WorldWideScience

Sample records for narrative literature review

  1. Family carers providing support to a person dying in the home setting: A narrative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Sara; King, Claire; Turner, Mary; Payne, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is based on people dying at home relying on the care of unpaid family carers. There is growing recognition of the central role that family carers play and the burdens that they bear, but knowledge gaps remain around how to best support them. Aim: The aim of this study is to review the literature relating to the perspectives of family carers providing support to a person dying at home. Design: A narrative literature review was chosen to provide an overview and synthesis ...

  2. Families parenting adolescents with substance abuse--recovering the mother's voice: a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jackie M; Estefan, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol and substance dependency are complex, problematic phenomena, which are growing worldwide. In particular, drug use and abuse among young people is a significant concern. Although addiction presents as a problem of dependent individuals, families are also profoundly affected by the family member's addiction. In this narrative literature review, we review published research from 1937 to 2014 to capture a narrative and historical perspective of addiction and family. We condense and analyze the experiences of parents with alcohol- and drug-dependent children, to emphasize the need for a more specific, in-depth exploration of mothers' experiences. Such exploration may advance nurses' understandings of individual, familial, and social complexities of parenting an addicted child. PMID:25342471

  3. A narrative literature review of the therapeutic effects of music upon childbearing women and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic effects of music are well recognised within the literature, with benefits for a variety of health problems documented. This narrative review summarises benefits in terms of reducing stress, anxiety, labour pain and depression in childbearing women. For neonates, music has been shown to reduce number of days to discharge, reduce pain response behaviours, increase weight gain, improve Brazelton scores, improve parent/infant intimacy, improve oxygen saturation, increase formula intake, stabilize vital signs and increase parental reports of calmed infants. The main criticism of the studies reviewed is lack of categorisation of the particulars of the variables within the music that directly influenced outcome variables. A recommendation is made that a music package be developed and relationships with variables rigorously evaluated. The validated product may then be made available for use. Since evidence supports advantages from listening to music, it is suggested that maternity professionals use it in more creative ways. PMID:25193325

  4. Family carers providing support to a person dying in the home setting: A narrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara M; King, Claire; Turner, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is based on people dying at home relying on the care of unpaid family carers. There is growing recognition of the central role that family carers play and the burdens that they bear, but knowledge gaps remain around how to best support them. Aim: The aim of this study is to review the literature relating to the perspectives of family carers providing support to a person dying at home. Design: A narrative literature review was chosen to provide an overview and synthesis of findings. The following search terms were used: caregiver, carer, ‘terminal care’, ‘supportive care’, ‘end of life care’, ‘palliative care’, ‘domiciliary care’ AND home AND death OR dying. Data sources: During April–May 2013, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Cochrane Reviews and Citation Indexes were searched. Inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, empirical studies and literature reviews, adult carers, perspectives of family carers, articles focusing on family carers providing end-of-life care in the home and those published between 2000 and 2013. Results: A total of 28 studies were included. The overarching themes were family carers’ views on the impact of the home as a setting for end-of-life care, support that made a home death possible, family carer’s views on deficits and gaps in support and transformations to the social and emotional space of the home. Conclusion: Many studies focus on the support needs of people caring for a dying family member at home, but few studies have considered how the home space is affected. Given the increasing tendency for home deaths, greater understanding of the interplay of factors affecting family carers may help improve community services. PMID:25634635

  5. Sleep–wake disturbances in cancer patients: narrative review of literature focusing on improving quality of life outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ss, Dickerson; Lm, Connors; Fayad A; Ge, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Suzanne S Dickerson, Laurie M Connors, Ameera Fayad, Grace E Dean School of Nursing, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, NY, USA Purpose: Evidence suggests a high prevalence of sleep–wake disturbances in patients with cancer, occurring at diagnosis, during treatment, and continuing to survivorship. Yet associations between sleep–wake disturbances and the impact on quality of life outcomes is less clear. The purpose of this narrative review of the literature is to...

  6. The (mis)Measurement of M&A Performance : A Systematic Narrative Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; Risberg, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to further the understanding of the variety of meanings M&A scholars attach to the label “M&A performance” by providing an alternative way to interpret the claimed inconsistency of M&A research findings. While many scholars contend that the problem stems from the multiplicity of M&A performance measures, we believe the problem rests in trying to compare different measures as if they were measuring the same feature of the organization. Through our narrative review of empirical research we analyze factors shaping the M&A – as well as the organizational – performance measurement process. The conclusion is that it is not possible to talk about M&A performance as if it was a universal construct.

  7. Chiropractic and concussion in sport: a narrative review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire D.; Green, Bart N.; Nelson, Robert C.; Moreau, Bill; Nabhan, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Concussion is a common sporting injury that may be seen by doctors of chiropractic and should be managed following current practice guidelines. The purpose of this abstract is to present a literature review on chiropractic management of concussion in sport and to discuss current guidelines. Methods A review of the literature was performed using the PubMed search engine. MeSH terms included chiropractic and concussion. Search dates were the beginning of the record through July 30, 2013. All languages and article types were included in the search. Articles found were retrieved and evaluated for the relevance of chiropractic management of concussion in sport. Results Five articles were found (1 prospective study, 1 survey, 3 literature reviews) ranging in publication years from 1993 to 2012. No articles reported a position statement, and none provided a review of current concussion management practices related to chiropractic practice. No articles reported adverse outcomes of chiropractic management of an athlete with concussion. Conclusion Research related to the chiropractic management of concussion in sport is a nascent area of investigation. Although there are few published articles, the articles in this review showed that doctors of chiropractic encounter concussed athletes at events and in clinical practice. It is essential for doctors of chiropractic to understand the importance of using standardized concussion assessment tools and current concussion guidelines. PMID:24396325

  8. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. PMID:23623464

  9. Sleep–wake disturbances in cancer patients: narrative review of literature focusing on improving quality of life outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickerson SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne S Dickerson, Laurie M Connors, Ameera Fayad, Grace E Dean School of Nursing, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, NY, USA Purpose: Evidence suggests a high prevalence of sleep–wake disturbances in patients with cancer, occurring at diagnosis, during treatment, and continuing to survivorship. Yet associations between sleep–wake disturbances and the impact on quality of life outcomes is less clear. The purpose of this narrative review of the literature is to evaluate sleep–wake disturbances in patients with cancer, to describe the influence of poor sleep on quality of life as an outcome, and to evaluate the evidence to recommend future interventions. Framework and methods: This review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA approach. Four databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched using terms "cancer OR neoplasm", "sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep disorders or insomnia", and "quality of life"; the search included all years, English language, and peer-reviewed articles on research studies. Studies included measurements of sleep and quality of life in cancer patients at a minimum of two time points and demonstrated relationships between sleep and quality of life. Data were collected on date, patient demographics, cancer type and treatment, timeframe, design, measurement, variables, and results. Results: This narrative review demonstrates that sleep–wake disturbance is a major problem/symptom in patients with cancer. Of the 18 studies included, measurement of sleep-related variables included objective and subjective measures; however, direct measurement of the associations between sleep and quality of life was not common. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia and mind–body interventions demonstrated feasibility when implemented into cancer care settings. In addition, the majority of interventions exhibited moderate effectiveness in improving sleep–wake disturbance and quality of life outcomes. Conclusion: The studies predominantly reported that poor sleep negatively impacts quality of life. The intervention studies included nonpharmacologic interventions such as cognitive behavioral treatment and mind–body and exercise interventions with moderate-to-high levels of evidence for improvement in sleep measures and quality of life. Keywords: sleep–wake disturbance, quality of life, cancer, cognitive behavioral therapy, mind-body interventions, insomnia

  10. Trust matters: A narrative literature review of the role of trust in health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the debate about health service utilisation and the role of trust in fostering demand for health services in sub-Saharan Africa. It is framed as a narrative literature review based on a thematic analysis of nine empirical, qualitative studies. For the purposes of this article trust is defined as a voluntary course of action, which involves the optimistic expectation that the trustee will do no harm to the trustor and is increasingly perceived as an important influence on health system functioning. The article looks at trust issues in interpersonal, intergroup and institutional situations. The findings of the review point to four elements that are important for trust to develop in health sector relationships: the sensitive use of discretionary power by health workers, perceived empathy by patients of the health workers, the quality of medical care and workplace collegiality. When trust works in health sector encounters, it reduces the social complexity and inherent uneven distribution of power between clients and providers. The article concludes that understanding and supporting trust processes between patients and providers, as well as between co-workers and managers, will improve health sector collaboration and stimulate demand for health care services.

  11. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies' results indicate that there may be a relationship between abnormal HRV and clinical depression when assessed early after an ACS event, offering the possibility that these risk factors play a modest role in patient outcomes. Conclusion: While a definitive conclusion about the relevance of HRV and clinical depression measurement in ACS patients would be premature, the literature suggests that these measures may provide additional information in risk assessment. Potential avenues for further research are proposed. Keywords: autonomic nervous system, depressive disorder, outcomes research, risk assessment

  12. The ongoing impacts of hepatitis c - a systematic narrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Emma R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have developed, or are developing, national strategies aimed at reducing the harms associated with hepatitis C infection. Making these strategies relevant to the vast majority of those affected by hepatitis C requires a more complete understanding of the short and longer term impacts of infection. We used a systematic approach to scope the literature to determine what is currently known about the health and psychosocial impacts of hepatitis C along the trajectory from exposure to ongoing chronic infection, and to identify what knowledge gaps remain. Methods PubMed, Current Contents and PsychINFO databases were searched for primary studies published in the ten years from 2000–2009 inclusive. Two searches were conducted for studies on hepatitis C in adult persons focusing on: outcomes over time (primarily cohort and other prospective designs; and the personal and psychosocial impacts of chronic infection. All retrieved studies were assessed for eligibility according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, data completeness and methodological coherence. Outcomes reported in 264 included studies were summarized, tabulated and synthesized. Results Injecting drug use (IDU was a major risk for transmission with seroconversion occurring relatively early in injecting careers. Persistent hepatitis C viraemia, increasing age and excessive alcohol consumption independently predicted disease progression. While interferon based therapies reduced quality of life during treatment, improvements on baseline quality of life was achieved post treatment – particularly when sustained viral response was achieved. Much of the negative social impact of chronic infection was due to the association of infection with IDU and inflated assessments of transmission risks. Perceived discrimination was commonly reported in health care settings, potentially impeding health care access. Perceptions of stigma and experiences of discrimination also had direct negative impacts on wellbeing and social functioning. Conclusions Hepatitis C and its management continue to have profound and ongoing impacts on health and social well being. Biomedical studies provided prospective information on clinical aspects of infection, while the broader social and psychological studies presented comprehensive information on seminal experiences (such as diagnosis and disclosure. Increasing the focus on combined methodological approaches could enhance understanding about the health and social impacts of hepatitis C along the life course.

  13. Tensions and paradoxes in electronic patient record research: a systematic literature review using the meta-narrative method

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, T.; Potts, H. W. W.; Wong, G.; Bark, P.; Swinglehurst, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The extensive and rapidly expanding research literature on electronic patient records (EPRs) presents challenges to systematic reviewers. This literature is heterogeneous and at times conflicting, not least because it covers multiple research traditions with different underlying philosophical assumptions and methodological approaches. Aim: To map, interpret and critique the range of concepts, theories, methods and empirical findings on EPRs, with a particular emphasis on the ...

  14. RAMESES publication standards: meta-narrative reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways in which researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 90%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to draw together evidence and expertise in meta-narrative reviews. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Meta-narrative review is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further theoretical and methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan. Please see related articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/21 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22

  15. A reward-centred model of anorexia nervosa: a focussed narrative review of the neurological and psychophysiological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-05-01

    This focussed narrative review examines neurobiological and psychophysiological evidence supporting a role for altered reward processes in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). In AN, there does not appear to be a generalised inability to experience reward. Rather, data suggest that a reluctance to gain weight leads to an aversive appraisal of food- and taste-related stimuli. As a result, cues compatible with this aberrant mode of thinking become rewarding for the individual. Evidence also suggests that attribution of motivational salience to such cues promotes anorectic behaviours. These findings are consistent with models in which interactions between cognition and reward are important in eliciting the anorectic "habit". A model is proposed which is consistent with elements of other theoretical frameworks, but differs in that its emphasis is towards neural overlaps between AN and addiction. It is consistent with AN being a reward-based learned behaviour in which aberrant cognitions related to eating and shape alter functioning of central reward systems. It proposes that the primary neural problem responsible for the development, maintenance, and treatment resistance is centred in the striatal reward system. This helps shift the emphasis of aetiological models towards reward processing, particularly in the context of illness-compatible cues. Furthermore, it suggests that continuing to explore the utility and valued nature of AN in the patient's life would be a useful inclusion in treatment and prevention models. PMID:25735957

  16. Literature Review Organizer

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Edward Notar; Virginia Cole

    2010-01-01

    The authors provide an explanation of a literature review and a form and frame of reference for organizing references for a literature review. There are several aspects of a literature review that can be streamlined with proper organization of the reference information. A review of why a literature review is needed is provide. Problems a writer of a literature review may encounter is also discussed. The form is divided into sections with questions and helpful hints on what should be included ...

  17. The association of genetic variations with sensitivity of blood pressure to dietary salt: A narrative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Up to 50% of patients with essential hypertension are salt-sensitive, as manifested by a rise in BP with salt intake. Several genetic variations have been identified as being associated with salt sensitivity. The present study aimed to review the evidence on the effect of gene polymorphisms on the salt sensitivity of BP. We searched in PubMed website from 1990 to 2011, with the use of following...

  18. Acute and chronic pain: a narrative review of the literature Dolor agudo y crónico: revisión narrativa de la literatura Dor aguda e crônica: revisão narrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Calil Sallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to identify the organic, emotional and psychic prevalent consequences in patients with acute and chronic pain and punctuate the main assessment tools for these pains. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using descriptors related to pain measurement, signs and symptoms, totalizing 184 articles. The electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS were searched from January 2000 to December 2010. The review pointed out a series of conclusive studies about the organic repercussions more frequent in acute and chronic pain conditions and the use of different rating scales for both situations. It is believed that these findings could be of great values for health teams, could contribute with a better practice and with customer satisfaction in the hospital scenario and at home.Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las repercusiones orgánicas, emocionales y psíquicas prevalentes en pacientes con dolor agudo y dolor crónico y puntuar los principales instrumentos de evaluación para esos dolores. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, utilizándose descriptores relacionados a la medición del dolor, cuidados de enfermería, signos y síntomas, en un total de 184 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILACS y MEDLINE, entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2010. Esta revisión puntuó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las repercusiones orgánicas más frecuentes en los cuadros álgicos agudos y crónicos y el uso de escalas de evaluación distintas para ambas situaciones. Se cree que esos hallazgos podrán ser de gran valía para los equipos de salud y que contribuya con mejores prácticas y satisfacción del cliente en los escenarios intra hospitalario y domiciliario.Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as repercussões orgânicas, emocionais e psíquicas prevalentes em pacientes com dor aguda e dor crônica e pontuar os principais instrumentos de avaliação para essas dores. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionados a medição da dor, cuidados de enfermagem, sinais e sintomas, totalizando 184 artigos. As bases eletrônicas pesquisadas foram LILACS e MEDLINE, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2010. Esta revisão pontuou uma série de estudos conclusivos sobre as repercussões orgânicas mais freqüentes nos quadros álgicos agudos e crônicos e o uso de escalas de avaliação distintas para ambas as situações. Acredita-se que esses achados possam ser de grande valia para as equipes de saúde, contribua com melhores práticas e satisfação do cliente nos cenários intra hospitalar e domiciliário.

  19. Acute and chronic pain: a narrative review of the literature / Dolor agudo y crónico: revisión narrativa de la literatura / Dor aguda e crônica: revisão narrativa da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Calil, Sallum; Dayse Maioli, Garcia; Mariana, Sanches.

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as repercussões orgânicas, emocionais e psíquicas prevalentes em pacientes com dor aguda e dor crônica e pontuar os principais instrumentos de avaliação para essas dores. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionado [...] s a medição da dor, cuidados de enfermagem, sinais e sintomas, totalizando 184 artigos. As bases eletrônicas pesquisadas foram LILACS e MEDLINE, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2010. Esta revisão pontuou uma série de estudos conclusivos sobre as repercussões orgânicas mais freqüentes nos quadros álgicos agudos e crônicos e o uso de escalas de avaliação distintas para ambas as situações. Acredita-se que esses achados possam ser de grande valia para as equipes de saúde, contribua com melhores práticas e satisfação do cliente nos cenários intra hospitalar e domiciliário. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las repercusiones orgánicas, emocionales y psíquicas prevalentes en pacientes con dolor agudo y dolor crónico y puntuar los principales instrumentos de evaluación para esos dolores. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, utilizándose descript [...] ores relacionados a la medición del dolor, cuidados de enfermería, signos y síntomas, en un total de 184 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILACS y MEDLINE, entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2010. Esta revisión puntuó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las repercusiones orgánicas más frecuentes en los cuadros álgicos agudos y crónicos y el uso de escalas de evaluación distintas para ambas situaciones. Se cree que esos hallazgos podrán ser de gran valía para los equipos de salud y que contribuya con mejores prácticas y satisfacción del cliente en los escenarios intra hospitalario y domiciliario. Abstract in english The study objectives were to identify the organic, emotional and psychic prevalent consequences in patients with acute and chronic pain and punctuate the main assessment tools for these pains. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using descriptors related to pain measurement, signs and [...] symptoms, totalizing 184 articles. The electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS were searched from January 2000 to December 2010. The review pointed out a series of conclusive studies about the organic repercussions more frequent in acute and chronic pain conditions and the use of different rating scales for both situations. It is believed that these findings could be of great values for health teams, could contribute with a better practice and with customer satisfaction in the hospital scenario and at home.

  20. Desatando a trama das redes assistenciais sobre drogas: uma revisão narrativa da literatura / Unravelling the skein of care networks on drugs: a narrative review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Henrique Antunes da, Costa; Daniela Cristina Belchior, Mota; Fernando Santana de, Paiva; Telmo Mota, Ronzani.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acalorados debates sobre determinados modelos de tratamento para usuários de drogas ocorrem no âmbito da academia, das políticas públicas, além da mídia. A rede assistencial sobre drogas é apresentada neste contexto como um importante mecanismo, mas sua construção torna-se um desafio. Assim, realizo [...] u-se uma análise crítica da literatura acadêmica acerca das redes assistenciais sobre drogas, na forma de uma revisão narrativa, visando levantar seus desafios e possibilidades de consolidação. Os resultados encontrados foram: a) uma escassez de estudos específicos sobre a rede assistencial sobre drogas; b) cobertura insuficiente e desintegrada frente à demanda de tratamento; c) necessidade de se repensar o papel dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial para Álcool e outras Drogas, visando seu fortalecimento, expansão, melhoria estrutural e readequação de práticas; d) ausência de análises críticas sobre o processo de construção dos modelos assistenciais sobre drogas nos serviços públicos; e, e) responsabilidade do Estado em fornecer melhores alternativas ao panorama encontrado, avançando no fortalecimento das ações intersetoriais, articulação do cuidado e no aprimoramento das condições de trabalho. Abstract in english Heated debates on given models of treatment for drug users have raged in the halls of academia, in public policies, not to mention in the media. The care network on drugs is presented in this context as an important mechanism for users, but its construction turns out to be a challenge. Therefore, a [...] critical analysis and narrative review of the scientific literature on the care network on drugs was conducted, seeking to pinpoint the challenges and opportunities for its consolidation. The results found include: a) a lack of specific studies on the care network on drugs; b) insufficient and disjointed coverage regarding the demand for treatment; c) the need to rethink the role of the Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and other Drugs, seeking to strengthen, expand, structurally improve and readjust their practices; d) lack of critical analysis about the construction process of care models on drugs in public services; and e) the State’s responsibility to provide better alternatives to the existing panorama revealed, making progress on strengthening intersectorial actions, structuring care and improving working conditions.

  1. Review of Biblical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published in both print and electronic formats by the Society of Biblical Literature, the Review of Biblical Literature (RBL) is a "review of monographic literature in the field of biblical and related studies as well as reference works, commentaries, dictionaries, and biblical translations." This site hosts a database of over 400 reviews from 1996 to 1998. Users can browse by year, subject, author, or title. The database is also searchable by author, title, subject, reviewer, and keyword. Unlike most sites parallelling print publications, the review database appears to be current with the print version, with new reviews added on a regular basis. Additional resources include a Books Received Database and Instructions for Contributors.

  2. A Wikipedia Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Owen S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was originally designed as a literature review for a doctoral dissertation focusing on Wikipedia. This exposition gives the structure of Wikipedia and the latest trends in Wikipedia research.

  3. Writing a narrative biomedical review: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Blackmore, Heather; Kitas, George D

    2011-11-01

    Review articles comprehensively covering a specific topic are crucial for successful research and academic projects. Most editors consider review articles for special and regular issues of journals. Writing a review requires deep knowledge and understanding of a field. The aim of this review is to analyze the main steps in writing a narrative biomedical review and to consider points that may increase the chances of success. We performed a comprehensive search through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science using the following keywords: review of the literature, narrative review, title, abstract, authorship, ethics, peer review, research methods, medical writing, scientific writing, and writing standards. Opinions expressed in the review are also based on personal experience as authors, peer reviewers, and editors. PMID:21800117

  4. Homework. Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Although homework is assigned for a variety of academic and non-academic purposes, there is disagreement within the educational community about the value of homework and the amount of homework students should be assigned. This Literature Review summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of homework and examines how much time students should and…

  5. Historia, literatura y narración / History, Literature, and Narration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Ordoñez Díaz.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La filosofía de la historia arribó en la segunda mitad del siglo XX al reconocimiento del carácter irreductiblemente narrativo de la historia. Esto subrayó las diferencias de la historia con la ciencia y puso en primer plano sus afinidades con la literatura. En este artículo se propone un criterio p [...] ara distinguir historia y literatura sin desmedro del carácter narrativo de la primera y reconociendo que ambas están hondamente ancladas en las estructuras de la conciencia del tiempo. El desarrollo del texto tiene tres partes. En la primera, se reconstruye la argumentación de Danto en favor de la narratividad de la historia; en la segunda, se critica la posición de White en torno al problema de las fronteras entre historia y literatura; en la parte final, con ayuda de Gadamer y Koselleck, se muestra cómo la reconstrucción de hechos históricos y la exploración literaria de la condición humana son dos modalidades de una tarea más amplia relacionada con el estudio de las estructuras de la temporalidad. Abstract in english In the second half of the twentieth century, the philosophy of history came to recognize the irreducibly narrative character of history. This underlined the differences between history and science and highlighted its affinities with literature. This article suggests some criteria by which history ca [...] n be distinguished from literature without undermining the narrative character of the former and recognizing that both are deeply anchored in the structures of the consciousness of time. The text has three parts. The frst reconstructs Danto’s argument in favor of the narrative character of history. The second critiques White’s position regarding the problematic border between history and literature. With the assistance of Gadamer and Koselleck, the final section shows how the reconstruction of historical facts and the literary exploration of the human condition are two modalities of a wider task related to the study of the structures of temporality.

  6. Crouzon's syndrome: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Sarah Crestian; Monteiro, Marcela; Palheta, Ange?lica Cristina Pezzin; Carneiro, Ste?phanie Gonc?alves; Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier; Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes Da; Nunes, Cla?udio Tobias Acatauassu?

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The Crouzon syndrome or craniofacial dysostosis type I is a rare disease that affects the craniofacial skeleton development. Although it is uncommon, it has a transmission risk of 50% when one of the parents is a carrier. Objective: Performing a literature review about the Crouzon Syndrome, with emphasis on the current aspects. Method: As a methodology, a search on databases on-line, such as Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, OMIM and SciELO has been made, by applying for the search the...

  7. Lysimeter literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs

  8. The Use of Massage Therapy for Reducing Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in Oncological Palliative Care Patients: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Falkensteiner, Maria; Mantovan, Franco; Mu?ller, Irene; Them, Christa

    2011-01-01

    A considerable number of cancer patients use complementary medicine therapies in order to alleviate different symptoms such as pain, anxiety, and depression, occurring in connection with cancer. This paper explores the question to what extent massage therapies are able to reduce the amount of pain, anxiety, and depression. For this purpose, a systematic literature analysis was carried out in the electronic databases and specialist journals. There is already evidence that massage therapies...

  9. Real Options Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available After 30 years of discussion and research, the academic community has established a complete theoretical system of real options and provided an excellent framework for the use of real options theory in the investment appraisal of high-tech projects. An option is an entitlement without any obligation and it has been used to describe a variety of management decisions in business investment. The description of management is effective and proper. Due to the introduction of real options theory, there has been a major breakthrough in the investment area. Project evaluation is the core content of bank credit risk assessment and business evaluation. The core content never changes from the investment evaluation framework to the credit risk evaluation framework. The project evaluation meets various needs of subject s in different ways. In this paper, the importance of real options is analyzed and the literature is reviewed

  10. CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical model develop from one waste-filter combination will more than likely not be applicable to another combination. It appears that filtration performance varies as wide as the range of the types of slurry wastes that exist. However, conclusions can be elicited from existing information so that filter performance can be better understood, and hopefully improved. Those conclusions and recommendations for the planned tests are listed.

  11. The Use of Massage Therapy for Reducing Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in Oncological Palliative Care Patients: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkensteiner, Maria; Mantovan, Franco; Müller, Irene; Them, Christa

    2011-01-01

    A considerable number of cancer patients use complementary medicine therapies in order to alleviate different symptoms such as pain, anxiety, and depression, occurring in connection with cancer. This paper explores the question to what extent massage therapies are able to reduce the amount of pain, anxiety, and depression. For this purpose, a systematic literature analysis was carried out in the electronic databases and specialist journals. There is already evidence that massage therapies can influence the symptoms of pain, anxiety, and depression in a positive way. PMID:22007330

  12. Terapia cognitivo-conductual en esquizofrenia: una revisión narrativa de la literatura / Cognitive Behavioral Therapy In Schizophrenia: A Narrative Review of Literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Gutiérrez Ciceri; María Victoria, Ocampo Saldarriaga; Juliana, Gómez Franco.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La esquizofrenia es un trastorno grave e incapacitante. Aunque el tratamiento farmacológico ha sido efectivo, hasta 60% de los pacientes muestran una respuesta insuficiente. Desde el inicio de las terapias psicológicas ha existido interés en el uso de estas intervenciones en pacientes [...] con psicosis. Objetivo: Revisar los aspectos más importantes de la terapia cognitivo conductual (TCC) en el tratamiento de pacientes con esquizofrenia y los datos más relevantes que sustentan su utilidad en este trastorno. Desarrollo: El psicoanálisis, la terapia conductual, la terapia de apoyo y las intervenciones familiares fueron las únicas intervenciones psicológicas durante largo tiempo. Se llegó al consenso de que el psicoanálisis no está indicado en estos pacientes. Las terapias conductuales más ortodoxas hicieron aportes importantes, pero han estado dirigidas a compensar el déficit comportamental. La terapia de familia ha demostrado efectos positivos en resultados clínicos importantes, como recurrencias psicóticas, rehospitalización y cooperación con el tratamiento. La TCC ha sido implementada para compensar algunos déficits y, principalmente, para complementar los tratamientos farmacológicos, así como para tratar síntomas positivos, emocionales y negativos. Conclusiones: Varios estudios controlados y metaanálisis han demostrado que la TCC es útil para reducir los síntomas positivos y tratar las alteraciones emocionales; también ha tenido impacto en los síntomas negativos. Abstract in english Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe and disabling disorder. Although pharmacological treatment has been effective for this condition, up to 60% of patients show an insufficient response. Since the beginnings of psychological therapies, there has been an interest in these interventions in psychot [...] ic patients. Objectives: This paper reviews the most important aspects of CBT in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and the most relevant data supporting its usefulness in this severe disorder. Development: Psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, supportive therapy and family interventions were the only available psychotherapies for a long time. Consensus was reached in that psychoanalysis is not indicated in patients with schizophrenia. Orthodox behavioral therapy made valuable contributions, but was mostly aimed at compensating behavioral deficits. Family therapy has shown positive effects in important clinical outcomes like psychotic relapse, rehospitalization and medication compliance. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been introduced not only for helping to compensate certain deficits of schizophrenia, but also to complement medication in the treatment of positive, emotional and negative symptoms. Conclusions: Several controlled studies and metanalysis have shown that CBT is useful in reducing positive symptoms, for treating emotional disorders, and has had some impact on negative symptoms.

  13. Literature Review and Scientific Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Feakins

    To prepare for this writing assignment, students do a series of discussion section and homework assignments designed to familiarize them with scientific literature, literature reviews and the reading and interpretation of scientific papers and figures. In class students received a lecture on the example literature review providing continuity of topical content, in more depth than class lecture. The condensed literature review exercise serves as preparation for their term project, which includes a term paper and a presentation on a climate related topic of their choice. The topic content could be exchanged for any other for this writing exercise.

  14. Music therapy in dementia : A narrative synthesis systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review uses a narrative synthesis format to determine evidence for effectiveness and provide insight into a model of action. Method The narrative synthesis framework consists of four elements: (i) theory development; (ii) preliminary synthesis of findings; (iii) exploration of relationships between studies; and (iv) assessment of the robustness of the synthesis. Results Electronic and hand searches identified 263 potentially relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria. Three distinctive strands of investigations emerged: eight studies explored behavioural and psychological aspects, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings may improve the well-being of people with dementia.

  15. A Narrative Review of Greek Myths as Interpretative Metaphors in Educational Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cano, Antonio; Torralbo, Manuel; Vallejo, Monica; Fernandez-Guerrero, Ines M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a series of Greek myths put forward as cultural narratives that could be used as metaphors or interpretative similes for explanatory and evaluative purposes in educational research and evaluation. These myths have been used in educational research literature, and most of them were found by carrying out an exhaustive search of…

  16. Literature review, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2005-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing

  17. Bruxism: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shilpa; Pitti, Varun; Satish Babu, C. L.; Surendra Kumar, G. P.; Deepthi, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    Bruxism is a movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of teeth. Awake bruxism is found more in females as compared to males while sleep bruxism shows no such gender prevalence. Etiology of bruxism can be divided into three groups psychosocial factors, peripheral factors and pathophysiological factors. Treatment modalities involve occlusal correction, behavioural changes and pharmacological approach. A literature search was performed using National Library of Medicine’s (NLM...

  18. Temps et narration dans la littérature israélienne Time and Narration in Israeli Literature ???? ??????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Guetta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est une interprétation de la crise contemporaine du roman classique comme une difficulté à faire face à l'accélération constante de l'expérience subjective du temps. J’analyse la réaction de deux groupes d'écrivains israéliens à cette crise esthétique : un premier groupe (AB Yehoshua, Yitzhaq Laor et d'autres ralentit le rythme narratif afin de saisir des détails du monde qui l'entoure, ces détails qui autrement échappent à la capacité de description des auteurs. Un deuxième groupe de jeunes auteurs (Orly Castel Bloom, Etgar Keret qui a abandonné l'ambition de maîtriser le monde typique du roman classique, et se contente d'une littérature de fragments, apparemment glissant à la surface des choses, sans trame précise et avec une description des personnages qui semble superficielle.This article is an interpretation of the contemporary crisis of the classical novel as a difficulty to face the steady acceleration of the subjective experience of time. I analyze the reactions of two groups of Israeli writers to this aesthetic crisis: a first group (A. B. Yehoshua, Yitzhaq Laor and others slow down the narrative rhythm in order to grasp details of the surrounding world, otherwise escaping to the writer's capacity of description. A second group of younger authors (Orly Castel Bloom, Etgar Keret give up the ambition of mastering the world typical of the classical novel, and content themselves with a literature of fragments, apparently gliding at the surface of things, without a precise and organic plot and apparently superficial description of characters.???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????. ????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??: ?????? ???????, ?????? ?? ?. ?. ?????, ???? ???? ???', ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????, ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???, ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????.

  19. Topic: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976). This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic also is concentrated.

  20. Historical trauma as public narrative: a conceptual review of how history impacts present-day health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B; Thai, Nghi D; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2014-04-01

    Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience. PMID:24561774

  1. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira; Neves, Luciano Rodrigues; Brasil, Osi?ris Oliveira Campone?s Do; Pedroso, Jose? Eduardo Sa?; Melo Junior, Jose Elson Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease representing a challenge as regards diagnosis and treatment. Method: In this review, all aspects of the disease are involved, including etiology, clinical manifestations in adults and children, diagnosis, and treatment, by searching through Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases, as well as English and Portuguese articles published from 1973 to 2008. Final Comments: Despite the breakthroughs in its diagnosis and treatment, sarcoidos...

  2. [Systematic review of diagnostic tests accuracy: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals. PMID:20549106

  3. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  4. Trust Management: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Olga Paliszkiewicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of trust has become popular in public debate andacademic analysis. In high income countries this interest is associatedwith concern for the decline of trust in governments andprofessionals, and in developing countries has been promptedby debates around the motion of social capital. Trust has beenidentified as a major factor influencing such things as capital investment,relationship marketing, cross-cultural communication,learning and various types of cooperation. Trust management isbecoming also very important inside the organization. The studywill review empirical research on organizational trust. The purposeof the study will be also evaluation of the advancements andsetbacks in current empirical research in terms of managementorganizational trust. This paper will analyze the theoretical approach,the conceptualization and the measurement issues coveredin studies on management organizational trust. Althoughtrust has emerged as an important factor in organizational relationships,there are still major conceptual and methodologicalchallenges to be met when studying this complex concept.

  5. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease representing a challenge as regards diagnosis and treatment. Method: In this review, all aspects of the disease are involved, including etiology, clinical manifestations in adults and children, diagnosis, and treatment, by searching through Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases, as well as English and Portuguese articles published from 1973 to 2008. Final Comments: Despite the breakthroughs in its diagnosis and treatment, sarcoidosis is a disease that remains without a clear etiology and physiopathology, becoming an exclusion diagnosis due to both the lack of precise exams and its likely multifactor background. Laryngeal impairment, however infrequent, is a suspicion mainly when there is a precedent history of systemic sarcoidosis, and the research for differentiated diagnosis must be wide-ranging so as to prevent severe diseases like malign neoplasia from being unnoticed.

  6. It's All Literature: Narrative in the English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Kathleen; Mizoguchi, Allyson

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the historical development of written narrative during the past century confounds traditional distinctions between fiction and nonfiction. Argues that students need to develop cognitive complexity. Outlines a sequence of assignments intended to destabilize students' assumptions about the difference between reality and fantasy, fiction…

  7. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  8. Workplace Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Karen

    2008-01-01

    As we move into being a knowledge society, the way an organisation learns can be key to its innovation and profitability. This literature review examines the nature of workplace learning, with a focus on nonprofessional occupations, including those closely associated with workplace training. It identifies the conditions that facilitate workplace…

  9. [Significance of brief interventions in the healthcare supply chain of eating disorders: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Maddalena Elisa; Neubauer, Karolin; Weigel, Angelika; Wendt, Hanna; von Rad, Kathrin; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd; Gumz, Antje

    2015-02-01

    So far there is no comprehensive overview on brief outpatient interventions in eating disorders. The specific relevance of psychotherapeutic brief interventions for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder is presented against the background of current healthcare supply chains. This review is based on a literature search that evaluated relevant publications in applicable literature databases. The articles were excerpted and are presented in a narrative overview. In summary, the literature shows a marginal expansion of healthcare provision towards personnel-efficient and cost economic therapeutic solutions for Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder, while the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa is currently determined by more in- and extensive approaches. PMID:24838437

  10. Story Immersion of Videogames for Youth Health Promotion: A Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews research in the fields of psychology, literature, communication, human–computer interaction, public health, and consumer behavior on narrative and its potential relationships with videogames and story immersion. It also reviews a narrative's role in complementing behavioral change theories and the potential of story immersion for health promotion through videogames. Videogames have potential for health promotion and may be especially promising when attempting to reach y...

