

2014-09-01

162

Levosimendan in critical illness: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levosimendan, the active enantiomer of simendan, is a calcium sensitizer developed for treatment of decompensated heart failure, exerts its effects independently of the beta adrenergic receptor and seems beneficial in cases of severe, intractable heart failure. Levosimendan is usually administered as 24-h infusion, with or without a loading dose, but dosing needs adjustment in patients with severe liver or renal dysfunction. Despite several promising reports, the role of levosimendan in critical illness has not been thoroughly evaluated. Available evidence suggests that levosimendan is a safe treatment option in critically ill patients and may reduce mortality from cardiac failure. However, data from well-designed randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients are needed to validate or refute these preliminary conclusions. This literature review is an attempt to synthesize available evidence on the role and possible benefits of levosimendan in critically ill patients with severe heart failure. PMID:24578748

Pierrakos, Charalampos; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Franchi, Federico; Muzzi, Luigi; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Scolletta, Sabino

2014-04-01

163

Automation literature: A brief review and analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.

Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.

1980-01-01

164

Prediction Markets : A literature review 2014  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results are further compared to two previous works published by Zhao, Wagner and Chen (2008) and Tziralis and Tatsiopoulos (2007a). The article concludes with an extended bibliography section and may therefore serve as a guidance and basis for further research.

Horn, Christian; Ohneberg, Michael

2014-01-01

165

Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient's clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

2014-01-01

166

Reconstruction of sternal defect - a literature review.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The management of sternal defects arisen after deep sternal wound infection is challenging and often requires extensive interdisciplinary teamwork between plastic and thoracic surgeons. In this study, the published literature on methods used to reconstruct sternal defects arisen as a result of deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery will be reviewed. DESIGN: The Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, and SveMed+ databases were searched in December 2011. Only papers regarding treatment of deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery in adults were included. RESULTS: The literature search identified 224 original papers that met the inclusion criteria. The majority dealt with surgical techniques. None of the studies regarding reconstructive options were designed as randomized controlled trials, and the levels of evidence are generally low. CONCLUSION: The treatment of deep sternal wound infection has evolved considerably, but there is still little consensus regarding optimal surgicalmanagement and a general lack of a standard treatment protocol. The use of muscle flap transposition is well documented. Recent studies recommend the use of topical negative pressure therapy as an adjunct to surgical reconstruction.

Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Koudahl, Vibeke

2012-01-01

167

Clinical education: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, the University of Sheffield was commissioned to research the role, function and perceived impact of the clinical nurse educator role in a National Health Service Primary Care Trust. This paper presents the results of Phase I of the study, a review of the literature on clinical education and the series of research questions that were indicated. The importance of clinical education for quality nursing care has long been agreed but has gained increasing attention over the last two decades. This increased attention is the result of policy directives that place work based learning at the centre of health and social care practice. The literature is less equivocal, however, concerning the responsibility for clinical education and asserts various roles including; the lecturer employed by the University; joint appointments; mentors; ward sister; specialist and advanced practitioners including the nurse consultant; and more recently the clinical nurse educator. Clinical educators have reported to have been introduced to meet the professional educational needs of the workforce but there is little empirical or theoretical evidence to support or refute this. This paper is an attempt to begin to address this. PMID:17689458

Pollard, Carol; Ellis, Lorraine; Stringer, Elaine; Cockayne, Diane

2007-09-01

168

Ketamine-induced vesicopathy: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ketamine consumption in on the increase as a recreational abuse substance. It is reported to cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and published accounts of its deleterious effects are increasing. We reviewed the available literature regarding the urological impact of ketamine abuse and its management. Twenty-two publications were found in total after a search of all databases including Pubmed, Medline and Google Scholar using the words 'ketamine', 'bladder' and 'cystitis' with no limits imposed. There are approximately 110 cases reported in the literature in the form of case series, case reports and letters. The effect of ketamine abuse on the bladder is universally similar; however, there is no uniform method adopted in reporting the symptoms, diagnosis and management. Very little is known regarding the pathogenesis of its effects on the urinary tract. Patients with severe irritative LUTS, a positive history of ketamine abuse and the absence of any other aetiology should be considered to have ketamine-induced vesicopathy. Effort must be made to elicit the history of drug abuse in those with no found cause of LUTS, especially in the young. Presently, ketamine cessation is the only effective treatment modality to prevent deterioration of the renal function and indeed offer the possibility of symptom resolution. Management akin to that formulated for interstitial cystitis patients would appear to offer the greatest opportunity for effective treatment. PMID:21155941

Middela, S; Pearce, I

2011-01-01

169

Corporate reputation: a review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term corporate reputation has been mentioned in academic papers for some decades however since the 90's the debate about it has been intensified by authors of different areas of study. Therefore, there is a growing pressure around the definition of a construct and the way to measure an organization's corporate reputation. The purpose of this article is to present a literature review on corporate reputation in three different perspectives. At first, we intended to go through the literature, pointing out the different definitions presented on this theme. The second aspect refers to the identification of terms related to corporate reputation, such as corporate brand, corporate identity and corporate communication. Finally, broadening the possibilities of future empiric works, a review of the different proposals of measuring the corporate reputation of organizations is made.O tema reputação corporativa tem sido objeto de estudos acadêmicos há algumas décadas, porém, somente a partir da década de 90 intensificou-se esse interesse, manifestado por autores de diferentes áreas de estudo. A diversidade de abordagens pressiona o debate sobre a definição de um constructo e sobre a forma mais adequada de mensuração da reputação corporativa de uma organização. O propósito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre a questão da reputação corporativa em três perspectivas distintas. Pretende-se, em primeiro lugar, percorrer a literatura sobre o assunto, apontando as diferentes definições apresentadas do tema. Em seguida, identificar os termos correlatos à reputação corporativa, como: marca corporativa, identidade corporativa e comunicação corporativa. E, finalmente, a fim de ampliar as possibilidades de trabalhos empíricos futuros, examinar criticamente as diferentes propostas de mensuração da reputação corporativa das organizações.

Patricia de Salles Vance

2007-12-01

170

Medicinal leech therapy in pain syndromes: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal leech therapy is used in a variety of conditions; most of which have pain as a major symptom. Its mode of action relies on the injection of leech saliva into patients' tissues during the process of blood withdrawal. Leech saliva contains active ingredients with anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, anti-coagulant and blood- and lymph-circulation enhancing properties. A specific analgesic substance within the leech saliva is yet to be identified. Pain relief from leech therapy is rapid, effective and long-lasting in many conditions. This review compiles studies and case reports that provide clinical evidence for leech therapy's analgesic effects. PMID:24081747

Koeppen, Detlev; Aurich, Michael; Rampp, Thomas

2014-03-01

171

Living with mesothelioma. A literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesothelioma is an asbestos-related cancer that affects mainly the pleura. World-wide incidence is increasing and set to rise for some time particularly in developing countries. Mesothelioma is uniformly fatal and often associated with difficult symptoms. The purpose of this review is to identify what is known about the experience of people living with mesothelioma. A literature search identified 13 papers covering qualitative studies, patient-reported quality of life data collected as part of a clinical trial, symptoms and survey of patients and carers. The findings suggest the impact of mesothelioma is multidimensional on: physical symptoms (especially pain, breathlessness, fatigue, cough, sleep disturbance, appetite loss and sweating), emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, fear and isolation), social consequences (changes in roles and relationships) and interventions (the necessity of frequent anti-cancer treatments and admissions for symptom control). The impact on family members is significant also. Although limited, these findings provide an important insight into the impact of mesothelioma on patients and family members and suggest areas where service provision may fail to meet their needs. Finally, the review highlights an urgent need for further research to more fully understand the experience of living with mesothelioma and identify the specific needs of patients and family members. PMID:19832887

Moore, S; Darlison, L; Tod, A M

2010-07-01

172

Spiritual distress: integrative review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to identify concepts and clinical indicators that evidence spiritual distress in patients. Integrative review was the method adopted for the development of the study. In the initial stage, 82 studies were found in the following databases PUBMED, COCHRANE, CINAHL, LILACS and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Conference Proceedings and 18 were selected. The descriptors used were spirituality and nursing diagnosis in addition to the term spiritual distress. Literature review (38.9% and articles with level of evidence IV (27.8% were the predominant types of study. The analysis of the articles revealed that the identified concepts of spiritual distress presented common and related elements to the human being subjective and individual response to life experiences, which harm the human spiritual dimension. Defining spiritual distress is a complex task since it depends on the perspective of those evaluating it, limiting in this way, its generalization. However, knowledge regarding the constructs that guide the understanding of human spirituality can base the nursing care in its spiritual dimension, thus providing theoretical support for the diagnosis.

Cristina Maria Galvão

2008-07-01

173

Spiritual distress: integrative review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to identify concepts and clinical indicators that evidence spiritual distress in patients. Integrative review was the method adopted for the development of the study. In the initial stage, 82 studies were found in the following databases PUBMED, COCHRANE, CINAHL, LILACS and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Conference Proceedings and 18 were selected. The descriptors used were spirituality and nursing diagnosis in addition to the term spiritual distress. Literature review (38.9% and articles with level of evidence IV (27.8% were the predominant types of study. The analysis of the articles revealed that the identified concepts of spiritual distress presented common and related elements to the human being subjective and individual response to life experiences, which harm the human spiritual dimension. Defining spiritual distress is a complex task since it depends on the perspective of those evaluating it, limiting in this way, its generalization. However, knowledge regarding the constructs that guide the understanding of human spirituality can base the nursing care in its spiritual dimension, thus providing theoretical support for the diagnosis.

Erika Cássia Lopes Chaves

2008-08-01

174

Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Hong Kong); Chan, A.C.L. [Department of Pathology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Hong Kong)

2002-01-01

175

CUBOID SYNDROME: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to inform all medical health care professionals about cuboid syndrome, which has been described as difficult to recognize and is commonly misdiagnosed, by explaining the etiology of this syndrome, its clinical diagnosis in relation to differential diagnoses, commonly administered treatment techniques, and patient outcomes. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature was conducted with MEDLINE, EBSCO, and PubMed (1960 - Present using the key words cuboid, cuboid syndrome, foot anatomy, tarsal bones, manual therapy, and manipulation. Medical professionals must be aware that any lateral foot and ankle pain may be the result of cuboid syndrome. Once properly diagnosed, cuboid syndrome responds exceptionally well to conservative treatment involving specific cuboid manipulation techniques. Other methods of conservative treatment including therapeutic modalities, therapeutic exercises, padding, and low dye taping techniques are used as adjuncts in the treatment of this syndrome. Immediately after the manipulation is performed, the patient may note a decrease or a complete cessation of their symptoms. Occasionally, if the patient has had symptoms for a longer duration, several manipulations may be warranted throughout the course of time. Due to the fact radiographic imaging is of little value, the diagnosis is largely based on the patient's history and a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the condition. Additionally, an understanding of the etiology behind this syndrome is essential, aiding the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. After the correct diagnosis is made and a proper treatment regimen is utilized, the prognosis is excellent

Stephen M. Patterson

2006-12-01

176

Functional outcomes associated with expiratory muscle strength training: Narrative review  

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Full Text Available This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and Lance-Adams syndrome; in persons with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and in healthy young adults and sedentary and active elderly. Several studies demonstrated promising outcomes of EMST as a non-task-specific training for airway protection in persons with dysphagia secondary to neuromuscular impairments; however, further research is needed to confirm and generalize the reported findings.

Helena Laciuga, MA

2014-07-01

177

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01

178

Homeopathy and cancer: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Health Organization states that deaths from cancer are increasing reaching an estimated 12 million deaths by 2030 [1]. In Brazil will be about 480,000 new cases by the end of 2011 [2]. For the treatment of cancer conventional therapies are used, such as chemotherapy[3] and radiotherapy [4] which can cause many adverse reactions. Complementary therapies such as homeopathy can be combined to traditional cancer treatment with the aim of minimizing these adverse reactions, relieving the symptoms of the disease itself and its treatment. Other complementary therapies which can aid in cancer treatment are electrotherapy, acupuncture and electroacupuncture, nutritional supplements, probiotics, phytotherapy, among others[5]. The literature shows the homeopathic medicines can be prescribed using the patient’s physical constitution as one strategy to help cancer patients [6-11]. This work aims to compile the literature review done with in vitro and in vivo models describing the mechanisms of action of homeopathic medicines used to treat different kinds of cancer. The research findings showed that homeopathy can help the patient to come to terms with the disease, after cancer diagnosis which often brings with itself denial, fear and a host of psychological disorders that cause an unbalance in the body. In addition, some works done with in vitro and in vivo models have shown that homeopathic medicines can modulate the immune system, activating macrophages and inducing the release of cytokines. These and other effects may help the body to overcome the cancer. The use of homeopathic therapy as complementary to conventional cancer treatment has promising results and should be further investigated.

Carla Holandino

2011-09-01

179

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: LITERATURE REVIEW AND TIME EVOLUTION.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of an economic entity requires approaching several criteria, such as industry and economic entity type, managerial and entrepreneurial strategy, competitive environment, human and material resources available, using a system of appropriate performance indicators for this purpose.The exigencies of communication occurred on the growing number of phenomena that marked the global economy in recent decades (internationalization and relocation of business crises and turmoil in financial markets, demand performance measurement to be made in a comprehensive way by financial and non-financial criteria. Indicators are measures of performance used by management to measure, report and improve performance of the economic entity. The relationship between indicators and management is ensured by the existence of performance measurement systems. Studies to date indicate that economic entities using balanced performance measurement systems as a key management tool registered superior performance compared to entities not using such systems. This study attempts to address the issue of performance evaluation by presenting opinions of different authors concerning the process of performance measurement and to present, after revising the literature, the evolution of the performance evaluation systems. We tried to do this literature review because sustainable development and, therefore, globalization require new standards of performance that exceeds the economic field, both for domestic companies as well as international ones. So, these standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities undertaken by harmonizing the economic, social and environmental objectives. To assess the performance of economic entities it is required that performance evaluation to be done with a balanced multidimensional system, including both financial ratios and non-financial indicators in order to reduce the limits of the two categories of indicators. Performance measurement and management can’t be separated; performance management is a philosophy that is supported by performance measurement. Performance management precedes performance measurement and creates the context for performance measurement.

Pintea Mirela-Oana

2012-07-01

180

Suggested Guidelines for Conducting Music Therapy Literature Reviews & an Introduction to Systematic Reviews in Music Therapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic reviews conducted in music therapy.

O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole

 
 
 
 
181

Acknowledging the back patient : A thematic synthesis of Qualitative research. A systematic literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical Responsibility, Acknowledgement Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories. According to international research, back conditions rank among the costliest conditions worldwide. A thorough review of the literature in the field has further revealed that back conditions are associated with heavy personal costs. It is therefore of utmost importance that these conditions are dealt with as efficiently and effectively as possible as failure to do so can have severe implications for society as a whole. In order to gain a better idea of the most ideal treatment process, it is important to first investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. It is the aim of this qualitative literature review based on thematic synthesis to shed more light on these two particular areas. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to get a deeper understanding of the illness trajectory for back patients. Thus, the literature review therefore seeks to locate, systematise and synthesize findings derived from qualitative research in order to visualise barriers or implications for intervention development. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens article "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews". The thematic synthesis aims to systematise and integrate findings of qualitative studies. The synthesis takes form of three stages which overlaps to some degree: the free "line by line coding" of the findings of primary studies; the organzation of these "free codes" into related areas to construct "descriptive themes" and the development of "analytical themes". The integrations are more than the sum of parts, in that they offer novel interpretations and findings. These interpretations will not be found in any one research report but, rather, are inferences derived from taking all the reports in a sample as a whole. Results: The thematic analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalized and reluctant to speak out. It is through telling other people about our experiences that we create an awareness of ourselves. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms and binding. Thus, in order to acknowledge the back patient, it is important for the health professionals to be somebody the back patients can count on. The health professionals must incorporate the patients' narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argue for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment.

Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

182

Linguagem narrativa e fluência na síndrome de down: uma revisão / Narrative language and fluency in down syndrome: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome de Down é uma condição na qual os indivíduos apresentam comprometimento intelectual e alterações de linguagem oral. A disfluência de fala está presente tanto durante a conversa espontânea como em produções orais de narrativas direcionadas. Este estudo teve como principal objetivo revisar [...] a literatura sobre a disfluência e a narrativa em indivíduos com a síndrome de Down, publicada entre 2002 e 2012, em bases de dados eletrônicos. Foram encontrados 17 artigos e selecionados oito, de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Destes, dois discorriam especificamente sobre a disfluência na síndrome de Down, e seis sobre a narrativa nesta população. A deficiência intelectual é parte do fenótipo dos indivíduos com SD e, em decorrência do comprometimento intelectual, prejuízos na aquisição e no desenvolvimento da linguagem. Estudos específicos, principalmente sobre a fluência/disfluência; e, sobre o desempenho na tarefa da narrativa, ainda são escassos e inconclusivos. A disfluência não aparece na maioria das descrições do fenótipo de linguagem dos indivíduos com esta condição, que mereceria, estudos clínicos adicionais. Abstract in english Down’s syndrome is a condition in which individuals have intellectual impairment and oral language disorders. Speech disfluency is present during both spontaneous conversations as in productions of directed oral narratives. This study aimed to review the published literature between 2002 and 2012 in [...] eletronic databases on disfluency and narrative in individuals with Down syndrome. There were 17 articles and eight were selected according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Two of these articles specifically discoursed on dysfluency in Down’s syndrome and the other six on the narrative in this population. Intellectual disability is part of the phenotype of individuals with DS and, as a result of the intellectual impairment, losses occur on the acquisition and development of language. Specific studies about, mainly on fluency/disfluency, and the performance on a task of narrative and, are still scarce and inconclusive. Disfluency doesn’t appear in most descriptions of the language phenotype of individuals with this condition, which would deserve additional clinical studies.

Marília Piazzi, Seno; Célia Maria, Giacheti; Danilo, Moretti-Ferreira.