  11. Conservative therapy for plantar fasciitis: a narrative review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Stuber, Kent; Kristmanson, Kevyn

    2006-01-01

    A narrative literature review of RCTs only, was conducted to ascertain which conservative treatments provide the best results for plantar fasciitis patients. Stretching, prefabricated and custom-made orthotics and night splints have all been scrutinized in numerous studies with mixed results. Chiropractic manipulative therapy has been examined in one study, with favorable results. Therapeutic ultrasound and low intensity laser therapy have been examined in one study apiece with unsatisfactory...

  12. A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Maria; Ma?lqvist, Mats; Giang, Kim Bao; Allebeck, Peter; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2013-01-01

    Depression is among the most common psychiatric conditions in primary health care, and constitutes an important part of the global disease burden. However, it is difficult to obtain comparable data on depression worldwide and models for treatment and intervention need to be locally adapted. We conducted a narrative review of research literature on factors that influence depression screening, diagnosis and treatment among the Vietnamese population. This explorative approach included studies de...

  13. Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles

    OpenAIRE

    Aphramor Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to domina...

  14. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Dharmendra; Mehta, Naveen K.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and...

  15. EOSINOPHLIC OESOPHAGITIS REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the published literature on the topic eosinophilic oesophagitis. This is actually a recent entity. Diagnosis of this condition depends on the awareness of the treating physician.Diagnosis is actually made after excluding the diagnosis of GERD and demonstration of more than 50 eosinophilis / high power field in the mucosal specimen studied. These patients respond well totopical / systemic steroids. Oesophageal dilatation may be needed to treat patients with severe degree of dysphagia which is fortunately rare.

  16. Literature Reviews and the Hermeneutic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boell, Sebastian K.; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a literature review is a vital part of any research. Library and information science (LIS) professionals often play a central role in supporting academics in their efforts to locate relevant publications and in teaching novice researchers skills associated with literature reviews. This paper examines literature review processes with the…

  17. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and references on some of the conceptual and practical work undertaken in the area of the employee engagement practices.

  18. Resilon: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Shahidi, Atabak

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. An ideal root canal filling material should completely seal the entire root canal space and block communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues; it should also be nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, non-genotoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids and dimensionally stable. Bonding to dentin is a promising property, which can prevent leakage and improve the sealing ability of root canal filling materials. Resilon was developed and rec-ommended initially because the existing rootcanal filling materials did not bond to root canal dentin. Since its introduction in 2004, numerous reports have been published regarding various aspects of this material. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding Resilon's physical and chemical properties and leakage studies. Materials and methods. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for Resilon from May 2004 to April 2012. Results. There are many published reports regarding Resilon. The searchshowed that Resilon is composed of a parent polymer, polycaprolactone or Tone, which is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, with filler particles consisting of bioactive glass, bismuth oxychloride and barium sulfate. It possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is a promising material for root canal filling. Despite the presence of numerous case reports and case series regarding these applications, there are few designed research studies on clinical applications of this material. Resilon has some drawbacks such as high cost. Conclusion. Resilon seals well and is a biocompatible material. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy compared with other materials. PMID:24082982

  19. Disentangling manual muscle testing and Applied Kinesiology: critique and reinterpretation of a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cooperstein Robert; Haas Mitchell; Peterson David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Cuthbert and Goodheart recently published a narrative review on the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing (MMT) in the Journal. The authors should be recognized for their effort to synthesize this vast body of literature. However, the review contains critical errors in the search methods, inclusion criteria, quality assessment, validity definitions, study interpretation, literature synthesis, generalizability of study findings, and conclusion formulation that merit a reco...

  20. Is it time to drop the ‘knowledge translation’ metaphor? A critical literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wieringa, Sietse

    2011-01-01

    The literature on ‘knowledge translation’ presents challenges for the reviewer because different terms have been used to describe the generation, sharing and application of knowledge and different research approaches embrace different philosophical positions on what knowledge is. We present a narrative review of this literature which deliberately sought to highlight rather than resolve tensions between these different framings. Our findings suggest that while ‘translation’ is a widely...

  1. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dedy Almasdy; Azmi Sharrif

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM) library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonpresc...

  2. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

  3. Patients’ privacy: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad N

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, which is used in many disciplines, is a basic human need and also is recognized as an important concept in nursing. The concept of privacy has been described in various dimensions including physical, psychological, social and informational privacy. In this article we review these dimensions. Most of the studies related to the privacy have been carried out in the area of physical privacy. One of the basic areas of privacy in hospitals is related to data protection and the prevention of information inaccuracies. Major factors that threaten the privacy include intrusion upon the seclusion or physical boundaries and unnecessary physical touch. In order to decrease these problems, health worker need to find a new approach of working with patients. Review of the literature showed that only a few studies about the privacy of patients have been carried out. To encourage research in this field, accurate instruments should be developed in order to measure different aspects of the privacy, an aim that is difficult to achieve because of the complex nature of the concept. It is also important that necessity of observing patients’ privacy systematically be thought to medical students

  4. Proportional Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourniaire, Francoise; Pulos, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The literature on proportional reasoning is reviewed. After methodology is discussed, strategies used to solve proportion problems, variables that influence performance, and training studies are each considered. (MNS)

  5. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  6. Delivering healthcare services to children with cerebral palsy and their families: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayles, Emily; Jones, Anne; Harvey, Desley; Plummer, David; Ruston, Sally

    2015-05-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have complex healthcare needs and often require complex multidisciplinary care. It is important for clinicians to understand which approaches to healthcare service delivery for this population are supported in the literature and how these should be applied in clinical practice. This narrative review aims to identify and review the evidence for current approaches to healthcare service delivery for children with cerebral palsy. Databases were searched using key terms to identify relevant research articles and grey literature from December 2011 to September 2013. Search results were screened and sorted according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-two documents were included for evaluation and their content was analysed thematically. Three current approaches to healthcare service delivery for children with cerebral palsy identified in this narrative review were family-centred care, the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and collaborative community-based primary care. However, healthcare services for children with cerebral palsy and their families are inconsistently delivered according to these approaches and the identified guidelines or standards of care for children with cerebral palsy have limited incorporation of these approaches. Future research is required to investigate how these approaches to healthcare service delivery can be integrated into clinical practices to enable clinicians to improve services for this population. PMID:25175322

  7. Integrated team working: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin Prothero, Sian E.; Bennion, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This literature review was conducted to provide a background understanding of the literature around integrated health and social care prior to a research project evaluating two integrated health and social care teams in England, UK.Methods: A systematic literature search of relevant databases was employed to identify all articles relating to integrated health and social care teams produced in the last 10 years in the UK.Results: 16 articles were found and reviewed; all were revi...

  8. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing the NCDs situation in Tanzania and identify gaps for advancing the NCD research and policy agenda. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google scholar with full text retrieval from HINAR...

  9. Physiotherapy in primary dysmenorrhea: literature review / Physiotherapy in primary dysmenorrhea: literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laís Rodrigues, Gerzson; Juliana Falcão, Padilha; Melissa Medeiros, Braz; Andriele, Gasparetto.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dismenorreia é uma palavra derivada do grego e significa fluxo menstrual difícil. Pode ser classificada como primária, causando diminuição dos índices de qualidade de vida de muitas mulheres. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica, a [...] eficácia e acurácia de tratamentos existentes para dismenorreia primária, especificamente na Fisioterapia. CONTEÚDO: Revisão bibliográfica narrativa, por meio da busca em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, biblioteca Cochrane, PEDro e Pubmed), com artigos selecionados e analisados durante o periodo de agosto de 2013 à fevereiro de 2014. Para a coleta foram incluídos materiais de 2005 até a literatura atual com os seguintes descritores: “dysmenorrhea”, “physiotherapy” e seus equivalentes em português “dismenorreia” e “fisioterapia” combinando-os com os operadores “AND” e “OR”. CONCLUSÃO: Encontraram-se trabalhos que descreveram a utilização dos recursos da termoterapia, crioterapia, eletroestimulação elétrica neural transcutânea e massagem do tecido conjuntivo, Pilates e acupuntura, com resultados que apresentam melhoras na sintomatologia dessas mulheres. No entanto, tornase evidente a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estudos referentes às manobras fisioterapêuticas com maior rigor metodológico. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dysmenorrhea is a word derived from the Greek language and means difficult menstrual cycle. It may be classified as primary, leading to poorer quality of life indices of several women. This study aimed at investigating, by means of literature review, the efficacy and accu [...] racy of existing therapies for primary dysmenorrhea, specifically in Physiotherapy. CONTENTS: Narrative literature review by querying electronic databases Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Cochrane library, PEDro and Pubmed), where articles were selected and analyzed from August 2013 to February 2014. For data collection, materials from 2005 to current literature were included using the following keywords: “dysmenorrhea”, “physiotherapy” and their Portuguese equivalent “dismenorreia” and “fisioterapia”, combining them with the operators AND and OR. CONCLUSION: Studies were found describing the use of thermotherapy, cryotherapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation and connective tissue massage, Pilates and acupuncture with improvement of such women's symptoms. However, it is clear the need for studies regarding physiotherapeutic maneuvers with further methodological rigor.

  10. Bucket foundations : a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this report, bearing behaviour and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed. Different methods and standards are compared with the experimental data presented in Foglia and Ibsen (2014a). The most important studies on these topics are suggested. The review is focused on the response of monopod bucket foundations supporting offshore wind turbines.

  11. Story Immersion of Videogames for Youth Health Promotion: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews research in the fields of psychology, literature, communication, human-computer interaction, public health, and consumer behavior on narrative and its potential relationships with videogames and story immersion. It also reviews a narrative's role in complementing behavioral change theories and the potential of story immersion for health promotion through videogames. Videogames have potential for health promotion and may be especially promising when attempting to reach youth. An understudied characteristic of videogames is that many contain a narrative, or story. Story immersion (transportation) is a mechanism through which a narrative influences players' cognition, affect, and, potentially, health behavior. Immersion promotes the suspension of disbelief and the reduction of counterarguments, enables the story experience as a personal experience, and creates the player's deep affection for narrative protagonists. Story immersion complements behavioral change theories, including the Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, and Self-Determination Theory. Systematic investigations are needed to realize the powerful potential of interactive narratives within theory-driven research. PMID:24416639

  12. Collective Intelligence in Humans: A Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Salminen, Juho

    2012-01-01

    This literature review focuses on collective intelligence in humans. A keyword search was performed on the Web of Knowledge and selected papers were reviewed in order to reveal themes relevant to collective intelligence. Three levels of abstraction were identified in discussion about the phenomenon: the micro-level, the macro-level and the level of emergence. Recurring themes in the literature were categorized under the above-mentioned framework and directions for future research were identified.

  13. Collective Intelligence in Humans: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Juho

    2012-01-01

    This literature review focuses on collective intelligence in humans. A keyword search was performed on the Web of Knowledge and selected papers were reviewed in order to reveal themes relevant to collective intelligence. Three levels of abstraction were identified in discussion about the phenomenon: the micro-level, the macro-level and the level of emergence. Recurring themes in the literature were categorized under the above-mentioned framework and directions for future res...

  14. Social Marketing and Breastfeeding: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is b...

  15. Perspectives on the clinical utility of allografts for bone regeneration within osseous defects: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller1,2, Jon E Block21Miller Scientific Consulting, LLC, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Jon E. Block, Ph.D., Inc., San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: A variety of bone grafts and bone graft substitutes is available for treatment of osseous defects although adequate reconstruction of the residual void following fracture, arthroplasty, or tumor/cyst resection remains a therapeutic challenge. This narrative review evaluates the peer-reviewed literature and examines relevant outcomes in patients treated with bone grafts and bone graft substitutes for surgical management of osseous defects. Although autograft, xenograft, and ceramic bone graft substitutes are used for a variety of orthopedic applications, they have distinct limitations in clinical practice. Bone allograft material is a safe and effective adjunct to treatment of osseous defects.Keywords: allograft, bone graft, osseous defect

  16. SHOPPER MARKETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Duarte Silveira; Cristina Marreiros

    2014-01-01

    Shopper marketing is a recent concept and it has been gaining importance and attention among managers and researchers. Due to its youth and increasing relevance, the purpose of this paper is to analyze, categorize, compile and analyze the existing knowledge concerning shopper marketing. The main finding of this paper is that the literature on shopper marketing is complementary and coherent, and also raises several research and managerial challenges. Besides that, there is a struct...

  17. Regional anesthesia for laparoscopic surgery: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vretzakis, George; Bareka, Metaxia; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2014-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has advanced remarkably in recent years, resulting in reduced morbidity and shorter hospital stay compared with open surgery. Despite challenges from the expanding array of laparoscopic procedures performed with the use of pneumoperitoneum on increasingly sick patients, anesthesia has remained largely unchanged. At present, most laparoscopic operations are usually performed under general anesthesia, except for patients deemed "too sick" for general anesthesia. Recently, however, several large, retrospective studies questioned the widely held belief that general anesthesia is the best anesthetic method for laparoscopic surgery and suggested that regional anesthesia could also be a reasonable choice in certain settings. This narrative review is an attempt to critically summarize current evidence on regional anesthesia for laparoscopic surgery. Because most available data come from large, retrospective studies, large, rigorous, prospective clinical trials comparing regional vs. general anesthesia are needed to evaluate the true value of regional anesthesia in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:24197290

  18. Review of Family Literacy Programming Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Vickie S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on current and past literature as it relates to family literacy. Reviews that related to models of literacy programming that include a library instruction component were considered as part of this review. Overall, researchers perceived that there are transformative long term benefits for the participating…

  19. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  20. Cyberbullying: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon; Roden, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The article is a literature review on cyberbullying from 2007-2013. Topics covered in the review have been categorized starting with definition of cyberbullying; roles of persons involved and statistics of who is being targeted; reasons for cyberbullying; differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying; and gender comparisons related to…

  1. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  2. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging. PMID:26017950

  3. Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18 on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.

  4. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. The Effects of Narrative Literature on Off-Task Behaviors during Kindergarten Social Studies Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilding, Stacia L.

    The differences in off-task behavior rates exhibited by kindergarten students during narrative and non-narrative-based social studies instruction was investigated. Off-task behavior was operationally defined and students were observed during eight different lessons. Four lessons employed story narrative picture books and four lessons used…

  6. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was found across all body systems. From a Public Health perspective, interdisciplinary work on utilizing benefits of Nature regarding health promotion, disease prevention, and nature-based therapy should be optimized in order to eventually diminish given methodological limitations from mono-disciplinary studies.

  7. New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rubio-Valera; Chen, Timothy F; Claire L. O'Reilly

    2014-01-01

    Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review i...

  8. Review: Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Thurston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Review of: Hartley, L and P Schiaffini-Vedani (eds. 2008. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham: Duke University Press. The idea for this book was conceived after a 2001 conference panel on the same subject at an annual meeting of the Association of Asian Studies. The final product is composed of fourteen essays from thirteen scholars, including a foreword by Mathew Kapstein and an introduction by the editors. ...

  9. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  10. Cracked Teeth: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; FERRACANE, JACK

    2010-01-01

    Although cracked teeth are a common problem for patients and dentists, there is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cracks in teeth. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to establish what evidence exists regarding the risk factors for cracked teeth and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

  11. Teacher Mentors: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Hjornevik, Cleta

    Many local education agencies as well as school districts are currently designing induction programs for beginning teachers. One feature of these programs is the appointment of a mentor or sponsor teacher. This review is designed to summarize existing literature from the teaching profession on the mentoring relationship in order to assist…

  12. Pair Programming in Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in…

  13. A literature review on wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on wet deposition or precipitation scavenging have been reviewed with special reference to predicting the radiological consequences of accidental contamination. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIAF-423-DK(SD). (author)

  14. EOSINOPHILIC OTITIS MEDIA A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition.

  15. EOSINOPHILIC OTITIS MEDIA A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition

  16. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  17. Cocaine and thrombosis: a narrative systematic review of clinical and in-vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nat MJ; Martin, Matthew; Goff, Tom; Morgan, John; Elworthy, Rebecca; Ghoneim, Shariffe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the literature pertaining to the link between cocaine and either arterial or venous thrombosis. Procedures Narrative systematic review of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Psycinfo and Cochrane databases supplemented by hand trawling of relevant journals and reference lists up to April 2007. In-vivo studies and those with clinical endpoints were included in the review. Results A total of 2458 abstracts led to 186 full-text papers being retrieved. 15 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. The weight of evidence would support cocaine as a pro-thrombotic agent. There is evidence of it activating thrombotic pathways. The effect of cocaine upon clinical endpoints has not been quantified though there is evidence of an association between cocaine and myocardial infarction particularly amongst young adults. Cocaine may also be a causal agent in cerebrovascular accident though studies lacked sufficient power to determine a statistically significant effect. There is a gap in the evidence pertaining to the issue of cocaine and venous thrombosis. Conclusion Clinicians should consider questioning for cocaine use particularly amongst young adults who present with cardiac symptoms. More epidemiological work is required to quantify the effect of cocaine upon both arterial and venous clotting mechanisms. PMID:17880705

  18. Cocaine and thrombosis: a narrative systematic review of clinical and in-vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elworthy Rebecca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To systematically review the literature pertaining to the link between cocaine and either arterial or venous thrombosis. Procedures Narrative systematic review of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Psycinfo and Cochrane databases supplemented by hand trawling of relevant journals and reference lists up to April 2007. In-vivo studies and those with clinical endpoints were included in the review. Results A total of 2458 abstracts led to 186 full-text papers being retrieved. 15 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. The weight of evidence would support cocaine as a pro-thrombotic agent. There is evidence of it activating thrombotic pathways. The effect of cocaine upon clinical endpoints has not been quantified though there is evidence of an association between cocaine and myocardial infarction particularly amongst young adults. Cocaine may also be a causal agent in cerebrovascular accident though studies lacked sufficient power to determine a statistically significant effect. There is a gap in the evidence pertaining to the issue of cocaine and venous thrombosis. Conclusion Clinicians should consider questioning for cocaine use particularly amongst young adults who present with cardiac symptoms. More epidemiological work is required to quantify the effect of cocaine upon both arterial and venous clotting mechanisms.

  19. Determining risk factors for surgical wound dehiscence: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy-Hodgetts, Kylie; Carville, Keryln; Leslie, Gavin D

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative wound healing plays a significant role in facilitating a patient's recovery and rehabilitation. Surgical wound dehiscence (SWD) impacts on mortality and morbidity rates and significantly contributes to prolonged hospital stays and associated psychosocial stressors on individuals and their families. A narrative review of SWD was undertaken on English-only studies between 1945 and 2012 using three electronic databases Ovid CINHAL, Ovid Medline and Pubmed. The aim of this review was to identify predisposing factors for SWD and assessment tools to assist in the identification of at-risk patients. Key findings from the included 15 papers out of a search of 1045 revealed the most common risk factors associated with SWD including obesity and wound infection, particularly in the case of abdominal surgery. There is limited reporting of variables associated with SWD across other surgical domains and a lack of risk assessment tools. Furthermore, there was a lack of clarity in the definition of SWD in the literature. This review provides an overview of the available research and provides a basis for more rigorous analysis of factors that contribute to SWD. PMID:23692188

  20. Acknowledging the back patient : A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

    Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment.

  1. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited

  2. Lipedema: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovat, Jean-Phillip; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2014-10-17

    Lipedema is a disorder of adipose tissue that primarily affects females and is often misdiagnosed as obesity or lymphedema. Relatively few studies have defined the precise pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management strategies for this disorder, yet the need to successfully identify this disorder as a unique entity has important implications for proper treatment. In this review, we sought to review and identify information in the existing literature with respect to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management strategies for lipedema. The current literature suggests that lipedema appears to be a clinical entity thought to be related to both genetic factors and fat distribution. While distinct from lymphedema and obesity, there are some existing treatments such as complex decongestive physiotherapy, liposuction, and laser-assisted lipolysis. Management of lipedema is complex and distinct from lymphedema. The role of newer randomized controlled studies to further explore the management of this clinical entity remains promising. PMID:25326446

  3. Gender discrimination and nursing: ? literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Kaite, Charis P

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine gender stereotypes in relation to men in nursing, discuss gender discrimination cases in nursing, and explore methods used for promoting equal educational opportunities during nursing studies. The literature review was based on related databases, such as CINAHL, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and EBSCO. Legal case studies are included in order to provide a more practical example of those barriers existing for men pursuing nursing, as well as statistical data concerning gender discrimination and male attrition to nursing schools in relation to those barriers. These strengthen the validity of the manuscript. Literature review showed that gender discrimination is still prevalent within nursing profession. Nursing faculty should prepare male nursing students to interact effectively with female clients as well. Role modeling the therapeutic relationship with clients is one strategy that may help male students. In general, the faculty should provide equal learning opportunities to nursing students. PMID:21272837

  4. Motives for barter : A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Barter is not something that was present only before invention of money. Even Fortune 500 companies are involved in barter. The most common bartered goods and services are media and travel. As the amount of barter increases even in the U.S., it is worth investigating the reasons why organizations use barter. The paper provides a literature review of barter motives digested from academic journal articles covered in the Web of Science and EBSCO databases. The review includes also drivers that are specific for developing countries.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of vein wall remodeling in chronic venous disease: a narrative and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, Vighnesh; Kahn, Susan R; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2014-08-21

    Chronic venous disease encompasses a spectrum of disorders caused by an abnormal venous system. They include chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, lipodermatosclerosis, postthrombotic syndrome, and venous ulceration. Some evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to chronic venous disease from gene polymorphisms associated mainly with vein wall remodeling. The literature exploring these polymorphisms has not been reviewed and compiled thus far. In this narrative and systematic review, we present the current evidence available on the role of polymorphisms in genes involved in vein wall remodeling and other pathways as contributors to chronic venous disease. We searched the EMBASE, Medline, and PubMed databases from inception to 2013 for basic science or clinical studies relating to genetic associations in chronic venous disease and obtained 38 relevant studies for this review. Important candidate genes/proteins include the matrix metalloproteinases (extracellular matrix degradation), vascular endothelial growth factors (angiogenesis and vessel wall integrity), FOXC2 (vascular development), hemochromatosis (involved in venous ulceration and iron absorption), and various types of collagen (contributors to vein wall strength). The data on associations between these genes/proteins and the postthrombotic syndrome are limited and additional studies are required. These associations might have future prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:25006132

  6. A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maria; Målqvist, Mats; Giang, Kim Bao; Allebeck, Peter; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2013-01-01

    Depression is among the most common psychiatric conditions in primary health care, and constitutes an important part of the global disease burden. However, it is difficult to obtain comparable data on depression worldwide and models for treatment and intervention need to be locally adapted. We conducted a narrative review of research literature on factors that influence depression screening, diagnosis and treatment among the Vietnamese population. This explorative approach included studies describing: a) culturally or contextually specific risk-factors for depression; b) any depression treatment seeking or treatment acceptability/adherence aspects or; c) depression screening among Vietnamese patients. We searched the PubMed and Cinahl databases, as well as relevant Vietnamese peer-reviewed journals and this produced 20 articles that were included in the review. Our findings indicate the importance of considering somatic symptoms when screening for depression in Vietnam as well as the use of culturally adapted and dimensional screening instruments. Our study confirms that depression reflects chronic social adversity, and thus an approach to mental health management that focuses solely on individual pathology will fail to address its important social causes. Further studies should elucidate whether neurasthenia is a commonly used illness label among Vietnamese patients that coincides with depression. The tendency among Vietnamese to seek traditional Vietnamese medicine and meditation practice when experiencing emotional distress was supported by our findings. PMID:23647977

  7. Prevention of pressure ulcers : Systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kavonen, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Treating a pressure ulcer takes lots of nursing personnel's time and is costly both in terms of human suffering and use of resources. The purpose of this study was to collect and assamble research data about the prevention of pressure ulcers. The study was done as a systematic literature review. With the results, the knowledge and know-how of pressure ulcers' prevention can be increased and updated. The results can be utilised by everyone working with pressure ulcers. The systematic ...

  8. Neighbourhood sustainability frameworks - a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, L J; Rydin, Y; Buchanan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Frameworks for assessing the sustainability of the built environment are entering a new phase with the introduction of neighbourhood scale tools. This paper is a review of the current literature on these frameworks, as well as building-scale tools, to provide a milestone for future studies. Notably, the author found few papers focusing on neighbourhood schemes exclusively with large gaps in our knowledge. Some existing research compares and critiques the content of frameworks; other research ...

  9. A Literature Review on Content ESL Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Yingli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Content instruction is a method to integrate language instruction with subject (Crandall, 1987). It has been used in various language learning contexts for the last twenty-five years and its popularity and wider applicability have increased dramatically in the past ten years. They show that content instruction is taken effective in a wide rage context in bilingual education. This literature review focuses on some of the ways in which English language instruction is integrated with science.

  10. CAPITAL BUDGETING DECISIONS-REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Gulia

    2014-01-01

    -The main objective of present study is to present review of literature related to capital budgeting decisions and to study the trends in using the capital budgeting techniques in depth. The study would facilitate the reader to know the past, current and future trend of capital budgeting techniques by the corporate houses. This study would provide guidelines to decision makers to make investing and financing decisions so that their profit get maximise at minimize risks.The sec...

  11. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng; Tien-Chun Chang; Wei-Yih Chiu; Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no ch...

  12. Information literacy in Europe: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Sirje Virkus

    2003-01-01

    Examines the developments in information literacy in Europe and provides an overview of the concepts used and discussed by European authors. Some examples of information literacy initiatives in schools and the higher education sector, as well as of institutions and organizations, projects and conferences concerned with information literacy, are given. Some research initiatives are also introduced. The overview is based on literature reviews and personal observations and involvement and presen...

  13. A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2009-01-01

    Writing a faulty literature review is one of many ways to derail a dissertation. This article summarizes some pivotal information on how to write a high-quality dissertation literature review. It begins with a discussion of the purposes of a review, presents taxonomy of literature reviews, and then discusses the steps in conducting a quantitative…

  14. Embedded Academic Librarianship: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Schulte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – The purpose of this review is to examine the development of embedded librarianship, its multiple meanings, and activities in practice. The review will also report on published outcomes and future research needs of embedded librarian programs.Methods – A search of current literature was conducted and summarized searching PubMed, CINAHL, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, and ERIC (EBSCO through August 23, 2012. Articles wereselected for inclusion in the review if they reported research findings related to embedded librarianship, if they provided unique case reports about embedded librarian programs, or if they provided substantive editorial comments on the topic. Relevant study findings were assessed for quality and presented in tabular and narrative form.Results – Currently, there is disparity in how embedded librarianship is being definedand used in common practice, ranging from embedding an online component into asingle course to full physical and cultural integration into an academic college orbusiness unit of an organization. Activities of embedded librarians include creatingcourse integrated instruction modules for either face-to-face or online courses, providingin depth research assistance to students or faculty, and co-locating within colleges orcustomer units via office hours for a few hours to all hours per week. Several case reports exist in the recent literature. Few high quality research studies reporting outcomes of librarians or library programs labeled as embedded exist at this point. Some evidence suggests that embedded librarians are effective with regards to student learning of information literacy objectives. Surveys suggest that both students and faculty appreciate embedded librarian services.Conclusion – Most published accounts discuss librarians embedding content and ready access to services in an online course management system. A few notable cases describe the physical and cultural integration of librarians into the library user environs. Future research using valid quantitative methods is needed to explore the impact of large scale, customized, embedded programs.

  15. Homelessness among female veterans: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic, critical review of the literature to assess and summarize existing research on homelessness among female veterans. They searched seven electronic databases (ERIC, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, and Sociological Abstracts), websites of several government and research organizations, and reference lists of prior studies. They abstracted data on study design, funding source, and topic from studies meeting inclusion criteria and classified each study into one of the following categories: epidemiology, health and other services utilization, and interventions. The authors included both experimental and observational studies of interventions in the review and performed a narrative synthesis for each of the 26 studies identified. No studies were experimental, 20 were observational, and the remainder were either qualitative or descriptive. Of the 26 identified studies, 14 were epidemiologic, 7 focused on the health and additional service utilization, and 5 were intervention studies. Findings provided important baseline epidemiologic information about homelessness among female veterans and indicated that female veterans were at an increased risk of homelessness relative to their male veteran and female non-veteran counterparts. Additional research is needed to develop and implement effective, evidence-based programs to prevent and end homelessness among women veterans. PMID:23937730

  16. A systematic narrative review of consumer-directed care for older people: implications for model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Allen, Jacqui; Feldman, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Consumer-directed care is increasingly becoming a mainstream option in community-based aged care. However, a systematic review describing how the current evaluation research translates into practise has not been published to date. This review aimed to systematically establish an evidence base of user preferences for and satisfaction with services associated with consumer-directed care programmes for older people. Twelve databases were searched, including MedLine, BioMed Central, Cinahl, Expanded Academic ASAP, PsychInfo, ProQuest, Age Line, Science Direct, Social Citation Index, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and Google were also searched. Eligible studies were those reporting on choice, user preferences and service satisfaction outcomes regarding a programme or model of home-based care in the United States or United Kingdom. This systematic narrative review retrieved literature published from January 1992 to August 2011. A total of 277 references were identified. Of these 17 met the selection criteria and were reviewed. Findings indicate that older people report varying preferences for consumer-directed care with some demonstrating limited interest. Clients and carers reported good service satisfaction. However, research comparing user preferences across countries or investigating how ecological factors shape user preferences has received limited attention. Policy-makers and practitioners need to carefully consider the diverse contexts, needs and preferences of older adults in adopting consumer-directed care approaches in community aged care. The review calls for the development of consumer-directed care programmes offering a broad range of options that allow for personalisation and greater control over services without necessarily transferring the responsibility for administrative responsibilities to service users. Review findings suggest that consumer-directed care approaches have the potential to empower older people. PMID:23465034

  17. Nurse Caring: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danita R. Potter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on caring among nurses. The approach utilized studies on nurse caring behaviors in a variety of patient care settings. Articles published between 1987-2012 in the CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed databases were used. Overall, fourteen different articles were deemed relevant and were included in the review. The review articles were grouped into three categories which were Acute/Surgical, Community/Institutionalized, and Postpartum/Childbirth. In conclusion, human needs assistance was a consistent aspect of caring valued by patients.  We recommend that nurses learn their patient’s likes and dislikes while also providing for topics related to patient physical needs. Also when caring for children, nurses should use entertainment and humor as part of their caring approach. 

  18. Borderline intellectual functioning: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-12-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health problems. When adults with BIF were compared with the general population, they held lower-skilled jobs and earned less money. Although some risk factors (e.g., low birth weight) and preventive factors (e.g., education) were reported, they were not specific to BIF. The review finds that, despite the obvious everyday problems, BIF is almost invisible in the field of research. More research, societal discussion, and flexible support systems are needed. PMID:25409130

  19. Instrumentation of dental implants: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Almeida Curylofo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to review the literature on the systems used to decontaminate the implant’s surface. Different instruments have been proposed, but there is no agreement in the literature about which methods would be more efficient with no damage to the implant surface. It was reported the use of plastic, carbon fiber, stainless-steel and titanium curettes and also the use of other systems such as ultrasonic points with different tips, rubber cups and air abrasion. Literature review: In most of the studies, the injury caused on the titanium surface at the time of instrumentation was examined. In others, the cell adhesion on the titanium dental implants following instrumentation of the implant surface was observed. Moreover, to enhance cleaning around implants, ultrasonic systems were recently tested. Conclusion: Metal instruments can lead to major damage to implant surface, therefore, they are not indicated for decontamination of dental implants surfaces. Furthermore, non-metallic instruments, such as plastic curettes, rubber cups, air abrasion and some ultrasonic systems seem to be better choices to remove calculus and plaque of the sub- and supra-gingival peri-implant area. It is noteworthy that more studies evaluating the effects of these systems are required to establish best practices to be used in the treatment of patients with dental implants.

  20. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  1. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of safety culture, organizations have a better chance of understanding, evaluating, and making positive changes towards safety within their own organization.

  2. Queilitis: Revisión bibliográfica / Cheilitis: Literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eneida, García López; Antonio O., Blanco Ruiz; Luis Orlando, Rodríguez García; Delis, Reyes Fundora; Jorge, Sotres Vázquez.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una actualización bibliográfica de la queilitis, en la que se analizan las formas clínicas más generales de su presentación. Se muestran los datos recogidos de mayor interés sobre su sinonimia, clasificación, etiología y patogenia. Se muestran los diferentes métodos terapéuticos utilizado [...] s incluyendo la medicina natural y tradicional, la homeopatía y el láser como alternativas de tratamiento. Abstract in english A literature review of cheilitis was made in which the most general clinical forms of presentation were analyzed. Interesting data on synonyms, classification, etiology and pathogeny were presented. Various therapeutic methods including herb and traditional medicine, homeopathy and laser technique w [...] ere offered as treatment options.

  3. Sexuality following trauma injury: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kylie Marie Connell; Rosemary Coates; Fiona Melanie Wood

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of the quality of life (QoL) of trauma injury survivors is the aim of trauma rehabilitation. It is generally acknowledged that sexuality is an important component of QoL; however, rehabilitation services frequently fall short of including sexuality as a matter of routine. The literature was reviewed to examine the experiences of trauma survivors from three groups: spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and burns. The focus was on the impact of trauma on the QoL to ...

  4. IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF VITILIGO: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a morbidity characterized by depigmentation of body parts from the loss or reduction of melanocytes. The disease affects an average of 1% of the world population, usually individuals with mean age of 20, affecting both men and women regardless of race. Within existing therapies, there are many treatments being offered, however, improvements upon treatments vary from person to person and cure is rare to obtain. The etiology of vitiligo is still not clear, there are many hypothesis for his cause. Then, this study aimed to review literature regarding the latest immunological mechanisms involved in the onset of vitiligo.

  5. Iron sulfide crystal growth: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron pyrite (FeS2) is often found on trays and in heat exchangers in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) plants used to extract D2O from fresh water. A critical review of the literature was made to find: (i) what is known about FeS2 crystal growth; (ii) which techniques could be used to study FeS2 crystal growth experimentally; (iii) potential chemical additives that could be used in trace amounts to poison FeS2 crystals and reduce their growth rate in G.S. plants. (author)

  6. Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina M A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1 accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2 the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs, and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure that key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their effect on policy and practice change throughout the health service, and the public health, immigration and community sectors. Discussion Narrative-synthesis methods of systematic review facilitate understanding and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical location. They also enable understanding of the shaping of differences between reported outcomes and study designs related to childbearing populations, and the development and implementation of maternity services and health interventions across diverse settings. PROSPERO registration Number 2185.

  7. Reasons for mother-infant bed-sharing: a systematic narrative synthesis of the literature and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Trina C Salm

    2015-03-01

    Mother-infant bed-sharing has been a common practice for centuries. Understanding the reasons parents choose to bed-share can help tailor safe sleep education. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the international literature on: (1) reasons parents bed-share, (2) the cultural context of bed-sharing, and (3) implications for interventions and future research. The search occurred August-September 2013 via PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyc INFO using the terms: "infant," "sleep," "bed shar*," "co sleep*," "sleep location," "sleep practices," and "sleep arrangements," alone or in combination. Google Scholar was searched using: "bed share," "bed sharing," "co sleep," and "co sleeping." Inclusion criteria were: (1) referenced bed-sharing with infants 12 months or younger; (2) provided reasons for bed-sharing; and (3) published between 1990 and 2013. Studies were excluded if they focused on disorders such as epilepsy, breathing disorders, or among multi-gestational infants. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize findings. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. The main themes around bed-sharing based on this synthesis included: (1) breastfeeding, (2) comforting, (3) better/more sleep, (4) monitoring, (5) bonding/attachment, (6) environmental, (7) crying, (8) tradition, (9) disagree with danger, and (10) maternal instinct. Findings suggest that future research should examine parents' decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice. Public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting. Clinicians should discuss infant sleep environment with each family, along with their motivations for choosing this environment, and work within that framework to address the safety of the sleep environment. PMID:24985697

  8. Blood lead level and seizure: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the most serious and fast-growing problems in the world of today. Lead poisoning is a threatening environmental situation with the potential of causing irreversible health issues and serious negative consequences in adults and children. Lead proves to have almost no clear biological function. However, once it enters the body, it is known to cause severe health effects, which might be irreversible. In this article, we aimed to review the related literature to find evidence concerning the effect of lead toxicity on CNS, particularly its role in febrile convulsion. In this review, PubMed database was searched using MeSH terms. One hundred and fifty seven articles were retrieved, most of which were irrelevant to the topic. After a thorough search in PubMed and Google Scholar, seizure was shown to be one of the consequences of lead toxicity, but there was no evidence of epilepsy or febrile convulsion, induced by this metal contamination.

  9. Massage modalities and symptoms reported by cancer patients: narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cynthia D; Walton, Tracy; Bratsman, Lindsay; Wilson, Jennifer; Small, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The results of several studies on the use of massage therapies for cancer patients have been published in the peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years. The current article provides a summary and critique of published studies in which patient-reported symptom ratings were assessed in relation to massage. Twenty-two studies are discussed. Most studies were on Swedish massage, followed by aromatherapy massage, foot reflexology, and acupressure. Symptoms assessed as outcomes included pain, fatigue, anxiety, nausea, and depression. Study designs included uncontrolled observational studies, crossover designs, and quasiexperimental and randomized controlled studies. Several studies included methodologic limitations such as small sample sizes, lack of blinded assessment, lack of accounting for subject attrition in statistical analyses, and other limitations. The results of the studies reviewed are mixed and vary as a function of several study characteristics. The most consistent symptom reduction was anxiety reduction. Additional well-designed studies are needed. Several recommendations are offered for future studies. PMID:18302907

  10. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study. PMID:23155599

  11. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; De Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2015-03-01

    Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated promising results about the use of photodynamic therapy during root canal system disinfection. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol for its incorporation during root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of research on photodynamic therapy in endodontics published in peer-reviewed journals. A review of pertinent literature was conducted using the PubMed database, and data obtained were categorized into sections in terms of relevant topics. Studies conducted in recent years highlighted the antimicrobial potential of photodynamic therapy in endodontics. However, most of these studies were not able to confirm a significant improvement in root canal disinfection for photodynamic therapy as a substitute for current disinfection methods. Its indication as an excellent adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy is well documented, however. Data suggest the need for protocol adjustments or new photosensitizer formulations to enhance photodynamic therapy predictability in endodontics. PMID:25719896

  12. The meaning of spirituality: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, J; Cobb, M; Forman, D

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a literature review in relation to the meaning of spirituality. It is proposed that meeting the spiritual needs of patients is a fundamental part of providing holistic nursing care, but that the assessment and meeting of those needs is impeded by inadequate definitions and conceptual frameworks. It should not be assumed that spirituality is either synonymous, or coterminous, with religion, and it is suggested that to adopt this restrictive view is unhelpful in the provision of individualized care. Reflection on the literature reveals that the self, others and 'God' provide the key elements within a definition of spirituality, and that other emerging themes namely meaning, hope, relatedness/connectedness, beliefs/belief systems and expressions of spirituality, can be articulated in the context of those three key elements. In particular, it is proposed that the nature of 'God' may take many forms and, essentially, is whatever an individual takes to be of highest value in his/her life. It is suggested that the themes emerging from the literature can be utilized as a framework to give practitioners and researchers a direction for future exploration of the concept of spirituality. PMID:9429969

  13. A literature review on innovation management tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Botarelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of a complex phenomenon such as innovation, influences and effects of which are tangible in manifold contexts, traditionally requires the integration of different levels of analysis and the interaction among distant disciplines. The enterprise appears to be the fundamental agent of economic change; in this context, innovation, by intervening in the sphere of technology, constitutes a fundamental dimension also for social change. In addition, it interacts in the circle of a complex matrix of cultural, economic and institutional factors which are the base of social and economical evolution. In this context, the research questions (RQ investigated by the authors are: “what is innovation?” [RQ 1] and “which are the main evolutions of innovation management models?” [RQ 2]. Literature on this matter has exponentially evolved in recent years. Nevertheless, innovation literature presents a large heterogeneity of results, while the innovation process concept itself is still poorly understood. In order to investigate the first research question, authors review forms and structures of innovation models developed throughout the years. At the end a discussion on the characteristics of literature evolution, through a strength-weakness analysis, is presented by the authors.

  14. Enterprise Architecture Evaluation : A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Carugati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    By being holistically preoccupied with coherency among organizational elements such as organizational strategy, business needs and the IT functions role in supporting the business, enterprise architecture (EA) has grown to become a core competitive advantage. Though EA is a maturing research area, little has been done to understand how e.g. projects, application or other organizational elements contribute to the overall EA. The current paper presents a literature review on EA evaluation. Different types of evaluation are a necessity in order to ensure that EA demands are being met by disparate IT initiatives. Still, EA evaluation has attracted little attention within academic literature. Thus, the aim of the current review is to get an overview of the topic, which can serve as a foundation for further development of the field. Overall, the study shows that while little research has been done within this area, research is especially lacking regarding empirical studies of how EA evaluation unfolds in practice, while holistic views on EA evaluation is almost non-existing.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Rosso, G; Farronato, G

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a complete or partial airway obstruction that can cause significant physiologic disturbance with various clinical impacts. The etiology is multifactorial and its clinical manifestations are night snoring, headache when patient wakes up, day-time sleepiness and degrease of cognitive performance. Some recent international studies suggest that the OSAS prevalence is 2-4% in men and 1-2% in women of average age. The aim of this work was presenting a literature review in Medline concerning Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. A review of the articles ranging from 1980 to 2014 has been done. Over 2000 articles were found and those which give useful information about etiology, diagnosis, therapy and found results after the study were selected and evaluated. In literature there is no unanimous opinion on the treatment of OSAS. According to the majority of the authors it should be multidisciplinary. The choice of therapy is predicated on the etiology, severity and natural history of the increased upper airway resistance. The importance of a praecox diagnosis and orthodontic therapy in order to re-establish normal function is underlined, since OSAS is linked with high risk of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, daytime sleepiness, home and work-related accidents, with consequent worsening of life quality. PMID:25747430

  16. Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular dysfunction: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanka Porto Fraga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Several studies have associated temporomandibular disorders (TMD and fibromyalgia (FM finding a wide variation of results. The aim of this study was to review the literature about the relationship between TMD and FM. Literature review: For many years, TMD and FM were considered different clinical entities, but recently, some authors have reported that these two clinical situations have similarities. It is important to emphasize that both in FM and TMD pain is the main symptom, including pain in face, mandible, and headache. Besides, these pain syndromes are characterized by a decrease in pain threshold and in the capacity of attenuation of descending systems of pain modulation. The relationship of comorbidity between TMD and FM may indicate, therefore, the existence of some form of central sensitization, which is common to both diseases, sharing neurochemical events. In addition, it was found that the presence of TMD is a common finding in FM patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that FM and TMD are distinct clinical entities, although they share common signs and symptoms, especially those related to pain. Furthermore, it was observed that the prevalence of TMD in FM patients is higher than the other way around. It is also important in the diagnosis of these two diseases the differentiation between trigger and tender points, thus avoiding false diagnoses of TMD in FM patients.

  17. Acknowledging the back patient : A thematic synthesis of Qualitative research. A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

    Abstract NOF 2014 Acknowledging the back patient. A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review. Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories and are associated with heavy personal costs and hospitalisations. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The thematic synthesis aims to systematise and integrate findings of qualitative studies. The method draws on Thomas' and Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment.

  18. Atlantic ocean disposal sites: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts Development Incorporated (CDI) has reviewed the literature and summarized the environmental data base available for two possible waste disposal sites off the northeast coast of the United States. These sites include the 106-Mile Ocean Waste Disposal Site (DWD 106) located due east of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, and the Cape Hatteras Site (CHS). DWD 106 is now used for the disposal of industrial wastes. CHS was identified through a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) program to locate regions suitable for the marine disposal of large structures, within the exclusive economic zone of the United States (200 nautical miles or less from the coast), in deep (>4000m) water. DWD 106 has been the subject of EPA and NOAA environmental studies in conjunction with industrial waste disposal at the site, and CHS has been described by Hollister, Bruce and Chandler (1979) and considered in a study of dissolved contaminant dispersal by Kupferman and Moore (1981). The prime objective of this study was to identify and review published accounts of environmental studies pertaining to DWD 106 or CHS. A secondary objective was to identify studies conducted within the general region (taken to be the NW Atlantic) so that in cases where site-specific data are unavailable one could identify the nearest available data set of a given category. Additionally, some effort was directed toward assembling references which would aid in the characterization of waste contaminated with traces of naturof waste contaminated with traces of natural radioactive material.This document presents literature search site characterization summary material; brief discussion of the result of the waste characterization review; and a listing of bibliographic references identified to date

  19. Quantitative reviewing of medical literature. An approach to synthesizing research results in clinical pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, K J; Petersen, P

    1984-08-01

    The quantitative literature review is presented as a unique type of research endeavor complete with formal stages that parallel those associated with primary or experimental research. This article provides a tutorial overview of the quantitative literature review procedure and, in conjunction with the companion article published in this issue, serves to illustrate the application of this technique in the review process. The stages in quantitative review include: (1) problem formation; (2) data collection; (3) data evaluation; (4) analysis and interpretation; and (5) reporting results. It is argued that inferences made in the research review process are as central to the establishment of valid biomedical and clinical knowledge as inferences made in primary research. Despite some limitations, quantitative reviewing procedures constitute a significant advance over the traditional narrative methods of integrating empirical research in an area of interest. The use of quantitative reviewing procedures represents a paradigm shift in which the literature review is conceptualized as a unique form of scientific inquiry complete with formal stages and methods. The adoption of these methods should assist researchers in the behavioral and biomedical sciences in establishing scientifically valid data bases to guide theory development and direct future clinical investigation. PMID:6734016

  20. Evidence-Based Practice for Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Part 1 Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides a comprehensive narrative review of intervention studies for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Its companion paper (Baker & McLeod, 2011) provides a tutorial and clinical example of how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) for this clinical population. Method:…

  1. Postdural puncture headache: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J H

    1991-12-01

    This is a review of literature from 1943 to mid-1989 on the postdural puncture headache. The article looks at the currently held thoughts on the cause, prevention, and treatments of this second most frequent side effect of spinal anesthesia. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is caused by vascular distension within the nondistensible cranium following the leakage of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) into the epidural space. Prevention of PDPH can be accomplished by using small-gauge needles and possibly by using the lateral approach, as opposed to the midline approach. Luck plays a big part, because if the needle punctures a thicker portion of the dura, there is a reduced chance of PDPH. Epidural saline injection is effective only if it is used as a continuous infusion for 24 hours. The usefulness of caffeine sodium benzoate with a 70-80% success rate and epidural blood patching with a 90%-plus success rate are discussed. PMID:1789072

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

    2013-06-15

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm – Literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, AV; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, DA

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  4. Airship dynamics modeling: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwen; Nahon, Meyer; Sharf, Inna

    2011-04-01

    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities adapted to these lighter-than-air vehicles. However, the modeling techniques for airship dynamics have lagged behind and are less systematic than those for fixed-wing aircraft. A state-of-the-art literature review is presented on airship dynamics modeling, aiming to provide a comprehensive description of the main problems in this area and a useful source of references for researchers and engineers interested in modern airship applications. The references are categorized according to the major topics in this area: aerodynamics, flight dynamics, incorporation of structural flexibility, incorporation of atmospheric turbulence, and effects of ballonets. Relevant analytical, numerical, and semi-empirical techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on how the main differences between lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft have been addressed in the modeling. Directions are suggested for future research on each of these topics.

  5. Supernumerary teeth: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) have been an anomaly of tooth development, this is refered to the increase in the number of pieces in the normal dentition. It can be unique, multiple, unilateral or bilateral, normal or altered form; appear erupted, impacted or retained. Both dentitions are affected, but is most common in the permanent. The literature review has covered and mentioned spanned supernumerary teeth, the definition, etiology, characteristics and classification according to number, position and shape; as diagnose, alterations or clinical sequelae - eruptive associated with them and possible treatments to be done when it occurs. The presence of mechanical accidents have been a frequent complication, within this, displacement of adjacent teeth has been the most common; is associated with different syndromes such as lip and palate cleft; however, they can not be related with pathologies; being mesiodens the most frequent. (author)

  6. Levosimendan in critical illness: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrakos, Charalampos; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Franchi, Federico; Muzzi, Luigi; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Scolletta, Sabino

    2014-04-01

    Levosimendan, the active enantiomer of simendan, is a calcium sensitizer developed for treatment of decompensated heart failure, exerts its effects independently of the beta adrenergic receptor and seems beneficial in cases of severe, intractable heart failure. Levosimendan is usually administered as 24-h infusion, with or without a loading dose, but dosing needs adjustment in patients with severe liver or renal dysfunction. Despite several promising reports, the role of levosimendan in critical illness has not been thoroughly evaluated. Available evidence suggests that levosimendan is a safe treatment option in critically ill patients and may reduce mortality from cardiac failure. However, data from well-designed randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients are needed to validate or refute these preliminary conclusions. This literature review is an attempt to synthesize available evidence on the role and possible benefits of levosimendan in critically ill patients with severe heart failure. PMID:24578748

  7. Renal leiomyoma: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Schiavina, Riccardo; Vagnoni, Valerio; Caprara, Giacoma; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumours of the kidney originating from muscle cells. They are usually found by an autopsy, whether the patient is asymptomatic or has symptoms (i.e., abdominal/flank pain, hematuria, palpable mass). Today the widespread use of ultrasonography and computed tomography has increased the detection of clinically asymptomatic renal leiomyomas. The differential diagnosis between leiomyomas and other malignant lesions (above all renal cell carcinoma or leiomyosarcoma) is still possible by histological examination. Radiological examinations are not sufficient for the differential diagnosis. Renal leiomyomas have no aggressive behaviour and they usually do not metastasize. The prognosis, after surgery, is excellent without recurrence. We report a case of leiomyoma in a 31-year-old man who presented hematuria and flank pain. We also review the literature and provide a summary of clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:22511443

  8. Intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was performed on intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer. The strength and attractiveness is established of techniques of partial irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. The benefit is originated to restrict the area immediate of radiotherapy to the tumor bed or quadrant index and identifying the benefit of being applied during the radiotherapy while surgical lumpectomy. The impact of local recurrence has been established using intraoperative radiotherapy. The advantages of intraoperative radiotherapy was compared in the management of the conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer with external radiotherapy. Different methods of intraoperative radiotherapy have been compared and individual impact on local recurrence ranges. Intraoperative radiotherapy has had many advantages: radiobiological, technical, clinical, psychological and economical in the handling of conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer, compared with external radiotherapy

  9. Software ecosystems – a systematic literature review.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    A software ecosystem is the interaction of a set of actors on top of a common technological platform that results in a number of software solutions or services. Arguably, software ecosystems are gaining importance with the advent of, e.g., the Google Android, Apache, and Salesforce.com ecosystems. However, there exists no systematic overview of the research done on software ecosystems from a software engineering perspective. We performed a systematic literature review of software ecosystem research, analyzing 90 papers on the subject taken from a gross collection of 420. Our main conclusions are that while research on software ecosystems is increasing (a) there is little consensus on what constitutes a software ecosystem, (b) few analytical models of software ecosystems exist, and (c) little research is done in the context of real-world ecosystems. This work provides an overview of the field, while identifying areas for future research.

  10. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  11. Transportation Shock and Vibration Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Lahti, Erik A.; Ross, Steven B.

    2013-06-06

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT-13OR08220112, "Report Documenting Experimental Activities." The purpose of this report is to document the results of a literature review conducted of studies related to the vibration and shock associated with the normal conditions of transport for rail shipments of used nuclear fuel from commercial light-water reactors. As discussed in Adkins (2013), the objective of this report is to determine if adequate data exist that would enable the impacts of the shock and vibration associated with the normal conditions of transport on commercial light-water reactor used nuclear fuel shipped in current generation rail transportation casks to be realistically modeled.

  12. Electronic whiteboards: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Rebecca; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Wyatt, Jeremy; Gardner, Peter; Pearman, Alan; Honey, Stephanie; Dowding, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Electronic whiteboards are being introduced into hospitals to communicate real-time patient information instantly to staff. This paper provides a preliminary review of the current state of evidence for the effect of electronic whiteboards on care processes and patient outcomes. A literature search was performed for the dates 1996 to 2014 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, and the ACM Digital Library. Thirteen papers, describing 11 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies took place in the Emergency Department. While studies looked at the impact of electronic whiteboards on the process of care, there is an absence of evidence concerning impact on patient outcomes. There is a need for robust research measuring the impact of electronic whiteboards on inpatient care. PMID:25991172

  13. Energy storage: a review of recent literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature on the technological and economic status of reversible energy storage has been reviewed. A broad range of research and development activities have been pursued between 1975 and the present. Most of this work has concentrated on improving technical and economic performance of previously known storage technologies. Hydraulic pumped storage with both reservoirs above ground and compressed air storage (1 plant) are the only methods that have been adopted by electric utilities. The need for electrical energy storage in Canada has not been acute because of the large proportion of hydraulic generation which incorporates some storge and, in most cases, can readily be used for load-following. Residential heat storage in ceramic room heaters has been used in Europe for several years. For Canadian climatic and market conditions larger, central heating units would be required. Residential heat storage depends upon utilities offering time-of-use rates and none in Canada do so at present. Most seasonal storage concepts depend upon storage of low-grade heat for district heating. The cost of energy storage is highly dependent upon annual energy throughput and hence favours smaller capacity systems operating on frequent charge/discharge cycles over long-term storage. Capital costs of energy storage methods from the literature, expressed in constant dollars, are compared graphically and tentative investment costs are presented for several storage methods

  14. Wipe sampling - review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for characterization of solid, non-compactable radioactive wastes contaminated in the surface are developed aiming at estimating the waste radioisotopic inventory for regulatory compliance and operational purposes. The wastes of interest here are mainly composed of plastic, metallic, or other materials parts originated in the decommissioning and maintenance operations of nuclear facilities. One way of measuring surface contamination is the indirect method of wiping the contaminated surface and counting the wipe, a common method of detecting non-fixed contamination in the radiation protection routine. The wipe sampling is an important tool in controlling the quality of the workplace in nuclear and radioactive facilities. Although radioprotection regulations establish quantitative limits, the practice in the radiation protection routine is to use wipe sampling as a qualitative measurement. To product useful quantitative results for inventorying radioactive wastes, a quantitative approach must be adopted. A previous paper presented by the authors in the last INAC Conference discussed alternative wipe materials and protocols. The method of wipe sampling underwent small changes since it started to be used but still is the object of study, as it is attested by many recent papers and patents on the subject. This article consists of a literature review. Results of a survey in the literature about wipe sampling techniques that can be applied to waste characterization are presented. (author)

  15. Prediction Markets : A literature review 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results are further compared to two previous works published by Zhao, Wagner and Chen (2008) and Tziralis and Tatsiopoulos (2007a). The article concludes with an extended bibliography section and may therefore serve as a guidance and basis for further research.

  16. Reconstruction of sternal defect - a literature review.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Koudahl, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The management of sternal defects arisen after deep sternal wound infection is challenging and often requires extensive interdisciplinary teamwork between plastic and thoracic surgeons. In this study, the published literature on methods used to reconstruct sternal defects arisen as a result of deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery will be reviewed. DESIGN: The Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, and SveMed+ databases were searched in December 2011. Only papers regarding treatment of deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery in adults were included. RESULTS: The literature search identified 224 original papers that met the inclusion criteria. The majority dealt with surgical techniques. None of the studies regarding reconstructive options were designed as randomized controlled trials, and the levels of evidence are generally low. CONCLUSION: The treatment of deep sternal wound infection has evolved considerably, but there is still little consensus regarding optimal surgicalmanagement and a general lack of a standard treatment protocol. The use of muscle flap transposition is well documented. Recent studies recommend the use of topical negative pressure therapy as an adjunct to surgical reconstruction.

  17. [Facebook in oncology. Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroni, Laura; Ferrari, Andrea; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Internet and particularly the so-called Web 2.0 are powerful tools of communication characterized by high user participation in the creation of content through various sites, such as those of social networking, where Facebook is the best known and most widely used. The aim of the present paper is to review the literature on the use of Facebook in health care. The international scientific literature of the past 10 years has been collected by major databases online. From the research were identified 262 articles of which 57 are considered relevant. The articles are schematically divided into three categories according to the topic: use of Facebook for psychosocial support for communication, for doctor-patient relationship, for institutional communication. The authors have identified the critical aspects and the possibility of using this tool in the communication and relationship between patients and health professionals. Despite the presence of critical issues, the use of social media is to be considered with interest and is worthy of study and research in the clinical setting. It should at the same time that health professionals are aware of the risks associated with the use of social networking but also trained in the use of the potential of these virtual tools that cannot replace real interactions but can support them. PMID:25621781

  18. Corporate reputation: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Salles Vance

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The term corporate reputation has been mentioned in academic papers for some decades however since the 90's the debate about it has been intensified by authors of different areas of study. Therefore, there is a growing pressure around the definition of a construct and the way to measure an organization's corporate reputation. The purpose of this article is to present a literature review on corporate reputation in three different perspectives. At first, we intended to go through the literature, pointing out the different definitions presented on this theme. The second aspect refers to the identification of terms related to corporate reputation, such as corporate brand, corporate identity and corporate communication. Finally, broadening the possibilities of future empiric works, a review of the different proposals of measuring the corporate reputation of organizations is made.O tema reputação corporativa tem sido objeto de estudos acadêmicos há algumas décadas, porém, somente a partir da década de 90 intensificou-se esse interesse, manifestado por autores de diferentes áreas de estudo. A diversidade de abordagens pressiona o debate sobre a definição de um constructo e sobre a forma mais adequada de mensuração da reputação corporativa de uma organização. O propósito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre a questão da reputação corporativa em três perspectivas distintas. Pretende-se, em primeiro lugar, percorrer a literatura sobre o assunto, apontando as diferentes definições apresentadas do tema. Em seguida, identificar os termos correlatos à reputação corporativa, como: marca corporativa, identidade corporativa e comunicação corporativa. E, finalmente, a fim de ampliar as possibilidades de trabalhos empíricos futuros, examinar criticamente as diferentes propostas de mensuração da reputação corporativa das organizações.

  19. Suggested Guidelines for Conducting Music Therapy Literature Reviews & an Introduction to Systematic Reviews in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole

    This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic reviews conducted in music therapy.

  20. Effecting change in primary care management of respiratory conditions : a global scoping exercise and literature review of educational interventions to inform the IPCRG's E-Quality initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdonnel, Juliet; Williams, Sian; Chavannes, Niels H.; Sousa, Jaime Correira; Fardy, H. John; Fletcher, Monica; Stout, James; Tomlins, Ron; Yusuf, Osman M.; Pinnock, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper describes a scoping exercise and literature review commissioned by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) to inform their E-Quality programme which seeks to support small-scale educational projects to improve respiratory management in primary care. Our narrative review synthesises information from three sources: publications concerning the global context and health systems development; a literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases; and a...

  1. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  2. Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

  3. Occlusion and periodontics: a critical literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Aparecida Chaves FURLANETO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occlusal trauma is defined as an injury resulting intissues changes within the attachment apparatus as result of occlusalforce(s. Since 1901, when Karolyi reported a possible interactionbetween occlusal disharmony and periodontal alterations, severalstudies have tried to find scientific evidence that corroborates or not this interrelationship. Objective and literature review: In this paper,the authors review the studies that have analyzed traumatic occlusion as a presumed aggravating factor in periodontal disease, as well as those suggesting possible advantages with the concomitant use of occlusal and periodontal therapies. Even though there are still many doubts to be clarified in order to completely understand the effects of occlusal forces on the periodontium, it is well known that a functional occlusion is fundamental for the equilibrium of the diverse components of the stomatognathic system, including the periodontal tissues.Conclusion: An occlusal adjustment should be done, whenever it is indicated, as a routine procedure during periodontal treatment.Furthermore, it is evident that additional studies, with more precise and reproducible methodology, are needed in order to clarify the interaction between the occlusion with the periodontal tissues.

  4. CUBOID SYNDROME: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

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    Stephen M. Patterson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to inform all medical health care professionals about cuboid syndrome, which has been described as difficult to recognize and is commonly misdiagnosed, by explaining the etiology of this syndrome, its clinical diagnosis in relation to differential diagnoses, commonly administered treatment techniques, and patient outcomes. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature was conducted with MEDLINE, EBSCO, and PubMed (1960 - Present using the key words cuboid, cuboid syndrome, foot anatomy, tarsal bones, manual therapy, and manipulation. Medical professionals must be aware that any lateral foot and ankle pain may be the result of cuboid syndrome. Once properly diagnosed, cuboid syndrome responds exceptionally well to conservative treatment involving specific cuboid manipulation techniques. Other methods of conservative treatment including therapeutic modalities, therapeutic exercises, padding, and low dye taping techniques are used as adjuncts in the treatment of this syndrome. Immediately after the manipulation is performed, the patient may note a decrease or a complete cessation of their symptoms. Occasionally, if the patient has had symptoms for a longer duration, several manipulations may be warranted throughout the course of time. Due to the fact radiographic imaging is of little value, the diagnosis is largely based on the patient's history and a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the condition. Additionally, an understanding of the etiology behind this syndrome is essential, aiding the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. After the correct diagnosis is made and a proper treatment regimen is utilized, the prognosis is excellent

  5. Spiritual distress: integrative review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Galvão

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify concepts and clinical indicators that evidence spiritual distress in patients. Integrative review was the method adopted for the development of the study. In the initial stage, 82 studies were found in the following databases PUBMED, COCHRANE, CINAHL, LILACS and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Conference Proceedings and 18 were selected. The descriptors used were spirituality and nursing diagnosis in addition to the term spiritual distress. Literature review (38.9% and articles with level of evidence IV (27.8% were the predominant types of study. The analysis of the articles revealed that the identified concepts of spiritual distress presented common and related elements to the human being subjective and individual response to life experiences, which harm the human spiritual dimension. Defining spiritual distress is a complex task since it depends on the perspective of those evaluating it, limiting in this way, its generalization. However, knowledge regarding the constructs that guide the understanding of human spirituality can base the nursing care in its spiritual dimension, thus providing theoretical support for the diagnosis.

  6. Spiritual distress: integrative review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cássia Lopes Chaves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify concepts and clinical indicators that evidence spiritual distress in patients. Integrative review was the method adopted for the development of the study. In the initial stage, 82 studies were found in the following databases PUBMED, COCHRANE, CINAHL, LILACS and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Conference Proceedings and 18 were selected. The descriptors used were spirituality and nursing diagnosis in addition to the term spiritual distress. Literature review (38.9% and articles with level of evidence IV (27.8% were the predominant types of study. The analysis of the articles revealed that the identified concepts of spiritual distress presented common and related elements to the human being subjective and individual response to life experiences, which harm the human spiritual dimension. Defining spiritual distress is a complex task since it depends on the perspective of those evaluating it, limiting in this way, its generalization. However, knowledge regarding the constructs that guide the understanding of human spirituality can base the nursing care in its spiritual dimension, thus providing theoretical support for the diagnosis.

  7. Systematic literature review for clinical practice guideline development.

    OpenAIRE

    O Day, D. M.; Steinberg, E. P.; Dickersin, K.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality and scope of the published literature on functional impairment due to cataract in adults as reviewed for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guideline. We examined the method of literature retrieved and analysis performed in the course of development of literature-based recommendations for the guideline panel. To collect data, we reviewed the process of literature acquisition and identification and the quality ...

  8. TEXTUAL SKILLS: MANIPULATION WITH NARRATOLOGICAL UNITS IN THE FUNCTION OF VARYING AND ADAPTING NARRATIVE TEXT – FOR LITERATURE TEACHING PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?????? M. ????????

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the most important findings of theoretical research of narratological constituent units in narrative texts and their manipulation capabilities in the process of varying. The grounds for analysis are the basic binary comparison criteria “What?/How?” and “Invariant/Variant”, as aspects of narration and certain narratological parameters that ensure preservation of the identity of the primordial text on the occasion of its varying on congenial grounds. The research shows that on the occasion of specified manipulations with primordial text, it is necessary to respect core-function, as well as, proper selection of qualitative-quantitative narratological variables (catalysts, indications and informants. This is because specified narratological units in their synergic actions ensure the preservation of referent narrative structure within the limits of congeniality when it comes to the important aspects of narration: the fable (events and basic action with a possible plot, characters, personalities, the way of discourse and story network, juxtaposition and distraction of storytelling, as well as the spirit and artistic-aesthetic qualities of the primordial text. Thus, special attention is given to deliberating issues with reference to the adaptability of four basic classes of narratological units (core-function, catalysts-retardants, indications, informants in a literary text from the aspect of susceptibility to the variation of the basic referent text. When it comes to preserving the identity of the primordial text varied on congenial grounds – the most sensitive narratological unit of the content is core-function (or more of them, no matter how many there are in the narrative. Due to its importance, it is by its essence exposed as an invariant (invariable constant and, together with it, the main character/characters and the appropriate choice of crucial narratological variables. The above mentioned phenomena and aspects are of crucial practical importance, for example, to students and teachers of literature and language, who must, due to the requirements of their professions, adapt the narrative text to a specific purpose (presentation of the text during lectures, school celebrations, literary and drama extra curricular activities, etc.. For the same reasons, this topic can be interesting to students and teachers at corresponding pedagogical groups, those who study rhetoric, theory of literature and arts, teaching methodology, etc. Therefore, in addition to the essential narratological breviary with explanations of most important narration aspects and narratological invariants, this paper also brings practical, experimental examples which provide educational support when manipulating the text not only for the needs of modern curricular and extracurricular practice but also for adapting the text for the purpose of its presentation in media (for example, on the radio as a radio novel, or in in the form of a radio drama, or on the alternative scene (school, amateur groups.

  9. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: LITERATURE REVIEW AND TIME EVOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of an economic entity requires approaching several criteria, such as industry and economic entity type, managerial and entrepreneurial strategy, competitive environment, human and material resources available, using a system of appropriate performance indicators for this purpose.The exigencies of communication occurred on the growing number of phenomena that marked the global economy in recent decades (internationalization and relocation of business crises and turmoil in financial markets, demand performance measurement to be made in a comprehensive way by financial and non-financial criteria. Indicators are measures of performance used by management to measure, report and improve performance of the economic entity. The relationship between indicators and management is ensured by the existence of performance measurement systems. Studies to date indicate that economic entities using balanced performance measurement systems as a key management tool registered superior performance compared to entities not using such systems. This study attempts to address the issue of performance evaluation by presenting opinions of different authors concerning the process of performance measurement and to present, after revising the literature, the evolution of the performance evaluation systems. We tried to do this literature review because sustainable development and, therefore, globalization require new standards of performance that exceeds the economic field, both for domestic companies as well as international ones. So, these standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities undertaken by harmonizing the economic, social and environmental objectives. To assess the performance of economic entities it is required that performance evaluation to be done with a balanced multidimensional system, including both financial ratios and non-financial indicators in order to reduce the limits of the two categories of indicators. Performance measurement and management can’t be separated; performance management is a philosophy that is supported by performance measurement. Performance management precedes performance measurement and creates the context for performance measurement.

  10. Microbial-influenced cement degradation: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews literature which addresses the effect of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are identified, which are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with concrete and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Mechanisms inherent in microbial-influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. This report provides sufficient evidence of the potential for microbial-influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW to justify the enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion, as well as the development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbiological-induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form

  11. Firefighters' noise exposure: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxini, Carla Linhares; Guida, Heraldo Lorena

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim:?To review the literature about the effects of environmental noise on the hearing ability of firefighters. Method:?The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched and studies from 2002 to 2012 that included the keywords firefighters, noise, and hearing loss were identified. Initially, 24 studies were selected, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria of investigating the effects of occupational noise on firefighters. Results:?Only 2 (20%) studies quantified levels of sound pressure and performed audiological tests to identify associations with noise intensity and 3 (30%) questionnaire-based studies reported that these professionals are more susceptible to hearing loss. Four (50%) studies found that noise exposure damages the auditory system in this population. Discussion:?These findings indicate that there is a necessity for preventive measures to be adopted by this population since it is considered to be at risk. Conclusion:?In recent years, there have been few studies of firefighters' exposure to occupational noise, but our findings show the importance of new studies that include proper means of quantifying their exposure to noise in different work environments, in order to identify possible adverse conditions as well as to aid in the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  12. Evidence-based management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sam K

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a review of evidence-based management (EBM), exploring whether management activities within healthcare have been, or can be, subject to the same scientific framework as clinical practice. The evidence-based approach was initially examined, noting the hierarchy of evidence ranging from randomized control trials to clinical anecdote. The literature varied in its degree of criticism of this approach; the most common concern referring to the assumed superiority of positivism. However, evidence-based practice was generally accepted as the best way forward. Stewart (1998) offered the only detailed exposition of EBM, outlining a necessary 'attitude of mind' both for EBM and for the creation of a research culture. However, the term 'clinical effectiveness' emerged as a possible replacement buzz-word for EBM (McClarey 1998). The term appears to encompass the sentiments of the evidence-based approach, but with a concomitant concern for economic factors. In this paper the author has examined the divide between those who viewed EBM as an activity for managers to make their own practice accountable and those who believed it to be a facilitative practice to help clinicians with evidence-based practice. Most papers acknowledged the limited research base for management activities within the health service and offered some explanation such as government policy constraints and lack of time. Nevertheless, the overall emphasis is that ideally there should be a management culture firmly based in evidence. PMID:11982781

  13. Pedophilia – a review of literature, casuistics, doubts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ucka, Izabela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is presentation of several basic issues related to the phenomenon of child sexual molesters and recognition of pedophilia as a significant social problem. The article, supplemented by casuistic illustration showing adolescents with sexual behavior disorders is giving rise to the following question: do they progress in their inappropriate behaviors to grow into adult molesters or do they stop anywhere along the way of their development? Casuistry, in the intention of the authors, is the background for discussion about prevention of child sexual abuse. This article presents also a review of the current knowledge about child sexual molesters. The topics include: the definition of pedophilia itself, which varies in the literature depending on the types of activities, kinds of victims and the circumstances in which the perpetrator acts, through to the recognition of symptoms of pedophilia as well as its consequences. It includes both intra-familial and extra-familial child sexual abuse and their offenders. The more, that the history of child sexual abuse is associated with numerous long-term physical, psychological, behavioral, interpersonal and social effects on the victim. The examinations made among pedophilic molesters have shown structural and functional temporal-limbic abnormalities, including abnormalities in the amygdala and it is possible that the pedophilic inclinations are secondary to neurodevelopmental perturbations and other neuropsychiatric syndromes.