1311-13-01

183

Linguagem narrativa e fluência na síndrome de down: uma revisão / Narrative language and fluency in down syndrome: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome de Down é uma condição na qual os indivíduos apresentam comprometimento intelectual e alterações de linguagem oral. A disfluência de fala está presente tanto durante a conversa espontânea como em produções orais de narrativas direcionadas. Este estudo teve como principal objetivo revisar [...] a literatura sobre a disfluência e a narrativa em indivíduos com a síndrome de Down, publicada entre 2002 e 2012, em bases de dados eletrônicos. Foram encontrados 17 artigos e selecionados oito, de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Destes, dois discorriam especificamente sobre a disfluência na síndrome de Down, e seis sobre a narrativa nesta população. A deficiência intelectual é parte do fenótipo dos indivíduos com SD e, em decorrência do comprometimento intelectual, prejuízos na aquisição e no desenvolvimento da linguagem. Estudos específicos, principalmente sobre a fluência/disfluência; e, sobre o desempenho na tarefa da narrativa, ainda são escassos e inconclusivos. A disfluência não aparece na maioria das descrições do fenótipo de linguagem dos indivíduos com esta condição, que mereceria, estudos clínicos adicionais. Abstract in english Down’s syndrome is a condition in which individuals have intellectual impairment and oral language disorders. Speech disfluency is present during both spontaneous conversations as in productions of directed oral narratives. This study aimed to review the published literature between 2002 and 2012 in [...] eletronic databases on disfluency and narrative in individuals with Down syndrome. There were 17 articles and eight were selected according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Two of these articles specifically discoursed on dysfluency in Down’s syndrome and the other six on the narrative in this population. Intellectual disability is part of the phenotype of individuals with DS and, as a result of the intellectual impairment, losses occur on the acquisition and development of language. Specific studies about, mainly on fluency/disfluency, and the performance on a task of narrative and, are still scarce and inconclusive. Disfluency doesn’t appear in most descriptions of the language phenotype of individuals with this condition, which would deserve additional clinical studies.

Marília Piazzi, Seno; Célia Maria, Giacheti; Danilo, Moretti-Ferreira.

184

Djenkolism: case report and literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum), which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia. PMID:24790471

Bunawan, Nur C; Rastegar, Asghar; White, Kathleen P; Wang, Nancy E

2014-01-01

185

Neuroacanthocytosis. Review of literature and case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroacanthocytosis is a rare disease of nervous system with multisystem pathology. This review presents clinical syndromes and morphological changes of sporadic and familial forms of neuroacanthocytosis and is illustrated by the case of a 27-year-old man. Progressive extrapyramidal syndrome appeared at the age of 22. Dementia preceded by behavioral changes observed since childhood, was noticed when he was 24 years old. Gross examination of the brain showed atrophy of the brain and caudatum. In microscopic examination most intensive changes were manifested by caudate nucleus atrophy of its head and body, loss of small neurons and extensive astrocytic reaction in dorso-lateral part of the putamen. Within the pallidum similar but less intensive pathological changes were visible. These data are in accordance with those found in literature, but in contrary to the authors who gave attention to spared cerebral cortex which distinguishes neuroacanthocytosis from Huntington's chorea. In the examined case hypocellularity of the cerebral mainly frontal cortex with lamina disorganization but without glial reaction was noted. Moreover, in frontal cortex especially within layer III, differently oriented pyramidal cells its conglomerates and very large neurons were observed. Authors suggest that these alterations are probably manifestations of developmental failures of the cerebral cortex. They concluded that anatomical studies support the possibility that lesions of basal ganglia lead to abnormal intellectual functions. PMID:9812420

Rafa?owska, J; Drac, H; Jamrozik, Z

1996-01-01

186

Occupational Therapy clinical documentation: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational therapy clinical documentation comprises all recorded information about a client/patient/user, from forwarding to discharge, and it may integrate the patient’s record or serve as support for the exclusive practice of occupational therapy. In Brazil, despite being a mandatory and routine practice, little scientific-technical material on the subject is available for the support of professionals. This study aimed to identify, through literature review, information for greater understanding and support to the practice of professional activity. The data were analyzed and presented according to the different themes identified, seeking common, complementary and divergent points on each theme. Twelve articles were included in the study. The information obtained addressed themes such as registration methods, perception and attitudes of professionals, communication and language, quality, and others. It was possible to achieve a preliminary approach to the subject and have an overview of aspects related to occupational therapy clinical documentation, but some segmented information and several weaknesses were found

Carla Simon Benevides Panzeri

2013-12-01

187

Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

1987-10-01

188

Retroperitoneal fibrosis: case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The first description of extrinsic uretheral obstruction by retroperitoneal fibrosis occurred in 1905. In little more than a century, about 800 cases of this disease have been reported. Case description. We report the case of a female 55 year-old patient who presents with diffuse abdominal pain of long duration, nausea, vomiting, fever of 38°C and hypertension of 160/100 mmHg. A CT scan is performed that shows a retroperitoneal mass that obstructs the urethers. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, urethers were released and biopsy was taken. Pathology analysis showed the presence of retroperitoneal fibrosis, a rare pathological entity whose diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion based on clinical, imaging and laboratory workup. Literature review. There are no clear definitions of the variety of disorders that are included in the spectrum of retroperitoneal fibrosis, due to the rarity of this condition. Consequently, we lack diagnostic criteria and a consistent classification of the different forms that it may adopt. However, when there is suspicion of retroperitoneal fibrosis, the first step is to establish whether it is idiopathic or secondary, as there will be treatment implications. Conclusion. Retroperitoneal fibrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever diffuse abdominal pain is associated with uretheral or great vessels compression.

José Francisco Camacho

2013-09-01

189

CAPITAL BUDGETING DECISIONS-REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available -The main objective of present study is to present review of literature related to capital budgeting decisions and to study the trends in using the capital budgeting techniques in depth. The study would facilitate the reader to know the past, current and future trend of capital budgeting techniques by the corporate houses. This study would provide guidelines to decision makers to make investing and financing decisions so that their profit get maximise at minimize risks.The secondary purpose of this study is to understand the rationale behind capital budgeting decisions. Whether such kinds of decisions affect the efficiency of the corporate houses. Efficiency either in terms of increase in revenue or decrease in costs of the operations. The benefits from large investments are received in some future period and the future is uncertain. For instance, a decision to acquire an asset that is going to last for 15 years requires a15-year forecast. A failure to forecast correctly will lead to serious errors which can be corrected only at a considerable expense. Future revenue involves estimating the size of the market for a product and the expected share of the firm in that. These estimates depend on a variety of factors, including price, advertising and promotions, and sales effort and so on. To what extend these estimates effect the quality of capital budgeting decisions is the more sophisticated way to explain the main objective of this study

Renu Gulia

2014-04-01

190

Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

191

Sexuality following trauma injury: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Restoration of the quality of life (QoL of trauma injury survivors is the aim of trauma rehabilitation. It is generally acknowledged that sexuality is an important component of QoL; however, rehabilitation services frequently fall short of including sexuality as a matter of routine. The literature was reviewed to examine the experiences of trauma survivors from three groups: spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI and burns. The focus was on the impact of trauma on the QoL to identify future research directions and to advocate for the inclusion of sexuality as an integral part of rehabilitation. Databases searched were Proquest, Ovid, Cinahl, Medline, PsycInfo and Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials. A total of 36 eligible studies were included: SCI (n = 25, TBI (n = 6, burns (n = 5. Four themes were identified across the three trauma groups that were labeled as physiological impact of trauma on sexuality, cognitive-genital dissociation (CGD, sexual disenfranchisement (SD and sexual rediscovery (SR. Trauma injury has a significant impact on sexuality, which is not routinely addressed within rehabilitation services. Further sexuality research is required among all trauma groups to improve rehabilitation services and in turn QoL outcomes for all trauma survivors.

Kylie Marie Connell

2014-04-01

192

Neurobrucellosis: three case reports and literature review  

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Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a multisystem disease which may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. This article aims to present clinical manifestations and to discuss the clinical features and management of 3 neurobrucellosis cases. Methods The diagnosis, treatment, laboratory results and accessory examination findings of 3 patients with neurobrucellosis between August 2010 and March 2012 were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results All the 3 cases had definite history of exposure to epidemic areas or infectious diseases, and history of being infected with Brucella by drinking raw milk. During the screening because of fever for reasons unknown, they were proved to be infected with Brucella by etiological or serological tests. Initial clinical manifestations consisted of fever and headache, with meningitis symptoms and signs, spondylitis, uroschesis and constipation (which might be caused by lumbosacral nerve root lesion, or neurological manifestations in auditory nerve and abducent nerve, such as hearing loss and diplopia. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis presents with various clinical signs and symptoms, and is often accompanied by systemic infection. Brucellosis should be kept in mind during the screening of fever for reasons unknown, and be differentiated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The combined treatment by antibotics of different pharmacological mechanisms with full dose and long range is effective, and the prognosis is favorable.

WANG Jia-wei

2013-01-01

193

Djenkolism: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum), which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia. PMID:24790471

Bunawan, Nur C; Rastegar, Asghar; White, Kathleen P; Wang, Nancy E

2014-01-01

194

Firefighters' noise exposure: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To review the literature about the effects of environmental noise on the hearing ability of firefighters. Method: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched and studies from 2002 to 2012 that included the keywords firefighters, noise, and hearing loss were identified. Initially, 24 studies were selected, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria of investigating the effects of occupational noise on firefighters. Results: Only 2 (20% studies quantified levels of sound pressure and performed audiological tests to identify associations with noise intensity and 3 (30% questionnaire-based studies reported that these professionals are more susceptible to hearing loss. Four (50% studies found that noise exposure damages the auditory system in this population. Discussion: These findings indicate that there is a necessity for preventive measures to be adopted by this population since it is considered to be at risk. Conclusion: In recent years, there have been few studies of firefighters' exposure to occupational noise, but our findings show the importance of new studies that include proper means of quantifying their exposure to noise in different work environments, in order to identify possible adverse conditions as well as to aid in the diagnosis of hearing loss.

Taxini, Carla Linhares

2013-01-01

195

Firefighters' noise exposure: a literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To review the literature about the effects of environmental noise on the hearing ability of firefighters. METHOD: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched and studies from 2002 to 2012 that included the keywords firefighters, noise, and hearing loss were identified. Initially, 24 studies w [...] ere selected, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria of investigating the effects of occupational noise on firefighters. RESULTS: Only 2 (20%) studies quantified levels of sound pressure and performed audiological tests to identify associations with noise intensity and 3 (30%) questionnaire-based studies reported that these professionals are more susceptible to hearing loss. Four (50%) studies found that noise exposure damages the auditory system in this population. DISCUSSION: These findings indicate that there is a necessity for preventive measures to be adopted by this population since it is considered to be at risk. CONCLUSION: In recent years, there have been few studies of firefighters' exposure to occupational noise, but our findings show the importance of new studies that include proper means of quantifying their exposure to noise in different work environments, in order to identify possible adverse conditions as well as to aid in the diagnosis of hearing loss.

Carla Linhares, Taxini; Heraldo Lorena, Guida.

196

Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13 generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to suggest that risk factors for suicide in deaf people differed systematically from those in the general population. However, studies did report higher levels of depression and higher levels of perceived risk among deaf individuals than hearing control groups. No firm evidence was found regarding the effectiveness of suicide prevention strategies in deaf people, but suggested strategies include developing specific screening tools, training clinical staff, promoting deaf awareness, increasing the availability of specialist mental health services for deaf people. Conclusion There is a significant gap in our understanding of suicide in deaf populations. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between suicide and deafness. Specialist mental health services should be readily accessible to deaf individuals and specific preventative strategies may be of benefit. However, further research using a variety of study designs is needed to increase our understanding of this issue.

Kapur Navneet

2007-10-01

197

Djenkolism: case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nur C Bunawan,1 Asghar Rastegar,2 Kathleen P White,3 Nancy E Wang41Alam Sehat Lestari Clinic, West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia; 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 3General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Department of Surgery and Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum, which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia.Keywords: djenkolism, acute renal failure, acute kidney injury, tropical medicine

Bunawan NC

2014-04-01

198

Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

1984-08-01

199

LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

2011-09-22

200

Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community  

Science.gov (United States)

How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

Kim, Eunhyun

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal culture to this…

Wilbert, Johannes

202

The Rapid Structured Literature Review as a Research Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

A diversity of sources of literature encompassed by the management disciplines appears to result in a growing need for a systematic methodology to map the territory of management theory. As such, when scoping out a study, structured literature review (SLR) can be considered as a means by which any critical, central literature might be considered.…

Armitage, Andrew; Keeble-Ramsay, Diane

2009-01-01

203

Disentangling manual muscle testing and Applied Kinesiology: critique and reinterpretation of a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cuthbert and Goodheart recently published a narrative review on the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing (MMT in the Journal. The authors should be recognized for their effort to synthesize this vast body of literature. However, the review contains critical errors in the search methods, inclusion criteria, quality assessment, validity definitions, study interpretation, literature synthesis, generalizability of study findings, and conclusion formulation that merit a reconsideration of the authors' findings. Most importantly, a misunderstanding of the review could easily arise because the authors did not distinguish the general use of muscle strength testing from the specific applications that distinguish the Applied Kinesiology (AK chiropractic technique. The article makes the fundamental error of implying that the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing lends some degree of credibility to the unique diagnostic procedures of AK. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a critical appraisal of the review, suggest conclusions consistent with the literature both reviewed and omitted, and extricate conclusions that can be made about AK in particular from those that can be made about MMT. When AK is disentangled from standard orthopedic muscle testing, the few studies evaluating unique AK procedures either refute or cannot support the validity of AK procedures as diagnostic tests. The evidence to date does not support the use of MMT for the diagnosis of organic disease or pre/subclinical conditions.

Cooperstein Robert

2007-08-01

204

Philosophy, Religion and Education American Style: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review presents an overview of Christian higher education in the United States with particular attention to philosophical trends and their influence on institutions of Christian origin. This literature review is situated in the context of the discussion of the need, or lack thereof, for helping students integrate their faith with…

Lawrence, Terry Anne

2007-01-01

205

Chinese Graduate Students' Experiences with Writing a Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on interview data, this study investigated four Chinese graduate students' experiences with writing a literature review at a medium-sized university in Canada. These students, from four subject areas, held varying perceptions of a literature review, but all saw the writing challenges that they encountered mainly as linguistic problems,…

Qian, Jun; Krugly-Smolska, Eva

2008-01-01

206

Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Effectiveness of Contraceptive Service Interventions for Young People, Delivered in Health Care Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…

Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel

2012-01-01

207

New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review  

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Full Text Available Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1 the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2 the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3 barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

Maria Rubio-Valera

2014-10-01

208

A narrativa que constitui mundos: a literatura de Mircea Eliade (The narrative that constitutes worlds: the literature of Mircea Eliade  

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Full Text Available O filósofo Mircea Eliade, dentre seus ofícios, foi um escritor. Para ele, a literatura busca investigar e compreender os significados universais da criação e dos fenômenos – em especial, em seus romances, os fenômenos religiosos. Herdeiro da tradição literária existencialista que marcou, sobretudo, os grandes filósofos e romancistas franceses (como Jean-Paul Sartre e Albert Camus, sua obra literária possui uma unidade fundamental: a inquietação com o tempo e o sagrado. O objetivo desta pesquisa é apresentar a relação de Mircea Eliade com a literatura, principalmente as ideias e vivências acerca da aproximação entre literatura e religião no pensamento do autor. O método utilizado para esta pesquisa foi, preferencialmente, o analítico, com incidência hermenêutica. Ao analisar os textos e artigos do autor e sobre o autor, conclui-se que a literatura existencial possui um papel fundamental na vida de Eliade e que ela é uma ferramenta entre outras para explorar e apresentar sentidos e significados acerca do ser humano no mundo. Palavras-chave: Mircea Eliade. Literatura. Narrativa. Mundo. Constituição.   Abstract The philosopher Mircea Eliade was a particularly great writer. According to Eliade, the literature seeks to investigate and understand the universal meanings of creation and phenomena – especially, among his novels, the religious phenomena. Heir to the existential literary tradition that marked, above all, the great French novelists and philosophers (such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, Eliade’s literary work has a fundamental unit: the concern with time and the sacred. The aim of this research is to present the relationship of Mircea Eliade with the literature, especially the ideas and experiences on the approach between literature and religion in Eliade’s thought. The method used for this research was the analytic method with hermeneutic incidence. After the analysis on Eliade’s texts and articles and texts and articles about the author, we conclude that the existential literature has a fundamental function in Eliade’s life and it is an efficient tool to investigate and present to the world the meanings about the human being within the world. Key words: Mircea Eliade. Literature. Narrative. World. Constitution.

Vitor Chaves de Souza

2012-03-01

209

Evaluating the effectiveness of psychological and/or educational interventions in psoriasis: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to review the effectiveness of psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing psoriasis severity and improving psychological and quality of life (QOL) outcomes in psoriasis. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the effectiveness of the existing interventions from this narrative synthesis is positive, especially in psychological and QOL outcomes. Of the 16 included studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The strength of the evidence to support the effectiveness of the existing interventions was limited due to methodological weakness in the included studies. The review concludes that further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of psychological and/or educational interventions for individuals with psoriasis, including a greater number of RCTs in order to increase the methodological validity of intervention studies. Also, future research needs to be conducted to establish which interventions are most effective for specific sub-populations who may best profit from psycho-educational interventions. PMID:25109476

Chen, Yongfeng; Xin, Tiantian; Cheng, Andy S K

2014-09-01

210

Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature  

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Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

Reinhard Isensee

2009-09-01

211

Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective healthcare teams often elude consistent definition because of the complexity of teamwork. Systems theory offers a dynamic view of teamwork, in which input conditions are transformed via optimum throughput processes into maximal output. This article describes eighteen characteristics of effective teams across input conditions and teamwork processes, which have been identified from the literature. PMID:11186055

Mickan, S; Rodger, S

2000-01-01

212

Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective: To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature: The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations: This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries.

Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves

2012-01-01

213

Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have shown the benefits of mentoring in both personal and professional growth. It would seem that group mentoring would only enhance those benefits. This work represents a literature review of peer-reviewed articles and dissertations that contribute to the theory and research of group mentoring. This work reviews the articles that…

Huizing, Russell L.

2012-01-01

214

Literature Review in Games and Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review is intended as a timely introduction to current thinking about the role of computer games in supporting children's learning inside and out of school. It highlights the key areas of research in the field, in particular the increasing interest in pleasurable learning, learning through doing and learning through collaboration, that games seem to offer. At the same time, the review takes a measured tone in acknowledging some of the obstacles and challenges to using games within our cu...

Kirriemuir, John; Mcfarlane, Angela

2004-01-01

215

Projects and Their Management: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years and more importantly in the recent past projects have been used as a delivery mechanism to do business and accomplish objectives. No wonder it has become one of the fastest growing professions in the world. Although the understanding of what constitutes a project and what doesn’t continues to be a topic of debate. This paper attempts to provide literature search on what is a project, its classification, characteristics, its life cycle, phases, tools etc.

Guru Prakash Prabhakar

2009-02-01

216

Service networks performance analytics: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The success of developing service networks rely on obtaining a correct understanding of the end-to-end business processes. However, there are major concerns as to the lack of research efforts to examine methods to successfully manage the complexity of service networks. The insufficient communication efforts between business and technical experts results in a dissatisfactory service delivery and the inability to predict and measure the service network performance. This literature survey is ini...