  14. Sexuality following trauma injury: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Marie Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of the quality of life (QoL of trauma injury survivors is the aim of trauma rehabilitation. It is generally acknowledged that sexuality is an important component of QoL; however, rehabilitation services frequently fall short of including sexuality as a matter of routine. The literature was reviewed to examine the experiences of trauma survivors from three groups: spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI and burns. The focus was on the impact of trauma on the QoL to identify future research directions and to advocate for the inclusion of sexuality as an integral part of rehabilitation. Databases searched were Proquest, Ovid, Cinahl, Medline, PsycInfo and Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials. A total of 36 eligible studies were included: SCI (n = 25, TBI (n = 6, burns (n = 5. Four themes were identified across the three trauma groups that were labeled as physiological impact of trauma on sexuality, cognitive-genital dissociation (CGD, sexual disenfranchisement (SD and sexual rediscovery (SR. Trauma injury has a significant impact on sexuality, which is not routinely addressed within rehabilitation services. Further sexuality research is required among all trauma groups to improve rehabilitation services and in turn QoL outcomes for all trauma survivors.

  15. CAPITAL BUDGETING DECISIONS-REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Gulia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available -The main objective of present study is to present review of literature related to capital budgeting decisions and to study the trends in using the capital budgeting techniques in depth. The study would facilitate the reader to know the past, current and future trend of capital budgeting techniques by the corporate houses. This study would provide guidelines to decision makers to make investing and financing decisions so that their profit get maximise at minimize risks.The secondary purpose of this study is to understand the rationale behind capital budgeting decisions. Whether such kinds of decisions affect the efficiency of the corporate houses. Efficiency either in terms of increase in revenue or decrease in costs of the operations. The benefits from large investments are received in some future period and the future is uncertain. For instance, a decision to acquire an asset that is going to last for 15 years requires a15-year forecast. A failure to forecast correctly will lead to serious errors which can be corrected only at a considerable expense. Future revenue involves estimating the size of the market for a product and the expected share of the firm in that. These estimates depend on a variety of factors, including price, advertising and promotions, and sales effort and so on. To what extend these estimates effect the quality of capital budgeting decisions is the more sophisticated way to explain the main objective of this study

  16. Professional boundary violations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Eymard, Amanda S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the nursing literature related to professional boundary violations in nursing. A search was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, Ebscohost, and NCSBN. The key words searched were professional boundaries, boundary violation, boundary crossings, nurse, home health nurses, and home nursing. The search returned over 40 publications related specifically to boundary violations and nursing although only four of them are published research studies and one as a dissertation. Seven common characteristics emerged from the nonresearch nursing articles on professional boundaries: (1) Dual relations/role reversal, (2) Gifts and money, (3) Excessive self-disclosure, (4) Secretive behavior, (5) Excessive attention/overinvolvement, (6) Sexual behavior, and (7) Social media. Additional nursing research is greatly needed in the area of professional boundaries. The nurse-patient relationship should always be maintained for the benefit of the patient and not the personal gain of the nurse. Ongoing education in nursing practice regarding professional boundaries is needed. Nurses need to be mindful of state practice acts, codes of conduct, and employer policies. PMID:26034824

  17. Occupational Therapy clinical documentation: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Simon Benevides Panzeri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational therapy clinical documentation comprises all recorded information about a client/patient/user, from forwarding to discharge, and it may integrate the patient’s record or serve as support for the exclusive practice of occupational therapy. In Brazil, despite being a mandatory and routine practice, little scientific-technical material on the subject is available for the support of professionals. This study aimed to identify, through literature review, information for greater understanding and support to the practice of professional activity. The data were analyzed and presented according to the different themes identified, seeking common, complementary and divergent points on each theme. Twelve articles were included in the study. The information obtained addressed themes such as registration methods, perception and attitudes of professionals, communication and language, quality, and others. It was possible to achieve a preliminary approach to the subject and have an overview of aspects related to occupational therapy clinical documentation, but some segmented information and several weaknesses were found

  18. Neurobrucellosis: three case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jia-wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a multisystem disease which may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. This article aims to present clinical manifestations and to discuss the clinical features and management of 3 neurobrucellosis cases. Methods The diagnosis, treatment, laboratory results and accessory examination findings of 3 patients with neurobrucellosis between August 2010 and March 2012 were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results All the 3 cases had definite history of exposure to epidemic areas or infectious diseases, and history of being infected with Brucella by drinking raw milk. During the screening because of fever for reasons unknown, they were proved to be infected with Brucella by etiological or serological tests. Initial clinical manifestations consisted of fever and headache, with meningitis symptoms and signs, spondylitis, uroschesis and constipation (which might be caused by lumbosacral nerve root lesion, or neurological manifestations in auditory nerve and abducent nerve, such as hearing loss and diplopia. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis presents with various clinical signs and symptoms, and is often accompanied by systemic infection. Brucellosis should be kept in mind during the screening of fever for reasons unknown, and be differentiated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The combined treatment by antibotics of different pharmacological mechanisms with full dose and long range is effective, and the prognosis is favorable.

  19. Naringenin and atherosclerosis: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay E; Nabavi, Seyed F; Daglia, Maria; Tenore, Gian C; Mansouri, Kowsar; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease mainly caused by deposition of low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol in macrophages of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks as well as stroke. Epidemiological studies showed that there is an inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of atherosclerosis. The promising effect of high vegetable and fruit containing diet on atherosclerosis is approved by several experimental studies on isolated phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are known to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant system, suppress oxidative and nitrosative stress, decrease macrophage oxidative stress through cellular oxygenase inhibition as well as interaction with several signal transduction pathways and from these ways, have therapeutic effects against atherosclerosis. Naringenin is a well known flavonoid belonging to the chemical class of flavanones. It is especially abundant in citrus fruits, especially grapefruits. A plethora of evidences ascribes to naringenin antiatherosclerotic effects. Naringenin abilities to decrease LDL and triglycerides as well as inhibit glucose uptake; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL); co-oxidation of NADH; suppress protein oxidation; protect against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); suppress macrophage inflammation; inhibit leukotriene B4, monocyte adhesion and foam cell formation; induce of HO-1 and G 0/G 1 cell cycle arrest in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and down regulate atherosclerosis related genes are believed to have crucial role in the promising role against atherosclerosis. In the present review, we have summarized the available literature data on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of naringenin and its possible mechanisms of action. PMID:25483717

  20. Firefighters' noise exposure: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxini, Carla Linhares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review the literature about the effects of environmental noise on the hearing ability of firefighters. Method: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched and studies from 2002 to 2012 that included the keywords firefighters, noise, and hearing loss were identified. Initially, 24 studies were selected, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria of investigating the effects of occupational noise on firefighters. Results: Only 2 (20% studies quantified levels of sound pressure and performed audiological tests to identify associations with noise intensity and 3 (30% questionnaire-based studies reported that these professionals are more susceptible to hearing loss. Four (50% studies found that noise exposure damages the auditory system in this population. Discussion: These findings indicate that there is a necessity for preventive measures to be adopted by this population since it is considered to be at risk. Conclusion: In recent years, there have been few studies of firefighters' exposure to occupational noise, but our findings show the importance of new studies that include proper means of quantifying their exposure to noise in different work environments, in order to identify possible adverse conditions as well as to aid in the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  1. Firefighters' noise exposure: a literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Linhares, Taxini; Heraldo Lorena, Guida.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To review the literature about the effects of environmental noise on the hearing ability of firefighters. METHOD: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched and studies from 2002 to 2012 that included the keywords firefighters, noise, and hearing loss were identified. Initially, 24 studies w [...] ere selected, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria of investigating the effects of occupational noise on firefighters. RESULTS: Only 2 (20%) studies quantified levels of sound pressure and performed audiological tests to identify associations with noise intensity and 3 (30%) questionnaire-based studies reported that these professionals are more susceptible to hearing loss. Four (50%) studies found that noise exposure damages the auditory system in this population. DISCUSSION: These findings indicate that there is a necessity for preventive measures to be adopted by this population since it is considered to be at risk. CONCLUSION: In recent years, there have been few studies of firefighters' exposure to occupational noise, but our findings show the importance of new studies that include proper means of quantifying their exposure to noise in different work environments, in order to identify possible adverse conditions as well as to aid in the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  2. Health Information Technology in Oncology Practice: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fasola, G.; Macerelli, M.; Follador, A.; Rihawi, K.; Aprile, G.; Mea, V. Della

    2014-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of information technology are dramatically remodeling healthcare services all over the world, resulting in an unstoppable and sometimes overwhelming process. After the introduction of the main elements of electronic health records and a description of what every cancer-care professional should be familiar with, we present a narrative review focusing on the current use of computerized clinical information and decision systems in oncology practice. Following a de...

  3. Retroperitoneal Angiomyolipoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan King; Andrew Strahan; Scott McClintock

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma is a rare tumour that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We present a case of retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma that highlights its diagnostic dilemma. We also performed a literature review and present a review of retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma.

  4. Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström Martin; Kawachi Ichiro; Merlo Juan; Kamrul, Islam M.; Gerdtham Ulf-G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel) and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capita...

  5. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Navneet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13 generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to suggest that risk factors for suicide in deaf people differed systematically from those in the general population. However, studies did report higher levels of depression and higher levels of perceived risk among deaf individuals than hearing control groups. No firm evidence was found regarding the effectiveness of suicide prevention strategies in deaf people, but suggested strategies include developing specific screening tools, training clinical staff, promoting deaf awareness, increasing the availability of specialist mental health services for deaf people. Conclusion There is a significant gap in our understanding of suicide in deaf populations. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between suicide and deafness. Specialist mental health services should be readily accessible to deaf individuals and specific preventative strategies may be of benefit. However, further research using a variety of study designs is needed to increase our understanding of this issue.

  6. Capsular block syndrome: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez M; Lf, Vela?squez; Rojas S; Montoya L; Zuluaga K; Balparda K

    2014-01-01

    Mauricio Vélez, Luis F Velásquez, Sebastián Rojas, Laura Montoya, Katherine Zuluaga, Kepa BalpardaPontifical Bolivarian University, School of Medicine, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia Purpose: To report the case of a patient who developed late capsular block syndrome and to review the current literature regarding this complication of phacoemulsification procedures. Methods: The literature was reviewed to summarize the diagnosis, classification, use of diagnostic aid...

  7. A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

  8. An Integrative Literature Review of Knowledge Sharing through Cultural Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, EunJee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative review of literature on cultural dimensions that have been suggested as facilitative and inhibitive to knowledge sharing in organizations. Content analysis was conducted on articles related to national, organizational and professional culture and knowledge sharing process. Based on a review of existing literature

  9. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  10. Situating Disability within Comparative Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alisha M. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an inquiry into where the topic of disability falls within the vast field of comparative education research. It explores the extent to which disability is present in comparative education literature, and in what ways it is represented. A review of literature across the core comparative education peer-reviewed journals was conducted.…

  11. The Evolving Military Learner Population: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kate; Vignare, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This literature review examines the evolving online military learner population with emphasis on current generation military learners, who are most frequently Post-9/11 veterans. The review synthesizes recent scholarly and grey literature on military learner demographics and attributes, college experiences, and academic outcomes against a backdrop…

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

    2011-09-22

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  13. Traditions and myths in hip and knee arthroplasty : A narrative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Gromov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose - Traditions are passed on from experienced surgeons to younger fellows and become "the right way to do it". Traditions associated with arthroplasty surgery may, however, not be evidence-based and may be potentially deleterious to both patients and society, increasing morbidity and mortality, slowing early functional recovery, and increasing cost. Methods - We identified selected traditions and performed a literature search using relevant search criteria (June 2014). We present a narrative review grading the studies according to evidence, and we suggest some lines of future research. Results - We present traditions and evaluate them against the published evidence. Preoperative removal of hair, urine testing for bacteria, use of plastic adhesive drapes intraoperatively, and prewarming of the operation room should be abandoned-as should use of a tourniquet, a space suit, a urinary catheter, and closure of the knee in extension. The safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid is supported by meta-analyses. Postoperatively, there is no evidence to support postponement of showering or postponement of changing of dressings to after 48 h. There is no evidence to recommend routine dental antibiotic prophylaxis, continuous passive motion (CPM), the use of compression stockings, cooling for pain control or reduction of swelling, flexion of at least 90 degrees as a discharge criterion following TKA, or having restrictions after THA. We present evidence supporting the use of NSAIDs, early mobilization, allowing early travel, and a low hemoglobin trigger for transfusion. Interpretation - Revision of traditions and myths surrounding hip and knee arthroplasty towards more contemporary evidence-based principles can be expected to improve early functional recovery, thus reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs.

  14. Optic nerve aplasia: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Alqahtani Jerman

    2008-01-01

    To report a case of unilateral optic nerve aplasia with unusual presentation and to review the literature. Clinical and histopathological features of a 36-week-old gestation male infant were described with review of all cases of optic nerve aplasia in the literature. The unusual findings in this case are the systemic congenital anomalies. Twenty-nine out of forty-two cases reported in the literature are true cases of optic nerve aplasia; the others probably represent optic nerve hypoplasia. O...

  15. Thyroid Hemiagenesis: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pen?a, Sarah; Robertson, Hugh; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to report an incidental finding of thyroid hemiagenesis in a patient who presented with a left neck mass, present a review of literature, and to discuss management of this diagnosis. Case report and review of literature. An internet-based literature search was performed via Pubmed with key words, “hemithyroid agenesis, thyroid hemiagenesis, absent thyroid gland”. Clinical, pathological, radiologic data and follow up information is reported. A 55 year old woman with a le...

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Huang; Jing Ren

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC), MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals...

  17. Probing Compulsive and Impulsive Behaviors, from Animal Models to Endophenotypes: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fineberg, Naomi A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Berlin, Heather A.; Menzies, Lara; Bechara, Antoine; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Hollander, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Failures in cortical control of fronto-striatal neural circuits may underpin impulsive and compulsive acts. In this narrative review, we explore these behaviors from the perspective of neural processes and consider how these behaviors and neural processes contribute to mental disorders such as obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, and impulse-control disorders such as trichotillomania and pathological gambling. We present findings from a broad ran...

  18. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ablin, Jacob N.; Ha?user, Winfried; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices ov...

  19. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of all...

  20. A meta-narrative review of electronic patient records

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, H. W. W.; Greenhalgh, T.; Swinglehurst, D.; Bark, P; Wong, G.

    2009-01-01

    This session comprises four papers that consider how systematic review methods may be developed in order to make the best use of complex evidence in education and health. The methods and approaches reflected upon in these papers are not drawn from a single research tradition, but share a common goal of broadening the methodological scope of systematic reviews and better understanding the utilisation of knowledge produced in this way. The first paper (Henry Potts) reports an ong...

  1. Culture Differences and M&A Performance: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lala, Noreen; Sun, Jing; Lu, He

    2010-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have tried to find out the role of national culture in context of cross-border M&A and further tested the relationship with performance. However, the results seem to be inconclusive.   Purpose: We will do a literature review based on peer reviewed articles regarding how national culture relates to the performance of cross-border M&A.   Methodology: Literature review is based on various journals, academic articles, books through electronic databases and libr...

  2. Clinical risk factors and urodynamic predictors prior to surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence : a narrative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bing, Mette Hornum; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Knowledge about clinical risk factors and the value of urodynamic testing is important to optimize treatment strategy and secure true informed consent. METHODS: We reviewed the relevant literature to clarify the evidence regarding clinical risk factors and the predictive value of urodynamic testing in patients with urinary incontinence, where surgery is considered. Because of the paucity of evidence based on randomized controlled trials, we conducted a narrative review of the published literature. RESULTS: Clinical risk factors in terms of mixed urinary incontinence, previous incontinence surgery, body mass index (BMI)???35, age???75, and presence of diabetes mellitus were significantly related to decreased outcome of incontinence surgery. Furthermore, noninvasive and invasive urodynamic parameters indicating detrusor overactivity, voiding difficulties, low urethral pressure, and bladder-neck immobility were related to poorer outcome of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This study summarized the available evidence regarding preoperative clinical risk factors and urodynamic parameters indicating decreased or adverse outcome of surgery, and this report also provides clinical recommendations.

  3. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  4. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections : a narrative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; HØiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix Ginseng might be a promising supplemental remedy for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

  5. Functional outcomes associated with expiratory muscle strength training: Narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Laciuga, Ma; John C Rosenbek, Phd; Paul W Davenport, Phd; Christine M Sapienza, Phd

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson d...

  6. Linguagem narrativa e fluência na síndrome de down: uma revisão / Narrative language and fluency in down syndrome: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Piazzi, Seno; Célia Maria, Giacheti; Danilo, Moretti-Ferreira.

    1311-13-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Down é uma condição na qual os indivíduos apresentam comprometimento intelectual e alterações de linguagem oral. A disfluência de fala está presente tanto durante a conversa espontânea como em produções orais de narrativas direcionadas. Este estudo teve como principal objetivo revisar [...] a literatura sobre a disfluência e a narrativa em indivíduos com a síndrome de Down, publicada entre 2002 e 2012, em bases de dados eletrônicos. Foram encontrados 17 artigos e selecionados oito, de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Destes, dois discorriam especificamente sobre a disfluência na síndrome de Down, e seis sobre a narrativa nesta população. A deficiência intelectual é parte do fenótipo dos indivíduos com SD e, em decorrência do comprometimento intelectual, prejuízos na aquisição e no desenvolvimento da linguagem. Estudos específicos, principalmente sobre a fluência/disfluência; e, sobre o desempenho na tarefa da narrativa, ainda são escassos e inconclusivos. A disfluência não aparece na maioria das descrições do fenótipo de linguagem dos indivíduos com esta condição, que mereceria, estudos clínicos adicionais. Abstract in english Down’s syndrome is a condition in which individuals have intellectual impairment and oral language disorders. Speech disfluency is present during both spontaneous conversations as in productions of directed oral narratives. This study aimed to review the published literature between 2002 and 2012 in [...] eletronic databases on disfluency and narrative in individuals with Down syndrome. There were 17 articles and eight were selected according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Two of these articles specifically discoursed on dysfluency in Down’s syndrome and the other six on the narrative in this population. Intellectual disability is part of the phenotype of individuals with DS and, as a result of the intellectual impairment, losses occur on the acquisition and development of language. Specific studies about, mainly on fluency/disfluency, and the performance on a task of narrative and, are still scarce and inconclusive. Disfluency doesn’t appear in most descriptions of the language phenotype of individuals with this condition, which would deserve additional clinical studies.

  7. Systematic review of the literature on simulation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based learning is an educational intervention which creates an environment that is conducive to experiential learning. Despite the prevalence of research on the influence of simulation on nursing education, there is a dearth of literature on the effectiveness of simulation-based learning. This systematic review examines literature on simulation outcomes in nursing education from the years 2000-2010. The electronic databases reviewed for the systematic review of the literature included: CINAHL Plus, Medline, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Education, Google Scholar, and Digital Dissertations and Theses through ProQuest. The MeSH search terms included "simulation outcomes measurement" and "nursing education". Seventeen studies were included in the review of the literature. The literature was categorized into three themes; internal outcomes, external outcomes, and clinical evaluation. The available literature on simulation and nursing education provides evidence that that simulation is useful in creating a learning environment which contributes to knowledge, skills, safety, and confidence. This systematic review of the literature revealed a gap in the literature pertaining to the transfer of these outcomes to the clinical setting, and lays a foundation for further research on outcomes specific to simulation and nursing education. PMID:22774355

  8. Narrative Review: Protein Degradation and Human Diseases: The Ubiquitin Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MD/PhD Eyal Reinstein (Tel-Aviv University Deparrment of Internal Medicine)

    2006-11-07

    Physiology in Medicine review article. When researchers discovered the organelle lysosome, they assumed that cellular proteins were degraded within it. However, several independent lines of evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis was largely nonlysosomal. It is now recognized that degradation of intracellular proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is involved in the regulation of a broad array of cellular processes,drugs that target the degradation pathways of a single or a few proteins without affecting other proteins. It seems that pharmacologic manipulation of the UPS might alter the outcome of many diseases, especially malignant conditions and possibly neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  9. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves; de Cavalho, Glauber Barbosa; Brito, Valeska Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Sumamry Introduction:?The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective:?To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature:?The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations:?This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries.

  10. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Mickan, S.; Rodger, S.

    2000-01-01

    Effective healthcare teams often elude consistent definition because of the complexity of teamwork. Systems theory offers a dynamic view of teamwork, in which input conditions are transformed via optimum throughput processes into maximal output. This article describes eighteen characteristics of effective teams across input conditions and teamwork processes, which have been identified from the literature.

  11. Mentoring among Teachers: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Hjornevck, Cleta

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews some of the most significant studies of mentoring and identifies the salient characteristics of successful mentor-protege relationships. Recommendations based on the literature are made. (MT)

  12. The costs of VAT: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Barbone, Luca; Bird, Richard M.; Vázquez Caro, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on the definition and measurement of the administrative and compliance costs of taxation, with special reference to VAT (including evasion and fraud) in the European Union.

  13. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Lareau, John P.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-09-30

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  14. Musical Obsessions: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Jitender; Nebhinani, Naresh; Grover, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of musical obsessions is scantly researched and poorly established. Here we present a case with musical obsessions in addition to body dysmorphophia and severe depression and review the available literature for musical obsessions. PMID:25722524

  15. Hepatic endometrioma: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extrapelvic endometriosis is not uncommon but hepatic endometrioma is extremely rare. Ultrasound, CT and MR features of hepatic endometrioma are discussed and the literature is reviewed in this report. (orig.)

  16. Peace Education through Bilingual Children's Literature Written in Arabic and in Hebrew: Different Narratives, Different Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the contribution of the emerging Israeli genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to peace education. Since Israeli society is a multicultural one comprised of two nations, Arabs and Jews who live in an environment of conflict, one must regard those textbooks as political socialization agents.…

  17. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal culture to this…

  18. Entrepreneurship and regional development : A literature review and synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development.

  19. Centralized Technical Processing and PPBS: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Donald E.

    The literatures of library science and management were searched for material concerning the history of centralized processing of library materials and the Planning-Programing-Budgeting System (PPBS). Literature on the history, major components, and advantages of PPBS was reviewed and features of PPBS such as comparison of alternatives, zero-base…

  20. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  1. Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2008 Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    This literature review covers 300 articles on women in engineering and women's access and preparation for engineering careers. The review is also applicable to working women in general. Topics include work/life balance, pathways to an engineering career, work force issues that impact women engineers, and international literature on women in engineering. Research methods are emphasized and articles with strong methods are highlighted while articles with weak methodology were rejected outright.

  2. Gender, Nationality and Leadership Style: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson; Ingi Runar Edvardsson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review research available on gender and nationality as determinants of leadershipstyle, with special focus on top leaders/managers. The paper is based on a systematic literature review. Thesystematic literature search resulted in 27 papers, that were grouped in five categories: 1) Leaders’characteristics, behavior and style, 2) Perception regarding leaders, their traits and leadership styles, 3)Women’s barriers towards leader positions, 4) Leadership outcome/re...

  3. Psychological treatment of eating disorders. A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fassino, Secondo; Leombruni, Paolo; Abbate Daga, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the existing literature (PubMed database) on the psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs), subdivided in individual, group and family therapies. Moreover new approaches and directions in this field are addressed. An extensive literature review is performed to identify the psychological treatment trials in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) published over the past 2 decades. Eighty-two studies focused on psychotherapeutic treatment of E...

  4. Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudrunardottir, Thora; Sehested, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention.

  5. OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sumit Joshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this review is based on earlier & present day developments encompassing the field of radio transmission & propagation. It covers a wide area of radio communication in a moresubtle & elastic manner, the leading aspects of the review involves an overall discussion of different models & techniques developed so far, facilitating radio propagation. A more penetrating aspect of mobility lead communications & associated software developments along with recent advancements also forms an important part of it.

  6. Oral surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy. Narrative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggelo Carrizo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aging population and increase of cardiovascular diseases have raised the number of patients receiving antithrombotic therapy in elective or emergency dental care, including surgical procedures. The aim of this article is to review the evidence and clinical guidelines published in the past five years for dental management of patients on antithrombotic therapy. The American Antithrombotic Therapy Guideline - 2012 - generally recommends not to suspend antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment in dental procedures since they are considered to have low bleeding risk and easy resolution. In the dental area there is ample published evidence regarding oral surgical procedures management, especially by maxillofacial surgeons. Low number of complications associated with extractions or other minor surgeries of the oral cavity, without suspending antithrombotic drugs and only taking some minimum safeguards, such as healing by first intention or the use of some local hemostatic agents, have been shown. Overall, patients under chronic antithrombotic therapy should maintain their medications when undergoing low and medium complexity dental procedures, since complications are minor and easy to handle. Due to the interactions between them, particular care should be taken with patients using more than one drug.

  7. Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia/wasting syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, epilepsy and seizures, glaucoma, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis and muscle spasticity, severe and chronic pain, and severe nausea. Post-traumatic stress disorder was also included in the review, as it is the sole psychological disorder for which medical marijuana has been allowed. Studies for this narrative review were included based on a literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Findings indicate that, for the majority of these conditions, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of medical marijuana at this time. A significant amount of rigorous research is needed to definitively ascertain the potential implications of marijuana for these conditions. It is important for such work to not only examine the effects of smoked marijuana preparations, but also to compare its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in relation to existing pharmacological treatments. PMID:25896576

  8. Projects and Their Management: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prakash Prabhakar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the years and more importantly in the recent past projects have been used as a delivery mechanism to do business and accomplish objectives. No wonder it has become one of the fastest growing professions in the world. Although the understanding of what constitutes a project and what doesn’t continues to be a topic of debate. This paper attempts to provide literature search on what is a project, its classification, characteristics, its life cycle, phases, tools etc.

  9. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Luciano; Guimaraes Carolina; Santos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  10. Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review and classification for electronic commerce research. The authors examined 4,948 articles listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE and 2,875 articles in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI published from 1999 to 2008. The results revealed that electronic commerce literature can be classified into seven categories: business and management; computer and information science; industrial engineering and operation research; engineering; economics; law; and others. The study also examined the country distribution of authors. This literature review should serve as a supplemental resource for electronic commerce academics to formulate future research.

  11. Self-harm among young people : a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mutai, James

    2011-01-01

    Self-harm is according to literature is an increasing global concern. Therefore to cope and manage the risks of self-harm,suitable evidence-based therapies has to be used and others reviewed and implemented. Systematic literature review is used in the writing of this paper. Several databases,books as well as relevant webpages targeting young adults were searched. The literature used had to be in English language and published between the year 2000 to date. The main aim of this paper is to ...

  12. INSIDE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT - A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Indarto Prajogo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of continuous improvement (CI by looking beyond what traditionally highlighted in literature concerning continuous improvement or Total Quality Management (TQM. The primary argument put forwarded in the discussion is that despite the undeniable positive results from CI practices, the way these activities are implemented, however, will lead to most programs becoming self-limiting. It needs to be asserted here that this paper is not intended to despise CI, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward CI.

  13. Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Effectiveness of Contraceptive Service Interventions for Young People, Delivered in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…

  14. A Literature Review on Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, A. M.; Premalatha, K.

    2010-01-01

    Information Retrieval (IR) is the discipline of searching for documents, for information within documents and metadata about documents. The document clustering improves the retrieval effectiveness of the IR System. If documents can be clustered together in a sensible order, then indexing and retrieval operations can be optimized. This study presents a review on document clustering.

  15. Mechanisms of beryl flotation: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows a review about the investigations that have been done on the mechanisms of flotation of beryl and its dependence in relation to the presence of fluoride species. It is also analised the anionic flotation of the mineral and the effect of cations in the pulp of flotation. (author)

  16. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  17. Living on the edge: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PetersonLund, Robin R

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature of the universal experience of living on the edge is discussed. Literature was reviewed from biology, criminology, ecology, economics, ethics, finance, fine arts, historical biography, medicine, nursing, philosophy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and theology. Three themes emerged with this literature review: living on the edge as a sacred place one travels to or where one lives, living on the edge as a choice in taking risks and surviving danger, and living on the edge as engaging with health experiences in which persons and nurses coparticipate. Living on the edge is a visionary quest into a new frontier that holds illimitable possibilities that transform the world. The literature is discussed according to theoretical and research findings. PMID:24085664

  18. Employer Perceptions of Online Degrees: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbaro, Norina L.; Monaghan, Catherine H.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review explores research regarding the perception of potential employers or "gatekeepers" about online degrees in comparison with those earned in a traditional format. This review contributes to the field of knowledge because higher education can benefit from understanding how these perceptions affect students' employment…

  19. Organizational Culture and Internationalization: A Brief Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This brief literature review introduces an area of emerging research about the impact of organizational culture on institutional strategies for internationalization. The review begins by introducing the concept of organizational culture, particularly within higher education. Five articles published between 2003 and 2012 are examined that introduce…

  20. Second Language Teacher Education: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rendon, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the "state of the art" of second language teacher education through a review of recent research and presents an overview of current perspectives on the field's knowledge base. Concludes with a proposal for a reflective approach to the preparation of second language teachers that draws from the literature review. (Author/VWL)

  1. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  2. Neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, S E; Bale, E M

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes and reviews the literature on neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide. A literature review was conducted using the Medline database: the cue terms neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide were searched. One hundred-fifteen articles were reviewed; of these, 51 are cited in our article. We conclude that while infanticide dates back to the beginning of recorded history, little is known about what causes parents to murder their children. To this end, further research is needed to identify potential perpetrators and to prevent subsequent acts of child murder by a parent. PMID:8845528

  3. Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Alice; Leung Kar

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. This article will review the structure, systemic transformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides before illustration on how these molecules exert their functions via interactions with steroidal receptors. The multiple biological actions make ginsenosides as important resources for developing new moda...

  4. DEPLETED URANIUM INDUCED FETAL MALFORMATIONS - LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu, A.; Es, Boia; Re, Iacob; David, V.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a byproduct of the enrichment process of uranium for its more radioactive isotopes to be used in nuclear energy .Because depleted uranium is pyrophoric and a dense metal with unique features when combined with alloys ,it is used by the military in armor and ammunition and frequently used in combat scenarios. This review reports on uranium uses and its published health effects, with major focus on its effects on reproduction and fetal development.

  5. DEPLETED URANIUM INDUCED FETAL MALFORMATIONS - LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Radulescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium is a byproduct of the enrichment process of uranium for its more radioactive isotopes to be used in nuclear energy .Because depleted uranium is pyrophoric and a dense metal with unique features when combined with alloys ,it is used by the military in armor and ammunition and frequently used in combat scenarios. This review reports on uranium uses and its published health effects, with major focus on its effects on reproduction and fetal development.

  6. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical pre...

  7. Socio-Cultural Retailing: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the cultural turn in retail studies by offering an overview of the interdisciplinary field of socio-cultural retailing and, based on this introduction, draw out and discuss what this body of work can contribute to the field of retail marketing. The paper reviews socio- cultural retail research from the disciplines of marketing, cultural geography, sociology and anthropology. Taken together this body of work clearly shows that retailing and shopping pr...

  8. Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiqul Zaman Khan; Noor Adnan Ibraheem

    2012-01-01

    Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of...

  9. Oxidative Stress and Epilepsy: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Carlos Clayton Torres; Almeida, Ana?lia Barbosa; Arau?jo, Paulo Victor Pontes; Abreu, Rita Neuma Dantas Cavalcante; Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo; Do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Mace?do, Danielle Silveira; Woods, David John; Fonteles, Marta Maria Franc?a; Vasconcelos, Silvania Maria Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds. The production of free radicals has a role in the regulation of biological function, cellular damage, and the pathogenesis of central nervous system conditions. Epilepsy is a highly prevalent serious brain disorder, and oxidative stress is regarded as a possible mechanism involved in epileptogenesis. Experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress is a contributing factor to the onset and evolution of epilepsy. Objective. A review was conducted to investigate the link between ...

  10. Asphalt solar collectors: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Solar energy can be harnessed by asphalt pavements. ? Research on asphalt thermal behavior and asphalt solar collectors is reviewed. ? Asphalt temperature is very sensitive to the variation of absortivity. ? Asphalt solar collector efficiency depends on flow rate and geometrical parameters. -- Abstract: Asphalt pavements subject to solar radiation can reach high temperatures causing not only environmental problems such as the heat island effect on cities but also structural damage due to rutting or hardening as a result of thermal cycles. Asphalt solar collectors are doubly effective active systems: as they solve the previously mentioned problems and, moreover, they can harness energy to be used in different applications. The main findings of the existing research on asphalt solar collectors are gathered together in this review paper. Firstly, the main heat transfer mechanisms involved in the solar energy collection process are identified and the most important parameters and variables are presented. After analyzing the theoretical foundations of the heat transfer process, this review focuses on the types of studies carried out so far on asphalt’s thermal behavior, different methodologies employed by other authors to study asphalt solar collectors and influence of the variables involved in thermal energy harvesting.

  11. Eosinophilic myocarditis: case series and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Suh-Young; Suh, Jung-Won; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis is a condition resulting from various eosinophilic diseases, including helminth infection, drug hypersensitivity, systemic vasculitis or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Clinical manifestations of eosinophilic myocarditis may vary from early necrosis to endomyocardial fibrosis. Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the most fatal complications of hypereosinophilia. However, eosinophilic myocarditis has been rarely reported in the literature, particularly in Asia Pacific regions, reflecting the under-recognition of the disease among clinicians. Early recognition is crucial for improving clinical outcomes of eosinophilic myocarditis. Early administration of systemic corticosteroid is necessary in eosinophilic myocarditis regardless of underlying causes, as delayed treatment may result in fatal outcomes. In addition, differential diagnoses of underlying causes for eosinophilia are necessary to improve long-term outcomes. PMID:25938077

  12. [Puppe's rule--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Krocker, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    As early as 1903, it was pointed out by Puppe that it is possible to determine the sequence of injuries in skull fractures caused by blows to the head: the second fracture ends at the point where a break in cohesion is already present. This finding was confirmed by tests carried out by other forensic pathologists. It soon became clear that the rule also applies to gunshot fractures. In the case of gunshot injuries, it is even possible to make more detailed statements. However, the applicability of Puppe's rule is limited by incomplete ossification or ossification disorders. The priority rule is also found in English-language literature, but without the name of the author who first described it. PMID:22448468

  13. Reviewing history in apocalyptic literature as ideological strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Reviews of history are ideological constructions. This article investigates historical reviews in the apocalyptic literature of Daniel and Ethiopic Enoch. In Daniel 2 a fourfold scheme of successive kingdoms/empires/eras is used to persuade the hearers that their political trials will come to an end. In Daniel 7 a theology of history is formulated in terms of animal symbols and four consecutive eras. This review is used to proclaim God’s total sovereignty over kings and kingdoms. The faithf...

  14. Measuring leprosy stigma : a preliminary review of the leprosy literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brakel, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to review work done to date on measuring stigma related to leprosy. References were obtained through a PubMed (Medline) search and through examining relevant bibliographies. Twelve papers were selected that addressed the issue of measurement of stigma and that contained a sample of the instrument used. Three unpublished studies were also included in the review. Studies that attempt to measure stigma can be broadly categorized in two groups, a) studies that as...

  15. Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Isensee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

  16. Scientific studies on children's literature and its didactics: a literature review (2000-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Selfa Sastre, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a bibliographic review of the scientific studies published from 2000 to 2014 on children’s literature and its teaching. The data analised show the number of the scientific studies which have focused on children’s literature and its educational use and their evolution over these 14 years, the list of leading scientific journals where these studies are published, the list of researchers who mostly have devoted to the scientific study of children’s l...

  17. Septum nasal perforation: treatments and literature' review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Neto, Eulógio Emílio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study consists in a bibliographical' review concerning the articles related to the different manifestations and forms of the septum nasal perforation, with a main emphasis in the description of its techniques of surgical correction. As the etiology, that is fundamentally iatrogenic, accordingly surgical trauma. Other causes include exhibition to chemical industrial reagents, cocaine use, intranasal steroidal therapeutic, neoplasia and, infectious conditions. There is a few data concerning the prevalence of septum perforation in the general population. The decision making about surgical correction or medical treatment depend on the anatomic characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the septal perforation.

  18. Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Alice

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. This article will review the structure, systemic transformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides before illustration on how these molecules exert their functions via interactions with steroidal receptors. The multiple biological actions make ginsenosides as important resources for developing new modalities. Yet, low bioavailability of ginsenoside is one of the major hurdles needs to be overcome to advance its use in clinical settings.

  19. Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

  20. Web Services Supply Chains: A Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Krithika, V; Sekaran, Dr K Chandra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review paper is to bring into light a potential area i.e., web services supply chains for research by analyzing the existing state of art in this. It is observed from the review process that there seems to be much less work done in the area of web service supply chains as compared to e-commerce and product oriented service supply chains. The service quality assurance models, end to end Quality of Service (QoS) models, attempts made to QoS attributes are also found to be from individual perspectives of participating entities in a service process rather than a collective perspective considering individual QoS attributes rather than multiple QoS attributes. In light of these gaps we highlight the comparison between product oriented and pure online/ web service supply chains, a need for quality driven optimization in the web services supply chains, perceived complexities in the existing work and propose a conceptual model.

  1. New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1 the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2 the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3 barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

  2. Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero PA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs.The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

  3. The DRESS syndrome: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacoub, Patrice; Musette, Philippe; Descamps, Vincent; Meyer, Olivier; Speirs, Chris; Finzi, Laetitia; Roujeau, Jean Claude

    2011-07-01

    The Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom (DRESS) is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Diagnosing DRESS is challenging due to the diversity of cutaneous eruption and organs involved. We used the RegiSCAR scoring system that grades DRESS cases as "no," "possible," "probable," or "definite" to classify cases reported in the literature. We also analyzed the clinical course and treatments of the cases. A total of 44 drugs were associated with the 172 cases reported between January 1997 and May 2009 in PubMed and MEDLINE. The most frequently reported drug was carbamazepine, and the vast majority of cases were classified as "probable/definite" DRESS cases. Hypereosinophilia, liver involvement, fever, and lymphadenopathy were significantly associated with "probable/definite" DRESS cases, whereas skin rash was described in almost all of the cases, including "possible cases." Culprit drug withdrawal and corticosteroids constituted the mainstay of DRESS treatment. The outcome was death in 9 cases. However, no predictive factors for serious cases were found. This better knowledge of DRESS may contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of this syndrome in clinical practice. PMID:21592453

  4. Selective Patellar Resurfacing: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antholz, Casey R; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Elmallah, Randa K; Jauregui, Julio J; Pierce, Todd P; Mont, Micael A

    2015-05-01

    Whether to resurface the patella during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a controversial topic among orthopaedic surgeons, and we are still no closer to identifying which technique provides the best outcomes. Advocates for patellar resurfacing have adopted this technique in order to avoid the potential for post-operative anterior knee pain that may be associated with the need for future reoperations. However, reports have indicated that patellar resurfacing may be associated with increased complications such as patellar implant loosening, fracture, osteonecrosis, tendon injury, wear, and instability. More recently, studies have highlighted possible patient-specific and surgical factors, such as weight, body mass index, degree of chondromalacia, and patellar alignment, which may influence functional outcomes, and thus surgical decision making. However, currently there are minimal clear guidelines to help surgeons decide whether or not to resurface the patella. Our aim was to assess the current literature and present the evidence for and against patellar resurfacing, as well as to assess factors that may aid in deciding which procedure is more suitable for the specific patient. Ultimately, we believe there is a need for further research to identify the most appropriate candidates for patellar resurfacing. PMID:26055032

  5. The goals of writing in Edmund White's "The Farewell symphony" (1997): auto-fiction? (writer vs. narrator), survival literature and melancholia

    OpenAIRE

    Oberti Oddi, Gaston Omar

    2010-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo se enmarca dentro del Máster Construcción y Representación de Identidades Culturales, curso 2007-2008. El título del mismo es The Goal of Writing in Edmund White's The Farewell Symphony (1997): Auto-Fiction? (Author vs. Narrator), Survival Literature and Melancholia. El objetivo del trabajo, como su título indica, es intentar descubrir el porqué de la escritura de Edmund White. Desde un principio, cuando se lee a White se confunde la voz del narrador con la voz...

  6. Pediatric otosclerosis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Raquel; Riskalla, Paulo Emmanuel; Vicente, Andy de Oliveira; Boccalini, Maria Carmela Cundari; Chaves, Adriana Gonzaga; Lopes, Renata; Felin Filho, Gilberto Bolivar

    2008-01-01

    Otospongiosis is an osteodystrophy of the temporal bone, characterized by disordered neoformation and deposition of bone, characterized by the presence of a progressive conductive, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss and tinnitus. Typically, otospongiosis presents as a slowly progressive conductive hearing loss in the third to fourth decade of life. Uncommonly children and adolescents may also have conductive or sensorineural hearing loss caused by otosclerosis. We describe a case of an 11-year-old patient, with progressive unilateral conductive hearing loss for 5 years. The otoscopic examination revealed a positive Schwartz's sign in the left ear. Audiometry, impedanciometry and CT scan showed characteristics that suggested otospongiosis. We reviewed clinical aspects, diagnosis and the therapeutic approach for otospongiosis in children. PMID:18568213

  7. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen Regina Rosso, Schons; Cristiane Faccin, Knob; Nádia, Murussi; André Avelino Costa, Beber; Walter, Neumaier; Odirlei André, Monticielo.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in f [...] eatures such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.

  9. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Root perforations. A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadainy, H A

    1994-09-01

    Root perforations that result in a communication of the root space with the periodontal tissues occasionally occur during endodontic procedures. They may be induced iatrogenically, by resorptive process, or by caries. Identification of root perforations is possible by direct observation of bleeding, indirect bleeding assessment using a paper point, radiography, and an apex locator. Prognosis of a tooth with root perforation depends on the time lapsed before obturation of the perforation, location and size of the lesion, and the sealability of the repair material. Perforation defects may be repaired by nonsurgical or surgical techniques. A review of causes, diagnosis, prognosis, and management of root perforations provides information for avoiding, detecting, and treating of such defects. PMID:7970600

  11. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Salvatore; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo D.; Spinelli, Gabriele; Ficarella, Silvia; Lo Monte, Giulia; Marrazzo, Antonio; Lo Monte, Attilio I.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN) and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE), postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. PMID:25942488

  12. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to discriminate morphologies judged as attractive among our patients. PMID:24685247

  13. Jumper's knee. Review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredberg, Ulrich; Bolvig, L

    1999-01-01

    Jumper's knee is an overuse disease. The initial subjective complaints are well-localized pain, usually occurring after physical activities and often at the lower pole of the patella. The diagnosis of jumper's knee is usually easily established after acquiring a detailed history and a carefully performed physical examination, but the lesion can be mistaken for other disorders or injuries, such as bursitis, meniscal injuries or chondromalacia (1) or other causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome. Today ultrasonography is the method of choice for the evaluation of jumper's knee as it is both time and cost saving, non-invasive, repeatable, accurate and allows a dynamic image of the tendon, guided injections and control of treatment. Conservative therapy is the treatment of choice in the early stages and includes adequate warm-up, stretching of the quadriceps muscle and physical activity with respect to the pain, and ice pack application after activity. When the pain disappears, the training intensity can be increased. NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) and local peritendinous injections with long-acting steroids can be a helpful and safe adjuvant to the conservative treatment and should be tried before surgery. Surgical treatment is indicated only if a prolonged and well-supervised conservative treatment program fails in chronic jumper's knee (including local injection with steroid) or in acute total rupture. Review papers concerning jumper's knee are already published (2-5), but in this review the importance of ultrasonography to make the diagnosis, to plan therapy and control the treatment and the safety of peritendinous injection with steroid is pointed out. The scientific documentation for the recommanded treatment (conservative, steroid injection and operation) is, however, insufficient. Many more controlled studies are needed. Ultrasonography and placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over studies for treatment with local injection of steroid are ongoing (6, 7).

  14. Conducting research literature reviews from the internet to the paper

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Providing readers with an accessible, in-depth look at how to synthesize research literature, Conducting Research Literature Reviews is perfect for students, researchers, marketers, planners, and policymakers who design and manage public and private agencies, conduct research studies, and prepare strategic plans and grant proposals. Bestselling author Arlene Fink shows readers how to explain the need for and significance of research, as well as how to explain a study’s findings. Offering a step-by-step approach to conducting literature reviews, the Fourth Edition features updated examples and covers: how to select databases and evaluate their quality; selecting and organizing key words and other terms in order to effectively search databases and the Web; setting standards for evaluating the quality of research and other literature; extracting and recording information from articles and studies; synthesizing what the reader finds either descriptively or via a meta-analysis; recording and storing the results ...

  15. Medical consequences of marijuana use: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam J; Conley, James W; Gordon, Joanne M

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes, and the increase use of marijuana, healthcare providers will be increasingly confronted with marijuana users as patients in clinical environments. While there is vast literature regarding the societal and mental health harms associated with marijuana use, there is a paucity of reviews of the potential consequences of marijuana use on physical health or medical conditions. We examine the recent literature on the physical harms associated with illicit and legal marijuana administration. We surveyed the peer-reviewed medical literature from 1998 to 2013 of studies assessing the association of marijuana use and physical diseases. We conclude that healthcare providers should be cognizant that the existing literature suggests that marijuana use can cause physical harm. However, evidence is needed, and further research should be considered, to prove causal associations of marijuana with many physical health conditions. PMID:24234874

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.

  17. A review of published literature on emergency medicine training programs in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this review is to identify and critically evaluate the published literature on emergency medicine (EM) training programs in resource-limited health-care settings in order to provide insight for developing EM training programs in such health systems. Methods A literature search was conducted up to the end of April 2011 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, EBM Reviews, Healthstar and Web of Science databases, using the following search terms: Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Services, Education Training Residency Programs, Emergency Medical Systems and Medical Education, without limitation to income countries as outlined in the World Bank World Trade Indicators classification 2009-2010 (World Trade Indicators Country Classification by Region and Income, July 2009-July 2010). As the intent of the review was to identify and critically evaluate the literature readily available (published) to LMICs developing EM programs, the gray literature was not searched. Results The search yielded 16 articles that met the final inclusion criteria. As the majority of articles provide a narrative description of the processes and building blocks used in developing the residency programs reported, we present our results in narrative format. By providing a summary of the lessons learned to date, we hope to provide a useful starting point for other resource-limited settings interested in establishing emergency medicine specialty training programs and hope to encourage further information exchange on this matter. Conclusions The results of the review indicate that EM training is in its infancy in resource-constrained health-care systems. There are few detailed reports of these programs successes and limitations, including efforts to optimize graduate retention. Despite the paucity of currently published data on the development of EM residency training programs in these settings, this review demonstrates the need for encouraging further information exchange to aid in such efforts, and the authors make specific recommendations to help guide future authors on reporting on such efforts. PMID:23866095

  18. Literature Review on the Management Control System of Joint Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Linjuan Mu; Guliang Tang

    2009-01-01

    The author will review literatures analyzing the characteristics on management control mechanism and pattern in joint venture. According to the actual situation and the subject we going on studying, materials mainly are collected from Accounting and the Tax English database and Uygur Pu Chinese periodical database. We will make contribution to the literature study which research on its factors about the controlling and management problems in joint venture, and has an important guiding signifi...

  19. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries--what works? A literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowswell, T.; Towner, E. M.; Simpson, G.; Jarvis, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to report on a systematic review of the world literature to provide information about the most effective forms of health promotion interventions to reduce childhood (0-14 years) unintentional injuries. The findings are of relevance to policy makers at a local or national level, to practitioners and researchers. METHODS: The relevant literature has been identified through the use of electronic databases, hand searching of journals, scanning reference lists, and co...

  20. Strategic Planning and Design of Supply Chains: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Lambiase; Ernesto Mastrocinque; Salvatore Miranda; Alfredo Lambiase

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a literature review of the mathematical models for supply chain design is proposed. The research is based on the study and analysis of publications of the last twelve years from the most widespread international journal about operations management and logistics. The aim of the work lies in identifying tendencies in the literature and related open issues about the strategic decisions, economic parameters, constraints and model features considered in the strategic planni...

  1. Defining Anxious Depression: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Dawn F.; Niciu, Mark J.; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of anxious depression is presently inconsistent. The many different definitions of anxious depression have complicated its diagnosis, leading to clinical confusion and inconsistencies in the literature. This paper reviewed the extant literature in order to identify the varying definitions of anxious depression, which were then compared using Feighner’s diagnostic criteria. Notably, these suggest a different clinical picture of patients with anxious depression. For instance, re...

  2. Sustainable development in general and urban context: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Koglin, Till

    2009-01-01

    This report is a literature review about sustainability and sustainable development in general and in an urban context. It focuses on theoretical issues and debates in scientific literature and aims at analyzing the different dimension of sustainability, namely social, ecological and economic sustainability. There are different conflicts between those dimensions of sustainability. Furthermore, there are different theoretical approaches to this topic. This report shows that much of the literat...

  3. Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Chang Chen; Chih-Chien Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review and classification for electronic commerce research. The authors examined 4,948 articles listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and 2,875 articles in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) published from 1999 to 2008. The results revealed that electronic commerce literature can be classified into seven categories: business and management; computer and information science; industrial engineering and operation research; engineering; econom...

  4. What is green Innovation? A quantitative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Schiederig, Tim; Tietze, Frank; Herstatt, Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    The importance of green innovation management is growing in practice and academia likewise. To our knowledge, a recent and comprehensive literature review is lacking. In this paper we contribute to a clarification of the concept ?green innovation? and provide an overview of the existing body of literature in the field of green innovations identifying the most active scholars, institutions and relevant publications. We find that the three different notions of green, eco/ecological and...

  5. Intellectual capital: Concepts, components and indicators: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Manzari; Mostafa Kazemi; Shamsoddin Nazemi; Alireza Pooya

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a general review of intellectual capital literature, which includes definitions, components and indicators. We aim to gather a useful collection of indicators and definitions. After studying several related works from the literature, many definitions and indicators are identified and explain that choosing appropriate indicators depends on organizational targets. Every kind of organization can use this study to identify its more applicable and appropriate indicators to know...

  6. Hyperplastic Dental Follicle: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Buloto Schmitd; Diego Maurício Bravo-Calderón; Cleverson Teixeira Soares; Denise Tostes Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Hyperplastic dental follicle is an odontogenic hamartomatous lesion associated with delayed or tooth eruption failure in young patients. The occurrence of this pericoronal dental lesion may be single or multiple and it seems to be more frequent than literature has reported. We present a literature review focusing on the etiopathogenesis and clinicopathological features of this hamartomatous lesion in young patients. In addition, we reported a case of hyperplastic dental follicle causing delay...

  7. What's stopping a career in gerontological nursing?: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Christine; Dickie, Robyn; Goetz, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid aging of the world's population, many countries are experiencing difficulty in recruiting nurses to work with older people. A literature review was conducted regarding the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students from seven different countries. The literature review has identified that gerontological nursing does not feature highly as a career goal. Notably, this has been the situation for the past decade. There is no indication that the situation is going to change at any time in the future unless some serious decisions are made at professional, health service, community, and government levels. This literature review has identified the reasons why undergraduate nurses are not choosing gerontological nursing as a career, what has been done in an attempt to address the problem, and what else may be done. PMID:24296568

  8. Family Centered Approach: A literature the review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Dalvand

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Family is the center and core of the care. Researchers who work with children with disabilities have shown that effective services are those that are focused on the role of families in treatment. The main aim of this study was an overview of family-centered approach (FCA.    Material and Method: This study is a review of the national and international databases between 1985 and 201 2 .    Result: Based on the exploration articles and documents, family-centered approach (FCA  has been advocated across a wide range of professions from health care (physician, nursing and midwifery, therapy services, early intervention, early childhood education, special and general education. The main essence of FCA includes parental involvement in decision making, collaboration and partnership, mutual respect (family and therapist, acceptance of the family’s choices, support, a focus on strengths, individualized and flexible service delivery, information sharing, and empowerment.    Conclusion: family-centered approach (FCA is effective, for children, parents, families, and the service provider. It enhances health care and increases family satisfaction of service delivery system. Perhaps because of the lack of sufficient knowledge and education about FCA, lack of educational materials and training in the medical model, there is limitation in implementation of FCA in Iran     Keywords: Family centered approach, Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Buscemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications.

  10. Public opinion about energy: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Weis, P.; Unseld, C.T.; Burns, B.A.

    1979-06-01

    A review and analysis of 115 surveys of the general population between 1973 and 1978 (before the Three Mile Island accident, sudden gasoline price increases, and spot gasoline shortages) are presented. The survey data are organized and analyzed according to a set of categories described in Chapter 2. The public's definition of the energy situation is the focus of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes public opinion concerning energy conservation pertaining to transportation and domestic energy use -- whether it is efficacious, how knowledgeable people are about conservation, whether they favor it, and whether they engage in it. Findings on the solar energy alternative are described in Chapter 5. Public opinion concerning more conventional sources of energy -- oil and natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy -- are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, a summary of analytical findings by 10 major sociodemographic characteristics is presented. Chapter 8 describes analytical findings using various social-psychological variables. A summary is presented in Chapter 9.

  11. Fingerprint composition and aging: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadd, Samuel; Islam, Meez; Manson, Peter; Bleay, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Fingerprints have a key role in criminal investigations and are the most commonly used form of evidence worldwide. Significant gaps remain however, in the understanding of fingerprint chemistry, including enhancement reaction mechanisms and the effect of environmental variables and time on composition. Determining the age of a fingerprint is also a relatively unexplored area. A successful method, with reliable and quantitative estimates, would have numerous advantages. Previous unreliable methods have predominantly focused on enhancement success based on physical and chemical changes. This review explores variations in composition due to donor characteristics and environmental variables, and identifies gaps for further research. We also present a qualitative and quantitative summary of the effect of time on composition. Kinetics are presented where known, with summary schematics for reaction mechanisms. Previous studies exploring methods for determining the age of a fingerprint are also discussed, including their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly we propose a potentially more accurate and reliable methodology for determining fingerprint age based on quantitative kinetic changes to the composition of a fingerprint over time. PMID:26087870

  12. The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the social scientific literature associated with medical imaging technology. Methods: An extensive search of published studies in nursing, psychology and anthropology was undertaken to support the radiography specific literature. Results: Following a broad definition of technology and its profound influence on society, an analysis of imaging literature revealed a complex relationship between technology and human interactions. Examples are cited for CT, MRI and ultrasound. Conclusion: It is suggested that any attempt to understand imaging technology must place at its centre the perspectives of patients and radiographers. Scientific descriptors must be balanced with equal deliberation given to 'soft technology'

  13. Fatigue in cancer: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vijayakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a common symptom of advanced cancer limiting one?s activity and affecting the quality of life. It is a multidimensional symptom complex with subjective and objective components. Hence, its definition and assessment seems arbitrary, incomplete, and elusive. Components of fatigue often merge with other ?disease states? as anemia, depression and so on, compounding difficulty to assess it separately. Fatigue has a high prevalence rate, and lasts longer in chronic diseases like cancer. Its association with treatment modalities like chemotherapy, radiotherapy alongside the primary disease process makes it seemingly ubiquitous in many cases. Systemic manifestation of cancer causes excess demand on body resources on cell repair, uncontrolled growth with metabolite accumulation causing fatigue. Co-morbid conditions of organic and psychological nature causes fatigue. There are many assessment tools for fatigue with different uses and objectives, simple and reproducible tools like Brief Fatigue Inventory, Edmonton Symptom assessment scale seem feasible in everyday practice. Management of fatigue is not straightforward and rewarding. Although treatment of cause appears to be an attractive option, it is not possible in all cases. Therapeutic agents targeting cytokine load is in early stages of study and available results are not favorable. Specific measures aimed at pain relief, prevention/treatment of sepsis, management of depression, avoidance of drugs causing fatigue, restoring the metabolic profile are important. Methyl phenidate, megestrol, and modafinil are some drugs with promising effect to treat fatigue, though confirmatory studies are yet to be established. Non-pharmacological methods are also helpful. Forewarning patients on upcoming fatigue, active regular exercise, and stress management are some of them. Fatigue being a multidimensional entity, single mode of therapy is insufficient. Combined modality tailored to individual patient need and understanding may be the right way to battle this ill-understood symptom. This review article examines the etiopathogenesis and management strategies of fatigue in cancer.

  14. Adhesive Restorative Materials in the Pediatric Dentistry: Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Alves dos SANTOS

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A range of direct adhesive restorative materials are available in the market and can be used for filling primary molars by Pediatric Dentistry. Objective: The aim of this study was to review in the dental literature the main properties of many direct resin based restorative materials and associates them with their clinical performance, in order to better understand their clinical behaviour. Conclusion: Considering this review of dental literature, the selection of direct adhesive restorative materials should based on the knowledge of them, in order to improve the life span of these restorations.

  15. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups. PMID:21840900

  16. Rural and Urban Teaching Experiences: Narrative Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative exploration of rural and urban teaching experiences encapsulates the experiences of 8 Western Canadian teachers. A literature review outlines the benefits and challenges of rural and urban education. Stemming from narrative inquiry data, I present the study's results in the form of two composite stories, which depict the lived…

  17. Engaging people who use drugs in policy and program development: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Lianping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policies and programs are increasingly being driven by people from the community to more effectively address their needs. While a large body of evidence supports peer engagement in the context of policy and program development for various populations, little is known about this form of engagement among people who use drugs (PWUD. Therefore, a narrative literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of this topic. Searches of PubMed and Academic Search Premier databases covering 1995–2010 were conducted to identify articles assessing peer engagement in policy and program development. In total, 19 articles were included for review. Our findings indicate that PWUD face many challenges that restrict their ability to engage with public health professionals and policy makers, including the high levels of stigma and discrimination that persist among this population. Although the literature shows that many international organizations are recommending the involvement of PWUD in policy and program development, our findings revealed a lack of published data on the implementation of these efforts. Gaps in the current evidence highlight the need for additional research to explore and document the engagement of PWUD in the areas of policy and program development. Further, efforts to minimize stigmatizing barriers associated with illicit drug use are urgently needed to improve the engagement of PWUD in decision making processes.

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PURCHASING MANAGEMENT IN SERVICE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-jia ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    It’s necessary for every organization in service industry to purchase goods and services in order to carry out its missions and goals.The objectives of this paper are to review the knowledge and develop the argument of existing research findings about purchasing management especially in service industry. There are three phases in the purchasing management that have been discussed in the section of literature review in this paper, including objectives of purchasing management; global sourcing ...

  19. Embedded Academic Librarianship: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie J. Schulte

    2012-01-01

    Objectives – The purpose of this review is to examine the development of embedded librarianship, its multiple meanings, and activities in practice. The review will also report on published outcomes and future research needs of embedded librarian programs.Methods – A search of current literature was conducted and summarized searching PubMed, CINAHL, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (EBSCO), Academic Search Complete, and ERIC (EBSCO) through August 23, 2012. Articles were...

  20. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    [english] Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature...

  1. Orofacial pain of cardiac origin: Review literature and clinical cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?pez-lo?pez, Jose?; Garcia-vicente, Laia; Jane?-salas, Enric; Estrugo-devesa, Albert; Chimenos-ku?stner, Eduardo; Roca-elias, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The most common types of orofacial pain originate at the dental or periodontal level or in the musculoskeletal structures. However, the patient may present pain in this region even though the source is located elsewhere in the body. One possible source of heterotopic pain is of cardiac origin. Objectives: Report two cases of orofacial pain of cardiac origin and review the clinical cases described in the literature. Study Design: Description of clinical cases and review of clinical cas...

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS AND STATUTORY POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Rupali Jitendra Khaire

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to critically analyses of statutory policy for women empowerment and its impact on women entrepreneurship. In this literature review a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to women entrepreneurship through secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. the article helps to under how women entreprene...

  3. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by...

  4. O narrador e a paisagem: Milton Hatoum, Bernardo Carvalho e o fim do projeto de uma literatura nacional / The narrator and the landscape: Milton Hatoum, Bernardo Carvalho and the end of the project of a national literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Dolabela, Chagas; Dárley Suany Leite dos, Santos.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se, a partir da observação de mudanças na construção do narrador e na representação da paisagem natural e social, o fim do projeto de literatura nacional no romance brasileiro. Para caracterizar as condições anteriores, parte-se da proposição de Echevarría segundo a qual o romance latino-ame [...] ricano já século XIX adotara a paisagem como símbolo identitário, sob a mediação interpretativa de discursos não ficcionais investidos de autoridade. Em seguida, apresenta-se a caracterização de Süssekind das figurações do narrador que consolidaram a paisagem em tal função no Brasil até o século XX. Em contraste, em Hatoum e Carvalho a multiplicação de vozes, a fragmentação das verdades e a auto-observação do narrador bloqueiam a mobilização da paisagem para a função identitária, num desvio dos pressupostos fundadores da literatura nacional que a inviabilizaria como projeto, o que implica uma transição histórica importante do romance brasileiro. Abstract in english In this paper, we discuss the end of the project of a national literature as a guiding project of the Brazilian novel, having in mind the changes in the construction of the narrator and the representation of natural and social landscapes. To characterize such conditions, we review Echevarría's propo [...] sition that the 19th-century Latin American novel adopted the local landscape as an identity symbol under the interpretive and authoritative mediation of non-fictional discourse. Then, we analyze Süssekind's characterizations of fictional narrators that consolidated that function in Brazil until the 20th century. In contrast, in Hatoum's and Carvalho's works, the multiplication of voices, the fragmentation of truths and the self-observation of the narrator block the mobilization of the landscape for an identity-function, in a deviation of the founding assumptions of a national literature which indicates its demise as a common project - an important historical transition for the Brazilian novel.

  5. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE's current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because theors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered

  6. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

  7. Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities: A Categorical Issue: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutaria, Saroj

    The literature review examines the issue of whether categorical differentiation and placement of mentally retarded and learning disabled students is educationally warranted. First, the two conditions are defined; next, a comparison between the two on psychological, behavioral-social, and educational characteristics usually ascribed to children so…

  8. Glossopharyngeal schwannoma : a case report and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of glossopharyngeal schwannoma whose clinical presentation and the radiological work up suggested an acoustic schwannoma. The diagnosis was made at surgery, once attachment to ninth cranial nerve was seen. The clinical presentation, radiological features and surgical findings of the glossopharyngeal schwannoma are presented along with the review of literature.

  9. The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Lawrence A.; McEvoy, Brenda T.

    2012-01-01

    This new edition of the best-selling book offers graduate students in education and the social sciences a road map to developing and writing an effective literature review for a research project, thesis, or dissertation. Organized around a proven six-step model and incorporating technology into all of the steps, the book provides examples,…

  10. Ethical Business Cultures: A Literature Review and Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…

  11. Necrotizing fasciitis. Review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, R; Paull, W; Coville, F V

    1987-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the hand was preceded by an outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda in a 31-year-old woman. The presentation, course, differential diagnosis, and treatment of necrotizing fasciitis, including a review of the literature, illustrates the indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy for this life-threatening infection. PMID:3545601

  12. ADSORPTION OF ENERGY-RELATED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a literature review on sorption properties of sediments and energy-related organic pollutants. Adsorption of organic compounds in general is discussed, and analytical methodology in soil thin-layer chromatography and chemical analysis as applicable to measurement o...

  13. Geminated tooth : case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of literature is presented about gemination. The case expounded has been of a female patient 8 years of age, with a geminated maxillary temporal canine, asymptomatic and without treatment. Topics such as definitions, clinical and radiographic characteristics, complications and treatment in the gemination are focussed

  14. Iopromide in angiography. A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iopromide, a new non-ionic contrast medium, is better tolerated than conventional contrast media: its low osmolality and its low chemotoxicity make it extremely well tolerated in vascular opacification, and very efficient in arterial and venous imaging. A review of the international literature encompasses the physicochemical properties of Iopromide, its pharmacokinetics, and the prospective trials, comparative and open, centered on arteriography and phlebography

  15. Transition to Preschool Special Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Delia G.; Gallagher, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Services to young children with disabilities and their families are provided through state and federal resources to those who meet eligibility requirements. This article reviews the literature that addresses the transition to preschool special education services occurring from the time a child reaches 2 years, 6 months, of age…

  16. Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristhieni, Rodrigues; Rinaldo Focaccia, Siciliano; Rogerio, Zeigler; Tania Mara Varejão, Strabelli.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis due to Bacteroides fragilis is a rare disorder. This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis associated with portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis in a patient without preexisting valvular heart disease and review the cases of endocarditis due to this an [...] aerobic bacterium in medical literature since 1980.

  17. Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfakhrai, Mohammad H.

    This literature review on job satisfaction of academic librarians is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the conceptual framework which includes two theoretical approaches to job satisfaction. These theories include Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory and Herzberg's Two-Factor (Motivation/Hygiene) Theory. Criticisms of these…

  18. Hypersensitivity to laminaria: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Tania; Figueroa, Melissa M; Chen, Katherine T; Lunde, Britt; Jacobs, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of laminaria hypersensitivity treated with diphenhydramine and corticosteroids. A literature review identified 10 previously reported cases, with 8 recognized as anaphylaxis, and good outcomes with corticosteroids and antihistamines despite limited epinephrine utilization. Laminaria hypersensitivity is likely IgE mediated with an increased anaphylaxis risk with prior exposure. PMID:25595541

  19. Managing Older Worker Training: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Fen; Courtenay, Bradley C.; Valentine, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews literature on educational gerontology, adult education, and training and identifies factors that may encourage or discourage older workers from participation in training. Previous research has emphasized models based on either motivation or deterrent factors. This article offers a unique exploratory model combining five…

  20. Methodology: Reference Manager Database - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Reference Manager 10.0 database for this literature search and review was created to ensure that all of the references from the search strings were tracked through all phases, from identification to article retrieval to evaluation, in an efficient manner. Reference Manager is a commercially available citation management system that allows some customization of database fields.

  1. Residential Segregation: A Review of the Literature. Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Douglas B.

    A review of the literature on residential segregation reveals that Blacks remain the most segregated group in American cities, despite the more recent arrival of Hispanic and Asian groups. By one measure--the index of dissimilarity with respect to Whites--Blacks are 1.6 times more segregated than Hispanics, and twice as segregated as Asians. Race…

  2. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  3. Tracheobronchomegaly - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes a case of tracheobronchomegaly in a 39-year-old patient with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, chronic hoarse cough and dyspnoea. radiologic examinations showed market dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi and bronchiecstasy. The authors list characteristic aspects in computed tomography and review the literature. (author)

  4. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  5. Lumbar hernia - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a case of lumbar hernia of inferior right space (Petit's triangle), classified as acquired hernia and diagnosed by clinical history and computed tomography. Lumbar hernia are quite rare. Authors have done a literature review of this disease. (author)

  6. Missed injuries in trauma patients: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Pape Hans-Christoph; Pfeifer Roman

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Overlooked injuries and delayed diagnoses are still common problems in the treatment of polytrauma patients. Therefore, ongoing documentation describing the incidence rates of missed injuries, clinically significant missed injuries, contributing factors and outcome is necessary to improve the quality of trauma care. This review summarizes the available literature on missed injuries, focusing on overlooked muscoloskeletal injuries. Methods Manuscripts dealing with missed in...

  7. Overconfidence in Psychology and Finance – an Interdisciplinary Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on one of the most meaningful concepts in modern behavioural finance, the overconfidence phenomenon. Overconfidence is presented as a well-developed psychological theory, with main facets comprising miscalibration, betterthan- average effect, illusion of control and unrealistic optimism. The primary applications of overconfidence in contemporary finance are analysed, from the perspective of financial markets and corporate behaviour. ...

  8. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  9. The Theoretical Perspectives Underlying Technology Transfer: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sazali Abdul Wahab; Raduan Che Rose; Suzana Idayu Wati Osman

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the existing technology transfer literature by comprehensivelyreviewing and outlining the theories underpinning technology transfer. This review could stimulate and generatedynamic ideas for future researchers i.e. to further identify, conceptualize and understand the theories andperspectives underlying technology transfer. Such strong understanding is necessary to enable the interestedparties (such as private sectors, government department...

  10. Saphenous venous graft pseudoaneurysm: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smer, Aiman; Alla, Venkata; Chandraprakasam, Satish; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Saurav, Alok; Holmberg, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A review of literature indicates that almost one third of patients are asymptomatic at detection and a history of operative complications and need for re-exploration after the initial surgery may serve as useful predictors for the development of this rare complication. PMID:25363741

  11. Supplier Development Literature Review and Key Future Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddassir Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.

  12. Electricity and Vital Force: Discussing the Nature of Science through a Historical Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Hermann; Guerra, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Seeking a historical-philosophical approach to science teaching, narrative texts have been used as pedagogical tools to improve the learning experience of students. A review of the literature of different types of narrative texts and their different rates of effectiveness in science education is presented. This study was developed using the…

  13. Taking Stock of Project Value Creation: A Structured Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus; Svejvig, Per

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a literature review through classifying and analyzing 59 publications in project value creation literature. The analysis led to five distinct categories: Benefit Realization Management (BRM) and techniques, broad value perspective, value time frame, engineering requirements and product development. These five categories cover a wide selection of value creation literature in project contexts. The project types reported in empirical studies are mainly IS/IT and construction and a variety of other types such as R&D and strategy implementation. The literature dates back to the mid-1990s while the majority of the publications on value creation have been published since 2008. The value creation focus, or value-centric view, is thus rather recent and the research area is still developing.

  14. Taking Stock of Project Value Creation : A Structured Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus; Svejvig, Per

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a literature review through classifying and analyzing 59 publications in project value creation literature. The analysis led to five distinct categories: Benefit Realization Management (BRM) and techniques, broad value perspective, value time frame, engineering requirements and product development. These five categories cover a wide selection of value creation literature in project contexts. The project types reported in empirical studies are mainly IS/IT and construction and a variety of other types such as R&D and strategy implementation. The literature dates back to the mid-1990s while the majority of the publications on value creation have been published since 2008. The value creation focus, or value-centric view, is thus rather recent and the research area is still developing.

  15. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE ON LOWER LIMBS – A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to collect information of the effectiveness from the use of kinesiotape on lower extremities. The thesis data collection was conducted in a form of a systematic literature review. In addition the thesis includes basic information from kinesiotaping in general which is important to get familiarized before going more in dept in the review. There is also basic information from the stages of a review to give an understanding to the reader of the method used in the r...