Carroll, Noel; Wang, Yan

2011-01-01

217

Sinonasal Hemangiopericytoma: Case Report and Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare vascular tumor that can arise in any organ system, but occurs most frequently in skeletal muscle. We present a case of a primary sphenoid sinus HPC unusual for its spontaneous remission after biopsy. There have been approximately 55 cases of sinonasal HPC reported in the literature, representing less than 5% of all lesions. In general, HPC behaves aggressively, demonstrating greater than 50% local recurrence and 10% metastatic disease. Although extended surg...

Thiringer, Jon K.; Costantino, Peter D.; Houston, Glen

1995-01-01

218

Hepatic endometrioma: a case report and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extrapelvic endometriosis is not uncommon but hepatic endometrioma is extremely rare. Ultrasound, CT and MR features of hepatic endometrioma are discussed and the literature is reviewed in this report. (orig.)

219

AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING TRACER GASES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a literature review of air filtration measurements using tracer gases, including sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and radioactive argon and krypton. Sulfur hexafluoride is the commonest tracer gas of choice...

220

Entrepreneurship and regional development : A literature review and synthesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development.

Müller, Sabine

 
 
 
 
221

Non-family Executives in Family Businesses : a Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of non-family executives in family businesses is under-researched in comparison with its importance. Reviewing the existing literature serves as a startingpoint for promoting future research. Based on a literature analysis, we develop a model for the interaction process between a family owner and a non-family executive. The main contributions for the non-family executive in family business literature are presented and structured following this interaction process. Fina...

Klein, Sabine; Bell, Franz-albert

2007-01-01

222

Ethical Decision-Making Models: A Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a review of literature on ethical decision-making models in counseling, beginning in the fall of 1984 through the summer of 1998. Surveys theoretically or philosophically based, practice-based, and specialty-relevant approaches. Results indicate the literature is rich with decision-making model descriptions, although few have been…

Cottone, R. Rocco; Claus, Ronald E.

2000-01-01

223

Online Counseling: Reviewing the Literature from a Counseling Psychology Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the online-counseling literature with an emphasis on current applications and considerations for future research. It focuses on primary themes of counseling psychology including the history of process-outcome research and multiculturalism. It explores current gaps in the literature from a counseling psychology framework,…

Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Day, Susan X.

2005-01-01

224

Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

2010-01-01

225

Sirenomelia: a case report with literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are presenting a case of Sirenomelia (Mermaid Syndrome, which is an extreme example of the caudal regression syndrome. It invariably presents with lower limb fusion, sacral and pelvic bony anomalies, absent external genitalia, imperforate anus, and renal agenesis or dysgenesis. There are approximately 300 cases reported in the literature, 15% of which are associated with twinning, most often monozygotic. The syndrome of caudal regression is thought to be the result of injury to the caudal mesoderm early in gestation. The case encountered was a stillborn baby. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 430-432

Latika Sahu

2013-06-01

226

Mechanisms of beryl flotation: a literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows a review about the investigations that have been done on the mechanisms of flotation of beryl and its dependence in relation to the presence of fluoride species. It is also analised the anionic flotation of the mineral and the effect of cations in the pulp of flotation. (author)

227

The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration  

Science.gov (United States)

In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

2013-01-01

228

Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD. PMID:24201464

Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

2013-01-01

229

Heat transfer - A review of 1983 literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Developments in heat transfer research during 1983 are reviewed. The topics addressed include: conduction, channel flow, boundary layer and external flows, flow with separated regions, heat transfer in porous media, internal and external flows in natural convection, convection from rotating surfaces, combined heat and mass transfer, boiling, condensation, freezing and melting, radiation, MHD, and applications to heat exchangers and heat pipes, to solar energy, to plasma heat transfer, and elsewhere.

Eckert, E. R. G.; Goldstein, R. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Pfender, E.; Ramsey, J. W.; Simon, T. W.; Decker, N.; Kuehn, T. H.

1984-12-01

230

Socio-Cultural Retailing: A literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the cultural turn in retail studies by offering an overview of the interdisciplinary field of socio-cultural retailing and, based on this introduction, draw out and discuss what this body of work can contribute to the field of retail marketing. The paper reviews socio- cultural retail research from the disciplines of marketing, cultural geography, sociology and anthropology. Taken together this body of work clearly shows that retailing and shopping pr...

Fuentes, Christian

2012-01-01

231

Pompe disease: literature review and case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pompe disease is a rare multi-systemic metabolic myopathy caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the acidic alpha glucosidase (GAA) gene. Significant progress had been made in the diagnosis and management of patients with Pompe disease. Here, we describe our experience with 12 patients with various forms of Pompe disease including 4 potentially pathogenic, novel GAA variants. We also review the recent the recent advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with Pompe disease. PMID:25037089

Dasouki, Majed; Jawdat, Omar; Almadhoun, Osama; Pasnoor, Mamatha; McVey, April L; Abuzinadah, Ahmad; Herbelin, Laura; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M

2014-08-01

232

Mobile Assisted Language Learning : A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile assisted language learning (MALL) is a subarea of the growing field of mobile learning (mLearning) research which increasingly attracts the attention of scholars. This study provides a systematic review of MALL research within the specific area of second language acquisition during the period 2007 - 2012 in terms of research approaches, methods, theories and models, as well as results in the form of linguistic knowledge and skills. The findings show that studies of mobile technology us...

Viberg, Olga; Gro?nlund, A?ke

2012-01-01

233

Health hazards of xylene: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylene, an aromatic hydrocarbon is widely used in industry and medical laboratory as a solvent. It is a flammable liquid that requires utmost care during its usage. On exposure the vapours are rapidly absorbed through the lungs and the slowly through the skin. Prolonged exposure to xylene leads to significant amount of solvent accumulation in the adipose and muscle tissue. This article reviews the various acute and chronic health effects of xylene through various routes of exposure. PMID:24701554

T Rajan, Sharada; Malathi, N

2014-02-01

234

DEPLETED URANIUM INDUCED FETAL MALFORMATIONS - LITERATURE REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Depleted uranium is a byproduct of the enrichment process of uranium for its more radioactive isotopes to be used in nuclear energy .Because depleted uranium is pyrophoric and a dense metal with unique features when combined with alloys ,it is used by the military in armor and ammunition and frequently used in combat scenarios. This review reports on uranium uses and its published health effects, with major focus on its effects on reproduction and fetal development.

Radulescu, A.; Es, Boia; Re, Iacob; David, V.

2006-01-01

235

Situating Disability within Comparative Education: A Review of the Literature  

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Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into where the topic of disability falls within the vast field of comparative education research. It explores the extent to which disability is present in comparative education literature, and in what ways it is represented. A review of literature across the core comparative education peer-reviewed journals was conducted. Findings show that a limited number of studies in comparative education have examined students with disabilities, though numbers have increased in recent years. Additionally, two major themes emerged from the literature: (1 social interpretations of disability, and (2 global versus local. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for inclusive education and future research.

Alisha M. B. Brown

2013-10-01

236

Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review and classification for electronic commerce research. The authors examined 4,948 articles listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE and 2,875 articles in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI published from 1999 to 2008. The results revealed that electronic commerce literature can be classified into seven categories: business and management; computer and information science; industrial engineering and operation research; engineering; economics; law; and others. The study also examined the country distribution of authors. This literature review should serve as a supplemental resource for electronic commerce academics to formulate future research.

Chien-Chang Chen

2010-06-01

237

Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

2014-11-01

238

CHEMORADIATION FOR PANCREATIC ADENOCARCINOMA. LITERATURE REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Surgery remains the cornerstone treatment for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, 5% to 20% of tumors only are regarded as resectable, and, among them, only few benefit from a histological complete resection, major survival parameter. These data explain the overall poor prognosis of this disease, with a respectively 20% and 5% 1- and 5-year survival rate. These results justify an adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapeutic approach, mainly based on concurrent chemoradiation, with and without surgery. This paper reviews the different therapeutic approaches of non metastattic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

I. Flandin

2005-10-01

239

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

Rafiqul Zaman Khan

2012-08-01

240

Joblessness and Unemployment: A Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review examines evidence on the relationship between African American male economic potential in the formal sector of the economy and transitions in African American family structure and marital stability. This review also provides insight into the crime, unemployment, family structure, and race debate. Competing theoretical…

Mason, Patrick L.

 
 
 
 
241

Truancy Interventions: A Review of the Research Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the literature on evaluative studies of truancy interventions. Method: Included studies evaluating truancy interventions appearing in peer-reviewed academic journals from 1990 to 2007. Findings: In total, 16 studies were assessed. Eight studies used group comparison designs and eight studies…

Sutphen, Richard D.; Ford, Janet P.; Flaherty, Chris

2010-01-01

242

Functional Impairment of Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical review of neuropsychological results for subjects with bipolar disorder was compared to magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) findings. Studies containing both neuropsychological and MRI outcomes were limited. Therefore, the neuropsychological literature was independently critiqued, then compared to the MRI results from a prior review by…

Hanisch, Laura J.

243

METAL BIOACCUMULATION IN FISHES AND AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Science.gov (United States)

Literature concerning the bioaccumulation of metals by freshwater and marine fishes and invertebrates has been reviewed; metal residue levels are also reported for a few mammals and plants. Twenty-one metals are considered in individual sections of the review and a bibliography o...

244

Inclusion in Physical Education: A Review of Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review was to analyse empirical studies on inclusion in physical education (PE) over the past 20 years and then propose recommendations for future research. A systematic process was used to search the literature for this review. First, a total of 75 research-based articles from computerised education databases were included in…

Qi, Jing; Ha, Amy S.

2012-01-01

245

Quality in Distance Education: A Preliminary Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase use of the Internet, distance education will continue to provide a vehicle for instruction and/or training. Traditional methods for measuring quality instruction and training may need to be reviewed for their applicability and use with current technological methods of instructional delivery. This paper reviews literature on the…

Claus, Edna Q.; Dooley, Kim E.

2005-01-01

246

Retirement financial planning and the RN: an integrative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability. PMID:24153198

Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

2013-11-01

247

Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

Wych, Gina M. F.

2012-01-01

248

Children Who Witness Domestic Violence: A Review of Empirical Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a review of the empirical literature examining the initial effects of witnessing domestic violence on children's functioning. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding children's social, cognitive, and physical development, findings of recently conducted investigations, when combined and compared with the previously reviewed

Kolbo, Jerome R.; And Others

1996-01-01

249

Ereaders in Academic Libraries--A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review describes the experiences of universities in their use of ereaders as textbook replacements and of academic libraries and their lending of ereaders. Information gained from this review will inform Southern Cross University (SCU) Library's forthcoming Ereader Project, which will trial the lending of ereaders as leisure…

Tees, Tracy

2010-01-01

250

Modes of Modelling Assessment--A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a critical review of literature investigating assessment of mathematical modelling. Written tests, projects, hands-on tests, portfolio and contests are modes of modelling assessment identified in this study. The written tests found in the reviewed papers draw on an atomistic view on modelling competencies, whereas projects are…

Frejd, Peter

2013-01-01

251

Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

Sameera Karnik

2013-05-01

252

Homesickness: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Homesickness has not received due attention from psychological researchers, in spite of the fact that it is of considerable interest to counsellors and care-givers of those who have migrated or moved temporarily or permanently (e.g. immigrants, refugees, students, soldiers). First, this review addresses the definition of homesickness, the possible different kinds of homesickness, its prevalence rate, and symptomatology, Secondly, an overview is given of the theories that account for psychological distress following leaving home. These theories link homesickness with separation-anxiety and loss, the interruption of lifestyle, reduced control, role change, and internal conflict. In addition, the review focuses on: (i) studies that show that subjects reporting homesickness differ from non-homesick persons in terms of personality; (ii) the analyses of environmental characteristics that may play a crucial role in the onset and course of homesickness. Thirdly, Fisher's (1989) composite model of homesickness, which summarizes key findings of the major studies on homesickness is discussed. Fourthly, methodological issues are addressed. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented and possibilities for interventions are proposed. PMID:8878324

Van Tilburg, M A; Vingerhoets, A J; Van Heck, G L

1996-09-01

253

Web Services Supply Chains: A Literature Review  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this review paper is to bring into light a potential area i.e., web services supply chains for research by analyzing the existing state of art in this. It is observed from the review process that there seems to be much less work done in the area of web service supply chains as compared to e-commerce and product oriented service supply chains. The service quality assurance models, end to end Quality of Service (QoS) models, attempts made to QoS attributes are also found to be from individual perspectives of participating entities in a service process rather than a collective perspective considering individual QoS attributes rather than multiple QoS attributes. In light of these gaps we highlight the comparison between product oriented and pure online/ web service supply chains, a need for quality driven optimization in the web services supply chains, perceived complexities in the existing work and propose a conceptual model.

Krithika, V; Sekaran, Dr K Chandra

2012-01-01

254

Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs.The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

Calero PA

2012-05-01

255

LITERATURE REVIEW OF PURCHASING MANAGEMENT IN SERVICE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It’s necessary for every organization in service industry to purchase goods and services in order to carry out its missions and goals.The objectives of this paper are to review the knowledge and develop the argument of existing research findings about purchasing management especially in service industry. There are three phases in the purchasing management that have been discussed in the section of literature review in this paper, including objectives of purchasing management; global sourcing and partnership relationships with suppliers.
Key words: literature review, purchasing management,global sourcing, partnership relationships;supply chain

Zhen-jia ZHANG

2008-02-01

256

A literature review on integrated perinatal care  

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Full Text Available Context: The perinatal period is one during which health care services are in high demand. Like other health care sub-sectors, perinatal health care delivery has undergone significant changes in recent years, such as the integrative wave that has swept through the health care industry since the early 1990s. Purpose: The present study aims at reviewing scholarly work on integrated perinatal care to provide support for policy decision-making. Results: Researchers interested in integrated perinatal care have, by assessing the effectiveness of individual clinical practices and intervention programs, mainly addressed issues of continuity of care and clinical and professional integration. Conclusions: Improvements in perinatal health care delivery appear related not to structurally integrated health care delivery systems, but to organizing modalities that aim to support woman-centred care and cooperative clinical practice.

Charo Rodríguez

2007-07-01

257

A literature review on integrated perinatal care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: The perinatal period is one during which health care services are in high demand. Like other health care sub-sectors, perinatal health care delivery has undergone significant changes in recent years, such as the integrative wave that has swept through the health care industry since the early 1990s. Purpose: The present study aims at reviewing scholarly work on integrated perinatal care to provide support for policy decision-making. Results: Researchers interested in integrated perinatal care have, by assessing the effectiveness of individual clinical practices and intervention programs, mainly addressed issues of continuity of care and clinical and professional integration. Conclusions: Improvements in perinatal health care delivery appear related not to structurally integrated health care delivery systems, but to organizing modalities that aim to support woman-centred care and cooperative clinical practice.

Rivières-Pigeon, Catherine des

2007-01-01

258

LITERATURE REVIEW OF FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES  

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Full Text Available Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs have been used for a variety of structural memberships for chemical plants and airplanes, since they have outstanding performances, such as lightweight and good fatigue properties. To hold the long-term durability and to estimate the residual life of the composites under some hostile environments, it is an important issue to clarify the facture and/or the failure mechanism in each service conditions. Degradation of components made from polymeric materials occurs in a wide variety of environments and service conditions, and very often limits the service lifetime. Degradation occurs as the result of environment-dependent chemical or physical attack, often caused by a combination of degradation agents, and may involve several chemical and mechanical mechanisms. The main concern of this review will be to examine the causes of degradation of polymeric components from the completion of fabrication to ultimate failure.

G. S. Guggari

2011-11-01

259

A literature review: robots in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Robotic systems employed in the laboratory, in rehabilitation, and in surgery are reviewed. The advantages of using a robot system over manual procedures in the laboratory to prepare samples is discussed, and some of the obstacles are noted. A typical laboratory robot is described. Rehabilitative applications in the major research areas of tactile sensors, assistive devices for the blind, prosthetics, and orthotics are examined. Manipulators that can help a disabled individual with important everyday tasks and other assistive robotic systems in rehabilitation are described. A variety of robots that assist or perform surgery is surveyed. These applications include positioning in stereotactic neurosurgery, patient manipulation, an in vivo spinal kinematic instrument, and robotic radial keratotomy, among others. PMID:18238365

Preising, B; Hsia, T C; Mittelstadt, B

1991-01-01

260

[Beauty judgment: review of the literature].  

Science.gov (United States)

Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to discriminate morphologies judged as attractive among our patients. PMID:24685247

Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

The literature review of Leech therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective : To review the trend of the study related to Leech therapy and to establish the hereafter direction for the study on Leech therapy. Methods : I reviewed and analyzed all the theses published in Domestic and Foreign research institution from 1990 to 2009. Results : The following results were obtained in this study. 1. Analyzed number of theses published, there was no significance per year. 2. Classified by theme of journal, journals related to surgery were most(41 journals, 75.92% among 54 kinds. 3. Classified by theses by research method and thesis types, case report accounted for nearly twothirds (52 pieces, 68.42% of all theses and consideration of document was next(9 pieces, 11.84%. 4. With the most case of venous congestion after plastic and reconstructive surgery(33 pieces, 63.46%, leech therapy was effective on illnesses such as haematoma, macroglossia, purpura, varicous vein, avulsion injury, neurovascular compression, diabetic neuropathy, penoscrotal oedema, buerger's disease, rheumatoid arthritis. 5. Two most appeared adverse effects were anemia and infection. Immediate blood transfusion was done for recovering anemia and prophylactic 3rd generation antibiotics to infection were emphasized in more than half of case reports. 6. All of consideration of documents was retrospective study of cases related leech therapy and 3 pieces of them emphasized prophyratic antibiotic treatment for preventing infection. 7. The study of clinical trail type started first in 2002 and osteoarthritis of knee and carpometacarpal joint were main target. As see above result, Leech therapy was effective cure and could be used in disease induced by venous congestion. And I think that it is necessary to perform additional study related to solution of problems about leech therapy and protocol for using in clinical practice.

Jang Hyo-kil

2010-03-01

262

Styloid syndrome: A review of literature  

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Full Text Available The American otolaryngologist Eagle was the first to describe styloid syndrome in 1937. Stylohyoid complex is composed of styloid process, stylohyoid ligament and a lesser horn of the hyoid bone. Embriologicaly, these anatomical structures originate from Reichert's cartilage of the second brachial arch. In the general population, the frequency of the elongated styloid process is estimated to be 4%, of which only 4% show clinical manifestations suggesting that the incidence of styloid syndrome is 0.16% (about 16,000 persons in Serbia. The styloid process deviation causes external or internal carotid impingement and pains which radiate along the arterial trunk. Classical stylohyoid syndrome is found after tonsillectomy and is characterized by pharyngeal, cervical, facial pain and headache. Stylo-carotid syndrome is the consequence of the pericarotid sympathetic fibres irritation and compression on the carotid artery. Clinical manifestations are found most frequently after head turning and neck compression. The diagnostic golden standard for styloid syndrome is 3D CT reconstruction. Sagital CT angiography has a leading role in the radiological diagnosis of the stylo-carotid syndrome. Differential diagnosis requires the differentiation of the styloid syndrome from numerous cranio-facio-cervical painful syndromes. If conservative treatment (analgesics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and local infiltration with steroids or anaesthetic agents has no effect, surgical treatment is applied. Styloid syndrome is underrepresented in neurological literature. The syndrome is considered important, because it is clinically similar to many other painful cranio-facial syndromes; it is difficult to be recognized, and the patient should be treated adequately.

Petrovi? Branko

2008-01-01

263

Particle agglomeration in sulphatising conditions. Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work was done within Outokumpu Research School that is organized and financed by Outokumpu Research Oy. It is associated with the project 'Sulphation of oxidized flue dust particles in flash smelting heat recovery boiler conditions', carried out in Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Rock Engineering, Laboratory of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy. In the project the reaction mechanism of the oxidic particles in a heat recovery boiler of sulphide smelting process are investigated and the focus of the project is in The Outokumpu Flash Smelting and Converting Processes. The project is financed by Outokumpu Oyj Foundation, Outokumpu Research Oy and Tekes/Jernkontoret. The purpose of this literature work is to get information about the agglomeration phenomena in sulphatising conditions. It aims to provide basic information about agglomeration of particles, the causes and the limiting conditions of the phenomena. To conduct the work, information about the agglomeration phenomena in sulphatising conditions was searched from periodically published scientific journals. A number of articles addressing the subject were collected. Most of the relevant articles address sulphatising conditions in fluidized bed combustors and the agglomeration resulting in the reaction of CaO to CaSO{sub 4}. Agglomeration due to sulphation has caused significant fouling problems in fluidized bed combustors. To clarify the cause of the problem, the components of industrial fluidized bed combustor boilers have been analyzed. The source of agglomeration is suggested to derive from molecular cramming, meaning particle expansion resulted of the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4}. Other suggested mechanisms are sintering and chemical hardening. The agglomeration mechanism is still uncertain and it is also possible that a combination of different mechanisms causes the phenomena. The most important parameters affecting the agglomeration seem to be temperature, time and particle size. Agglomeration is possible over a wide temperature range, The practical lower limit for agglomeration by sulphation in limestone derived materials can be considered 650 deg C. The materials show increasing agglomerate strengths as a function of time and increasing temperature. There seems to be an optimal particle size for agglomeration: from 75 to 300 gm. The tendency to agglomerate varies between different bed ashes and limestones. The surrounding atmosphere seems to have some effect on the agglomeration. Inert materials, for example ashes, decrease agglomeration by dilution. Particle shape or the angle of repose between particles do not seem to affect the agglomeration tendency.

Nurminen, E.

2002-07-01

264

Social and Cutural Aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa : A narrative review of qualitative research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the increasing focus on the role of social aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African region and to analyze the main research findings in order to identify possible gaps and recommend new research themes to inform future research-based interventions. The analysis is based on a total of 58 articles published from 2001 to 2009 in English or French identified through a literature search in seven scientific, bibliographical databases. Searches included terms related to qualitative studies combined with various terms related to HIV/AIDS. The results of this narrative review show that there was a geographical concentration on Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Coˆte d’Ivoire and a strong urban bias, with most studies taking place in the capital cities of these countries. The majority of the studies focused on women or women and men; only four articles dealt exclusively with men, of which only two were on men who have sex with men. The main study groups were people living with HIV, young people or female sex workers. Sexual risk-taking and stigmatization were the themes that were most prominently explored in the articles we reviewed. We conclude that research needs to be strengthened in relation to the analysis of experiences with antiretroviral therapy and the non-optimal access to treatment in West Africa. Also, more research is needed on men and their exposure to HIV/AIDS, as well as on the role of concurrent partnership in the spread of HIV.

Samuelsen, Helle; Ostergaard, Lise Rosendal

2012-01-01

265

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in f [...] eatures such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.

Karen Regina Rosso, Schons; Cristiane Faccin, Knob; Nádia, Murussi; André Avelino Costa, Beber; Walter, Neumaier; Odirlei André, Monticielo.

2014-04-01

266

Public opinion about energy: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review and analysis of 115 surveys of the general population between 1973 and 1978 (before the Three Mile Island accident, sudden gasoline price increases, and spot gasoline shortages) are presented. The survey data are organized and analyzed according to a set of categories described in Chapter 2. The public's definition of the energy situation is the focus of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes public opinion concerning energy conservation pertaining to transportation and domestic energy use -- whether it is efficacious, how knowledgeable people are about conservation, whether they favor it, and whether they engage in it. Findings on the solar energy alternative are described in Chapter 5. Public opinion concerning more conventional sources of energy -- oil and natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy -- are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, a summary of analytical findings by 10 major sociodemographic characteristics is presented. Chapter 8 describes analytical findings using various social-psychological variables. A summary is presented in Chapter 9.

Farhar, B.C.; Weis, P.; Unseld, C.T.; Burns, B.A.

1979-06-01

267

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in f [...] eatures such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.

Karen Regina Rosso, Schons; Cristiane Faccin, Knob; Nádia, Murussi; André Avelino Costa, Beber; Walter, Neumaier; Odirlei André, Monticielo.

268

Fatigue in cancer: A review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatigue is a common symptom of advanced cancer limiting one?s activity and affecting the quality of life. It is a multidimensional symptom complex with subjective and objective components. Hence, its definition and assessment seems arbitrary, incomplete, and elusive. Components of fatigue often merge with other ?disease states? as anemia, depression and so on, compounding difficulty to assess it separately. Fatigue has a high prevalence rate, and lasts longer in chronic diseases like cancer. Its association with treatment modalities like chemotherapy, radiotherapy alongside the primary disease process makes it seemingly ubiquitous in many cases. Systemic manifestation of cancer causes excess demand on body resources on cell repair, uncontrolled growth with metabolite accumulation causing fatigue. Co-morbid conditions of organic and psychological nature causes fatigue. There are many assessment tools for fatigue with different uses and objectives, simple and reproducible tools like Brief Fatigue Inventory, Edmonton Symptom assessment scale seem feasible in everyday practice. Management of fatigue is not straightforward and rewarding. Although treatment of cause appears to be an attractive option, it is not possible in all cases. Therapeutic agents targeting cytokine load is in early stages of study and available results are not favorable. Specific measures aimed at pain relief, prevention/treatment of sepsis, management of depression, avoidance of drugs causing fatigue, restoring the metabolic profile are important. Methyl phenidate, megestrol, and modafinil are some drugs with promising effect to treat fatigue, though confirmatory studies are yet to be established. Non-pharmacological methods are also helpful. Forewarning patients on upcoming fatigue, active regular exercise, and stress management are some of them. Fatigue being a multidimensional entity, single mode of therapy is insufficient. Combined modality tailored to individual patient need and understanding may be the right way to battle this ill-understood symptom. This review article examines the etiopathogenesis and management strategies of fatigue in cancer.

Narayanan Vijayakumar

2009-01-01

269

Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elisabeth Fernell,1 Mats Anders Eriksson,1,2 Christopher Gillberg11Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008–2012 presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband “early intervention” programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be “created” around affected individuals.Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, epidemiology, screening, etiology, intervention, outcome

Fernell E

2013-02-01

270

The clinical role of glutamine supplementation in patients with multiple trauma: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamine is considered an essential amino acid during stress and critical illness. Parenteral glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients has been shown to improve survival rate and minimise infectious complications, costs and hospital length-of-stay. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and the best method of administration are still controversial. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current evidence and trials of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients. A search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and relevant papers that investigated the effect of enteral or parenteral glutamine supplementation in patients with multiple trauma were reviewed. Although recent nutritional guidelines recommend that glutamine supplementation should be considered in these patients, further well-designed trials are required to provide a confirmed conclusion. Due to the inconclusive results of enteral glutamine supplementation trials in patients receiving enteral nutrition, future trials should focus on intravenous glutamine supplementation in patients requiring enteral nutrition and on major clinical outcome measures (e.g. mortality rate, infectious complications). PMID:23362887

Al Balushi, R M; Cohen, J; Banks, M; Paratz, J D

2013-01-01

271

Knowledge Dissemination and use in Science and mathematics education- A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dissemination and use in Science and mathematics education: A Literature Review Type : Report NSF ... DISSEMINATION AND USE IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW Janet Hutchinson ...

272

[Outcome in borderline disorders. A literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the current state of research results on borderline disorders in terms of course and outcome, variables predisposing to good or poor outcome, suicide rates and the influence of psychotherapeutical and pharmacotherapeutical strategies. It turned out that course and outcome of borderline disorders depend on the applied diagnostic criteria and on the length of the follow-up period. The outcome of the follow-up studies of borderline schizophrenia and of the borderline syndrome according to Grinker was on the whole worse compared to those of borderline personality disorder defined by DSM-III/III-R or DIB according to Gunderson or Kernberg's criteria. Further, it could be shown that the GAS or HSRS values of the short-term follow-up studies (up to five years) ranged from 46.4 to 59.2 points whereas those of the long-term studies with an average period of 13.6 till 20 years were measured in the lower and in the mid-60 s that reflects only mild difficulties in psychosocial functioning. However, the high rate of completed suicide in BPD was to be respected: The most extensive follow-up investigation with the highest trace-rate (PI-500) revealed a suicide rate of 9% till now, and the most lethal combination of circumstances was BPD x MAD x alcohol abuse (suicide rate of 38%). Prognostic factors predisposing to poor outcome were substance abuse, admixture with antisocial and schizotypal elements, chronic hostility and affective instability with depressive and anxious features. Prognostic factors predisposing to good outcome were high IQ, extraordinary talent, high attractiveness, likeability and regular appointments with the Alcoholics Anonymous. Finally, the influence of psycho- and pharmacotherapeutical interventions were controversially debated. Several psychodynamic therapy studies resulted in satisfactory outcome scores concerning a subgroup of patients with personality traits like warmth, likeability, reliability, talent. Behavioral treatment strategies such as dialectical behavior therapy by Linehan significantly diminished parasuicidality and impulsiveness. Psychopharmacotherapy should target predominating psychopathological features: Low-dose antipsychotics against micropsychosis and prolonged severe dissociative symptoms, SSRIs and MAOIs against affective instability, and, lithium, carbamazepine or valproate against severe impulsiveness and aggressiveness. PMID:10367212

Rothenhäusler, H B; Kapfhammer, H P

1999-05-01

273

Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.

Yan Huang

2011-04-01

274

Corporate Political Activity: A Literature Review and Research Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the diverse literature on Corporate Political Activity (CPA) in firms and develops a framework that integrates and details the existing research in this growing field. We conduct a systematic analysis of extant CPA literatures to order them into three domains that have implications for organizational performance. The paper is structured into three domains within the CPA research community that require more investigation: resources and capabilities focus, institutional focus...

Lawton, T.; Mcguire, S.; Rajwani, T.

2013-01-01

275

Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a literature review and classification for electronic commerce research. The authors examined 4,948 articles listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and 2,875 articles in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) published from 1999 to 2008. The results revealed that electronic commerce literature can be classified into seven categories: business and management; computer and information science; industrial engineering and operation research; engineering; econom...

Chien-Chang Chen; Chih-Chien Wang

2010-01-01

276

The Treatment of Angiocentric Glioma: Case Report and Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Angiocentric glioma is a recently described tumor recognized since 2007 by the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. We present the only case of angiocentric glioma at our institution in the last 15 years and review the literature in an attempt to establish prognostic parameters. Our search revealed only 27 cases of angiocentric glioma in the literature. The most common presenting symptom of angiocentric glioma was seizures. Gross total resection o...

Alexandru, Daniela; Haghighi, Bijan; Muhonen, Michael G.

2013-01-01

277

Is smoking a cause of erectile dysfunction? A literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erectile dysfunction is common, and its prevalence increases with age owing to age-related diseases of vascular, hormonal, neurogenic and psychogenic factors. A literature review was undertaken to explore the impact of smoking on erectile dysfunction. The literature review of 18 studies revealed the detrimental effect of smoking on erectile function. Smokers were 1.5 times more likely to suffer erectile dysfunction than non-smokers. Men may be unaware of the effect of tobacco on erectile function. This literature review presents strong reasons for stopping smoking, and highlights the need for education within a comprehensive smoking cessation programme. All men should be offered smoking cessation treatment which includes nicotine replacement therapy and continued support. Randomized controlled trials are needed to explore the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on erectile dysfunction. PMID:12070390

Dorey, G

278

The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the social scientific literature associated with medical imaging technology. Methods: An extensive search of published studies in nursing, psychology and anthropology was undertaken to support the radiography specific literature. Results: Following a broad definition of technology and its profound influence on society, an analysis of imaging literature revealed a complex relationship between technology and human interactions. Examples are cited for CT, MRI and ultrasound. Conclusion: It is suggested that any attempt to understand imaging technology must place at its centre the perspectives of patients and radiographers. Scientific descriptors must be balanced with equal deliberation given to 'soft technology'

279

Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects. PMID:24895178

Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

2014-07-01

280

Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups. PMID:21840900

Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Literature Review on Interactive Whiteboard Studies in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new kind of teaching aid, Interactive whiteboard combines the strengths of traditional blackboard writing and modern multimedia teaching function. It has begun to receive more and more attention and applications in Chinese educational system. By reviewing literature related to interactive whiteboard in education during the period of 2004-2011, the paper analyzed the studies on interactive whiteboard from three perspectives: teaching theory, teaching practice and users of interactive whiteboard. Based on the literature review and analysis, the paper proposed some suggestions and hopefully these suggestions could shed some lights on the better application of interactive whiteboard in education in the near future.

Dan Wan

2013-03-01

282

A review of gear housing dynamics and acoustics literature  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the available literature on gear housing vibration and noise radiation is presented. Analytical and experimental methodologies used for bearing dynamics, housing vibration and noise, mounts and suspensions, and the overall gear and housing system are discussed. Typical design guidelines, as outlined by various investigators, are also included. Results of this review indicate that although many attempts were made to characterize the dynamics of gearbox system components, no comprehensive set of design criteria currently exist. Moreover, the literature contains conflicting reports concerning relevant design guidelines.

Lim, Teik Chin; Singh, Rajendra

1989-01-01

283

Adhesive Restorative Materials in the Pediatric Dentistry: Review of Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: A range of direct adhesive restorative materials are available in the market and can be used for filling primary molars by Pediatric Dentistry. Objective: The aim of this study was to review in the dental literature the main properties of many direct resin based restorative materials and associates them with their clinical performance, in order to better understand their clinical behaviour. Conclusion: Considering this review of dental literature, the selection of direct adhesive restorative materials should based on the knowledge of them, in order to improve the life span of these restorations.

Márcia Pereira Alves dos SANTOS

2006-04-01

284

Use of wildlife webcams - Literature review and annotated bibliography  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center requested a literature review product that would serve as a resource to natural resource professionals interested in using webcams to connect people with nature. The literature review focused on the effects on the public of viewing wildlife through webcams and on information regarding installation and use of webcams. We searched the peer reviewed, published literature for three topics: wildlife cameras, virtual tourism, and technological nature. Very few publications directly addressed the effect of viewing wildlife webcams. The review of information on installation and use of cameras yielded information about many aspects of the use of remote photography, but not much specifically regarding webcams. Aspects of wildlife camera use covered in the literature review include: camera options, image retrieval, system maintenance and monitoring, time to assemble, power source, light source, camera mount, frequency of image recording, consequences for animals, and equipment security. Webcam technology is relatively new and more publication regarding the use of the technology is needed. Future research should specifically study the effect that viewing wildlife through webcams has on the viewers' conservation attitudes, behaviors, and sense of connectedness to nature.

Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

2010-01-01

285

Topiramate in the prevention of pediatric migraine: literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pediatric migraine is a disabling condition, which can cause a significant impact on quality of life. Currently, no drugs have been approved by the FDA for its preventive treatment. Our aim was to review the medical literature concerning the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. A total of five papers were reviewed: two randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a post-hoc subset analysis of adolescents who had been included i...

Ferraro, Diana; Di Trapani, Girolamo

2008-01-01

286

Relationship between temporomandibular disorders and orthodontic treatment: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the most recent studies from the last 15 years, in search of clinical studies that report the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment and/or malocclusion. Our intention was to determine whether orthodontic treatment would increase the incidence of signs and symptoms of TMD, and whether orthodontic treatment would be recommended for treating or preventing signs and symptoms of TMD. METHODS: Literature reviews, editorials, letters ...

Ronaldo Antônio Leite; Joacir Ferreira Rodrigues; Maurício Tatsuei Sakima; Tatsuko Sakima

2013-01-01

287

Engaging people who use drugs in policy and program development: A review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Health policies and programs are increasingly being driven by people from the community to more effectively address their needs. While a large body of evidence supports peer engagement in the context of policy and program development for various populations, little is known about this form of engagement among people who use drugs (PWUD. Therefore, a narrative literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of this topic. Searches of PubMed and Academic Search Premier databases covering 1995–2010 were conducted to identify articles assessing peer engagement in policy and program development. In total, 19 articles were included for review. Our findings indicate that PWUD face many challenges that restrict their ability to engage with public health professionals and policy makers, including the high levels of stigma and discrimination that persist among this population. Although the literature shows that many international organizations are recommending the involvement of PWUD in policy and program development, our findings revealed a lack of published data on the implementation of these efforts. Gaps in the current evidence highlight the need for additional research to explore and document the engagement of PWUD in the areas of policy and program development. Further, efforts to minimize stigmatizing barriers associated with illicit drug use are urgently needed to improve the engagement of PWUD in decision making processes.

Ti Lianping

2012-11-01

288

The inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education: a systematic review using narrative synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a study focusing on the inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education (HE). A systematic review was carried out to retrieve, critically appraise and synthesize the available evidence on how the inclusion of students with dyslexia can be fostered in HE. The 15 studies included in the final synthesis employed descriptive designs and overwhelmingly used qualitative methods to explore dyslexic students' perceptions on the impact of teaching, support and accommodation in their own learning experience. A critical appraisal of these studies revealed a landscape of significant gaps in the available stock of evidence on the inclusion of students with dyslexia in HE. The synthesis of the available evidence is presented in a narrative of five cross-study thematic areas: student coping strategies, being identified as dyslexic, interaction with academic staff, accessibility and accommodations, and using assistive technologies and information and communication technologies. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. ©2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25293652

Pino, Marco; Mortari, Luigina

2014-11-01

289

Diagnostic imaging for spinal disorders in the elderly: a narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of neck and low back pain in the rapidly aging population is associated with significant increases in health care expenditure. While spinal imaging can be useful to identify less common causes of neck and back pain, overuse and misuse of imaging services has been widely reported. This narrative review aims to provide primary care providers with an overview of available imaging studies with associated potential benefits, adverse effects, and costs for the evaluation of neck and back pain disorders in the elderly population. While the prevalence of arthritis and degenerative disc disease increase with age, fracture, infection, and tumor remain uncommon. Prevalence of other conditions such as spinal stenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA also increase with age and demand special considerations. Radiography of the lumbar spine is not recommended for the early management of non-specific low back pain in adults under the age of 65. Aside from conventional radiography for suspected fracture or arthritis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT offer better characterization of most musculoskeletal diseases. If available, MRI is usually preferred over CT because it involves less radiation exposure and has better soft-tissue visualization. Use of subspecialty radiologists to interpret diagnostic imaging studies is recommended.