  16. [Psychological interventions in surgical care: a narrative review of current meta-analytic evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefikow, Susan; Rosendahl, Jenny; Strauß, Bernhard

    2013-06-01

    Studies investigating the effects of adjunctive psychological interventions to surgical routine care are summarized as a narrative review of existing meta-analyses. Primary studies evaluate the effects of the provision of information, supportive approaches, coping skills training, behavioural instructions, cognitive-behavioural strategies, relaxation, and hypnosis. The meta-analyses include studies of different methodological quality, also considering non-randomized trials, and indicate small to large effects depending on the type of intervention and outcome measure. The greatest effects were achieved on patient satisfaction, recovery, and the reduction of postoperative pain, with a slight advantage of complex interventions. Since most of the meta-analyses reveal methodological limitations, an updated and methodologically improved quantitative research synthesis seems to be required. PMID:23390014

  17. Becoming Food Aware in Hospital: A Narrative Review to Advance the Culture of Nutrition Care in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Laur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals (2010–2013 study identified the prevalence of malnutrition on admission to medical and surgical wards as 45%. Nutrition practices in the eighteen hospitals, including diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of malnourished patients, were ad hoc. This lack of a systematic approach has demonstrated the need for the development of improved processes and knowledge translation of practices aimed to advance the culture of nutrition care in hospitals. A narrative review was conducted to identify literature that focused on improved care processes and strategies to promote the nutrition care culture. The key finding was that a multi-level approach is needed to address this complex issue. The organization, staff, patients and their families need to be part of the solution to hospital malnutrition. A variety of strategies to promote the change in nutrition culture have been proposed in the literature, and these are summarized as examples for others to consider. Examples of strategies at the organizational level include developing policies to support change, use of a screening tool, protecting mealtimes, investing in food and additional personnel (healthcare aides, practical nurses and/or diet technicians to assist patients at mealtimes. Training for hospital staff raises awareness of the issue, but also helps them to identify their role and how it can be modified to improve nutrition care. Patients and families need to be aware of the importance of food to their recovery and how they can advocate for their needs while in hospital, as well as post-hospitalization. It is anticipated that a multi-level approach that promotes being “food aware” for all involved will help hospitals to achieve patient-centred care with respect to nutrition.

  18. How quality affects the bottom line?: A literature review How quality affects the bottom line?: A literature review How quality affects the bottom line?: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Fernandes-Justino

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving quality is one of the tools that companies have to improve or maintain their market position. However, despite the large number of papers published, a clear conclusion of the impact of ISO9000 standards on business results has yet to be reached, given there are many conflicting opinions. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the literature on some of the many published research papers, seeking some way to analyse the existing relationship between the implementation of systems of quality management, ISO9000 certification, quality costs, results, and their effect on company performance.Improving quality is one of the tools that companies have to improve or maintain their market position. However, despite the large number of papers published, a clear conclusion of the impact of ISO9000 standards on business results has yet to be reached, given there are many conflicting opinions. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the literature on some of the many published research papers, seeking some way to analyse the existing relationship between the implementation of systems of quality management, ISO9000 certification, quality costs, results, and their effect on company performance.Improving quality is one of the tools that companies have to improve or maintain their market position. However, despite the large number of papers published, a clear conclusion of the impact of ISO9000 standards on business results has yet to be reached, given there are many conflicting opinions. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the literature on some of the many published research papers, seeking some way to analyse the existing relationship between the implementation of systems of quality management, ISO9000 certification, quality costs, results, and their effect on company performance.

  19. Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Driemeyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the purpose of this overview is to enlighten actual findings about these factors and on the role that has been assigned to them in the literature. Special attention is paid to comparison studies. A detailed description of the studies in tables2 allows for an overview of the results and an evaluation with respect to sample size, instruments, and type of study groups. The overview does not claim completeness; it is a narrative, none-systematic review3. In summary the review showed that in most cases, juvenile sexual offending cannot be understood as an expression of more general juvenile delinquency and - in contrast to other groups of juvenile delinquents - the sexual offenders report less non-sexual delinquent behavior. Alcohol and drug abuse have been reported less often as well, but they might play a more important role as situational factors. Externalizing problems apears more often in juvenile sexual offenders with peer/adult victims who are also non-sexually delinquent. Regarding sexuality, some studies indicate that juvenile sexual offenders are impaired in their sexual development, but they were rarely described as sexually isolated. Sexual deviance has been considered a risk factor for juvenile sexual offending, but the assessment of sexual deviance in juveniles has proven difficult. The prevalence of victimization experiences varies substantially and possible connections to sexual offending have proven complex. The interpretation of the results of most studies is compromised by a lack of data about non-delinquent juveniles. The review closes with explanations why some of the illustrated results vary substantially.

  20. Understanding attractiveness in business relationships - A complete literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction has received surprisingly little attention within business relationship research. Yet, recently, more and more authors have argued that attraction may contribute to the motivation and willingness of a buyer and supplier to engage in and develop a business relationship. However, the concept of attraction is relatively new and there have been diverse interpretations of it. This literature review collates those interpretations with the aim of enhancing current understanding and creating fundamental knowledge of the current streams of literature on the concept. In examining how the concept has been investigated, the paper aims to establish the direction that the understanding and use of the concept of attractiveness may take in the future in the context of business research. The literature review indicates that attraction has been used in three research areas to explain or resolve a particular construct: 1) attraction in the development of buyer-supplier relationships, 2) customer attractiveness to suppliers, and 3) attractiveness in portfolio and key account management. This literature review contributes to the understanding of how knowledge of the power of attraction could enrich the theory and practice of business relationships. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.; Chou, B.E.

    1978-04-01

    The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited.

  2. Tumors of the horseshoe kidney: Characteristics and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out the significance of the rare urinary system anomaly such as horseshoe kidney. Tumors of the horseshoe kidney are rarely described as single cases in literature. Bilateral tumors of the horseshoe kidney can present a health and therapeutically challenge. In this paper we have analyzed characteristics of the horse shoe kidney tumors and their diagnostics. Primary means of the horseshoe kidney tumors treatment are surgical with different techniques depending on the size, presentation of the tumor and other indications. The review of the available literature is also included.

  3. Tumors of the horseshoe kidney--characteristics and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovi?, Milan; Andrejevi?, Vladan; Djurasi?, Ljubomir; Stamenkovi?, Vladimir; Acimovi?, Miodrag; Pejci?, Tomislav; Dragoslav, Basi?; Hadzi-Djoki?, Jovan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out the significance of the rare urinary system anomaly such as horseshoe kidney. Tumors of the horseshoe kidney are rarely described as single cases in literature. Bilateral tumors of the horseshoe kidney can present a health and therapeutically challenge. In this paper we have analyzed characteristics of the horse shoe kidney tumors and their diagnostics. Primary means of the horseshoe kidney tumors treatment are surgical with different techniques depending on the size, presentation of the tumor and other indications. The review of the available literature is also included. PMID:22924304

  4. Literature Review on the Management Control System of Joint Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjuan Mu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author will review literatures analyzing the characteristics on management control mechanism and pattern in joint venture. According to the actual situation and the subject we going on studying, materials mainly are collected from Accounting and the Tax English database and Uygur Pu Chinese periodical database. We will make contribution to the literature study which research on its factors about the controlling and management problems in joint venture, and has an important guiding significance to the future study, especially in China.

  5. Social and Cutural Aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa : A narrative review of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Helle; Ostergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing focus on the role of social aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African region and to analyze the main research findings in order to identify possible gaps and recommend new research themes to inform future research-based interventions. The analysis is based on a total of 58 articles published from 2001 to 2009 in English or French identified through a literature search in seven scientific, bibliographical databases. Searches included terms related to qualitative studies combined with various terms related to HIV/AIDS. The results of this narrative review show that there was a geographical concentration on Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Coˆte d’Ivoire and a strong urban bias, with most studies taking place in the capital cities of these countries. The majority of the studies focused on women or women and men; only four articles dealt exclusively with men, of which only two were on men who have sex with men. The main study groups were people living with HIV, young people or female sex workers. Sexual risk-taking and stigmatization were the themes that were most prominently explored in the articles we reviewed. We conclude that research needs to be strengthened in relation to the analysis of experiences with antiretroviral therapy and the non-optimal access to treatment in West Africa. Also, more research is needed on men and their exposure to HIV/AIDS, as well as on the role of concurrent partnership in the spread of HIV.

  6. Effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize the evidence on effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care in order to identify common structures that have been used to guide program development. A Medline search from 2001 to 2011 produced 951 articles, which were reviewed and categorized. Thirty articles met criteria to be included in this review. Eleven articles discussed recommendations for research, 8 discussed training and 11 discussed clinical care. Global health program development should be completed within the framework of a larger institutional commitment or partnership. Support from leadership in the university or NGO, and an engaged local community are both integral to success and sustainability of efforts. It is also important for program development to engage local partners from the onset, jointly exploring issues and developing goals and objectives. Evaluation is a recommended way to determine if goals are being met, and should include considerations of sustainability, partnership building, and capacity. Global health research programs should consider details regarding the research process, context of research, partnerships, and community relationships. Training for global health should involve mentorship, pre-departure preparation of students, and elements developed to increase impact. Clinical care programs should focus on collaboration, sustainability, meeting local needs, and appropriate process considerations. PMID:25716404

  7. Effective Strategies for Global Health Research, Training and Clinical Care: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah J. Walker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize the evidence on effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care in order to identify common structures that have been used to guide program development. A Medline search from 2001 to 2011 produced 951 articles, which were reviewed and categorized. Thirty articles met criteria to be included in this review. Eleven articles discussed recommendations for research, 8 discussed training and 11 discussed clinical care. Global health program development should be completed within the framework of a larger institutional commitment or partnership. Support from leadership in the university or NGO, and an engaged local community are both integral to success and sustainability of efforts. It is also important for program development to engage local partners from the onset, jointly exploring issues and developing goals and objectives. Evaluation is a recommended way to determine if goals are being met, and should include considerations of sustainability, partnership building, and capacity. Global health research programs should consider details regarding the research process, context of research, partnerships, and community relationships. Training for global health should involve mentorship, pre-departure preparation of students, and elements developed to increase impact. Clinical care programs should focus on collaboration, sustainability, meeting local needs, and appropriate process considerations.

  8. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  9. University Biology Patrons in the Library Literature 2000-2010: A Content Analysis & Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Newton Miller

    2011-01-01

    The researcher conducted a content analysis and literature review of papers written from 2000-2010 that focused on university biology students, faculty, and their papers. Scholarly articles were divided into the library research domains. The largest number of papers was from the Education domain, followed closely by Collections. Only two papers were categorized as Reference/Enquiries, and no papers were found in Management and Professional Issues. This research will enable science librari...

  10. [Educational practices for diabetes mellitus: integrative literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Anna Karla de Oliveira Tito; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Ramos, Roberta Souza Pereira da Silva

    2012-03-01

    This is an integrative literature review which aims to identify the multi-professional scientific production on educational practices for individuals with diabetes available in the databases: Latin American Literature in Health Sciences (Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde-LILACS), Medical Literature and Retrieval System online (Medline), Spanish Bibliographical Index in Health Sciences (Indice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud-Ibecs) and the Database on Nursing (Base de Dados em Enfermagem-BDENF), from 1999 to 2009. Results show that educational practices are developed mainly for adults and seniors up to 80 years of age, and involve themes that reflect the daily ife of living with diabetes. These practices are spread mainly through groups, bringing benefits not only for the individual with diabetes but also for the healthcare professional. Thus, we can see the process of changing the traditional education paradigm to a problem-based dialogical education, with a view for promoting health. PMID:22737810

  11. Fostering the Learner Spirituality of Students: A Teaching Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Jane P. Preston

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to articulate, via a personal teaching narrative, the successes and challenges I experienced while attempting to foster the learner spirituality of students within a middle school classroom environment. I provide a definition of the term learner spirituality, as well as its related phrases. I present a literature review about how to foster learner spirituality within the classroom. Then I present a personnel narrative that depicts my experience while trying to pro...

  12. A Literature Review on Organizational Commitment – A Comprehensive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the evolution of the concept of organizational commitment, and its constructs. It focuses and analyses the literature findings of organizational commitments over the last five decades. It categorizes the approaches into six broad eras, each era being an extension and modification over the preceding ones. This review paper brings to the fore the theories that have emerged in the body of knowledge regarding commitment in organizations in a chronological order, starting from the side bet theory to the more recent multiple commitment approach. The gaps in the theories proposed have been identified and reviewed critically. It is difficult to conceptualize and measure organizational commitment as it encompasses a vast and highly diverse body of knowledge. Due to this it becomes difficult to interpret and conclude from the existing bodies of literature. The paper also highlights the importance of recognizing the individual/employee?s perspective towards organizational commitment.

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS AND STATUTORY POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Rupali Jitendra Khaire

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to critically analyses of statutory policy for women empowerment and its impact on women entrepreneurship. In this literature review a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to women entrepreneurship through secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. the article helps to under how women entrepreneurship has developed into a accepted concept which makes an important part of the economy

  14. Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sz?cs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this important research topic, providing a classification of brand equity models focusing on consumer based models. The most important models are critically reviewed from the perspective of model structure, methodology used and validity.

  15. Synovial chondrosarcoma: Report of two cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that can arise from a previous synovial chondromatosis or as de novo tumor. The clinical and radiological findings of this malignancy are very similar to those of aggressive synovial chondromatosis. Confusion with other joint pathologies makes the diagnosis of synovial chondrosarcoma difficult in most of the cases. We present one recently diagnosed and treated case of synovial chondrosarcoma. The review of our hospital database revealed one more similar case. In both cases the malignancy arose from a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis. We also present a literature review emphasizing the clinical and histological findings of this rare entity.

  16. Gender, Nationality and Leadership Style: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review research available on gender and nationality as determinants of leadershipstyle, with special focus on top leaders/managers. The paper is based on a systematic literature review. Thesystematic literature search resulted in 27 papers, that were grouped in five categories: 1 Leaders’characteristics, behavior and style, 2 Perception regarding leaders, their traits and leadership styles, 3Women’s barriers towards leader positions, 4 Leadership outcome/results, 5 Effect of research methods onleader evaluation. Questionnaires were the most used research method in the reviewed studies. Almost half ofthe papers focus on the US, while the rest deal with African, Asian, and European countries. In this review, wefound that women and men have a very similar perception of a successful manager. However, women and mendisplay differences in their leader behavior and characteristics, and way of leading. “Results/outcomes” of sucha leadership can differ. The review shows, furthermore, that a glass ceiling and other barriers for women do stillexist.The paper ends by identifying the needs for further research in the study area.

  17. Case report and literature review of adamantinoma of long bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the clinical, imaging and pathological features of adamantinoma of long bone to aid preoperative diagnosis. Methods: A case of adamantinoma of long bone was reported and the related literature was reviewed. Results: Literature review showed that long bone ameloblastoma was more common in young adults older than 20 years of age (86.3%) and occurred mainly in the tibial shaft (90%). The clinical, imaging and pathological features in our patient were consistent with those reported in the literature. Among 39 cases in the Chinese literature, radiographic findings included uni-or multi-cystic bone destruction with well-defined borders (87.2%), bone expansion (61.8%), partial loss of cortical bone (26.5%), bone sclerosis (38.2%), and no periosteal new bone reaction (100%). Pathology showed epithelial and fibrous differentiation. Conclusion: Adamantinoma of long bone should be considered in patients older than 20 years of age with tibial lesions that have imaging characteristics of benign bone tumors or some malignant features. (authors)

  18. Descemet's membrane detachment in horses; case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas Riera, Màrian; Donaldson, David; Priestnall, Simon Lawrence

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to describe Descemet's membrane detachment (DMD) following phacoemulsification in five equine eyes and to review the human literature on this topic. In the last decade, there has been increased reporting of DMD in the human literature, in particular following cataract surgery. The natural history of DMD remains unknown and although various medical and surgical treatments have been advocated there is no recognized 'gold standard' treatment for DMD. This case series reports the diagnosis of DMD in four horses (5 eyes) in association with phacoemulsification surgery. The diagnosis of DMD in these patients was made intra-operatively, postoperatively or on subsequent histopathological examination. The surgical reports, photographic or video recordings, and ultrasound data were evaluated and possible factors associated with the pathophysiology of DMD are discussed. This is the first description of DMD in the veterinary literature, and the authors believe that DMD might hitherto have been overlooked in veterinary ophthalmology due to a lack of awareness of the condition. The possible causes, clinical signs, and treatment of DMD as described in the human literature are also reviewed. PMID:25180582

  19. Comparison of Real Asset Valuation Models: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Wang

    2010-01-01

    AbstractNPV, decision trees, and real options have been prevalently practiced in real asset valuation and management. Complexities have been built on the basic frameworks in practice. In this paper, application values and limitations of real options, NPV, and decision trees in real asset valuation are illustrated with literature review. The pros and cons of each method shed light on future improvement of real asset investment evaluation and risk modeling.

  20. Three-dimensional imaging techniques: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Karatas, Orhan Hakki; Toy, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Imaging is one of the most important tools for orthodontists to evaluate and record size and form of craniofacial structures. Orthodontists routinely use 2-dimensional (2D) static imaging techniques, but deepness of structures cannot be obtained and localized with 2D imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has been developed in the early of 1990's and has gained a precious place in dentistry, especially in orthodontics. The aims of this literature review are to summarize the current state of ...

  1. Career Advancement and Writing about Women Librarians: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen DeLong

    2013-01-01

    Objective – This review of the literature provides a framework for understanding the professional experiences of women library directors in academic libraries. It focuses uponcareer advancement and writing about women librarians in the United States and Canada from the 1930s to 2012.Methods – Databases from the disciplines of library science and business and management, including the larger social sciences, were searched for references to sources that dealt with career advancement and pro...

  2. Social Networks, Media and Audiences: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Latre, F.J. (Francisco Javier); Portilla, I. (Idoia); Sánchez-Blanco, C. (Cristina)

    2012-01-01

    Social networks like Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are capturing media and scholarly attention. Their spectacular growth and the public attention they command are attracting a significant amount of research and media scrutiny in English speaking countries. This literature review tries to underline some of the most salient topics in the emerging academic conversation about social media. Its goal is to identify interesting research areas in the field

  3. STUDENT’ S ENGAGEMENT IN SCHOOL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, F.; Galva?o, D.; Almeida, A.; Carvalho, C.; Janeiro, I.; Nogueira, J.; Conboy, J.; Melo, M.; Taveira, M.; Festas, I.; Bahia, S.; Cladeira, S.; Pereira, Tiago

    2012-01-01

    Students’ Engagement in School has been the focus of debate concerning academic success and school dropout, and pointed out as a mean to address the problems affecting our schools and their students, not only for having value in itself, but also for being an important mediator between several academic variables. This paper reviews the research and literature on this concept and its relations with personal and contextual variables, as well as with academic performance, with the aim of summar...

  4. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in jaw: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female patient of 15 years old is presented with an enlargement in the left mandibular parasymphyseal area. An orthopantomography was taken and a preliminary diagnosis of dentigerous cyst is suggested. The lesion is resected and sample is sent to the pathology laboratory. A diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is determined histopathologically. A literature review is conducted recently about that type of tumor. The importance of histological analysis of biopsies is highlighted. (author)

  5. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ov Xe, Marcela Kop Xe X. D.; Ej Urban, Ond X.; Xed Cyrany, Ji X.; Jan Laco; Jan Bureš; Stanislav Rejchrt; Xe Rtov Xe, Jolana B.; Ilja Tachecí

    2013-01-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a rare disease characterised by diffuse polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, dystrophic changes of fingernails, and alopecia. The etiology is probably autoimmune and diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, endoscopic findings of gastrointestinal polyposis, and histology. The disease is very rare; about 450 cases have been described in the literature so far. We present a review of...

  6. Reviewing the Literature on the Effectiveness of Pressure Relieving Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Schofield; Alison Porter-Armstrong; May Stinson

    2013-01-01

    Sitting for prolonged periods of time increases seating interface pressures, which is known to increase the risk of developing pressure ulcers. Those at risk of developing pressure ulcers are advised to perform pressure relieving movements such as “pushups” or “forward leans” in order to reduce the duration and magnitude of pressure acting on the vulnerable ischial tuberosity region. The aim of this review was to synthesize and critique the existing literature investigating the effect...

  7. Gendered specialities during medical education: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Alers, Margret; Leerdam, Lotte; Dielissen, Patrick; Lagro-janssen, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The careers of male and female physicians indicate gender differences, whereas in medical education a feminization is occurring. Our review aims to specify gender-related speciality preferences during medical education. A literature search on gender differences in medical students’ speciality preferences was conducted in PubMed, Eric, Embase and Social Abstracts, and reference lists from January 2000 to June 2013. Study quality was assessed by critical appraisal. Our search yielded 741 hits...

  8. Nosocomial Infections Transmitted Via Computers : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atanda, Angela Achieng; Nwaoha, Nkechi Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to discuss how current literature described nosocomial infections transmitted via computers in hospitals. It also described the various methods used to disinfect computers. The research questions in this study were; What are nosocomial infections? How do contaminated computer devices transmit nosocomial infections? and What infection control methods are applied to decontaminate computers within hospitals? The aim of conducting this study was to create an aw...

  9. Measuring collective competencies of organisations - a systematic review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zibell, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    The present Systematic Review explores the existing academic literature on the instruments to measure collective competences of organisations. The purpose is to identify those that could be further used in a PhD work on the competences of organisations involved in co-operative R&D projects. This area of research is at the intersection of Strategic Management, Human Resources Management, Evolutionary Economics and Business Performance Measurement. The methodology starts with ...

  10. Natal teeth: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Roopa; Mathad Sudha

    2009-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth or within a month post-delivery is a rare condition. A newborn, a 2 days old female, with two mandibular incisor natal teeth was examined. The teeth were mobile and were extracted because of the fear of aspiration and refusal to feed. The purpose of this report is to review the literature related to natal teeth epidemiology and discuss their possible etiology and treatment.

  11. Online Technologies for Health Information and Education: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Harkiran K.; Gill, Navkiranjit; Young, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the use of social media and Internet technologies for health education and information sharing. The authors reviewed literature on this topic, with a specific focus on the benefits and concerns associated with using online social technologies as health education and communication tools. Studies suggest that social media technologies have the potential to safely and effectively deliver health education, if privacy concerns are addressed. Utility o...

  12. Safe administration of transdermal medications: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Veitch, Leena-mari

    2011-01-01

    The thesis belongs to the Triangle Hospital project in the Meilahti hospital area in the Hospital district of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS). One of the challenges in the new hospital was patient information and safe medication. Transdermal medication has shown to have clinical benefit and high level patient acceptability. The purpose of this study was to describe the guidance of transdermal medications on patients who need chronic pain management on the bases of a literature review. The rese...

  13. Forensic dentistry in human identification: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ata-Ali, Javier; Ata-Ali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: “forensic dentistry” (n = 464 articles), “forensic odontology” (n = 141 articles) and “forensic dentistry identification” (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic d...

  14. Numerical modeling of friction stir welding process: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Diogo Mariano; Neto, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This survey presents a literature review on friction stir welding (FSW) modeling with a special focus on the heat generation due to the contact conditions between the FSW tool and the workpiece. The physical process is described and the main process parameters that are relevant to its modeling are highlighted. The contact conditions (sliding/sticking) are presented as well as an analytical model that allows estimating the associated heat generation. The modeling of the FSW p...

  15. A Literature Review on Organization Culture and Corporate Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming Cui; Junchen Hu

    2012-01-01

    From 1980s, there are more and more studies about organization culture. And in Chinese studies and practices, we pay much attention to the culture due to the direct relationship between the organization culture and corporate performance, which we can be convinced by some academic papers. But there are some limitations in the study. This paper would like to give a literature review about organization culture and corporate performance. Meanwhile, we would give some suggestions about the further...

  16. SARL: shoulder acronyms. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazzam, Michael; Jordanov, Martin I; Cox, Charles L; Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E

    2011-04-01

    Acronyms are words formed by taking the first initial or other parts of words from a compound term. They are designed to help communicate ideas efficiently. In the literature pertaining to shoulder surgery, a variety of acronyms have been offered for normal anatomic states, physical examination findings, pathologic conditions, surgical techniques, and outcome instruments, with new acronyms offered each year. The purpose of this article is to review and clearly define acronyms used by shoulder specialists. PMID:21183306

  17. What do we know about financial literacy? A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elisabete F. Simo?es

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a literature review about the dilemma of financial literacy. The individuals and families’ financial decision process is getting more vital in recent years. Given the increasingly risky and globalized markets, the actual context of global financial crisis and the continuous increasing in the complexity of financial products and services, individuals must be able to make well-informed and correct decisions. Consequently, higher levels of financial knowledge contribute t...

  18. Hemophilic Pseudotumor: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Comp; Aneesh Pakala; Jimmy Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A hemophilic pseudotumor is one of the rarer complications of hemophilia that results from repetitive bleeding resulting in an encapsulated mass of clotted blood and necrosed tissue. These have become rarer over the years with better treatment modalities for bleeding disorders like factor replacement. In this case report, we describe the natural history and clinical course of a patient with hemophilia who presented with a massive pseudotumor. A review of literature follows which explores all ...

  19. Applications and literature review of the BI-RADS classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) is a tool created to reduce variability in the terminology used in mammographic reports. An illustration of mammographic examples from our institution interpreted according to the BI-RADS lexicon of the American College of Radiology (ACR) is presented. A literature review concerning the usefulness and limitations of the BI-RADS lexicon is given. (orig.)

  20. Calcaneal nonunion: three cases and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, T.; Patka, P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term follow-up of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is often accompanied by complications. Frequently occurring are arthrosis, arthrofibrosis of the subtalar joint, and malunion. Uncommon is the calcaneal nonunion. A total of three cases is presented in this report, including a review of the literature. The occurrence of a nonunion appears to be more common after conservative treatment, but the pathophysiology remains unclear, however smoking may play a role.

  1. REVIEW OF SOME REMEDIES OF ALCOHOLISM AS PER SIDDHA LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi. P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism, One getting habituated to the alcohol irrespective of socio- economic factors is one of the present burning problems of the society. Various factors will get affected with the intake of alcohol like health, social, mental and economical factors, which directly influences on the growth of the person as well as society. A review of the types of alcohol, the effect of them on health and their remedies as per Siddha literature is dealt in this context.

  2. Sleep disturbances and suicide risk: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca A Bernert; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Rebecca A Bernert, Thomas E JoinerDepartment of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USAAbstract: A growing body of research indicates that sleep disturbances are associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors. This article (1) provides a critical review of the extant literature on sleep and suicidality and (2) addresses shared underlying neurobiological factors, biological and social zeitgebers, treatment implications, and future directions for research. Findings indicate ...

  3. Calciphylaxis: a Literature Review Based in Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, M; Ferreira, AC; Ferreira, A.; Nolasco, F

    2014-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare and devastating obliterative vasculopathy, leading to ischemia and subcutaneous necrosis. In most cases it affects patients with renal disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We present two case reports followed recently in our department, and a literature review on this topic. Case one refers to an 80 -year -old Caucasian woman with chronic kidney disease stage 5 and primary hyperparathyroidism with secondary brown tumour and calciphylaxis. Cas...

  4. Ocular toxoplasmosis: an update and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra G, Commodaro; Rubens N, Belfort; Luiz Vicente, Rizzo; Cristina, Muccioli; Claudio, Silveira; Miguel N, Burnier Jr; Rubens, Belfort Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. The infection can be acquired congenitally or postnatally and ocular lesions may present during or years after the acute infection occur. Current treatment controls ocular infection and inflammation, but does not prevent r [...] ecurrences. We present a review and update on ocular toxoplasmosis and address misconceptions still found in the current medical literature.

  5. Neuromuscular electric stimulation in patellofemoral dysfunction: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos, Ricardo Lucas; Souza, Ma?rcia Leal Sa?o Pedro; Dos Santos, Fernanda Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Patellofemoral dysfunction is a fairly common deficiency among young individuals that primarily affects females and may be characterized by pain, swelling and retropatellar crepitation. The purpose of this review of literature from the period between 2005 and 2011 was to systematize knowledge in relation to the increase in quadriceps muscle strength and pain relief in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction, using neuromuscular electrical stimulation and resistance exercises. The inclusion c...

  6. The costs of traumatic brain injury: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys I; Rl, Wood; Cj, Phillips; Macey S

    2013-01-01

    Ioan Humphreys,1 Rodger Wood,2 Ceri Phillips,1 Steven Macey31Swansea Centre for Health Economics, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Wales, UK; 2Department of Psychology, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Wales, UK; 3School of Medicine, Swansea University, Wales, UKObjective: The purpose of this study was to review the literature relating to the psychosocial costs associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: Nine online journal databases...

  7. EVALUATION OF INTERNET RESOURCES: A REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    In the Internet age, most of information is available on the Internet in the different formats which known as “Internet resources” and people use Internet information for their different purposes but it is very essential for every Internet user to evaluate the retrieved Internet resources before making their uses to accomplish the tasks. This paper presents a review of selected literature found on evaluation of Internet resources available in different format in LIS domain with the follow...

  8. A Literature Review of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The report gives a Literature Review of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) Definitions. It all startede when the consequences of the oil crisis became noticeable and the issue of the fossil fuels sources and the energy use were discussed. Nevertheless, in the late seventies and early eighties appeared few articles, in which phrases‘a zero energy house', ‘a neutral energy autonomous house' or ‘an energy-independent house' were used.' were used.

  9. Multifocal and metastatic hepatic hemangioendothelioma: case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Lucas Rios; Galvao Filho, Mario Melo [Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Timbo, Luciana Satiro; Verrastro, Carlos Gustavo Yuji; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Ribeiro, Cristiane Maria de Freitas [Laboratorio Diagnostica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin whose involvement of organs such as lung, spleen, bone, breast and liver has already been reported. The clinical signs and the prognosis of this tumor are quite variable. From the present case report, the authors have sought to contribute with literature data, by reviewing clinical and radiological features which may be useful to include such a condition in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions. (author)

  10. Primary Liver Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bourhafour Mouna; Allam Wafae; M’rabti Hind; Errihani Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of liver is a very rare malignancy. The disease is poorly understood and few clinical studies have been conducted to help elucidate the natural course of disease, pathogenesis, optimal therapy, response to therapy, and survival. Here, we present an interesting case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) originating in liver. A literature review of clinical features, diagnosis, and management is also provided.

  11. Multifocal and metastatic hepatic hemangioendothelioma: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin whose involvement of organs such as lung, spleen, bone, breast and liver has already been reported. The clinical signs and the prognosis of this tumor are quite variable. From the present case report, the authors have sought to contribute with literature data, by reviewing clinical and radiological features which may be useful to include such a condition in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions. (author)

  12. Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and Health.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlbom, I. C.; Cardis, E.; Green, A.; Linet, M.; Savitz, D.; Swerdlow, A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposures to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emanating from the generation, transmission, and use of electricity are a ubiquitous part of modern life. Concern about potential adverse health effects was initially brought to prominence by an epidemiologic report two decades ago from Denver on childhood cancer. We reviewed the now voluminous epidemiologic literature on EMF and risks of chronic disease and conclude the following: a) The quality of epidemiologic studies ...

  13. SECONDARY TUBERCULOSIS OF TONSIL CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan; Geetha Ramamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    A case report of secondary tuberculosis of tonsil is being discussed along with review of published literature. This report attempts to draw attention to the fact that Tuberculosis is resurgentdespite excellent chemotherapeutic drugs available. This could be probably due to wide spread drug resistance, Immune deficiency states like Diabetes and HIV. Diagnosis of this condition needsa high index of suspicion. Biopsy should be performed in all these patients to rule out coexistant malignancy. E...

  14. What we know about neighbourhood change: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lupton, Ruth; Power, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This report was jointly commissioned by the Neighbourhood Renewal Unit (NRU) in the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) and the Economic and Social Research Council. It contains both full and summary reports of a literature review of neighbourhood change, undertaken with the primary aim of establishing what is known about neighbourhood change in the UK and identifying gaps in that knowledge, in order to inform the future research agenda and, ultimately, the development of policy. The w...

  15. INJURIES IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Wayne T; Pollard, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Background: Australian Rules Football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Successful injury prevention relies on injury surveillance to establish the extent of injuries, to monitor injury patterns and to evaluate prevention strategies. Despite the popularity of participation at the community level, few injury surveillance studies have been published, so a detailed review of the literature is vital. There is limited information available outside of the elite level. Injury statistic...

  16. Mediastinitis in cardiac surgery: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal S; Vishal.K; Deepak K.S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postoperative mediastinitis is a serious complication in cardiac surgery that substantially increases morbidity and mortality. Aim: This study reviews the various prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Material and Method: Literature searches were done to identify relevant studies. Results: Various possible causes and risk factors were identified and prophylaxis in the form of strict sterility in the operating room, preoperative skin disinfection, nonabrasive preoperative hair rem...

  17. Economic geography: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature

    OpenAIRE

    Redding, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the new economic geography literature, which accounts for the uneven distribution of economic activity across space in terms of a combination of love of variety preferences, increasing returns to scale and transport costs. After outlining the canonical core and periphery model, the paper examines the empirical evidence on three of its central predictions: the role of market access in determining factor prices, the related home market effect in which demand has a more than p...

  18. Orbitofrontal epilepsy: Electroclinical analysis of surgical cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joseph R.; Sillay, Karl; Winkler, Peter; King, Don W.; Loring, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and electrographic data were reviewed on 2 of our patients with orbitofrontal epilepsy who were seizure free at 5-year follow-up, and on 2 similar patients from the literature. One of our patients was lesional, and the other was nonlesional. Interictal EEG discharges were lateralized to the side of invasively recorded orbitofrontal seizures in the nonlesional case. In this case, no clinical manifestations occurred until the orbitofrontal discharge had spread to the opposite orbitofro...

  19. Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sz?cs

    2014-01-01

    The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this imp...

  20. Microfinance: A comprehensive review of the existing literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brau, James C.; Woller, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    Although the word finance is in the term microfinance, and the core elements of microfinance are those of the finance discipline, microfinance has yet to break into the mainstream or entrepreneurial finance literature. The purpose of this article is to introduce the finance academic community to the discipline of microfinance and microfinance institutions (MFIs). We provide a comprehensive review of over 350 articles and address the issues of MFI sustainability, products and services, managem...

  1. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Buus; Niels Christian Hvidt; Dorte Toudal Viftrup

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessme...

  2. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Lapkin; Callie Mady; Stephanie Arnott

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and discontent among core French teachers. A summary of our main findings highlights the need for further research on the design of the program w...

  3. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  4. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Almasdy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information andappropriate pharmaceutical care in self-medicationpractice appropriately among university student. Furtherstudy looking into the self-medication related problemsassociated with non-prescription products is needed.

  5. Shared Communications: Volume 1. A Summary and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, O

    2004-09-22

    This paper provides a review of examples from the literature of shared communication resources and of agencies and/or organizations that share communication resources. The primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system communications involving transit. Citations will not be limited, however, to rural activities, or to ITS implementation, or even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. Literature references to issues that contribute to both successful and failed efforts at sharing communication resources are reviewed. The findings of this literature review indicate that: (1) The most frequently shared communication resources are information/data resources, (2) Telecommunications infrastructure and technologies are the next most frequently shared resources, (3) When resources are successfully shared, all parties benefit, (4) A few unsuccessful attempts of sharing resources have been recorded, along with lessons learned, (5) Impediments to sharing include security issues, concerns over system availability and reliability, service quality and performance, and institutional barriers, (6) Advantages of sharing include financial benefits to agencies from using shared resources and benefits to the public in terms of congestion mitigation, information transfer (e.g., traveler information systems), mobility (e.g., welfare-to-work paratransit), and safety (e.g., speed of incident response, incident avoidance), (7) Technology-based solutions exist to address technology-based concerns, and (8) Institutional issues can be addressed through leadership, enhanced knowledge and skills, open communication, responsiveness, and attractive pricing structures.