Taylor John AM

2012-05-01

290

A Review of "Suicidal Intent" within the Existing Suicide Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a systematic literature review that investigated suicide intent are presented. Of the 44 relevant articles identified, 17 investigated the relationships between various suicide risk factors and suicide intent and 25 publications investigated the relationships between suicide intent and various suicide outcomes. Despite recent…

Hasley, Joseph P.; Ghosh, Biswadip; Huggins, Joseph; Bell, Missy R.; Adler, Lawrence E.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

2008-01-01

291

Older Adult Participants in Music: A Review of Related Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews research literature published between 1957 and 1990 regarding the musical involvement of the elderly. Divides studies into works dealing with (1) musical aptitude, (2) musical preferences, (3) music programs for older adults, and (4) the aging voice. Cites the enormous and growing quantity and quality of research on the subject. Identifies…

Darrough, Galen P.; Boswell, Jacquelyn

1992-01-01

292

Aboriginal Language Maintenance, Development, and Enhancement: A Review of Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper offers a general review of literature relating to the maintenance, development, and enhancement of Aboriginal languages in North America, particularly Canada. Drawing primarily on sociolinguistics, several concepts about language usage and change are outlined that are useful for the purposes of thinking about language maintenance. Next,…

Burnaby, Barbara

293

Methodology: Reference Manager Database - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

A Reference Manager 10.0 database for this literature search and review was created to ensure that all of the references from the search strings were tracked through all phases, from identification to article retrieval to evaluation, in an efficient manner. Reference Manager is a commercially available citation management system that allows some customization of database fields.

294

Glossopharyngeal schwannoma : a case report and review of literature.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a rare case of glossopharyngeal schwannoma whose clinical presentation and the radiological work up suggested an acoustic schwannoma. The diagnosis was made at surgery, once attachment to ninth cranial nerve was seen. The clinical presentation, radiological features and surgical findings of the glossopharyngeal schwannoma are presented along with the review of literature.

Gupta V

2002-04-01

295

Teacher Educators' Identity: A Review of Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that the development of a teacher educator identity is a central process in becoming a teacher educator. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of teacher identity. However, teacher educator identity seems to be still under-researched. In this article, a review of literature on teacher educator identity is…

Izadinia, Mahsa

2014-01-01

296

Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the literature in the area of language brokering. Language brokers are children of immigrant families who translate and interpret for their parents and other individuals. Results suggest that language brokers possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for their role as the family's translator and interpreter.…

Morales, Alejandro; Hanson, William E.

2005-01-01

297

The Neglect of Playtime: A Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of school playtime literature finds that school play has gained serious recognition only in the last decade; that recognition generally falls into two camps, the romantic view (emphasizing what children learn and enjoy at playtime) and the problematic view (emphasizing issues such as bullying, disruptive behavior, and gender…

Towers, Jenny

1997-01-01

298

Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation. PMID:24411579

Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea

2014-06-01

299

ADSORPTION OF ENERGY-RELATED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a literature review on sorption properties of sediments and energy-related organic pollutants. Adsorption of organic compounds in general is discussed, and analytical methodology in soil thin-layer chromatography and chemical analysis as applicable to measurement o...

300

Professional Identity Development: A Review of the Higher Education Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extant higher education literature on the development of professional identities. Through a systematic review approach 20 articles were identified that discussed in some way professional identity development in higher education journals. These articles drew on varied theories, pedagogies and learning strategies; however,…

Trede, Franziska; Macklin, Rob; Bridges, Donna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Lumbar hernia - a case report and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present a case of lumbar hernia of inferior right space (Petit's triangle), classified as acquired hernia and diagnosed by clinical history and computed tomography. Lumbar hernia are quite rare. Authors have done a literature review of this disease. (author)

302

Ethical Business Cultures: A Literature Review and Implications for HRD  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…

Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas

2009-01-01

303

Tracheobronchomegaly - a case report and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report describes a case of tracheobronchomegaly in a 39-year-old patient with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, chronic hoarse cough and dyspnoea. radiologic examinations showed market dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi and bronchiecstasy. The authors list characteristic aspects in computed tomography and review the literature. (author)

304

Managing Older Worker Training: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews literature on educational gerontology, adult education, and training and identifies factors that may encourage or discourage older workers from participation in training. Previous research has emphasized models based on either motivation or deterrent factors. This article offers a unique exploratory model combining five…

Liu, Su-Fen; Courtenay, Bradley C.; Valentine, Thomas

2011-01-01

305

CBT and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comprehensive Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall intention of this project was to enhance awareness, for those involved with persons on the autism spectrum, of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) strategies for treating persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The project involved a literature review on autism and the use of CBT strategies for people with autism spectrum disorders…

Kincade, Sharon R.; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

2009-01-01

306

Pulmonary varicosis. Case report and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulmonary varicosis is a rare, presumably congenital localized dilatation of a pulmonary vein which is often associated with cardiac disease. We describe a case featuring enlargement of a pulmonary varix after mitral valve replacement, caused by mitral regurgitation, and discuss diagnostic posibilities, differential diagnosis and various development of this vascular malformation. A detailed review of the literature is given. (orig.)

307

Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

Bond, Vanessa L.

2012-01-01

308

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Employee Training: A Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author reviews current literature related to cost-benefit analysis of employee training programs. After the necessary concepts are defined, methodologies for measuring costs and benefits, and problems related to this process are discussed. Concluding comments focus on the need for practical applications of cost-benefit research. (Author/CH)

Blomberg, Robert

1989-01-01

309

Iopromide in angiography. A review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iopromide, a new non-ionic contrast medium, is better tolerated than conventional contrast media: its low osmolality and its low chemotoxicity make it extremely well tolerated in vascular opacification, and very efficient in arterial and venous imaging. A review of the international literature encompasses the physicochemical properties of Iopromide, its pharmacokinetics, and the prospective trials, comparative and open, centered on arteriography and phlebography

310

Overconfidence in Psychology and Finance – an Interdisciplinary Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the literature on one of the most meaningful concepts in modern behavioural finance, the overconfidence phenomenon. Overconfidence is presented as a well-developed psychological theory, with main facets comprising miscalibration, betterthan- average effect, illusion of control and unrealistic optimism. The primary applications of overconfidence in contemporary finance are analysed, from the perspective of financial markets and corporate behaviour. ...

Skala, Dorota

2008-01-01

311

Environmental Music for the Retarded: A Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussed are findings of a review of 21 research reports concerned with the use of environmental music with mentally retarded persons. It is explained that the literature in two data bases was searched and relevant reports examined. The reports are organized into general findings (seven reports), use of music in contingency management (nine…

Wokoun, William

312

Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians: A Review of Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review on job satisfaction of academic librarians is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the conceptual framework which includes two theoretical approaches to job satisfaction. These theories include Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory and Herzberg's Two-Factor (Motivation/Hygiene) Theory. Criticisms of these…

Mirfakhrai, Mohammad H.

313

Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Endocarditis due to Bacteroides fragilis is a rare disorder. This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis associated with portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis in a patient without preexisting valvular heart disease and review the cases of endocarditis due to this an [...] aerobic bacterium in medical literature since 1980.

Cristhieni, Rodrigues; Rinaldo Focaccia, Siciliano; Rogerio, Zeigler; Tania Mara Varejão, Strabelli.

314

Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endocarditis due to Bacteroides fragilis is a rare disorder. This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis associated with portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis in a patient without preexisting valvular heart disease and review the cases of endocarditis due to this anaerobic bacterium in medical literature since 1980.

Cristhieni Rodrigues

2012-02-01

315

One-to-One Mobile Computing. Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review is intended to provide practical information; lessons learned and promising practices which have been drawn from recent Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) one-to-one mobile computing research reports and related articles. The information is presented in the form of answers to the following questions: (1) How is one-to-one…

Alberta Education, 2006

2006-01-01

316

Preschool Teacher Well-Being: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…

Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.

2014-01-01

317

The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

This new edition of the best-selling book offers graduate students in education and the social sciences a road map to developing and writing an effective literature review for a research project, thesis, or dissertation. Organized around a proven six-step model and incorporating technology into all of the steps, the book provides examples,…

Machi, Lawrence A.; McEvoy, Brenda T.

2012-01-01

318

Depression in Down Syndrome: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Depression has been frequently reported in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the clinically relevant literature concerning depression in DS, with a focus on epidemiology, potential risk factors, diagnosis, course characteristics and treatment. Methods: We…

Walker, J. C.; Dosen, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.

2011-01-01

319

Approximating the Practice of Writing the Dissertation Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is an attempt to join the conversation about doctoral preparation that has been a persistent but intermittent topic of interest in educational journals. Previous articles have focused on the format of the dissertation, the purpose of the literature review, and approaches to supporting doctoral students in acquiring professional…

Kucan, Linda

2011-01-01

320

The State of ICT Education in China: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education has made significant progress in China in the last two decades and this paper provides an overall presentation of its prevalence and usage. In this paper, a literature review has been conducted based on the research in the field of ICT in education. Eleven major issues have been…

Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, Fuyin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Integrated Early Years Services: A Thematic Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the findings of a thematic review of research literature about integrated early years services (IEYS) [1995-2012]. Four themes are discussed: broad support for IEYS; critiques of claims about IEYS; a focus on inter-professional practice; and the challenge of evaluating IEYS. The article concludes with reflections concerning…

Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer

2013-01-01

322

Mindfully Teaching in the Classroom: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of mindfulness is being used with increased frequency in schools around the world. In the current literature review we outline some of the core concepts and practices associated with mindfulness and discuss studies analysing the process of mindfulness teacher training. Preliminary research in this emerging field suggests that…

Albrecht, Nicole J.; Albrecht, Patricia M.; Cohen, Marc

2012-01-01

323

Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

1976-01-01

324

AQUATIC ORGANISMS IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid deposition has aroused concern about aquatic organisms in soft water lakes and streams, as the loss of indigenous species is commonly observed when pH decreases. This literature review was initiated to intensively examine the distribution of invertebrates with respect to pH,...

325

Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

2012-01-01

326

Use of prebriefing in nursing simulation: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulation has gained much attention in the literature for its contributions to nursing education; however, the simulation process itself and how each of the components-prebriefing, scenario, and debriefing-are effective for learning are understudied. Specifically, how prebriefing may enrich simulation for learners without adequate prior clinical experience or how it may develop complex thinking skills and clinical judgment is not well understood. This article comprehensively reviews the available nursing simulation literature about the phenomenon of prebriefing and critically evaluates its current role as a component of nursing simulation. Gaps in the reviewed literature regarding the definition and purpose of prebriefing, alternate learning structures used in prebriefing, and use in relation to learner outcomes were identified. Implications for undergraduate nursing education and recommendations for further research are discussed. PMID:24512336

Page-Cutrara, Karin

2014-03-01

327

Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

NONE

1993-01-01

328

Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE's current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because theors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered

329

Taking Stock of Project Value Creation: A Structured Literature Review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the outcome of a literature review through classifying and analyzing 59 publications in project value creation literature. The analysis led to five distinct categories: Benefit Realization Management (BRM) and techniques, broad value perspective, value time frame, engineering requirements and product development. These five categories cover a wide selection of value creation literature in project contexts. The project types reported in empirical studies are mainly IS/IT and construction and a variety of other types such as R&D and strategy implementation. The literature dates back to the mid-1990s while the majority of the publications on value creation have been published since 2008. The value creation focus, or value-centric view, is thus rather recent and the research area is still developing.

Laursen, Markus; Svejvig, Per

2014-01-01

330

Is there an association between low dose aspirin and anemia (without overt bleeding?: narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt bleeding associated with low dose aspirin (LDA is well-recognized, little attention is given to the possibility of association between LDA and occult bleeding, although this is known to occur in healthy volunteers. LDA is used increasingly in primary and secondary prevention of a number of medical conditions, many of which are common in older people, as is anemia. Anemia in older people is associated with adverse outcomes including disability, morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence that LDA might cause anemia without overt bleeding. Methods An extensive narrative review was carried out. Electronic searching (including database links and reference lists of reports were used to identify studies reporting on use of aspirin ?325 mg/day and anemia or change in hemoglobin (Hb without overt bleeding. Data were extracted from reports of trials, adverse drug reactions (ADRs and prevalence studies of adults aged ?18 years, published since 1980. Results There are few relevant data, with considerable heterogeneity among trial designs, duration, and patient characteristics in studies of LDA. In five randomised trials (n = 5879 in (mostly secondary prevention, the majority of patients were men without peptic ulcer disease aged 50-70 years and no consistent association between LDA and change in Hb was found. In two smaller studies (n = 609 of primary prevention in healthy patients aged ?70 years, there was a small but statistically significant fall in Hb with LDA. Observational studies, and data from trials in which use of LDA was not a primary focus of the study, were inconclusive. Conclusions It is not clear whether there is an association between LDA and anemia in the absence of overt bleeding, but there may be an association between LDA and fall in Hb in (a subset of older patients. The available evidence has significant limitations, which are discussed; studies including more older patients, and publication of individual patient data, would help clarify this important matter.

Derry Sheena

2010-09-01

331

The experience of living with chronic heart failure: a narrative review of qualitative studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure (CHF is the leading cause of all hospitalisations and readmissions in older people, accounting for a large proportion of developed countries' national health care expenditure. CHF can severely affect people's quality of life by reducing their independence and ability to undertake certain activities of daily living, as well as affecting their psychosocial and economic capacity. This paper reports the findings of a systematic narrative review of qualitative studies concerning people's experience of living with CHF, aiming to develop a wide-ranging understanding of what is known about the patient experience. Methods We searched eight relevant electronic databases using the terms based on the diagnosis of 'chronic heart failure', 'heart failure' and 'congestive heart failure' and qualitative methods, with restrictions to the years 1990-May 2008. We also used snowballing, hand searching and the expert knowledge of the research team to ensure all relevant papers were included in the review. Of 65 papers collected less than half (n = 30 were found relevant for this review. These papers were subsequently summarised and entered into QSR NVivo7 for data management and analysis. Results The review has identified the most prominent impacts of CHF on a person's everyday life including social isolation, living in fear and losing a sense of control. It has also identified common strategies through which patients with CHF manage their illness such as sharing experiences and burdens with others and being flexible to changing circumstances. Finally, there are multiple factors that commonly impact on patients' self care and self-management in the disease trajectory including knowledge, understanding and health service encounters. These health service encounters encompass access, continuity and quality of care, co-morbid conditions, and personal relationships. Conclusions The core and sub-concepts identified within this study provide health professionals, service providers, policy makers and educators with broad insights into common elements of people's experiences of CHF and potential options for improving their health and wellbeing. Future studies should focus on building a comprehensive picture of CHF through examination of differences between genders, and differences within age groups, socioeconomic groups and cultural groups.

Jowsey Tanisha

2010-03-01

332

Understanding attractiveness in business relationships - A complete literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The concept of attraction has received surprisingly little attention within business relationship research. Yet, recently, more and more authors have argued that attraction may contribute to the motivation and willingness of a buyer and supplier to engage in and develop a business relationship. However, the concept of attraction is relatively new and there have been diverse interpretations of it. This literature review collates those interpretations with the aim of enhancing current understanding and creating fundamental knowledge of the current streams of literature on the concept. In examining how the concept has been investigated, the paper aims to establish the direction that the understanding and use of the concept of attractiveness may take in the future in the context of business research. The literature review indicates that attraction has been used in three research areas to explain or resolve a particular construct: 1) attraction in the development of buyer-supplier relationships, 2) customer attractiveness to suppliers, and 3) attractiveness in portfolio and key account management. This literature review contributes to the understanding of how knowledge of the power of attraction could enrich the theory and practice of business relationships. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Mortensen, M. H.

2012-01-01

333

Tumors of the horseshoe kidney: Characteristics and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out the significance of the rare urinary system anomaly such as horseshoe kidney. Tumors of the horseshoe kidney are rarely described as single cases in literature. Bilateral tumors of the horseshoe kidney can present a health and therapeutically challenge. In this paper we have analyzed characteristics of the horse shoe kidney tumors and their diagnostics. Primary means of the horseshoe kidney tumors treatment are surgical with different techniques depending on the size, presentation of the tumor and other indications. The review of the available literature is also included.

Petrovi? Milan

2012-01-01

334

Literature Review on the Management Control System of Joint Ventures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author will review literatures analyzing the characteristics on management control mechanism and pattern in joint venture. According to the actual situation and the subject we going on studying, materials mainly are collected from Accounting and the Tax English database and Uygur Pu Chinese periodical database. We will make contribution to the literature study which research on its factors about the controlling and management problems in joint venture, and has an important guiding significance to the future study, especially in China.

Linjuan Mu

2009-02-01

335

Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the purpose of this overview is to enlighten actual findings about these factors and on the role that has been assigned to them in the literature. Special attention is paid to comparison studies. A detailed description of the studies in tables2 allows for an overview of the results and an evaluation with respect to sample size, instruments, and type of study groups. The overview does not claim completeness; it is a narrative, none-systematic review3. In summary the review showed that in most cases, juvenile sexual offending cannot be understood as an expression of more general juvenile delinquency and - in contrast to other groups of juvenile delinquents - the sexual offenders report less non-sexual delinquent behavior. Alcohol and drug abuse have been reported less often as well, but they might play a more important role as situational factors. Externalizing problems apears more often in juvenile sexual offenders with peer/adult victims who are also non-sexually delinquent. Regarding sexuality, some studies indicate that juvenile sexual offenders are impaired in their sexual development, but they were rarely described as sexually isolated. Sexual deviance has been considered a risk factor for juvenile sexual offending, but the assessment of sexual deviance in juveniles has proven difficult. The prevalence of victimization experiences varies substantially and possible connections to sexual offending have proven complex. The interpretation of the results of most studies is compromised by a lack of data about non-delinquent juveniles. The review closes with explanations why some of the illustrated results vary substantially.

Wiebke Driemeyer

2011-06-01

336

Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

2012-06-01

337

A pilot study of adaptation of the transtheoretical model to narratives of bereaved family members in the bereavement life review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to examine the possibility of adaptation of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to narratives from the Bereavement Life Review. Narratives from 19 bereaved family members were recorded, transcribed into sentences, and allocated into stages based on the TTM criteria. Those who lived in fantasy were allocated to the precontemplation stage and who recognized the patient's death but could not adjust to the death were allocated to the contemplation stage. Those who understood the need for changes and had new plans were allocated to the preparation stage, and those who were coping were allocated to the action stage, and those who had confidence to remember the loved one who died were allocated to the maintenance stage. These results provide deeper understanding of a bereaved family member and suggest that a different intervention method may be useful in each stage. PMID:23689366

Ando, Michiyo; Tsuda, Akira; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sanjo, Makiko; Shima, Yasuo

2014-06-01

338

Improving access to psychosocial interventions for common mental health problems in the United Kingdom: narrative review and development of a conceptual model for complex interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom and worldwide, there is significant policy interest in improving the quality of care for patients with mental health disorders and distress. Improving quality of care means addressing not only the effectiveness of interventions but also the issue of limited access to care. Research to date into improving access to mental health care has not been strongly rooted within a conceptual model, nor has it systematically identified the different elements of the patient journey from identification of illness to receipt of care. This paper set out to review core concepts underlying patient access to mental health care, synthesise these to develop a conceptual model of access, and consider the implications of the model for the development and evaluation of interventions for groups with poor access to mental health care such as older people and ethnic minorities. Methods Narrative review of the literature to identify concepts underlying patient access to mental health care, and synthesis into a conceptual model to support the delivery and evaluation of complex interventions to improve access to mental health care. Results The narrative review adopted a process model of access to care, incorporating interventions at three levels. The levels comprise (a community engagement (b addressing the quality of interactions in primary care and (c the development and delivery of tailored psychosocial interventions. Conclusions The model we propose can form the basis for the development and evaluation of complex interventions in access to mental health care. We highlight the key methodological challenges in evaluating the overall impact of access interventions, and assessing the relative contribution of the different elements of the model.

Gask Linda

2012-08-01

339

Rare thromboses of cerebral, splanchnic and upper-extremity veins. A narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venous thrombosis typically involves the lower extremity circulation. Rarely, it can occur in the cerebral or splanchnic veins and these are the most frightening manifestations because of their high mortality rate. A third site of rare venous thrombosis is the deep system of the upper extremities that, as for the lower extremity, can be complicated by pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome. The authors conducted a narrative review focused on clinical manifestations, risk factors, and treatment of rare venous thromboses. Local risk factors such as infections or cancer are frequent in thrombosis of cerebral or portal veins. Upper extremity deep-vein thrombosis is mostly due to local risk factors (catheter- or effort-related). Common systemic risk factors for rare venous thromboses are inherited thrombophilia and oral contraceptive use; chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are closely associated with splanchnic vein thrombosis. In the acute phase rare venous thromboses should be treated conventionally with low-molecular-weight heparin. Use of local or systemic fibrinolysis should be considered in the case of clinical deterioration in spite of adequate anticoagulation. Anticoagulation with vitamin K-antagonists is recommended for 3-6 months after a first episode of rare venous thrombosis. Indefinite anticoagulation is recommended for Budd-Chiari syndrome, recurrent thrombosis or unprovoked thrombosis and permanent risk factors. In conclusion, the progresses made in the last couple of decades in diagnostic imaging and the broadened knowledge of thrombophilic abnormalities improved the recognition of rare venous thromboses and the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms. However, the recommendations for treatment mainly derive from observational studies. PMID:20352171

Martinelli, Ida; De Stefano, Valerio

2010-06-01

340

A practical and evidence-based approach to common symptoms: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical symptoms account for more than half of all outpatient visits, yet the predominant disease-focused model of care is inadequate for many of these symptom-prompted encounters. Moreover, the amount of clinician training dedicated to understanding, evaluating, and managing common symptoms is disproportionally small relative to their prevalence, impairment, and health care costs. This narrative review regarding physical symptoms addresses 4 common epidemiologic questions: cause, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Important findings include the following: First, at least one third of common symptoms do not have a clear-cut, disease-based explanation (5 studies in primary care, 1 in specialty clinics, and 2 in the general population). Second, the history and physical examination alone contribute 73% to 94% of the diagnostic information, with costly testing and procedures contributing much less (5 studies of multiple types of symptoms and 4 of specific symptoms). Third, physical and psychological symptoms commonly co-occur, making a dualistic approach impractical. Fourth, because most patients have multiple symptoms rather than a single symptom, focusing on 1 symptom and ignoring the others is unwise. Fifth, symptoms improve in weeks to several months in most patients but become chronic or recur in 20% to 25%. Sixth, serious causes that are not apparent after initial evaluation seldom emerge during long-term follow-up. Seventh, certain pharmacologic and behavioral treatments are effective across multiple types of symptoms. Eighth, measuring treatment response with valid scales can be helpful. Finally, communication has therapeutic value, including providing an explanation and probable prognosis without "normalizing" the symptom. PMID:25329205

Kroenke, Kurt

2014-10-21

 
 
 
 
341

Recording Database Searches for Systematic Reviews - What is the Value of Adding a Narrative to Peer-Review Checklists? A Case Study of NICE Interventional Procedures Guidance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the value of open and transparent methods for recording systematic database search strategies, showing how they have been applied at the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, see Appendix C for definitions in the United Kingdom (UK.Objective – The objectives are to: 1 Discuss the value of search strategy recording methods. 2 Assess any limitations to the practical application of a checklist approach. 3 Make recommendations for recording systematic database searches.Methods – The procedures for recording searches for Interventional Procedures Guidance at NICE were examined. A sample of current methods for recording systematic searches identified in the literature was compared to the NICE processes. The case study analyses the search conducted for evidence about an interventional procedure and shows the practical issues involved in recording the database strategies. The case study explores why relevant papers were not retrieved by a search strategy meeting all of the criteria on the checklist used to peer review it. The evidence was required for guidance on non-rigid stabilisation techniques for the treatment of low back pain.Results – The analysis shows that amending the MEDLINE strategy to make it more sensitive would have increased its yield by 6614 articles. Examination of the search records together with correspondence between the analyst and the searcher reveals the peer reviewer had approved the search because its sensitivity was appropriate for the purpose of producing Interventional Procedures Guidance. The case study demonstrates the limitations of relying on a checklist to ensure the quality of a database search without having any contextual information.Conclusion – It is difficult for the peer reviewer to assess the subjective elements of a search without knowing why it has a particular structure or what the searcher intended. There is a risk that the peer reviewer will concentrate on the technical details, such as spelling mistakes, without having the contextual information. It is beneficial if the searcher records correspondence on key decisions and reports a summary alongside the search strategy. The narrative describes the major decisions that shaped the strategy and gives the peer reviewer an insight into the rationale for the search approach.

Jenny Craven

2011-01-01

342

Cigarette ignition of soft furnishings: A literature review with commentary  

Science.gov (United States)

Literature pertinent to the ignition by smoldering cigarettes of upholstered furniture and mattresses (soft furnishings) was searched through early 1986. This included literature on the smoldering behavior of cigarettes in air; their behavior on a variety of substrates simulating soft furnishings; mechanism of smoldering in substrates; relative cigarette ignition resistance of substrates; and relative propensity of commercial cigarette packings to ignite substrates. According to the reviewed literature, the smoldering behavior of cigarettes on substrates differs from that of cigarettes burning in air: on substrates, cigarette temperatures tend to be lower, and burning rates slower. These differences seem to be larger for substrates which ignite than for those which self-extinguish after the cigarette burns out. The characteristics of soft furnishings which insure resistance to cigarette ignition have been established, but those of cigarettes with low propensity to ignite furnishings have not. No mathematical model has been reported for the interaction of cigarette and substrate, but some empirical data do exist.

Krasny, John F.

1987-04-01

343

EVALUATION OF INTERNET RESOURCES: A REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Internet age, most of information is available on the Internet in the different formats which known as “Internet resources” and people use Internet information for their different purposes but it is very essential for every Internet user to evaluate the retrieved Internet resources before making their uses to accomplish the tasks. This paper presents a review of selected literature found on evaluation of Internet resources available in different format in LIS domain with the following objectivities (i To know the literature available on the need of evaluation of Internet resources; (ii To identify the availability of literature on evaluating Internet resources; (iii To examine the various criteria suggested for evaluating different types Internet resources by authors. This study will assist to users in framing the evaluation criteria for resources exist in various formats on the Internet.

Anna Kaushik

2012-07-01

344

The narrative dynamics of grief after homicide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The homicidal death of a loved one is horrific. Dying from homicide can be more sudden, frightening, and stigmatizing than natural dying and may be followed by a sub-type of prolonged grief complicated by vivid narrative reenactment of the dying, intense feelings of remorse, and nihilistic despair. After a literature review of grief after homicide, the author clarifies the salient narrative themes of homicidal dying and their specific effects on trauma and separation distress. A preliminary model is then developed and illustrated in a therapy case outlining a technique (imaginative exposure) to diminish the disabling fixation of reenactment imagery, remorse, and despair. PMID:23057248

Rynearson, Edward K

2012-01-01

345

The Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Growth Parameters: A Narrative Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ramadan fasting is prescribed by Quran for every able?bodied, adult Muslim and is considered an obligatory act of worship. During Ramadan, the majority of Muslims eat two major meals- one before dawn (Sahar and another immediately after the sunset (Iftar. Islamic fasting, due to its particular nature, may cause metabolic and hormonal changes in the body, which are different from those in regular fasting. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive study has been conducted on changes in growth parameters during fasting periods. Therefore, the aim of this review, which is based on scientific literature review, was to describe the effects of fasting on growth parameters in humans.

Mohsen Mazidi

2014-03-01

346

Single-cone obturation technique: a literature review  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The technique of single-cone obturation is a technique that uses only the master cone. There have been an increase in its use, especially by employing larger cones with larger taper sizes that best match the geometry of rotary nickel-titanium systems (NiTi, not requiring the use of accessory cones, thus reducing the time spent in endodontic obturation. Objective: To review the literature on this technique and to compare it with other existing techniques, as well as to elucidate its advantages and disadvantages. Literature review: The single-cone obturation technique enables an easier and faster endodontic obturation. However, regarding to the aspects such as the obturation quality, apical microleakage and bacterial penetration, this technique is similar to or lower than others. Conclusion: This technique has the advantage of saving time during the filling of the root canal. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate its prognosis, especially in canals with complex anatomy.

Lidiane de Castro Pinto

2012-12-01

347

Transient global amnesia: a case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this case report and review of the literature, transient global amnesia (TGA) is discussed. A 72-year-old physician presented to the emergency department with sudden loss of memory. In particular, he was unable to recall recent events. Other neurological examination was intact. The loss of recent memory was completely resolved, during the next 4 hours. This event (TGA) must be distinguished from other neurological events such as transient ischemic attacks, seizures, and cerebral vascular events. A literature review suggested that TGA is related to an acute loss of function in the temporal lobe. It is important for palliative medicine physicians to have this unusual syndrome in their differential diagnosis, as this cause of memory loss must be separated from more aggressive causes of memory loss, for example, stroke and seizure. Transient global amnesia is a self-limiting disorder without late consequences. PMID:22174316

Forman, Walter B

2012-11-01

348

LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS AND STATUTORY POLICIES  

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Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to critically analyses of statutory policy for women empowerment and its impact on women entrepreneurship. In this literature review a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to women entrepreneurship through secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. the article helps to under how women entrepreneurship has developed into a accepted concept which makes an important part of the economy

Mrs. Rupali Jitendra Khaire

2012-03-01

349

Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this important research topic, providing a classification of brand equity models focusing on consumer based models. The most important models are critically reviewed from the perspective of model structure, methodology used and validity.

A. Sz?cs

2014-06-01

350

Synovial chondrosarcoma: Report of two cases and literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synovial chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that can arise from a previous synovial chondromatosis or as de novo tumor. The clinical and radiological findings of this malignancy are very similar to those of aggressive synovial chondromatosis. Confusion with other joint pathologies makes the diagnosis of synovial chondrosarcoma difficult in most of the cases. We present one recently diagnosed and treated case of synovial chondrosarcoma. The review of our hospital database revealed one more similar case. In both cases the malignancy arose from a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis. We also present a literature review emphasizing the clinical and histological findings of this rare entity.

Zamora, E.E. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Dr. R.A Calderon Guardia, Universidad De Costa Rica, P.O. Box 628-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Mansor, A. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 59100 (Malaysia); Vanel, D. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Research Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: dvanel@ior.it; Errani, C.; Mercuri, M. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Picci, P. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Research Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M. [Musculoskeletal Anatomical Pathology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

2009-10-15

351

Synovial chondrosarcoma: Report of two cases and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synovial chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that can arise from a previous synovial chondromatosis or as de novo tumor. The clinical and radiological findings of this malignancy are very similar to those of aggressive synovial chondromatosis. Confusion with other joint pathologies makes the diagnosis of synovial chondrosarcoma difficult in most of the cases. We present one recently diagnosed and treated case of synovial chondrosarcoma. The review of our hospital database revealed one more similar case. In both cases the malignancy arose from a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis. We also present a literature review emphasizing the clinical and histological findings of this rare entity.

352

Case report and literature review of adamantinoma of long bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the clinical, imaging and pathological features of adamantinoma of long bone to aid preoperative diagnosis. Methods: A case of adamantinoma of long bone was reported and the related literature was reviewed. Results: Literature review showed that long bone ameloblastoma was more common in young adults older than 20 years of age (86.3%) and occurred mainly in the tibial shaft (90%). The clinical, imaging and pathological features in our patient were consistent with those reported in the literature. Among 39 cases in the Chinese literature, radiographic findings included uni-or multi-cystic bone destruction with well-defined borders (87.2%), bone expansion (61.8%), partial loss of cortical bone (26.5%), bone sclerosis (38.2%), and no periosteal new bone reaction (100%). Pathology showed epithelial and fibrous differentiation. Conclusion: Adamantinoma of long bone should be considered in patients older than 20 years of age with tibial lesions that have imaging characteristics of benign bone tumors or some malignant features. (authors)

353

Gender, Nationality and Leadership Style: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review research available on gender and nationality as determinants of leadershipstyle, with special focus on top leaders/managers. The paper is based on a systematic literature review. Thesystematic literature search resulted in 27 papers, that were grouped in five categories: 1 Leaders’characteristics, behavior and style, 2 Perception regarding leaders, their traits and leadership styles, 3Women’s barriers towards leader positions, 4 Leadership outcome/results, 5 Effect of research methods onleader evaluation. Questionnaires were the most used research method in the reviewed studies. Almost half ofthe papers focus on the US, while the rest deal with African, Asian, and European countries. In this review, wefound that women and men have a very similar perception of a successful manager. However, women and mendisplay differences in their leader behavior and characteristics, and way of leading. “Results/outcomes” of sucha leadership can differ. The review shows, furthermore, that a glass ceiling and other barriers for women do stillexist.The paper ends by identifying the needs for further research in the study area.

Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

2012-12-01

354

Bezold’s abscess: case report and literature review  

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Full Text Available Bezold’s abscess is a deep cervical abscess arising from an acute case of mastoiditis. With the advent of antibiotics, this disease has become extremely uncommon in our region. This paper has the objective of reporting a case of Bezold’s abscess in a patient seen at the otorhinolaryngology emergency service of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, and to carry out a review of literature on the topic.

Spyros Cardoso Dimatos

2009-09-01

355

Seeding of tumour cells following breast biopsy: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Needle biopsy of the breast is widely practised. Image guidance ensures a high degree of accuracy. However, sporadic cases of disease recurrence suggest that in some cases the procedure itself may contribute to this complication. This article reviews evidence relating to needle biopsy of the breast and the potential for tumour cell migration into adjacent tissues following the procedure. A literature search was undertaken using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results are grouped und...

Loughran, C. F.; Keeling, C. R.

2011-01-01

356

Triple X syndrome: a review of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The developmental and clinical aspects in the literature on triple X syndrome are reviewed. Prenatal diagnosis depends on karyotyping. The incidence is 1 of 1000 females. At birth, 47,XXX girls have a lower mean birth weight and a smaller head circumference. Triple X diagnosis was not suspected at birth. The maternal age seems to be increased. Toddlers with triple X syndrome show delayed language development. The youngest girls show accelerated growth until puberty. EEG abnormalities seem to ...

Otter, Maarten; Schrander-stumpel, Constance Trm; Curfs, Leopold Mg

2010-01-01

357

Suprasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paragangliomas arising in the suprasellar region are extremely rare. We report a case of suprasellar paraganglioma in a 47-year-old man who presented with amnesia and impaired visual acuity without any endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large enhancing tumour in the suprasellar area. Following subtotal surgical excision, the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by pathology. In this case report we describe the MRI pattern of suprasellar paraganglioma and review the literature of this uncommon lesion. (orig.)

358

Nursing and head injury: literature systematic review study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to analyze the scientific research about the nursing care for Traumatic Brain Injury – TBI, with the perspective of the advent of the improvements in upon the guide of strategic canes in the hospital. Methodology: this is about a descriptive study of systematic review a literature it was performed as a search in the information platform databases LILACS, BDENF and MEDLINE, for descriptors Nursing Brain Injuries and Craniocerebral Trauma. To refine the search was conducted the int...

Jose? Rodolfo Lopes Paiva Cavalcanti, Felipe Cesar Chaves Oliveira

2011-01-01

359

Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

Caruth, Gail D.

2013-01-01

360

Natal teeth: Case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available The presence of teeth at birth or within a month post-delivery is a rare condition. A newborn, a 2 days old female, with two mandibular incisor natal teeth was examined. The teeth were mobile and were extracted because of the fear of aspiration and refusal to feed. The purpose of this report is to review the literature related to natal teeth epidemiology and discuss their possible etiology and treatment.

Rao Roopa

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Necrobiosis Lipoidica : A Case Without Diabetes And Review Of Literature  

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Full Text Available Necrobiosis lipoidica, a disorder initially thought to be a complication of diabetes, may also occur in non-diabetics. A 55 year old woman with histologically confirmed necrobiosis lipoidica, who did not have diabetes on presentation or during subsequent follow up, is reported. A good response to topical clobetasol propionate followed by betamethasone dipropionate was noted. A brief review of the literature has been included.

Biswas Nibir

2002-01-01

362

INJURIES IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL: A Review of the Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Australian Rules Football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Successful injury prevention relies on injury surveillance to establish the extent of injuries, to monitor injury patterns and to evaluate prevention strategies. Despite the popularity of participation at the community level, few injury surveillance studies have been published, so a detailed review of the literature is vital. There is limited information available outside of the elite level. Injury statistic...