  6. New mothers and postpartum depression: a narrative review of peer support intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Joni; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious maternal mental health issue that negatively impacts new mothers and their infants. Various interventions have been studied and one that has shown promise is social support delivered by peers. Understanding what previous studies on peer support interventions have found will contribute to the development and implementation of future peer support interventions for women with PPD. To this end, a systematic search and narrative review of studies that investigated peer support interventions for PPD was conducted. Relevant studies were identified using CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library published between 2000 and 2010. Six studies matching inclusion criteria were reviewed. Each of the studies had specific selection criteria and some used screening tools for recruitment. There were differences regarding the criteria for volunteers. All volunteers participated in some form of training and had support from a co-ordinator. Interventions varied in terms of length and nature of support offered, frequency and mode of delivery. Volunteers reported positively on their experience, although there were some challenges in providing support. Overall findings suggest that interventions should be targeted and take into consideration the age of the mother, any cultural and linguistic differences, the mother's circumstances and her needs. All volunteers should receive training before providing support and be screened for their ability to commit their time. Although the results were mixed, they provide insights into how peer support volunteers can be an innovative part of a team approach to PPD intervention. PMID:25346377

  7. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAZDKHASTI, Mansureh; POURREZA, Abolghasem; PIRAK, Arezoo; ABDI, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013). Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation.

  8. Status of urological Kampo medicine: a narrative review and future vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Tomonori; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-03-01

    Clinical evidence for traditional Japanese Kampo medicine has been provided by modern scientific methodologies. Indeed, more than 150 Kampo formulations have been approved for use as prescription drugs by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, and are widely used in daily medical practice. More than 10 of these formulations can be used for urological problems, especially in cases of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, there are few opportunities to introduce urological Kampo medicines for worldwide use, and the status of urological Kampo medicine has not been reviewed yet. Here, we present a narrative review to introduce the current status of urological Kampo medicine in Japan. First, we introduce the essence of general Kampo medicine, including its history and current status in Japan. We focused of Sou-Sei-Sou-Koku, "promotion and inhibition network among the Five Elements," which is the central dogma of Kampo medicine. To present Kampo medicine as scientific medicine, neural cross-talk among pelvic organs is presented in comparison with Sou-Sei-Sou-Koku. Second, we list representative urological Kampo formulations used for lower urinary tract symptoms. Furthermore, we also discuss their roles in the urological field, including their position in Japanese clinical guidelines. Third, we propose the multi-organ targeting strategy using Kampo formulations as a future vision. Dai-Ken-Chu-Tou (a common Kampo formulation for gastrointestinal problems and hypersensitivity to cold) is one candidate, and we present the results of a preliminary study using this Kampo medicine formulation. PMID:25597936

  9. Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernell E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Fernell,1 Mats Anders Eriksson,1,2 Christopher Gillberg11Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008–2012 presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband “early intervention” programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be “created” around affected individuals.Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, epidemiology, screening, etiology, intervention, outcome

  10. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, Jacob N.; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS. PMID:23983795

  11. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds.

  12. LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

    2013-09-01

    Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

  13. Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Martin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capital. We compare the study conclusions according to the country's degrees of economic egalitarianism. Regardless of study design, our findings indicate that a positive association (fixed effect exists between social capital and better health irrespective of countries degree of egalitarianism. However, we find that the between-area variance (random effect in health tends to be lower in more egalitarian countries than in less egalitarian countries. Our tentative conclusion is that an association between social capital and health at the individual level is robust with respect to the degree of egalitarianism within a country. Area level or contextual social capital may be less salient in egalitarian countries in explaining health differences across places.

  14. Identifying high-risk medication : a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saedder, Eva A; Brock, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PURPOSE: A medication error (ME) is an error that causes damage or poses a threat of harm to a patient. Several studies have shown that only a minority of MEs actually causes harm, and this might explain why medication reviews at hospital admission reduce the number of MEs without showing an effect on length of hospital stay, readmissions, or death. The purpose of this study was to define drugs that actually cause serious MEs. We conducted a literature search of medication reviews and other preventive efforts. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Reviews, Psycinfo, and SweMed+ was performed. Danish databases containing published patient complaints, patient compensation, and reported medication errors were also searched. Articles and case reports were included if they contained information of an ME causing a serious adverse reaction (AR) in a patient. Information concerning AR seriousness, causality, and preventability was required for inclusion. RESULTS: This systematic literature review revealed that 47 % of all serious MEs were caused by seven drugs or drug classes: methotrexate, warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), digoxin, opioids, acetylic salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations, disability, life-threatening conditions, and death by almost 50 %.

  15. Health effects and wind turbines: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollson Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wind power has been harnessed as a source of power around the world. Debate is ongoing with respect to the relationship between reported health effects and wind turbines, specifically in terms of audible and inaudible noise. As a result, minimum setback distances have been established world-wide to reduce or avoid potential complaints from, or potential effects to, people living in proximity to wind turbines. People interested in this debate turn to two sources of information to make informed decisions: scientific peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals and the popular literature and internet. Methods The purpose of this paper is to review the peer-reviewed scientific literature, government agency reports, and the most prominent information found in the popular literature. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM and the internet search engine Google. The review was conducted in the spirit of the evaluation process outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results Conclusions of the peer reviewed literature differ in some ways from those in the popular literature. In peer reviewed studies, wind turbine annoyance has been statistically associated with wind turbine noise, but found to be more strongly related to visual impact, attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to noise. To date, no peer reviewed articles demonstrate a direct causal link between people living in proximity to modern wind turbines, the noise they emit and resulting physiological health effects. If anything, reported health effects are likely attributed to a number of environmental stressors that result in an annoyed/stressed state in a segment of the population. In the popular literature, self-reported health outcomes are related to distance from turbines and the claim is made that infrasound is the causative factor for the reported effects, even though sound pressure levels are not measured. Conclusions What both types of studies have in common is the conclusion that wind turbines can be a source of annoyance for some people. The difference between both types is the reason for annoyance. While it is acknowledged that noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some and associated with some reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance, especially when found at sound pressure levels greater than 40 db(A, given that annoyance appears to be more strongly related to visual cues and attitude than to noise itself, self reported health effects of people living near wind turbines are more likely attributed to physical manifestation from an annoyed state than from wind turbines themselves. In other words, it appears that it is the change in the environment that is associated with reported health effects and not a turbine-specific variable like audible noise or infrasound. Regardless of its cause, a certain level of annoyance in a population can be expected (as with any number of projects that change the local environment and the acceptable level is a policy decision to be made by elected officials and their government representatives where the benefits of wind power are weighted against their cons. Assessing the effects of wind turbines on human health is an emerging field and conducting further research into the effects of wind turbines (and environmental changes on human health, emotional and physical, is warranted.

  16. Effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Sharon; Holdsworth Louise; Perkins David; Fuller Jeffrey D; Kelly Brian; Roberts Russell; Martinez Lee; Fragar Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the move to community care and increased involvement of generalist health care providers in mental health, the need for health service partnerships has been emphasised in mental health policy. Within existing health system structures the active strategies that facilitate effective partnership linkages are not clear. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental he...

  17. The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maycock3

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most studies address medical treatment of infertility and psychosocial outcomes caused by infertility-related stress, but few studies examine the infertility’s impact on sexuality.Aim: A literature review was conducted to answer the questions: 1 How is sexual self concept impacted in infertile individuals and their partners? 2 Does infertility have a negative impact on sexual relationships? 3 Is sexual function affected by infertility? In answering these questions, we may develop a better understanding of sexuality in the context of infertility, and thus better inform infertility management. Ultimately the aim is to improve the quality of life for infertile couples.Method: A literature search was conducted for publications from 1990 to 2011 via the electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus, which focused on sexuality in infertile subjects or couples.Results: In this review, all studies were descriptive quantitative studies which mapped the different aspects of sexuality in the context of infertility. The results suggested that infertility and its treatment approaches for fertilisationcould lead to changes in sexual self-esteem, sexual relationship and sexual function.Conclusion: The literature substantiated that many infertile subjects experienced trouble in various aspects of sexuality. However, further research should examine the reciprocal relations between sexual self concept, sexual relationship and sexual function in the context of infertility. How these changes affect the partners of infertile subjects should also be addressed.

  18. Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Fieschi; Maria, Matarese; Ercole, Vellone; Rosaria, Alvaro; Maria Grazia, De Marinis.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH) in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: t [...] o evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

  19. Management of neurocytomas: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Karlovits, S; Lee, L H; Kim, K; Rothfus, W E; Brown, H G

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the available literature on the presentation, pathology, and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) neurocytomas. A case report of an extraventricular neurocytoma is presented along with a comprehensive literature search of patients with a diagnosis of CNS neurocytoma. CNS neurocytomas are rare neoplasms, with fewer than 240 cases reported in the literature. The majority of neurocytomas are found in the ventricular system of the brain. Immunohistochemistry is frequently used to help distinguish this tumor from other CNS neoplasms. MIB-1 proliferation index is commonly used in an attempt to predict biologic behavior. Little is known about the management of patients with this tumor, because most reports are from the pathologic literature and contain sparse information regarding clinical management. Neurocytomas are rare CNS tumors with varied biologic behavior. MIB-1 index may help direct adjuvant therapy. An excellent prognosis can be expected if a gross total resection is achieved. Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) may be considered after subtotal resection. Otherwise, RT is an option for medically inoperable or recurrent disease. PMID:11404499

  20. Integrating a Narrative Medicine Telephone Interview with Online Life Review Education for Cancer Patients: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Meg; Marchand, Lucille; Cleary, James F.; Aeschlimann, Elizabeth; Causier, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We describe an online narrative and life review education program for cancer patients and the results of a small implementation test to inform future directions for further program development and full-scale evaluation research. The intervention combined three types of psycho-oncology narrative interventions that have been shown to help patients address emotional and existential issues: 1) a physician-led dignity-enhancing telephone interview to elicit the life narrative and delivery of an edited life manuscript, 2) life review education, delivered via 3) a website self-directed instructional materials and expert consultation to help people revise and share their story. Eleven cancer patients tested the intervention and provided feedback in an in-depth exit interview. While everyone said telling and receiving the edited story manuscript was helpful and meaningful, only people with high death salience and prior computer experience used the web tools to enhance and share their story. Computer users prodded us to provide more sophisticated tools and older (>70 years) users needed more staff and family support. We conclude that combining a telephone expert-led interview with online life review education can extend access to integrative oncology services, are most feasible for computer-savvy patients with advanced cancer, and must use platforms that allow patients to upload files and invite their social network. PMID:19476731

  1. Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Astrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms leading to rebleeding and the prevention of rebleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: A literature search was performed to investigate factors associated with rebleeding after SAH. RESULTS: The review of the literature revealed that rebleeding is a complex and multifactorial event involving hemostasis, pathophysiologic, and anatomic factors. Administration of antifibrinolytics has been shown to have a dramatic effect on the rebleeding rate, so changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis must be involved in rebleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are warranted before the exact mechanisms leading to rebleeding are established and the optimal preventive measures are made available. At the present time, antifibrinolytic therapy remains the only realistic protective measure during the initial 6 hours after SAH during which the rebleeding rate is highest.

  2. Metronidazole Induced Pancreatitis. A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey KJ

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pancreatitis is a very rare adverse effect of metronidazole with only six cases of metronidazole-induced pancreatitis reported in the English literature so far. CASE REPORT: We report a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis in a 46-year-old female associated with oral metronidazole therapy and review the literature with regards to metronidazole-induced pancreatitis. We are also highlighting the fact that the time lag between metronidazole exposure and development of pancreatitis is very variable. CONCLUSION: High degree of suspicion is warranted on the part of physicians to diagnose metronidazole induced pancreatitis in patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms after metronidazole exposure. If metronidazole is suspected as the causative agent then it should be discontinued and rechallenge should be avoided.

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Young Adults: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24743652

  4. Transtympanic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan; O’Donohue, Peter; French, Heath; Griffin, Aaron; Gochee, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Facial nerve paralysis because of penetrating trauma through the external auditory canal is extremely rare, with a paucity of published literature. The objective of this study is to review the literature on transtympanic facial nerve paralysis and increase physician awareness of this uncommon injury through discussion of its clinical presentation, management and prognosis. We also aim to improve patient outcomes in those that have sustained this type of injury by suggesting an optimal management plan. In this case report, we present the case of a 46-year-old white woman who sustained a unilateral facial nerve paresis because of a garfish penetrating her tympanic membrane and causing direct damage to the tympanic portion of her facial nerve. On follow-up after 12 months, her facial nerve function has largely returned to normal. Transtympanic facial nerve paralysis is a rare injury but can have a favorable prognosis if managed effectively.

  5. Review of Literature of the Rural Heritage Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadi Alaa J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural heritage tourism destination management is an essential knowledge area that should be investigated to achieve sustainable destination, especially for an emerging destination. The goal of this process is to ensure that these elements are thoroughly inspected and rigidly organized due to the main concepts, theories, methods and approaches mentioning different perspectives to tackle these certain elements. In order to cope with the complexity of the relation between the destination elements and its characteristics and sequence of the maturity of the selected destination, all that needs in-depth knowledge to assist the researchers in developing and improving different types of approaches and tools, and in structuring and assessing the destination. We develop a neat backbone literature review concerning the all aspects of the sustainable rural heritage tourism destination. We review the existing methods, approaches and theories applied on the relative field, and further study the relevant challenges that have been the target of investigation in the academic literature. The paper is intended to be the newest and the most important existing study on the topic of rural heritage emerging tourism destination. The results are particularly relevant to practitioners seeking a better grasp on managing tourism destination as well as achieving sustainability in tourism destinations. As a major finding of the review, the results strongly suggest the need for more practitioner-oriented and industry-driven empirical studies in the area of flexible managerial framework to cope with special and dynamic characteristics of different tourism destinations.

  6. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Broers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder. Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance.

  7. Tools that assess functional decline: systematic literature review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaton K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kate Beaton, Karen Grimmer International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Background: Screening for risk of functional decline in the elderly is increasingly important in ambulatory health care settings, to ensure that appropriate services are provided to reduce the risk of downstream decline. These screening tools should have sound psychometric properties and clinical utility. Design: An updated systematic literature review for (1 new screening tools published since the last review, conducted in 2007 and published in 2008, and (2 recent research into psychometric properties of the five tools identified in the previous review. Methods: A comprehensive review of multiple databases using the search terms from the Sutton et al review was conducted. The reference lists of included articles were hand-searched for additional articles, and the literature was evaluated with the appropriate critical appraisal tool. Included screening tools should be designed for, or applicable to, hospital emergency departments. Results: Two relevant new tools were identified (the Simplified PROFUNCTION index and Brief Risk Identification for Geriatric Health Tool. Six additional papers testing psychometric properties of four of the five previously reported screening tools were also found. Conclusion: Seven relevant screening tools are available with similar validity and reliability estimates. They consider similar constructs and have convincing evidence of applicability to a range of older populations, or different cultures. Identification of Seniors at Risk, is the most frequently reported screening tool. The wider unanswered question is how, why, and where these functional decline screening tools are used; how valid the findings are on ill, stressed, older people in emergency departments; and how the findings are acted upon in terms of community intervention to slow functional decline. Keywords: functional decline, older adults, screening and assessment tools

  8. The relationship between organizational culture and implementation of clinical practice guidelines: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodek, Peter; Cahill, Naomi E; Heyland, Daren K

    2010-01-01

    The context in which critical care providers work has been shown to be associated with adherence to recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Consideration of contextual factors such as organizational culture may therefore be important when implementing guidelines. Organizational culture has been defined simply as "how things are around here" and encompasses leadership, communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, and other domains. This narrative review highlights the results of recent quantitative and qualitative studies, including studies on adherence to nutrition guidelines in the critical care setting, which demonstrate that elements of organizational culture, such as leadership support, interprofessional collaboration, and shared beliefs about the utility of guidelines, influence adherence to guideline recommendations. Outside nutrition therapy, there is emerging evidence that strategies focusing on organizational change (eg, revision of professional roles, interdisciplinary teams, integrated care delivery, computer systems, and continuous quality improvement) can favorably influence professional performance and patient outcomes. Consequently, future interventions aimed at implementing nutrition guidelines should aim to measure and take into account organizational culture, in addition to considering the characteristics of the patient, provider, and guideline. Further high quality, multimethod studies are required to improve our understanding of how culture influences guideline implementation, and which organizational change strategies might be most effective in optimizing nutrition therapy. PMID:21097767

  9. A systematic review of sexual health interventions for adults: narrative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-05-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This article reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, health care use, sexual behavior, and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996-2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain; 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health. PMID:25406027

  10. Attributes, Environment Factors and Women Entrepreneurial Activity: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Ekpe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of individual attributes and business environment factors on the entrepreneurial activity of women entrepreneurs. Individual attributes such as education, working experience, attitude towards risk-taking, affect women entrepreneurial activity. Economic constraints such as lack of credit due to lack of asset collaterals and socio-cultural barriers, lack of savings due to low household income, and lack of labour skills due to low educational level also affect women entrepreneurial activity. The effect of these factors on entrepreneurial activity is worth studying because entrepreneurship development is considered a vital link to an overall economic growth of a nation through its positive impact on economic development especially at the grassroots. However, limited studies have reviewed literatures on individual attributes and business environment factors on the entrepreneurial activity of women entrepreneurs. This is the focus of this study.Methodology: The paper is a descriptive study that reviews literature on individual attributes and environment factors on women entrepreneurial activity.Conclusion: The paper concludes that environment factors exert much more influence on women entrepreneurial activity than individual attributes.Research limitation: The paper is limited to a literature review that may need further research by using a framework to investigate the factors on entrepreneurial activity.Practical implication: It shows the need for the government to support entrepreneurs through adequate provision of micro-finance.Originality: The study is a new way to look at crucial factors affecting entrepreneurial activity in a country. Paper type: This is a research paper.

  11. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  12. Adnexal masses literature review, detection, characterization and radiological staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was conducted on radiological detection and characterization of major adnexal masses identified in ultrasound, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance. The characteristics, and incidence findings have been identified in imaging methods of benign adnexal masses and most common ovarian neoplasms. The proposed new classification of adnexal masses GI-RADS has been released. The report of adnexal ultrasound images were classified into 5 categories. They have relied on morphological findings and the likelihood of benignity or malignancy, in addition to the radiological staging submit. The purpose has been simplifying the diagnosis and better therapeutic for the patient behavior

  13. Amyloid goiter: two cases and a review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although involvement of the thyroid gland by amyloid is a relatively common phenomenon, clinically significant enlargement of the thyroid owing to amyloid deposition is an extremely rare occurrence. We describe two cases of amyloid goiter and review the relevant literature. The first case was systemic amylloidosis secondary to familial Mediterranean fever. The second case was a chronic renal failure patient who presented with an enlarged thyroid and upper airway obstructive symptoms. To date, true amyloid goiter secondary to amyloidosis associated with familial Mediterranean fever has only been reported in twelve patients. (author)

  14. Intracranial taser dart penetration: Literature review and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloostian, Pe; Tran, H

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a fourteen-year-old female who obtained TASER dart penetration to her right parietal region. She was neurologically intact with headache. CT scan of the head demonstrated TASER penetration intracranially without hemorrhage. Attempts were made at sterile removal of TASER at bedside under sedation. This caused the TASER to break at multiple points leaving only an intracranial component. She was urgently taken to the operating room for craniectomy for TASER removal. After reviewing the literature of an additional two patients, we suggest patients should not have attempts at removing device at bedside and should be taken to the operating room for adequate removal and washout. PMID:24960679

  15. Occupational stress in nursing: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, A

    2001-03-01

    The management and reduction of occupational stress are recognized as key factors in promoting employee well-being. Nursing is one of the many disciplines contributing to a huge body of research into the causes and effect of the ill-defined phenomenon of occupational stress. This literature review considers the ontological contribution of a number of disciplines to a growing body of knowledge on the subject of stress. The paper examines the complex issue of stress management, highlighting the impact of organizational culture and transformational leadership style on staff satisfaction levels. PMID:11879452

  16. Online Technologies for Health Information and Education: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harkiran K; Gill, Navkiranjit; Young, Sean D

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the use of social media and Internet technologies for health education and information sharing. The authors reviewed literature on this topic, with a specific focus on the benefits and concerns associated with using online social technologies as health education and communication tools. Studies suggest that social media technologies have the potential to safely and effectively deliver health education, if privacy concerns are addressed. Utility of social media-based health education and communication will improve as technology developers and public health officials determine ways to improve information accuracy and address privacy concerns. PMID:24465171

  17. Child sexual abuse: a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, M

    2015-03-01

    Research of child sexual abuse has considerably evolved and continues to evolve exponentially. Professionals in various fields are required to be updated in the latest guidelines in practice, as well as in research. The present paper summarizes the most recent scientific literature on child sexual abuse, mainly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, focusing on central issues, namely, the international prevalence of the phenomenon, its negative consequences, and the offender's characteristics; referring to the potential victim's profile. Finally, the paper summarizes the recent recommendations and implications for practice and research in child sexual abuse. PMID:25243505

  18. Computerized tomography and schizophrenia: critical review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the literature regarding structural brain abnormalities in Schizophrenia is presented. It is reported that the prevalence and the localization of the abnormalities vary widely among studies. These differences might stem from samples heterogeneity, from the choice of the computer tomographic (CT) parameter to be investigated and from the use of different criteria for defining abnormalities. It seems established that at least one subgroup of Schizophrenia patients shows mild or moderate brain atrophy, in spite of some contradictory findings. (M.A.C.)

  19. Stress injury of the acromion: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Atul Kumar; Negromonte, Francisco Pires; Skaf, Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of stress injury of the acromion related to golf practicing in a 40-year-old male. Fractures of the scapula are unusual, with stress injury of the acromion being even rarer. The probable mechanism would be a strong contraction of posterior fibers of the deltoid during golf swing. There are few published reports of similar injuries, and to our knowledge, this is the first to demonstrate its features by magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:23412322

  20. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, C. B. (editor); Inglis, M. H. (editor)

    1977-01-01

    The Technology Application Center reviewed abstracted literature sources, and selected document data and data gathering techniques which were performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft or groundbased stations. All of the documentation was related to remote sensing sensors or the remote sensing of the natural resources. Sensors were primarily those operating within the 10 to the minus 8 power to 1 meter wavelength band. Included are NASA Tech Briefs, ARAC Industrial Applications Reports, U.S. Navy Technical Reports, U.S. Patent reports, and other technical articles and reports.

  1. Malignant spiradenoma: report of two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aceñero, M J; Manzarbeitia, F; Mestre de Juan, M J; Requena, L

    2001-02-01

    Spiradenoma is a benign skin adnexal neoplasm that usually appears as a solitary nodule in any area of the body. There have been only 33 reports on malignant transformation of a benign eccrine spiradenoma since the first description by Dabska in 1972. Most cases have originated on a long-standing cutaneous lesion. These tumors can behave in an aggressive fashion, and some have led to the patient's death. We report 2 new cases of this rare neoplasm affecting 2 men, 92 and 72 years of age, comment on the clinical and pathologic features of our cases, and review the literature concerning this lesion. PMID:11174426

  2. Management Control in Enterprise System Enabled Organizations: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Rohde, C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to add to the limited body of knowledge on the relationship between enterprise systems (ES) and management control. Based on a literature review, we describe and classify studies that empirically address this relationship. Apart from not being extensive, the research done so far primarily addresses the relationship between management control and ES based on a limited number of methodologies and approaches. We argue that there seems to be a need for more research done from functionalistic and critical perspectives, as well which employs a greater variety of methodologies. Subsequently, we propose some avenues for future research.

  3. Management Control in Enterprise System Enabled Organizations : A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Rohde, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to add to the limited body of knowledge on the relationship between enterprise systems (ES) and management control. Based on a literature review, we describe and classify studies that empirically address this relationship. Apart from not being extensive, the research done so far primarily addresses the relationship between management control and ES based on a limited number of methodologies and approaches. We argue that there seems to be a need for more research done from functionalistic and critical perspectives, as well which employs a greater variety of methodologies. Subsequently, we propose some avenues for future research.

  4. Brief literature review pertinent to steam generator water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of water hammer in steam generators requires the following information: dynamic equations on the steam supply side and on the water side which are sufficiently simple for practical solution, and yet which are descriptive of the main features of the steam and water flows affecting the behavior of the steam/cold water interface; and fairly reliable estimates of the heat transfer coefficients under highly transient conditions of steam cold water interfaces. This review deals mainly with literature measurements relative to item 2, but will also discuss dynamic modeling in connection with the chugging problem in BWR pressure suppression pools, which has many points of similarity with water hammer in steam generators

  5. [Primary angiosarcoma of the kidney: case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, A; Pasticier, G; Deminière, C; Wallerand, H; Ferrière, J-M; Bernhard, J-C

    2012-06-01

    The primary angiosarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the right kidney in a man of 60 years. The CT-scan appearance is the one of a solid tumor compatible with renal cell carcinoma. Histological examination of the piece of nephrectomy straightens diagnosis and reveals the angiosarcomatous nature. In this patient with bone and lung synchronous metastasis, evolution has been a lightning death in less than three months. The literature review confirms the high potential of malignancy of these tumors (metastases almost constant and very short survival in spite of local and systemic treatment). PMID:22657265

  6. A literature review on radioactivity transfer to plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on transfer of radioactivity to plants and soil have been reviewed. Main emphasis has been placed on the transfer to plants. A general plant transfer model has been set up. Root uptake, dry deposition, wet deposition, weathering, resuspension, and translocation are the transfer processes discussed. Theory and experimental data for evaluating the different pathways are reported. Only iodine-131, strontium-90 and caecium-137 have been considered in the report. Recommendations of specific transfer parameters have been given as realistic as possible. Suggestions for further research have also been given. (author)

  7. Gossypiboma in the oral region: Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Alves-de-Oliveira, Camila N.; Pimenta-do-Amaral, Tania-Mara; Ribeiro-Souto, Giovanna; Alves-Mesquita, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Gossypiboma is an inflammatory reaction to a foreign body, specifically composed of a cotton matrix left behind after surgery. The present study aims to present a case report of gossypiboma 23 years after a dental surgery and to make a literature review of the English language cases published on the issue. A 42-year-old woman was attended to evaluate complaints of pain on the right side of the maxilla. The patient reported that dental extractions in this region had been performed over a perio...

  8. SECONDARY TUBERCULOSIS OF TONSIL CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of secondary tuberculosis of tonsil is being discussed along with review of published literature. This report attempts to draw attention to the fact that Tuberculosis is resurgentdespite excellent chemotherapeutic drugs available. This could be probably due to wide spread drug resistance, Immune deficiency states like Diabetes and HIV. Diagnosis of this condition needsa high index of suspicion. Biopsy should be performed in all these patients to rule out coexistant malignancy. Even though oral cavity is highly resistant to tuberculous infection due to the inherentbactericidal effect of saliva still cases of tuberculosis tonsil continue to be reported in developing countries like India.

  9. Epidermolysis Bullosa Pruriginosa: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Whan B; Alavi, Afsaneh; Pope, Elena; Walsh, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) pruriginosa is a rare clinical subtype of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) that is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in hypertrophic, lichenified, prurigo-like plaques and nodules secondary to scratching. The variability in the age of onset, rarity of intact bullae, histologic ambiguities, and close resemblance to other conditions such as acquired inflammatory dermatoses may make diagnosis difficult for this unusual condition, for which fewer than 100 cases have been documented. In this report, we describe 3 cases of EB pruriginosa and review the current literature. PMID:25694436

  10. Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses. PMID:22694135

  11. Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians : A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to systematically review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians in Emergency Departments (ED). Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that can be investigated with qualitative research. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references were reviewed. The key words used were emergency medicine, qualitative, ethnography, observation, interview, video, anthropology, simulation, and simulation-based. Results: 820 papers were identified and 46 studies were included in this review. This literature review found that the reviewed qualitative studies on EM physicians were designed using the following strategies of inquiry: Ethnography, mixed methods, action research, grounded theory, phenomenology, content analysis, discourse analysis, and critical incident analysis. The reviewed studies were categorized into four main themes: Education and training, communication, professional roles, and organizational factors, and into 12 sub-themes. Conclusion: The strength of qualitative research is its ability to grasp and operationalize complex relations within EM. Although qualitative research methodologies have gained in rigour in recent years and few researchers would question their value in studying complex social phenomena and settings such as EM and ED, more rigorous design in qualitative studies are needed. A stricter adherence to one strategy of inquiry would yield more valid studies in qualitative terms concerning validity, reliability and transferability.

  12. Portal Obstruction: Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafiei

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein occlusion is the main cause of extra-hepatic portal hypertension (EHPH. In the present article the clinical manifestations of increased portal pressure in EHPH and in intra-hepatic portal hypertension (IHPH are briefly mentioned and the validity and efficacy of different methods of medical treatment has been reviewed. Portal vein occlusion is particularly common in developing countries; neonatal dehydration and infections may be responsible. Assuming having the same situation in our country, the treatment of neonatal dehydration and infections whether septicemic or umbilical should be promptly undertaken and the umbilical catheterization for the purpose of intravenous treatment avoided. In addition to a short review of the literature two personal cases are reported.

  13. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Antelmi Pigosso, Daniela Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance indicators (EPIs) during PDP is often cited as a successful factor for effective ecodesign implementation, since it enables the monitoring towards the accomplishment of environmental performance improvement goals. However, companies still face difficulties in the selection and application of EPIs - a more structured approach to support EPIs selection is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made in order to identify, classify and systematize the existing EPIs based on the systematic literature review. From the review, 261 EPIs were identified, classified, and then systematized in a digital database. The results and the state of art regarding environmental performance indicators are presented in this paper.

  14. Olfaction in Neurologic and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Literature Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Dantas Costa Lima, Godoy; Richard Louis, Voegels; Fábio de Rezende, Pinna; Rui, Imamura; José Marcelo, Farfel.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Loss of smell is involved in various neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. However, the olfactory test is usually neglected by physicians at large. Objective The aim of this study was to review the current literature about the relat [...] ionship between olfactory dysfunction and neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases. Data Synthesis Twenty-seven studies were selected for analysis, and the olfactory system, olfaction, and the association between the olfactory dysfunction and dementias were reviewed. Furthermore, is described an up to date in olfaction. Conclusion Otolaryngologist should remember the importance of olfaction evaluation in daily practice. Furthermore, neurologists and physicians in general should include olfactory tests in the screening of those at higher risk of dementia.

  15. Condylar positioning devices for orthognathic surgery: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabio; Robiony, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Sembronio, Salvatore; Polini, Francesco; Politi, Massimo

    2008-08-01

    In the past few years, many devices have been proposed for preserving the preoperative position of the mandibular condyle during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Accurate mandibular condyle repositioning is considered important to obtain a stable skeletal and occlusal result, and to prevent the onset of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Condylar positioning devices (CPDs) have led to longer operating times, the need to keep intermaxillary fixation as stable as possible during their application, and the need for precision in the construction of the splint or intraoperative wax bite. This study reviews the literature concerning the use of CPDs in orthognathic surgery since 1990 and their application to prevent skeletal instability and contain TMD since 1995. From the studies reviewed, we can conclude that there is no scientific evidence to support the routine use of CPDs in orthognathic surgery. PMID:18417381

  16. Thermal outgassing of irradiated nuclear fuel: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental program at PNL examined the release of volatile and semivolatile radionuclides from irradiated nuclear fuel under different modes of heat treatment. In support of this work, a literature evaluation was conducted to review the information on: physical changes in fuel and cladding; distribution, migration, and reactions of fission products; and theoretical studies. Omitted from the review are evaluations of various fission gas bubble behavior - swelling models. The different computer codes that have been used to predict fuel behavior are also not included. A large amount of work has been done on the behavior of nuclear fuels during irradiation. The goals of this work have been to ensure acceptable mechanical performance, provide safe operation, and assist in fuel design, preparation, and recycle. Many fundamental studies, including diffusion and lattice structures, are also reported. 51 references, 17 figures, 8 tables

  17. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  18. A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Wray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A literature review of child and youth resilience with a focus on: definitions and factors of resilience; relationships between resilience, mental health and social outcomes; evidence for resilience promoting interventions; and implications for reducing health inequities. To conduct the review, the first two following steps were conducted iteratively and informed the third step: 1) Review of published peer-review literature since 2000; and 2) Review of grey literature; and 3) Quasi-realist sy...

  19. Information Technology in Facilities Management - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art of research in Information Technology (IT) in Facilities Management (FM). Background : Initial studies indicate that investments into IT in FM often do not add the expected value, neither to the FM department itself nor to the organisation supported by the FM department. A basis for further research into this complex and inter-disciplinary area is therefore needed. This literature review will contribute to this basis. Approach, Theory/Methodology : Based on a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method, journal articles, with a focus on IT in FM were found. Relevant articles were organized in categories according to focus on 1. technology, 2. IT layer, 3. FM process, 4. theory and research method applied, and 5. type of findings. Finally research gaps were identified. Results and practical implications : There seems to be a general belief in technology combinations as a way to speed up the rather slow IT diffusion process in FM. It is documented that current research into IT in FM has an unbalanced focus on few specific technologies, IT layers and FM processes, and that further research should focus more on the IT implementation process and use. Knowledge from implementation and use could be fed back into (and strengthen) conceptualization and development, thereby adding more value to FM. Research limitations : The review is limited to the period 2008-2013. Only the search engine Scopus is used. Originality/value : This is the first review paper focusing on IT in general in FM, giving an overview of the area and delivering a basis for further research.

  20. Graft-Free Sinus Augmentation Procedure: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginnady Pinchasov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The restoration of edentulous posterior maxilla with dental implants is challenging due to a deficient posterior alveolar ridge. Over the last decade an advance in the graftless bone augmentation procedures had occurred where the space left beneath the Schneiderian membrane is filled with blood clot in order to produce bone formation. The aim of present article is to review the scientific literature with respect to bone formation in the sinus, after membrane elevation procedure, without using any bone substitutes. Material and Methods: A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. The articles were searched from 1993 to 2013. English language articles with minimum one year patient follow-up and radiological and/or histological diagnostics of newly formed bone were included. Articles were excluded, if usage of bone graft or bone substitutes and/or usage of osteotome has been made during sinus lift operation. Results: A total of 19 studies were included: 2 studies were related to the sinus membrane’s osteogenic potential, 3 to the histological evidence of bone formation in monkeys and humans, 12 to the radiologic evidence of bone gain, and 2 to the space-maintaining management. 100% of the reviewed articles presented with increased bone formation and high implant survival rates resulting from the graft-free technique. Conclusions: It is clearly shown in the review that the potential of the maxillary sinus to heal and to form new bone without bone grafts or substitutes is of high nature.

  1. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Freitas de Azeredo, Barros; Isabel, Ramos; Gilberto, Perez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of technologies and Information Systems (IS) associated with the search for success in the competitive market leads organizations to seek strategies that assist in acquisition, retention, storage, and dissemination of knowledge in the organization in order to be reused in time, prese [...] rving its Organizational Memory (OM). Organizational Memory Information Systems (OMIS) emerge as an enhancer of the OM, providing effective support and resources for the organization, assisting in decision making, in the solution of problems, as well as in quality and development of products and services. This article is an analysis of some OMIS selected from a literature review about its features and functionality in order to understand how these information systems are seen by the organizations. With this research, we realized that the relationship between OM and IS is still inexpressive, even with the existence of some cases of success in the use of OMIS in the literature. The literature reveals that an individuals' knowledge is not integrated in information systems management process in most organizations; much of this knowledge is generated in the organization retained in an individual himself/herself. It is easy to see that there is a need for strategies and mechanisms in the organization to stimulate and provide better knowledge sharing between individuals which, when associated to IS, allows greater control and effective use of Organizational Memory.

  2. SKU classification: A literature review and conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kampen, Tim J.; Akkerman, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) classifications are widely used in the field of production and operations management. Although many theoretical and practical examples of classifications exist, there are no overviews of the current literature, and general guidelines are lacking with respect to method selection for classifying SKUs. The purpose of this paper is to systematically synthesise the earlier work in this area, and to conceptualise and discuss the factors that influence the choice of a specific SKU classification. Design/methodology/approach: This paper structurally reviews existing contributions and synthesises these into a conceptual framework for SKU classification. Findings: How SKUs are classified depends on the classification aim, the context and the method that is chosen. Three main production and operations management aims where found: inventory management, forecasting and production strategy. Within the method three decisions are identified to come to a classification: the characteristics, the classification technique and the operationalisation of the classes. Research limitations/implications: Drawing on our literature survey, we conclude with a conceptual framework describing the factors that influence SKU classification. Further research could use this framework to develop guidelines for real-life applications. Practical implications: Examples from a variety of industries and general directions are provided thatwhich managers could use to develop their own SKU classification. Originality/value: This paper aims to advance the literature on SKU classification from the level of individual examples to a conceptual level and provides directions on how to develop a SKU classification.

  3. Management of pain in the newborn: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Romana Ferreira Lemos, Edilaine Assunção Caetano, Soraia Matilde Marques, Denis da Silva Moreira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to outline the evolution of concepts of pain in the newborn and measures for its control. Methodology: this is a descriptive literature study from the literature review type. The articles used were published in the last decade, from 1998 to 2008. Data collection took place between August and September 2008. To search the Virtual Health Library (VHL and other sources were used descriptors: nursing, pain and newborn. Were considered thirty-five publications they are referred to the aim of this study. The texts were read, analyzed, organized and classified according to the following categories: concept and management of pain in infants. Results: the pain is discussed since the dawn of humanity and studied by several civilizations. At first it was believed that the newborn did not feel pain, today not only does the pain of the RN as something scientifically proven, but it also proposes measures for its control. These measures are pharmacological and nonpharmacological. Conclusion: Despite technological advances and studies, perceived that it is scarce literature on the subject and also there are few studies related to pain in neonatal nursing. Further studies are needed to further investigations and improvement of care in neonatology.

  4. Reviewing history in apocalyptic literature as ideological strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Venter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Reviews of history are ideological constructions. This article investigates historical reviews in the apocalyptic literature of Daniel and Ethiopic Enoch. In Daniel 2 a fourfold scheme of successive kingdoms/empires/eras is used to persuade the hearers that their political trials will come to an end. In Daniel 7 a theology of history is formulated in terms of animal symbols and four consecutive eras. This review is used to proclaim God’s total sovereignty over kings and kingdoms. The faithful can only wait with patience for God to bring history to its finalisation. In Enoch’s Apocalypse of the Weeks a historical review of humanity’s history is used to advocate the eschatological hope of the annihilation of sin and eternal vindication of righteousness. Summaries of history in the form of the traditional biblical history (1 Enoch 85-89 and an Animal Vision (1 Enoch 89-90 of seventy periods is used to appraise contemporary political-military events and advocate the reader’s participation in these actions as eschatological liberating events.

  5. Literature review on the greenhouse effect and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review of recent (1988-1990) publications on global warming and climate change was carried out by the Alberta Research Council. The objectives of the project were to develop a listing of relevant citations, review the publications, prepare a short summary of the contents of each, and develop statistics with respect to the degree to which scientific consensus exists on the various topics of interest. The bibliography contains 1,557 citations, and a total of 501 publications were reviewed. Topics of interest include computer modelling of world climate, potential impacts of climate change, potential strategies for responding to climate change, and technological solutions. Statistical results are presented of numbers of papers reviewed addressing types of emission, time of effective doubling of greenhouse gases, global temperature increase predicted for effective doubling of greenhouse gases, temperature increase in northern lattitudes for an effective doubling of greenhouse gases, components of atmosphere that are changing, potential impacts on agriculture, forestry, and health, suggested emission limitations, and suggested technological solutions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Prevalence of heat and perspiration discomfort inside prostheses: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Ghoseiri, PhD Candidate

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available People with limb amputation deal with thermal stresses in their daily activities. Unfortunately, in the majority of this population, all thermal transfer mechanisms, including convection, radiation, evaporation, and conduction, can be disturbed due to the prosthetic socket barrier, decreased body surface area, and/or vascular disease. The thermal environment inside prosthetic sockets, in addition to decreased quality of life and prosthesis use, comfort, and satisfaction, could put people with amputation at high risk for skin irritations. The current review explores the importance of thermal and perspiration discomfort inside prosthetic sockets by providing an insight into the prevalence of the problem. The literature search was performed in two databases, PubMed and Web of Knowledge, to find relevant articles. After considering the review criteria and hand-searching the reference sections of the selected studies, 38 studies were listed for review and data extraction. This review revealed that more than 53% of people with amputation in the selected studies experienced heat and/or perspiration discomfort inside their prostheses. In spite of great technological advances, current prostheses are unable to resolve this problem. Therefore, more attention must be paid by researchers, clinicians, and manufacturers of prosthetic components to thermal-related biomechanics of soft tissues, proper fabrication technique, material selection, and introduction of efficient thermoregulatory systems.

  7. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  8. Therapeutic options in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective?To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis?We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments?Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, ?-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  9. Therapeutic Options in Idiopathic Burning Mouth Syndrome: Literature Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan, Miziara; Azis, Chagury; Camila, Vargas; Ludmila, Freitas; Ali, Mahmoud.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagno [...] sis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, ?-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the longterm results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy.

  10. Excimer laser surface ablation: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brart, David P S

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to review the recently published literature on excimer laser surface ablation procedures, including photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser sub-epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), microkeratome-assisted PRK (epi-LASIK) and trans-epithelial (laser-assisted) PRK, to help elucidate where and how surface ablation may best fit into current refractive surgical practice. The emphasis was on publications within the last three years and included systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials. Where such evidence did not exist, selective large series cohort studies, case-controlled studies and case series with follow-up preferably greater than six months were examined and included. Refractive and visual outcomes are excellent and comparable to those after LASIK even in complex cases after previous corneal surgery. Indeed, surface ablation combined with corneal collagen cross-linking may be used in selected eyes with biomechanical instability, where LASIK is contraindicated. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that there may be less induction of higher order aberrations with surface techniques. Long-term stability and safety appear to be extremely satisfactory. The literature supports the use of modern excimer laser surface treatments, with outcomes comparable to those after LASIK and evidence of less induction of higher-order aberrations. Follow-up studies at 10 to 20 years indicate excellent stability and safety. PMID:23656608

  11. Complications associated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, P; Spennacchio, P; Ragone, V; Arrigoni, P; Casella, A; Cabitza, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this literature review was to report complications associated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). A computerized search of articles published between 200 and 2009 was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed. We included clinical studies (Level 1-4): (a) investigating patients with rotator cuff tears, managed by a completely arthroscopic RCR technique; (b) reported data about complications. Data about arthroscopic-assisted techniques were excluded. Articles that meet criteria inclusion were analytically examined. Complications were classified into general complications and specific complications related to arthroscopic RCR. We found 414 complications in 2,890 patients; most of them were specific complications related to arthroscopic RCR. Re-rupture was the most frequently encountered complication: re-tear rate ranged between 11.4 and 94%. Stiffness and hardware-related complications were observed in 74 and 12 patients, respectively. Eleven less common complications were also reported: 5 neurovascular, 3 septic, 2 thromboembolic events, and 1 anesthesiological complication. This review stated that arthroscopic RCR is a low-risk surgical procedure. Anatomical failure of the repair is the most common complication encountered in the literature. PMID:22205384

  12. Prevention of abusive head trauma: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Bethany; Anderson, Judy K

    2013-01-01

    Abusive head trauma, formerly known as shaken baby syndrome, is a condition with physical, psychosocial, and fiscal implications presenting opportunities for nurses to intervene with prevention strategies. This integrative review of the literature explored the empirical evidence to identify prevention strategies effective in decreasing abusive head trauma. Education, medical, and nursing databases yielded 14 quality research studies providing the basis for the review. Multiple facets of prevention strategies were identified with patterns in the literature of community involvement, early detection and involvement by health professionals, and parental education programming. A five-component model of prevention strategies is proposed to provide nurses with a comprehensive approach to the issue. These components consist of a) completion of personal inventory, b) involvement in multi-modal parental education, c) commitment to a prevention program, d) participation of the family and community, and e) connection to a spiritual element. Through these components, it is hoped there is enhancement of the quality of life for parents and infants, and a discouragement of situations that increase the risk of infant injury. PMID:24640317

  13. Sickle cell disease pain management in adolescents: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bridget H; Nelson, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) pain continues to emerge in adolescents. More than 98,000 individuals are believed to have SCD in the United States. In fact, 1 in 500 Black infants will be affected by SCD. Identifying standards of care for this unique population can improve pain management and treatment. A significant effect of vaso-occlusive crisis is a decrease in the quality of life in children. Therefore, pain management is multidimensional and includes pharmacologic, physical, and psychological strategies. A review of the literature was conducted to identify best practices regarding pain management in adolescents with sickle cell anemia. Key words such as pain, pain management, adolescent sickle cell anemia, and acute sickle cell pain were entered into databases to reveal qualitative and quantitative studies from 2009 to the present. Many of the research articles identified poor SCD pain management. Studies showed that acute SCD pain management is essential and should be evaluated and robustly managed to achieve optimum pain relief for patients. Acute SCD pain usually occurs as a result of vaso-occlusive crisis. Untreated acute SCD pain can result in morbidity and mortality in adolescents. Nursing knowledge is critical to reducing the stigma and improving management of SCD pain. Nurses play a vital role in the introduction of evidence-based practice within the clinical setting. In an effort to educate nurses and other health care professionals about SCD, this article is a literature review of studies concerning SCD and pain management in emergency rooms. PMID:25175555

  14. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy : a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded.

  15. Fluvial sediment fingerprinting: literature review and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Haj, Adel E., Jr.; Stamm, John F.; Valder, Joshua F.; Prautzch, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated and adopted various field methods for collecting real-time sediment and nutrient data. These methods have proven to be valuable representations of sediment and nutrient concentrations and loads but are not able to accurately identify specific source areas. Recently, more advanced data collection and analysis techniques have been evaluated that show promise in identifying specific source areas. Application of field methods could include studies of sources of fluvial sediment, otherwise referred to as sediment “fingerprinting.” The identification of sediment is important, in part, because knowing the primary sediment source areas in watersheds ensures that best management practices are incorporated in areas that maximize reductions in sediment loadings. This report provides a literature review and annotated bibliography of existing methodologies applied in the field of fluvial sediment fingerprinting. This literature review provides a bibliography of publications where sediment fingerprinting methods have been used; however, this report is not assumed to provide an exhaustive listing. Selected publications were categorized by methodology with some additional summary information. The information contained in the summary may help researchers select methods better suited to their particular study or study area, and identify methods in need of more testing and application.

  16. Folded zoom lenses: a review of patent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiley, Daniel J.

    2014-12-01

    Folded zoom lenses offer an interesting opportunity for a review of patent literature: they are of a reasonable complexity that the designs are likely to be instructive, they offer a small range of design constraints because of the standardization of CMOS imager sizes and the mechanical constraints imposed on DSC cameras, and there is enough recent activity in awarded patents that a representative sample of contemporary designs can be collected. This paper presents a review of recent patent literature for folded zoom lenses. Zemax models were built for the designs disclosed in 67 patents. For this large set of models, the distribution of paraxial properties and lens materials is presented. For the most-common design constraints, two particularly-similar disclosed designs are compared in detail. Engineering differences between the two disclosed designs are compared to differences in patent claims directed to the disclosed designs; the patents' claims are shown to omit, at least for these two patents, some design differences that seem important from an engineering point of view.

  17. Recovery and mental health: a review of the British literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, S; Stickley, T

    2008-03-01

    Recovery is not a new concept within mental health, although in recent times, it has come to the forefront of the policy agenda. However, there is no universal definition of recovery, and it is a contested concept. The aim of this study was to examine the British literature relating to recovery in mental health. Three contributing groups are identified: service users, health care providers and policy makers. A review of the literature was conducted by accessing all relevant published texts. A search was conducted using these terms: 'recovery', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'mental illness' and 'mental health'. Over 170 papers were reviewed. A thematic analysis was conducted. Six main themes emerged, which were examined from the perspective of the stakeholder groups. The dominant themes were identity, the service provision agenda, the social domain, power and control, hope and optimism, risk and responsibility. Consensus was found around the belief that good quality care should be made available to service users to promote recovery both as inpatient or in the community. However, the manner in which recovery was defined and delivered differed between the groups. PMID:18211561

  18. Organizational Commitment, job satisfaction and intention to stay: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Llobet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse the existing theoretical frameworks of organisational behaviour and job satisfaction while taking into account, in connection with working conditions, the social and economic changes that are taking place in most of the western countries. The analysis and discussion suggest the need for new lines of research to determine whether the current practices carried out in human resources departments are well directed. Design/methodology/approach: First, we show a short review of the classical literature and the predominant paradigms through an exhaustive review of the scientific literature that has led to their subsequent evolution. Afterwards, we analyse the evidence sustaining their evolution in the light of the current changes, and we explain the future research needs from a theoretical point of view. Research limitation/implications: Owing to the nature of the article, it is a theoretical essay to launch a new scientific debate in connection with the models displayed and fully justified. Practical implications depend on the development of future research, as justified at all times. Originality/value: Currently, few investigations and theoretical contributions have taken into account the increase in contingent work, and more specifically moonlighting, either from an empirical perspective or as a theoretical critique of the existing organisational behaviour models. The main value of this essay is its invitation to take control of the debate while analysing its possible practical implications.

  19. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  20. A pilot study of adaptation of the transtheoretical model to narratives of bereaved family members in the bereavement life review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Michiyo; Tsuda, Akira; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sanjo, Makiko; Shima, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the possibility of adaptation of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to narratives from the Bereavement Life Review. Narratives from 19 bereaved family members were recorded, transcribed into sentences, and allocated into stages based on the TTM criteria. Those who lived in fantasy were allocated to the precontemplation stage and who recognized the patient's death but could not adjust to the death were allocated to the contemplation stage. Those who understood the need for changes and had new plans were allocated to the preparation stage, and those who were coping were allocated to the action stage, and those who had confidence to remember the loved one who died were allocated to the maintenance stage. These results provide deeper understanding of a bereaved family member and suggest that a different intervention method may be useful in each stage. PMID:23689366

  1. Effective Teaching in Science: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Ç?MER

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of literature on effective teaching in science. It tries to explore what constitutes effective teaching in science. According to the literature reviewed, six main principles of effective teaching could be identified. The first is dealing with students' existing ideas and conceptions. This is important for teachers to help students construct their own understanding and knowledge. This requires teachers to help students activate their existing ideas and conceptions, be aware of them and in the light of scientifically accepted knowledge, modify, change or develop them further. For this purpose, such teaching methods and activities as question-and-answer, discussions either small group or whole class, small group activities, practical work, and using ICT facilities can be employed. The second principle is encouraging students to apply new concepts or skills into different contexts. In order to do this, teachers can use practical work, field trips, simulations, writing activities and role-play. The third principle identified is encouraging student participation in lessons. Involvement may be through a wide range of teaching and learning activities such as inquiry-based teaching, co-operative learning groups, questioning, discussions, field trips, role playing and so on. Encouraging student inquiry; encouraging co-operative learning among students; and offering continuous assessment and providing feedback are other principles identified from the literature. The paper discusses how these principles contribute to effective science teaching in science in detail. Finally, the importance of presenting research findings for reform attempts to improve the quality of teaching and learning in Turkish schools is discussed.

  2. Lean and the working environment: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Bojesen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The effects of lean on employees have been debated ever since the concept was introduced. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature on the effects of lean on the working environment and employee health and well-being. Design/methodology/approach - Relevant databases were searched for studies of lean and the working environment. In total, 11 studies with quantitative effects of lean are included in this review. The methodology and results are analysed to extract information about lean and the effects on working environment. Findings - There is strong evidence for the negative impact of lean on both the working environment and employee health and well-being in cases of manual work with low complexity. However, since examples of positive effects were also found in the literature, it is important to move from a simple cause-and-effect model to a more comprehensive model that understands lean as an open and ambiguous concept, which can have both positive and negative effects depending on the actual lean practice used on the shop floor. Research limitations/implications - The evidence remains limited with regard to the effect of lean on the working environment outside of manufacturing industry. The literature reflects, only to a limited extent, on the significance of implementation strategy and production context. Practical implications - Organizations working with lean should make efforts to avoid an impaired working environment for manual employees. Involvement of employees in lean's practical application is one possible way of developing a healthy working environment. Originality/value - This is the first paper to make use of the existing research evidence to examine the complex and ambiguous relations between lean and the working environment.

  3. Chemistry of the redox sensitive elements. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the safety assessment for a nuclear waste repository, the migration of the radioactive elements from the waste matrix to the biosphere has to be modelled. The geosphere is an important barrier and a consideration of the retention of the radioactive isotopes needs knowledge of sorption coefficients and solubilities. Important long-lived isotopes in the high level radioactive waste are the fission products selenium, technetium, palladium and tin, and the actinide neptunium, which are all redox sensitive elements. A transport model using conservative sorption values predicts mainly doses from these five elements. Since the individual oxidation states of the redox sensitive elements have different and largely unknown sorption properties and solubilities, the realistic doses might be far less. The relevant literature about the chemistry of the five elements is summarized and is planned to serve as the basis for an experimental programme. For every element, the literature about the general chemistry, selected sorption studies, geochemistry, and analytical methods is reviewed. It was found that the knowledge about some of these points is very limited. Even the general chemistry of some of the elements in not well known, because they have only limited applications and research concentrates only on certain aspects. Most of the sorption studies in the context of nuclear waste concentrate on a few of the relevant elements and others have been neglected up to now. The simulation of a realistic system in the laboratory poses some problems, which have to be solved as well. The literature about this subject is also critically reviewed. The elements which are most mobile under realistic far-field conditions are identified and it is recommended to concentrate research on these at the beginning. (author) 9 figs., 192 refs

  4. Ventilation rates and health : multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H

    2011-01-01

    The scientific literature through 2005 on the effects of ventilation rates on health in indoor environments has been reviewed by a multidisciplinary group. The group judged 27 papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals as providing sufficient information on both ventilation rates and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes with ventilation rates, although the literature does not provide clear evidence on particular agent(s) for the effects. Higher ventilation rates in offices, up to about 25 l/s per person, are associated with reduced prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms. The limited available data suggest that inflammation, respiratory infections, asthma symptoms and short-term sick leave increase with lower ventilation rates. Home ventilation rates above 0.5 air changes per hour (h(-1)) have been associated with a reduced risk of allergic manifestations among children in a Nordic climate. The need remains for more studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants. This review and assessment indicates that increasing ventilation rates above currently adopted standards and guidelines should result in reduced prevalence of negative health outcomes. Building operators and designers should avoid low ventilation rates unless alternative effective measures, such as source control or air cleaning, are employed to limit indoor pollutant levels.

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery for spinal metastases: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The spine is the most common location for bone metastases. Since cure is not possible, local control and relief of symptoms is the basis for treatment, which is grounded on the use of conventional radiotherapy. Recently, spinal radiosurgery has been proposed for the local control of spinal metastases, whether as primary or salvage treatment. Consequently, we carried out a literature review in order to analyze the indications, efficacy, and safety of radiosurgery in the treatment of spinal metastases. Methods: We have reviewed the literature using the PubMed gateway with data from the Medline library on studies related to the use of radiosurgery in treatment of bone metastases in spine. The studies were reviewed by all the authors and classified as to level of evidence, using the criterion defined by Wright. Results: The indications found for radiosurgery were primary control of epidural metastases (evidence level II), myeloma (level III), and metastases known to be poor responders to conventional radiotherapy – melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (level III). Spinal radiosurgery was also proposed for salvage treatment after conventional radiotherapy (level II). There is also some evidence as to the safety and efficacy of radiosurgery in cases of extramedullar and intramedullar intradural metastatic tumors (level III) and after spinal decompression and stabilization surgery. Conclusion: Radiosurgery can be used in primary or salvage treatment of spinal metasary or salvage treatment of spinal metastases, improving local disease control and patient symptoms. It should also be considered as initial treatment for radioresistant tumors, such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  6. Measuring health-related stigma--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brakel, Wim H

    2006-08-01

    Stigma related to chronic health conditions such as HIV/AIDS, leprosy, tuberculosis, mental illness and epilepsy is a global phenomenon with a severe impact on individuals and their families, and on the effectiveness of public health programmes. To compare stigma measurement in different disciplines, a literature review was conducted. References were obtained through a search of literature databases and through examining relevant bibliographies. Sixty-three papers were selected that addressed the issue of measurement of stigma or related constructs and that contained a sample of the instrument or items used. Five unpublished studies were also included in the review. The aspects of health-related stigma used for assessment can be grouped in five categories. First, the experience of actual discrimination and/or participation restrictions on the part of the person affected; second, attitudes towards the people affected; third, perceived or felt stigma; fourth, self or internalized stigma; and fifth, discriminatory and stigmatizing practices in (health) services, legislation, media and educational materials. Within each of these areas, different research methods have been used, including questionnaires, qualitative methods, indicators and scales. The characteristics of the instruments considered most promising are described and compared. The purpose of stigma assessment is to increase our understanding of stigma and its determinants and dynamics, to determine its extent or severity in a given setting or target group and to monitor changes in stigma over time. The conclusions from this review are that (a) the consequences of stigma are remarkably similar in different health conditions, cultures and public health programmes; (b) many instruments have been developed to assess the intensity and qualities of stigma, but often these have been condition-specific; and (c) development of generic instruments to assess health-related stigma may be possible. To achieve this aim, existing instruments should be further validated, developed or adapted for generic use, where possible. PMID:17130068

  7. Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Potenza, Marc N; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Berlin, Heather A; Menzies, Lara; Bechara, Antoine; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Hollander, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Failures in cortical control of fronto-striatal neural circuits may underpin impulsive and compulsive acts. In this narrative review, we explore these behaviors from the perspective of neural processes and consider how these behaviors and neural processes contribute to mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and impulse-control disorders such as trichotillomania and pathological gambling. We present findings from a broad range of data, comprising translational and human endophenotypes research and clinical treatment trials, focussing on the parallel, functionally segregated, cortico-striatal neural projections, from orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) to medial striatum (caudate nucleus), proposed to drive compulsive activity, and from the anterior cingulate/ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens shell), proposed to drive impulsive activity, and the interaction between them. We suggest that impulsivity and compulsivity each seem to be multidimensional. Impulsive or compulsive behaviors are mediated by overlapping as well as distinct neural substrates. Trichotillomania may stand apart as a disorder of motor-impulse control, whereas pathological gambling involves abnormal ventral reward circuitry that identifies it more closely with substance addiction. OCD shows motor impulsivity and compulsivity, probably mediated through disruption of OFC-caudate circuitry, as well as other frontal, cingulate, and parietal connections. Serotonin and dopamine interact across these circuits to modulate aspects of both impulsive and compulsive responding and as yet unidentified brain-based systems may also have important functions. Targeted application of neurocognitive tasks, receptor-specific neurochemical probes, and brain systems neuroimaging techniques have potential for future research in this field. PMID:19940844

  8. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of strategy for policy makers that address organisational level support, joint clinical problem solving, local joint care guidelines, staff training and supervision and feedback.

  9. Medidas do Estresse: Uma Revisão Narrativa / Stress Measures: A Narrative Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Faro; Marcos Emanoel, Pereira.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente revisão narrativa teve como objetivos reunir informações sobre medidas do estresse, aliando-as à perspetiva teórica que subsidia os modos de estudo na temática e, também, apontar evidências, características e limitações das diversas formas de mensuração do fenômeno, o que pode favorecer à [...] melhor estruturação de futuras pesquisas e a consequente escolha dos métodos de cotejamento do estresse. Para tanto, são descritas possibilidades de mensuração de acordo com as vertentes teóricas e evidências empíricas que orientam as pesquisas na temática, estando divididas entre medidas biológicas, ambientais e de autopercepção do estresse, respectivamente situadas nas perspetivas baseada na resposta, baseada no estímulo e cognitiva. Ao final, pretendeu-se incitar a postura reflexiva dos pesquisadores diante dos métodos de cotejamento existentes e, também, a possível consideração de técnicas combinadas para o mais profundo escrutínio do estresse. Abstract in english This narrative review aimed to gather information on measures of stress according to the theoretical perspectives that underpins the methods of study in the area and also point out the evidences, characteristics and limitations of the various ways of measuring the phenomenon, favoring the better str [...] ucturing of futures researches and consequent choice of measure methods of stress. Thereby, possibilities of measure are described according to the theoretical and empirical evidence that guides the researches on the topic, being divided between biological, environmental and self-perception measures of stress, respectively located in the response-based perspective, the stimulus-based perspective and the cognitive perspective. Finally, we sought encouraging the reflective stance of the researchers on the measurement methods and also the possible consideration of combined techniques for deeper scrutiny of stress.

  10. The Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Growth Parameters: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mazidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan fasting is prescribed by Quran for every able?bodied, adult Muslim and is considered an obligatory act of worship. During Ramadan, the majority of Muslims eat two major meals- one before dawn (Sahar and another immediately after the sunset (Iftar. Islamic fasting, due to its particular nature, may cause metabolic and hormonal changes in the body, which are different from those in regular fasting. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive study has been conducted on changes in growth parameters during fasting periods. Therefore, the aim of this review, which is based on scientific literature review, was to describe the effects of fasting on growth parameters in humans.

  11. Factors related to unsuccessful lactogenesis – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Godoy Ferro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this literature review was to investigate the factors that may interfere in the production of breast milk (lactogenesis, making difficult the establishment of lactation and having hypogalactia as a result. Since breast milk is widely known as the most natural and important food for newborns, it is necessary for nurses to understand and acknowledge the physiological mechanisms involved in lactation in order to help mothers to achieve a successful breastfeeding. Methodology: Two computerized databases were assessed in search for articles: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Medical Literature and Retrieval System On Line, both covering a 10 years (1997-2007 period. Considering the objective of the study, 21 articles were selected; other academic text-books were also consulted for supporting the development of contents and concepts on lactation physiology. Results: Factors related to failure and/or delay in lactogenesis were: placental retention; deficiency and /or resistance to prolactine; presence of ovarian cysts; breast’s structural alterations; obesity; primiparity; prolonged labor and delivery; cesarean and hypotension. Conclusion: Lactogenesis is a subject that has not been properly acknowledged by nurses, although being essential for the proper establishment of breastfeeding, which is an important issue in nursing care and research. Relevance to clinical practice: When nurses take care of women who experience difficulties on breastfeeding, it is important to consider factors that may interfere in their lactogenesis; this issue seems to be rarely discussed in nursing literature. Therefore, in order to make women’s breastfeeding experience meaningful, enjoyable and effective, nurses should improve their knowledge to investigate factors related to those difficulties and plan interventions. This review is hoped to contribute in raising some aspects that should be addressed in client’s assessment and taken into consideration on planning nursing care.

  12. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzer S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Walzer,1,2 Daniel Droeschel,1,3 Mark Nuijten,4 Hélène Chevrou-Séverac5 1MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Loerrach, Germany; 3Riedlingen University, SRH FernHochschule, Riedlingen, Germany; 4Ars Accessus Medica BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland Background: Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods: A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results: Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a “gray literature search” utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%. In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg, surgery, cancer were often analyzed. In terms of settings, 56% of papers covered inpatients, whereas 14 papers (44% captured outpatients, including patients in community centers. Interestingly, in comparison with the papers identified overall, very few health economic models were found. Most of the articles were modeling analyses and economic trials in different design settings. Overall, only eight health economic models were published and were validated applying the Drummond checklist. In summary, most of the models included were carried out to quite a high standard, although some areas were identified for further improvement. Of the two systematic health economic reviews identified, one achieved the highest quality score when applying the AMSTAR checklist. Conclusion: The reasons for finding only a few modeling studies but quite a large number of clinical trials with health economic endpoints, might be different. Until recently, health economics has not been required for reimbursement or coverage decisions concerning medical nutrition interventions. Further, there might be specifics of medical nutrition which might not allow easy modeling and consequently explain the limited uptake so far. The health economic data on medical nutrition generated and published is quite ample. However, it has been primarily based on database analysis and clinical studies. Only a few modeling analyses have been carried out, indicating a need for further research to understand the specifics of medical nutrition and their applicability for health economic modeling. Keywords: systematic review, medical nutrition, health economics

  13. Cognitive functions in patients with panic disorder: a literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Rodrigues Poubel, Alves; Valeska Martinho, Pereira; Sergio, Machado; Antonio Egidio, Nardi; Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e, Silva.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a review of the literature on the possible neuropsychological deficits present in patients with panic disorder. Methods: We performed a systematic review and search of the PubMed, ISI and PsycInfo scientific databases, with no time limits, using t [...] he following key words: cognitive, function, panic, and disorder. Of the 971 articles found, 25 were selected and 17 were included in this review. The inclusion criterion was at least one neuropsychological assessment task in patients with panic disorder. Results: The number of publications has grown gradually, especially those assessing executive functions, corresponding to the neurobiological model most widely accepted. Of all the functions evaluated, these patients had lower performance in memory tasks and higher performance in affective processing tasks related to the disorder. However, these data require further investigation due to the high rate of comorbidities, the small sample sizes of the included studies and little standardization of instruments used. Conclusion: The results showed a greater occurrence of deficits in memory and enhanced affective processing related to panic disorder.

  14. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  15. Suicide among immigrants in Europe-a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallek, Jacob; Reeske, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerns about increased suicide risk among immigrants to European countries have been raised. We review the scientific literature on differences in suicide among immigrants compared with the majority populations in Europe's major immigration countries. METHODS: We searched the databases PubMed and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies published in 1990-2011, which compared suicide risks of adult immigrant groups with the risks of the majority population in European countries. Hits were screened by two researchers. RESULTS:: We included 24 studies in the review. No generalizable pattern of suicide among immigrants was found. Immigrants from countries in which suicide risks are particularly high, i.e. countries in Northern and Eastern Europe, experienced higher suicide rates relative to groups without migration background. Gender and age differences were observed. Young female immigrants from Turkey, East Africa and South Asia are a risk group. CONCLUSION: Immigrants 'bring along' their suicide risk, at least for the initial period they spend in the immigration country. Health-care planners and providers need to be aware of this 'imported risks'. However, most immigrant groups do not have an increased suicide risk relative to the local-born population; some may even experience substantially lower risks.

  16. CIS of the bladder: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma in situ (CIS of the bladder poses a clinical challenge to urologists worldwide. The clinical course of CIS ranges from benign, indolent tumor growth to highly progressive tumor proliferation with deleterious effects on patient outcome and increased disease-specific mortality. The aim of our review was to outline the natural history of bladder CIS in a single concise source for young urologists. We performed a PubMed review of the literature on CIS of the bladder. We used CIS, BCG and superficial bladder cancer as the keywords for our search. Following a group discussion, the authors selected 77 important publications to be included in our review article. The presence of bladder CIS increases the risk of panurothelial disease involving the prostate, urethra or upper urinary tracts. Urine cytology is the primary approach for the diagnosis of CIS. Intravesical BCG remains the gold standard for the initial treatment of CIS. Early radical cystectomy for cases that present BCG failure showed a higher rate of success with long-term cure. Frozen section biopsy of the distal ureter should be performed when CIS of the bladder has been preoperatively diagnosed. Whether frozen section biopsy was performed and regardless of the condition of the distal ureter at the time of cystectomy, postoperative follow-up with cytology, endoscopy of the new pouch and ureteroscopy of the ureters is recommended for early detection of possible recurrence.

  17. Quality of life measurement in bone metastases: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirtha Tharmalingam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sukirtha Tharmalingam, Edward Chow, Kristin Harris, Amanda Hird, Emily SinclairRapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Quality of life (QOL has become an important consideration in the care of patients with bone metastases as prevalence, incidence and patient survival are on the rise. As a result, more interventional studies now measure patient’s QOL as a meaningful endpoint. However, well-developed bone metastases specific quality of life instruments are lacking. A literature review was conducted to better understand the nature of QOL instruments used in bone metastases trials. A total of 47 articles evaluating QOL in patients with bone metastases were identified. Twenty-five different instruments were used to evaluate QOL with study-designed questionnaires and the EORTC QLQ-C30 being most commonly employed. Many studies used more than one scale or instrument to measure QOL. This makes it difficult to compare QOL in bone metastases patients across studies and come to any formal conclusions. Therefore, this review demonstrates the need to develop a bone module that can be used across countries in future clinical trials.Keywords: bone metastases, quality of life, QOL instrument, review

  18. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

  19. Anchoring contextual analysis in health policy and systems research: A narrative review of contextual factors influencing health committees in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Scott, Kerry; Garimella, Surekha; Mondal, Shinjini; Ved, Rajani; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-05-01

    Health committees, councils or boards (HCs) mediate between communities and health services in many health systems. Despite their widespread prevalence, HC functions vary due to their diversity and complexity, not least because of their context specific nature. We undertook a narrative review to better understand the contextual features relevant to HCs, drawing from Scopus and the internet. We found 390 English language articles from journals and grey literature since 1996 on health committees, councils and boards. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, we focused on 44 articles. Through an iterative process of exploring previous attempts at understanding context in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and the HC literature, we developed a conceptual framework that delineates these contextual factors into four overlapping spheres (community, health facilities, health administration, society) with cross-cutting issues (awareness, trust, benefits, resources, legal mandates, capacity-building, the role of political parties, non-governmental organizations, markets, media, social movements and inequalities). While many attempts at describing context in HPSR result in empty arenas, generic lists or amorphous detail, we suggest anchoring an understanding of context to a conceptual framework specific to the phenomena of interest. By doing so, our review distinguishes between contextual elements that are relatively well understood and those that are not. In addition, our review found that contextual elements are dynamic and porous in nature, influencing HCs but also being influenced by them due to the permeability of HCs. While reforms focus on tangible HC inputs and outputs (training, guidelines, number of meetings held), our review of contextual factors highlights the dynamic relationships and broader structural elements that facilitate and/or hinder the role of health committees in health systems. Such an understanding of context points to its contingent and malleable nature, links it to theorizing in HPSR, and clarifies areas for investigation and action. PMID:25875322

  20. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is little known on permafrost in hard bedrocks at the depths of relevance for spent nuclear fuel repositories as well as of permafrost characteristics of importance for the performance and safety assessments of such repositories. Some important observations are though that large lakes and rivers are plausible locations for taliks and may under certain conditions (e.g. glacial fore-fields) be subjected to large flows from deep bedrock. Salt rejection and hydrate concentrations are both likely chemical effects of permafrost. These effects are found at deep locations in contemporary permafrost regions, mechanical effects of permafrost are however surficial