Hoskins, Wayne T.; Pollard, Henry

2003-01-01

363

Microfinance: A comprehensive review of the existing literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the word finance is in the term microfinance, and the core elements of microfinance are those of the finance discipline, microfinance has yet to break into the mainstream or entrepreneurial finance literature. The purpose of this article is to introduce the finance academic community to the discipline of microfinance and microfinance institutions (MFIs). We provide a comprehensive review of over 350 articles and address the issues of MFI sustainability, products and services, managem...

Brau, James C.; Woller, Gary M.

2004-01-01

364

Toxic multinodular goitre. Personal case histories and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors reviewed their own case histories of surgical thyreopathy over the last 20 years in order to establish how many multinodular goitre (MNG) patients developed hyperthyroidism during the follow-up period. In agreement with the findings reported in literature, the authors observed that 220 out of 1117 patients with MNG developed hyperthyroidism caused by the appearance of hyperfunctioning nodules after 6-18 years from the initial diagnosis of MNG. PMID:24629810

Sturniolo, Gia; Gagliano, E; Tonante, A; Taranto, F; Vermiglio, F; Sturniolo, Gio

2013-01-01

365

Multifocal and metastatic hepatic hemangioendothelioma: case report and literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin whose involvement of organs such as lung, spleen, bone, breast and liver has already been reported. The clinical signs and the prognosis of this tumor are quite variable. From the present case report, the authors have sought to contribute with literature data, by reviewing clinical and radiological features which may be useful to include such a condition in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions. (author)

Torres, Lucas Rios; Galvao Filho, Mario Melo [Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Timbo, Luciana Satiro; Verrastro, Carlos Gustavo Yuji; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Ribeiro, Cristiane Maria de Freitas [Laboratorio Diagnostica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2014-05-15

366

Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

NONE

2006-04-15

367

Bell's palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bell's palsy is considered as a disease of exclusion. It is a form of lower motor neuron paralysis affecting the facial muscles. Rapid onset of paralysis causes panic to the patients. For speedy recovery, correct diagnosis and early treatment are crucial. Here a case of Bell's palsy is reported and the literature on Bell's palsy is reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 581-588

Tashika Kushraj

2014-06-01

368

The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Most studies address medical treatment of infertility and psychosocial outcomes caused by infertility-related stress, but few studies examine the infertility’s impact on sexuality.Aim: A literature review was conducted to answer the questions: 1) How is sexual self concept impacted in infertile individuals and their partners? 2) Does infertility have a negative impact on sexual relationships? 3) Is sexual function affected by infertility? In answering these questions, we may dev...

Bruce Maycock3; Rosemary Coates2; Peng Tao

2011-01-01

369

Numerical modeling of friction stir welding process: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This survey presents a literature review on friction stir welding (FSW) modeling with a special focus on the heat generation due to the contact conditions between the FSW tool and the workpiece. The physical process is described and the main process parameters that are relevant to its modeling are highlighted. The contact conditions (sliding/sticking) are presented as well as an analytical model that allows estimating the associated heat generation. The modeling of the FSW p...

Neto, Diogo Mariano; Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

370

Ocular toxoplasmosis: an update and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. The infection can be acquired congenitally or postnatally and ocular lesions may present during or years after the acute infection occur. Current treatment controls ocular infection and inflammation, but does not prevent r [...] ecurrences. We present a review and update on ocular toxoplasmosis and address misconceptions still found in the current medical literature.

Alessandra G, Commodaro; Rubens N, Belfort; Luiz Vicente, Rizzo; Cristina, Muccioli; Claudio, Silveira; Miguel N, Burnier Jr; Rubens, Belfort Jr.

2009-03-01

371

Colchicine poisoning: a case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colchicine, a natural pseudo-alkaloid found in plants such as the Colchicum autumnale and Gloriosa superba has tremendous medicinal properties, but if misused by an unqualified person can result in fatal consequences. We report a case of colchicine poisoning in an adult man as a result of consumption of the herb G. superba by a 50-year-old man and review the literature. PMID:22941521

Babu, Y P Raghavendra; Manjunath, S; Bakkannavar, Shankar M; Acharya, Jenash; Kumar, G N Pramod

2012-10-01

372

A Literature Review on Organization Culture and Corporate Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From 1980s, there are more and more studies about organization culture. And in Chinese studies and practices, we pay much attention to the culture due to the direct relationship between the organization culture and corporate performance, which we can be convinced by some academic papers. But there are some limitations in the study. This paper would like to give a literature review about organization culture and corporate performance. Meanwhile, we would give some suggestions about the further study.

Xiaoming Cui

2012-03-01

373

Multifocal and metastatic hepatic hemangioendothelioma: case report and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin whose involvement of organs such as lung, spleen, bone, breast and liver has already been reported. The clinical signs and the prognosis of this tumor are quite variable. From the present case report, the authors have sought to contribute with literature data, by reviewing clinical and radiological features which may be useful to include such a condition in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions. (author)

374

Seafarers' fatigue: a review of the recent literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatigue has been noticeably under-researched in the maritime domain compared to other transport sectors. In a review of the literature 11 databases were searched in order to assess recent developments in the field and distil those issues of greatest concern and challenge to the seafaring community. Whilst diversity in the seafaring population has the potential to make global fatigue estimates meaningless, evidence of mis-recorded working hours shows how cultural and commercial pressures are universally shared. PMID:19227741

Allen, Paul; Wadsworth, Emma; Smith, Andy

2008-01-01

375

Primary Liver Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of liver is a very rare malignancy. The disease is poorly understood and few clinical studies have been conducted to help elucidate the natural course of disease, pathogenesis, optimal therapy, response to therapy, and survival. Here, we present an interesting case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL originating in liver. A literature review of clinical features, diagnosis, and management is also provided.

Bourhafour Mouna

2011-12-01

376

Conservative Management of Placenta Increta: Case Report and Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Placenta increta, a rare complication of pregnancy, is associated with significant postpartum hemorrhage often requiring emergency hysterectomy. We report a case of conservative management, with a combination of parenteral methotrexate, serial ultrasound and ?-hCG assessment. Serum ?-hCG levels were undetectable after 8 weeks of therapy. A scan at 6 months showed complete involution of the uterus. Review of the literature discussing the diagnostic tools, clinical features, management and outcome of pregnancies with placenta increta.

Fariba Yarandi

2011-06-01

377

Comparison of Real Asset Valuation Models: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available AbstractNPV, decision trees, and real options have been prevalently practiced in real asset valuation and management. Complexities have been built on the basic frameworks in practice. In this paper, application values and limitations of real options, NPV, and decision trees in real asset valuation are illustrated with literature review. The pros and cons of each method shed light on future improvement of real asset investment evaluation and risk modeling.

Ann Wang

2010-04-01

378

Electrophysiological examination in uveitis: a review of the literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Uveitis is the inflammation of the uveal tract, which usually also affects the retina and vitreous humor. The electrophysiological examination is an objective ocular examination that includes the electroretinogram, visual evoked potentials, the electrooculogram, the multifocal electroretinogram, and multifocal visual evoked potentials. Our aim is to review the literature of the use of the electrophysiological examination in cases of uveitis. Methods We performed a systematic search of the literature of published papers until October 2012 using the PubMed search engine. The key terms that were used were “uveitis”, “electrophysiological examination”, “electroretinogram”, “visual evoked potentials”, “electrooculogram”, “multifocal electroretinogram”, and “multifocal visual evoked potentials” in multiple combinations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review concerning the assessment of electrophysiology in uveitis. Results Our search of the literature demonstrated that the electrophysiological examination, mainly by means of electroretinogram, multifocal electroretinogram, and visual evoked potentials, is performed in several cases of uveitis for many purposes, including diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression and treatment efficacy. The electrophysiological examination is more useful in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, birdshot chorioretinopathy, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease, Adamantiades–Behçet disease, ocular syphilis, and Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis. Conclusion This review summarizes the use of the electrophysiological examination in uveitic patients and underlines its value as a useful tool in the objective assessment and the monitoring of the disease. PMID:24453476

Moschos, Marilita M; Gouliopoulos, Nikolaos S; Kalogeropoulos, Christos

2014-01-01

379

Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information andappropriate pharmaceutical care in self-medicationpractice appropriately among university student. Furtherstudy looking into the self-medication related problemsassociated with non-prescription products is needed.

Dedy Almasdy

2011-09-01

380

Cuidados de enfermagem no pré-operatório e reabilitação de mastectomia: revisão narrativa da literatura Atención de enfermería en el pre-operatorio y rehabilitación de mastectomía: revisión narrativa de la literatura Nursing care during the preoperative stage and rehabilitation of mastectomy: narrative review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica realizada nas bases de dados Lilacs e Scielo, que objetivou revisar a produção científica referente aos cuidados de enfermagem no período pré-operatório e de reabilitação de mastectomia. Foram analisados dezoito artigos focalizados nas seguintes categorias: Cuidados de enfermagem no pré-operatório da mastectomia e O papel da Enfermagem na reabilitação da mulher mastectomizada. Observou-se que os cuidados de enfermagem nos dois períodos são fundamentais para um tratamento mais humanizado. No entanto, estes se encontram escassos e com orientações pouco esclarecedoras, sendo necessário um maior enfoque por parte da equipe com relação ao seu papel e cuidados prestados à mulher nessa condição.Este estudio da cuenta de una revisión de la literatura de la atención de enfermería en el pre-operatorio bien como en la rehabilitación de la mastectomía. Fueron analizados dieciocho artículos de acuerdo con las categorías: Cuidados de enfermería en el preoperatorio de mastectomía y El papel de la enfermería en la rehabilitación de las mujeres la mastectomía. Se observó que la atención de enfermería en ambos períodos es crucial para una asistencia más humanizada. Sin embargo, es escasa y con orientaciones poco esclarecedoras, es necesaria una mayor concentración del equipo en relación a su papel en la atención de las pacientes.This is a bibliographic research carried out in Lilacs and Scielo database, which aimed to review the production about nursing care during the preoperative and rehabilitation stages of mastectomy. Eighteen articles were analyzed with focus in these categories: Nursing care in the preoperative mastectomy and The role of nursing in the rehabilitation of women submitted to a mastectomy. It was observed that nursing cares, in the two periods, are a key step for a more human treatment. However, they are scarce and with little enlightening guidance there must be a greater focus on the role by the nursing team in relation to women care.

Pricilla Cândido Alves

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

Sommers, P.

1975-01-01

382

Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel) and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capital. We compare the study conclusions according to the country's degrees of economic egalitarianism. Regardless of study design, our findings indicate that a positive association (fixed effect) exists between social capital and better health irrespective of countries degree of egalitarianism. However, we find that the between-area variance (random effect) in health tends to be lower in more egalitarian countries than in less egalitarian countries. Our tentative conclusion is that an association between social capital and health at the individual level is robust with respect to the degree of egalitarianism within a country. Area level or contextual social capital may be less salient in egalitarian countries in explaining health differences across places. PMID:16597324

Islam, M Kamrul; Merlo, Juan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lindstrom, Martin; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

2006-01-01

383

LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

2013-09-01

384

Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capital. We compare the study conclusions according to the country's degrees of economic egalitarianism. Regardless of study design, our findings indicate that a positive association (fixed effect exists between social capital and better health irrespective of countries degree of egalitarianism. However, we find that the between-area variance (random effect in health tends to be lower in more egalitarian countries than in less egalitarian countries. Our tentative conclusion is that an association between social capital and health at the individual level is robust with respect to the degree of egalitarianism within a country. Area level or contextual social capital may be less salient in egalitarian countries in explaining health differences across places.

Lindström Martin

2006-04-01

385

Asthma self management in adults: a review of current literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self management programs for chronic conditions, such as asthma, have an important place in healthcare delivery. When properly implemented, they can curb the impact of disease and reduce both the high personal costs for individuals and significant financial costs for health care systems. The purpose of this review was to establish an understanding of current published literature on asthma self management programs in adults and to identify any reported attributes or components which serve to either assist or obstruct the uptake of self management strategies. Electronic data sources including Scopus, Proquest 5000, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science were accessed and literature searches were conducted using the key terms: asthma, chronic disease, self management, morbidity, quality of life, health outcomes, patient education and best practice. Inclusion criteria for the search included journal articles relating to adults with asthma published in English in peer reviewed journals from 1995 to 2011. Exclusion criteria included research targeting children, parents of children or families; and articles examining Asthma and COPD (or any other co-morbidity). Sixty four articles were included in this review due to their relevance to the major components of asthma self management, as defined by the Australian Asthma Management Handbook. A major conclusion from this review was that the uptake of asthma self management strategies is poor despite global recommendations for over twenty years; and that a likely reason for this is that generic asthma self management advice does not engage the individual with asthma. PMID:24772988

Andrews, Kelly L; Jones, Sandra C; Mullan, Judy

2014-01-01

386

Cuidados de enfermagem no pré-operatório e reabilitação de mastectomia: revisão narrativa da literatura / Nursing care during the preoperative stage and rehabilitation of mastectomy: narrative review of literature / Atención de enfermería en el pre-operatorio y rehabilitación de mastectomía: revisión narrativa de la literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica realizada nas bases de dados Lilacs e Scielo, que objetivou revisar a produção científica referente aos cuidados de enfermagem no período pré-operatório e de reabilitação de mastectomia. Foram analisados dezoito artigos focalizados nas seguintes categorias: Cui [...] dados de enfermagem no pré-operatório da mastectomia e O papel da Enfermagem na reabilitação da mulher mastectomizada. Observou-se que os cuidados de enfermagem nos dois períodos são fundamentais para um tratamento mais humanizado. No entanto, estes se encontram escassos e com orientações pouco esclarecedoras, sendo necessário um maior enfoque por parte da equipe com relação ao seu papel e cuidados prestados à mulher nessa condição. Abstract in spanish Este estudio da cuenta de una revisión de la literatura de la atención de enfermería en el pre-operatorio bien como en la rehabilitación de la mastectomía. Fueron analizados dieciocho artículos de acuerdo con las categorías: Cuidados de enfermería en el preoperatorio de mastectomía y El papel de la [...] enfermería en la rehabilitación de las mujeres la mastectomía. Se observó que la atención de enfermería en ambos períodos es crucial para una asistencia más humanizada. Sin embargo, es escasa y con orientaciones poco esclarecedoras, es necesaria una mayor concentración del equipo en relación a su papel en la atención de las pacientes. Abstract in english This is a bibliographic research carried out in Lilacs and Scielo database, which aimed to review the production about nursing care during the preoperative and rehabilitation stages of mastectomy. Eighteen articles were analyzed with focus in these categories: Nursing care in the preoperative mastec [...] tomy and The role of nursing in the rehabilitation of women submitted to a mastectomy. It was observed that nursing cares, in the two periods, are a key step for a more human treatment. However, they are scarce and with little enlightening guidance there must be a greater focus on the role by the nursing team in relation to women care.

Pricilla Cândido, Alves; Izabel Cristina Falcão Juvenal, Barbosa; Joselany Áfio, Caetano; Ana Fátima Carvalho, Fernandes.

2011-08-01

387

Wikipedia uses in learning design: A literature review  

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Full Text Available This paper is a literature review report concerning educational uses of Wikipedia in the first 10 years of its existence. The aim of the work is the tracing and the presentation of published and validated educational applications of Wikipedia in a manner that could inform learning design by teachers or researchers. For the review, 24 scientific publications, retrieved from research databases and concerning educational applications of Wikipedia were analyzed. The review reveals a variety of learning uses of Wikipedia in several contexts, knowledge fields, education level and students’ ages. In addition, the study shows a variety of expected learning outcomes and a pleiad of student tasks in the learning activities. Both, the learning outcomes and the students’ tasks are organized in general types with the aim of constituting patterns for new learning designs. The findings are commented and possible future directions of research are described.

Georgios Fessakis

2012-01-01

388

Narratives of Modern Architecture as One. A Review of The Future of Architecture: Since 1889  

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Full Text Available Writing “histories” of architecture has become a daunting task these days. The information made available by countless books, articles, dissertations and exhibitions has rendered the historian’s mission increasingly problematic, owing to the difficulty in covering the available knowledge and in organizing it under the form of a coherent narrative.

Paolo Scrivano

2013-03-01

389

Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This raises some concern that existing studies do not always cover all the regions globally that currently experience landslides and landslide fatalities.

Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

2014-05-01

390

The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review  

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Full Text Available Background: Most studies address medical treatment of infertility and psychosocial outcomes caused by infertility-related stress, but few studies examine the infertility’s impact on sexuality.Aim: A literature review was conducted to answer the questions: 1 How is sexual self concept impacted in infertile individuals and their partners? 2 Does infertility have a negative impact on sexual relationships? 3 Is sexual function affected by infertility? In answering these questions, we may develop a better understanding of sexuality in the context of infertility, and thus better inform infertility management. Ultimately the aim is to improve the quality of life for infertile couples.Method: A literature search was conducted for publications from 1990 to 2011 via the electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus, which focused on sexuality in infertile subjects or couples.Results: In this review, all studies were descriptive quantitative studies which mapped the different aspects of sexuality in the context of infertility. The results suggested that infertility and its treatment approaches for fertilisationcould lead to changes in sexual self-esteem, sexual relationship and sexual function.Conclusion: The literature substantiated that many infertile subjects experienced trouble in various aspects of sexuality. However, further research should examine the reciprocal relations between sexual self concept, sexual relationship and sexual function in the context of infertility. How these changes affect the partners of infertile subjects should also be addressed.

Bruce Maycock3

2011-11-01

391

Schwannoma base tongue: Case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. These are rare in the oral cavity (1%). The most common site of involvement in oral cavity is the tongue. Posterior third of tongue is not frequently involved. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of base tongue schwannoma and review literature of this rare tumor. Data from literature were analyzed for age, gender, presenting symptom, size at presentation, and surgical approach. We report a case of 26 year-old male who presented with swelling posterior 1/3rd tongue and change in quality of voice. He was evaluated for the same with MR and incision biopsy and was planned for surgery. Surgery was abandoned at a district hospital due to difficulty in intubation. At our center he underwent fibro optic bronchoscopy guided intubation followed by general anesthesia. He underwent excision of mass using left paramedian lip spitting approach with mandibulotomy and mandibular swing. Tumor was excised in toto. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Literature review between 2001 and 2012 was done. 15 cases of base tongue schwannoma were identified. The most common age group involved was between 30-40 years. There was a slightly higher incidence in females. All patients were symptomatic at presentation. Most common complaints were related to swallowing and throat pain. Most patients underwent transoral excision of the tumor. PMID:25316399

George, N A; Wagh, M; Balagopal, P G; Gupta, S; Sukumaran, R; Sebastian, P

2014-07-01

392

A literature review of demand studies in world oil markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature on world oil market demands was reviewed, summarized and organized into seven major groupings. The objective was to model economic behaviour before and after price shocks. In particular, the paper demonstrated how the price elasticity of demand in world oil markets is estimated. It also showed how the relationship between energy and oil consumption and income are estimated. The income elasticity of demand was also estimated, and empirical estimates of the elasticity of aggregate output regarding crude oil and energy prices were presented. The paper also referred to the transportation sector and estimates of the changing nature of seasonal factors. The review showed that there is much heterogeneity of econometric results. The literature showed that demand increased considerably in response to the price shocks of the 1970s, but these shocks were reversed in the 1980s when the increase in demand did not correspond with the decrease in price. Some of the literature is driven by the belief that there must be a stable, non-linear model that fits the data both before and after price shocks. The authors question whether this could be true and propose an alternative hypothesis that there is a different model that pertains to economic behaviour after price shocks. 15 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

393

Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review  

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Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational school classes and received text messages tailored to demographic and smoking-related variables. The program was accepted very well by the target group. It did not affect smoking abstinence rates at 6-months follow-up but resulted in significant lower cigarette consumption. Conclusion: First results on the appropriateness and short-term efficacy of text message-based interventions to reduce tobacco and alcohol use in young people are promising; however, further adequately powered trials are needed to confirm these initial results and to test the longer-term efficacy of these programs. Keywords: text messaging, alcohol, tobacco, young people

Haug S

2013-10-01

394

Tuberculosis in healthcare workers - a narrative review from a German perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Despite the decline of tuberculosis in the population at large, healthcare workers (HCW) are still at risk of infection. Methods In a narrative review the TB risk in HCW and preventive measures are described, with the focus on epidemiology and Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) regulations in Germany. Results There is an increased risk of infection not only in pneumology and laboratories with regular contact with tuberculosis patients or infectious materials. Epidemiological studies have also verified an increased risk of infection from activities that involve close contact with patients’ breath (e.g. bronchoscopy, intubation) or close contact with patients in need of care in geriatric medicine or geriatric nursing. In occupational disease claim proceedings on account of tuberculosis, the burden of proof can be eased for insured persons who work in these or other comparable fields. Forgoing evidence of an index person as a source of infection has led to a doubling of the rate of cases of tuberculosis recognised as an occupational disease and has halved the duration of occupational disease claim proceedings in Germany. For several years now, it has been possible to use the new interferon-y release assays (IGRAs) to diagnose a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with significantly greater validity than with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). However, variability of the IGRAs around the cut-off poses problems especially in serial testing of HCWs. At around 10%, LTBI prevalence in German healthcare workers is lower than had been assumed. It can make sense to treat a recent LTBI in a young healthcare worker so as to prevent progression into active tuberculosis. If the LTBI is occupational in origin, the provider of statutory accident insurance can cover the costs of preventive treatment. However, little is known about disease progression in HCWs with positive IGRA sofar. Conclusion TB screening in HCWs will remain an important issue in the near future even in low incidence, high income countries, as active TB in HCWs is often due to workplace exposure. The IGRAs facilitate these screenings. However, variability of IGRA results in serial testing of HCWs need further investigations. PMID:24625063

2014-01-01

395

A narrative review on the effect of economic downturns on the nursing labour market: implications for policy and planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic downturns and recession lead to budget cuts and service reductions in the healthcare sector which often precipitate layoffs and hiring freezes. Nurses, being the largest professional group in healthcare, are strongly affected by cost reductions. Economic downturns destabilize the nursing labour market with potential negative outcomes, including serious shortages, extending beyond the recessionary period. The objectives of this manuscript are to provide an overview of the potential short- and long-run impact of economic downturns on the supply and demand of nurses, and present healthcare decision makers with a framework to enhance their ability to strategically manage their human resources through economic cycles.A narrative review of the literature on the effects of economic downturns on the nursing labour market in developed countries was carried out with a special focus on studies offering a longitudinal examination of labour force trends. Analysis indicates that economic downturns limit the ability of public payers and institutions to finance their existing health workforce. As salaried healthcare workers, nurses are especially susceptible to institutional budget cuts. In the short run, economic downturns may temporarily reduce the demand for and increase the supply of nurses, thereby influencing nursing wages and turnover rates. These effects may destabilise the nursing labour market in the long run. After economic downturns, the market would quickly display the pre-recessionary trends and there may be serious demand-supply imbalances resulting in severe shortages. Potential long-term effects of recession on the nursing labour market may include a downsized active workforce, difficulty in retaining younger nurses, a decreased supply of nurses and workforce casualisation.Lack of understanding of labour market dynamics and trends might mislead policy makers into making misinformed workforce downsizing decisions that are often difficult and expensive to reverse. In the aftermath of an economic downturn, the costs of attracting nurses back often outweigh the short term cost savings. Effective management should support the nursing workforce by creating attractive and stable work environments to retain nurses at a manageable cost. PMID:22905739

Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

2012-01-01

396

A narrative review on the effect of economic downturns on the nursing labour market: implications for policy and planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Economic downturns and recession lead to budget cuts and service reductions in the healthcare sector which often precipitate layoffs and hiring freezes. Nurses, being the largest professional group in healthcare, are strongly affected by cost reductions. Economic downturns destabilize the nursing labour market with potential negative outcomes, including serious shortages, extending beyond the recessionary period. The objectives of this manuscript are to provide an overview of the potential short- and long-run impact of economic downturns on the supply and demand of nurses, and present healthcare decision makers with a framework to enhance their ability to strategically manage their human resources through economic cycles. A narrative review of the literature on the effects of economic downturns on the nursing labour market in developed countries was carried out with a special focus on studies offering a longitudinal examination of labour force trends. Analysis indicates that economic downturns limit the ability of public payers and institutions to finance their existing health workforce. As salaried healthcare workers, nurses are especially susceptible to institutional budget cuts. In the short run, economic downturns may temporarily reduce the demand for and increase the supply of nurses, thereby influencing nursing wages and turnover rates. These effects may destabilise the nursing labour market in the long run. After economic downturns, the market would quickly display the pre-recessionary trends and there may be serious demand–supply imbalances resulting in severe shortages. Potential long-term effects of recession on the nursing labour market may include a downsized active workforce, difficulty in retaining younger nurses, a decreased supply of nurses and workforce casualisation. Lack of understanding of labour market dynamics and trends might mislead policy makers into making misinformed workforce downsizing decisions that are often difficult and expensive to reverse. In the aftermath of an economic downturn, the costs of attracting nurses back often outweigh the short term cost savings. Effective management should support the nursing workforce by creating attractive and stable work environments to retain nurses at a manageable cost.

Alameddine Mohamad

2012-08-01

397

Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH) in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: t [...] o evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

Laura, Fieschi; Maria, Matarese; Ercole, Vellone; Rosaria, Alvaro; Maria Grazia, De Marinis.

398

Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH) in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: t [...] o evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

Laura, Fieschi; Maria, Matarese; Ercole, Vellone; Rosaria, Alvaro; Maria Grazia, De Marinis.

2013-03-01

399

Hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular complications: a narrative review on the basis of pathophysiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular complications are important in hyperthyroidism because of their high frequency in clinical presentation and increased mortality and morbidity risk. The cause of hyperthyroidism, factors related to the patient, and the genetic basis for complications are associated with risk and the basic underlying mechanisms are important for treatment and management of the disease. Besides cellular effects, hyperthyroidism also causes hemodynamic changes, such as increased preload and contractility and decreased systemic vascular resistance causes increased cardiac output. Besides tachyarrythmias, impaired systolic ventricular dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction may cause thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of the patients, as another high mortality complication. Although the medical literature has some conflicting data about benefits of treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, even high-normal thyroid function may cause cardiovascular problems and it should be treated. This review summarizes the cardiovascular consequences of hyperthyroidism with underlying mechanisms. PMID:24273583

Ertek, Sibel; Cicero, Arrigo F

2013-10-31

400

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATION. AN EXTENDED LITERATURE REVIEW  

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Full Text Available In our paper we review the general topic of social involvement of organizations, in the light of business-society relationship. For this aim we analyze the extensive international literature of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, social philanthropy, sustainable corporation and other related concepts. In this endeavor we categorize the main body of knowledge in three broad areas: (1 papers investigating the definitions and measures of these concepts, including practitioners’ opinions, (2 predictors of such involvement and actions, (3 effects of social responsibility manifested by organizations. The second section of our paper focuses on the Romanian literature on this topic, as it is less systematized so far. In this section we focus on the main findings of studies conducted on Romanian companies regarding CSR or related concepts. In the final, concluding section we propose a research methodology for CSR in Romania meant to clarify the impact of the most frequently considered predictors.

Saveanu Tomina Gabriela

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2013-12-01

402

Aesthetic clasp design for removable partial dentures: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Removable partial dentures (RPD) are an effective and affordable treatment option for partial edentulism. If the main reason for seeking treatment is the need for improved aesthetics, treatment should be geared towards achieving this goal. This article is the result of a literature study on aesthetic clasp design for the conventional RPD. In this context, the position of the clasp on the tooth, clasp types, clasp material and alternative methods of retention are reviewed. Although published in reputable journals, the authors report that many articles published on this subject are of a descriptive nature and lack scientific evidence. Therefore, clinicians are encouraged to be critical in their interpretation of literature and the application of published information in their clinical practices. PMID:16052751

Khan, S B; Geerts, G A V M

2005-06-01

403

[Food and nutrition education in school: a literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Food and nutrition education is viewed as a key strategy for promoting healthy eating habits, and the school is an appropriate space for developing these activities. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the scientific literature on intervention studies on food and nutrition education in Brazilian schools. A literature review was conducted, selecting articles published from 2000 to 2011. Despite the topic's current importance, there were few articles, and most were published after 2009. The main results showed improvement in the children's nutritional knowledge and food choices. However, most studies that performed anthropometric measurements failed to show changes in nutritional status. In addition, the studies chose designs based on epidemiological intervention studies, indicating the need for interventions based on innovative health education methodologies and research models that are consistent with the study's objects. PMID:24233031

Ramos, Flavia Pascoal; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Reis, Amélia Borba Costa

2013-11-01

404

Neurolathyrism: two Ethiopian case reports and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurolathyrism is a toxic myelopathy caused by ingestion of the Lathyrus sativus grasspea. An irreversible acute to subacute spastic paraparesis or quadriparesis ensues. Despite public education, new cases of this preventable disease still occur. Two Ethiopian cases of neurolathyrism are reported to illustrate the disease, followed by a literature review. Two teenage male farmers from the same village developed irreversible spastic myelopathy following L. sativus ingestion. There was no sensory, sphincter or bulbar dysfunction. Likely causative factors identified were increased consumption of L. sativus prior to and following disease onset, heavy physical exertion and male gender, similar to those reported in the literature. Neurolathyrism is an entirely preventable neurotoxic myelopathy with permanent disability accrued. Treatment is symptomatic. Because of personal disability and subsequent socioeconomic effects, this disease warrants further public health measures to prevent occurrence. Education, avoidance of the grasspea and measures to reduce toxin burden are possible methods. PMID:22081101

Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Hassan, Anhar; Zenebe, Guta

2012-07-01

405

The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder. Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance.

Barbara Broers

2010-07-01

406

Tools that assess functional decline: systematic literature review update  

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Full Text Available Kate Beaton, Karen Grimmer International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Background: Screening for risk of functional decline in the elderly is increasingly important in ambulatory health care settings, to ensure that appropriate services are provided to reduce the risk of downstream decline. These screening tools should have sound psychometric properties and clinical utility. Design: An updated systematic literature review for (1 new screening tools published since the last review, conducted in 2007 and published in 2008, and (2 recent research into psychometric properties of the five tools identified in the previous review. Methods: A comprehensive review of multiple databases using the search terms from the Sutton et al review was conducted. The reference lists of included articles were hand-searched for additional articles, and the literature was evaluated with the appropriate critical appraisal tool. Included screening tools should be designed for, or applicable to, hospital emergency departments. Results: Two relevant new tools were identified (the Simplified PROFUNCTION index and Brief Risk Identification for Geriatric Health Tool. Six additional papers testing psychometric properties of four of the five previously reported screening tools were also found. Conclusion: Seven relevant screening tools are available with similar validity and reliability estimates. They consider similar constructs and have convincing evidence of applicability to a range of older populations, or different cultures. Identification of Seniors at Risk, is the most frequently reported screening tool. The wider unanswered question is how, why, and where these functional decline screening tools are used; how valid the findings are on ill, stressed, older people in emergency departments; and how the findings are acted upon in terms of community intervention to slow functional decline. Keywords: functional decline, older adults, screening and assessment tools

Beaton K

2013-04-01

407

Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more complete insight into the state of home care in Europe requires the gathering of information using a uniform framework and methodology.

Fagerström Cecilia

2011-08-01

408

Attributes, Environment Factors and Women Entrepreneurial Activity: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of individual attributes and business environment factors on the entrepreneurial activity of women entrepreneurs. Individual attributes such as education, working experience, attitude towards risk-taking, affect women entrepreneurial activity. Economic constraints such as lack of credit due to lack of asset collaterals and socio-cultural barriers, lack of savings due to low household income, and lack of labour skills due to low educational level also affect women entrepreneurial activity. The effect of these factors on entrepreneurial activity is worth studying because entrepreneurship development is considered a vital link to an overall economic growth of a nation through its positive impact on economic development especially at the grassroots. However, limited studies have reviewed literatures on individual attributes and business environment factors on the entrepreneurial activity of women entrepreneurs. This is the focus of this study.Methodology: The paper is a descriptive study that reviews literature on individual attributes and environment factors on women entrepreneurial activity.Conclusion: The paper concludes that environment factors exert much more influence on women entrepreneurial activity than individual attributes.Research limitation: The paper is limited to a literature review that may need further research by using a framework to investigate the factors on entrepreneurial activity.Practical implication: It shows the need for the government to support entrepreneurs through adequate provision of micro-finance.Originality: The study is a new way to look at crucial factors affecting entrepreneurial activity in a country. Paper type: This is a research paper.

Isidore Ekpe

2011-08-01

409

Electrophysiological examination in uveitis: a review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos,1 Nikolaos S Gouliopoulos,1 Christos Kalogeropoulos2 1Laboratory of Electrophysiology, First Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Purpose: Uveitis is the inflammation of the uveal tract, which usually also affects the retina and vitreous humor. The electrophysiological examination is an objective ocular examination that includes the electroretinogram, visual evoked potentials, the electrooculogram, the multifocal electroretinogram, and multifocal visual evoked potentials. Our aim is to review the literature of the use of the electrophysiological examination in cases of uveitis. Methods: We performed a systematic search of the literature of published papers until October 2012 using the PubMed search engine. The key terms that were used were “uveitis,” “electrophysiological examination”, “electroretinogram”, “visual evoked potentials”, “electro-oculogram”, “multifocal electroretinogram”, and “multifocal visual evoked potentials” in multiple combinations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review concerning the assessment of electrophysiology in uveitis. Results: Our search of the literature demonstrated that the electrophysiological examination, mainly by means of electroretinogram, multifocal electroretinogram, and visual evoked potentials, is performed in several cases of uveitis for many purposes, including diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression and treatment efficacy. The electrophysiological examination is more useful in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, birdshot chorioretinopathy, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease, Adamantiades–Behçet disease, ocular syphilis, and Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis. Conclusion: This review summarizes the use of the electrophysiological examination in uveitic patients and underlines its value as a useful tool in the objective assessment and the monitoring of the disease. Keywords: uveitis, ERG, mfERG, VEP

Moschos MM

2014-01-01

410

Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians: A Literature Review  

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Aim: This study aims to review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM physicians in Emergency Departments (ED. Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena by other means than quantification often through verbal or observational investigation. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that has been investigated through qualitative methodologies. A literature review is needed to show what qualitative studies illuminate about EM and why this work is important to develop EM as a complex organizational and communicative practice. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references were reviewed. The key words used were emergency medicine, qualitative, ethnography, observation, interview, video, anthropology, simulation, and simulation-based. Results: 820 papers were identified and 46 studies were included in this review. This literature review found that the reviewed qualitative studies on EM physicians were designed using the following strategies of inquiry: Ethnography, mixed methods, action research, grounded theory, phenomenology, content analysis, discourse analysis, and critical incident analysis. The reviewed studies were categorized into four main themes: Education and training, communication, professional roles, and organizational factors, and into 12 sub-themes. Conclusion: The strength of qualitative research is its ability to grasp and operationalize complex relations within EM. Although qualitative research methodologies have gained in rigor in recent years and few researchers would question their value in studying complex medical and social phenomena, rigorous design in qualitative studies is needed. Qualitative research studies that stick with one strategy of inquiry that they follow closely are likely to yield more valid studies.

2013-01-01

411

Primary Adrenal Leiomyosarcoma: a Case Report and Literature Review  

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Full Text Available The case presented here illustrates a 75 year old female patient who underwent surgical resection of a right adrenal mass of uncertain nature. The ?nal histological diagnosis was consistent with leiomyosarcoma arising from the adrenal anatomic site. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland is a very rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasm: to our knowledge, this is only the twelfth case reported in literature. We describe the clinical course and a brief review of clinical and histological features, biologic behaviour, diagnostic approaches and therapeutic strategies.

Mencoboni M

2008-01-01

412

Computerized tomography and schizophrenia: critical review of the literature  

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A critical review of the literature regarding structural brain abnormalities in Schizophrenia is presented. It is reported that the prevalence and the localization of the abnormalities vary widely among studies. These differences might stem from samples heterogeneity, from the choice of the computer tomographic (CT) parameter to be investigated and from the use of different criteria for defining abnormalities. It seems established that at least one subgroup of Schizophrenia patients shows mild or moderate brain atrophy, in spite of some contradictory findings. (M.A.C.)

413

Waardenburg syndrome in Japanese patients. Case reports and literature review.  

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A 3-year-old girl (case 1) had a blue iris and albinotic fundus in the right eye and bilateral deafness. Her 6-month-old sister (case 2) had hypopigmented irides and fundi in both eyes and bilateral deafness. We found that the ratios of interinner canthal distance to interpupillary distance were less than 0.65 in normal Japanese controls. In our patients, these ratios were within the normal range, indicating the absence of dystopia canthorum. After reviewing the recent Japanese literature, we found that the hypopigmented iris and deafness seen in our patients are common in Japanese patients with Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:1436991

Hayasaka, S; Noda, S; Setogawa, T; Kobayashi, A; Kishida, K; Sakai, T

1992-01-01

414

Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum : Case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Papillary Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum or Warthin?s tumour is a unique neoplasm arising almost exclusively in the parotid salivary gland and is composed of oncocytic epithelium with a prominent lymphoid infiltrate. The tumor is usually asymptomatic and may be associated with varying degrees of pain not necessarily an indication of malignant transformation in the tumour. The tumour is managed easily by surgical excision. This article presents a typical case arising in the right parotid gland of a 73-year-old male with review of literature of this rare tumour.

Patil Karthikeya

2005-01-01