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1

A narrative literature review of older people's cancer pain experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To synthesise current evidence about the experience of older people with cancer pain and consider how exploration of this may inform clinical practice and research. BACKGROUND: Cancer is more prevalent in older age. Evidence suggests that older people's pain is generally under-recognised and under treated. Pain is a significant concern for many people living and dying with cancer and may be of particular concern for older people who may have complex biopsychosocial needs. There is mounting evidence that older people and their families experience high level of unmet need generally and suboptimal pain in particular. DESIGN: Narrative literature review. METHOD: A comprehensive search of five electronic databases was undertaken between the years 1996-2010 inclusive. Inclusion criteria were primary research papers relating older peoples' experiences of cancer pain, incorporating the verbal report or narrative account of experience of cancer. RESULTS: Seventeen papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Three major themes emerged from the literature: (1) emotional experience identified by older people with cancer pain, (2) effects of pain on life and living, and (3) how communication affects the experience or expression of cancer pain including subthemes of validating, trust and cultural effects on the communication of pain. CONCLUSION: There is limited research about older people's cancer pain from the perspective of the person experiencing the pain. This review highlights the need for further research into living and dying with cancer pain which incorporates the unique and individual experience of older people. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Understanding the complexity and nature of older people's cancer pain experience should inform appropriate effective care that improves quality of life and promotes independence and dignity. Culturally sensitive training in communication may enhance understanding of the needs of older people with cancer pain.

Dunham M; Ingleton C; Ryan T; Gott M

2013-08-01

2

Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan. A narrative review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The medical ramification of fasting among patients with diabetes is largely unknown; the purpose of the review is to find out how diabetes mellitus is managed during the month of Ramadan.Methods: Literature published on diabetes management during the month of Ramadan in the Middle-East are aimed at getting a global picture of this condition at a time when diabetes is having an adverse effect on health care delivery. I hope the review will be a useful and comprehensive source on the subject (diabetes mellitus) for researchers, academics and clinicians who care for the increasing number of diabetic patients and help health care providers curb the tide of the diabetes epidemic. The search includes available articles published, by using the keywords “Diabetes Mellitus”, “Ramadan” and “fasting” covering epidemiology, clinical, management and complication profile.Results: Studies have shown that fasting among diabetic patients carries the potential risk of dangerous hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis and thrombosis. The EPIDIAR study was the largest study where 50% of the whole sample changed their treatment and hypoglycemia was the only observed event. There are also few studies which evaluated specific management modalities.Conclusion: It follows from this review that Ramadan fasting is acceptable for well balanced diabetic patients, conscious of their disease and compliant with their diet and drug intake. Patients willing to fast must be advised to undertake control of their glycaemia several times a day to prevent hypoglycemia risks during daytime fasting or hyperglycemia during the night.

Rajdeep Das

2011-01-01

3

Spinal manipulation under anesthesia: a narrative review of the literature and commentary.  

Science.gov (United States)

As exhibited throughout the medical literature over many decades, there is a lack of uniformity in the manner in which spine pain patients have historically qualified for and received manipulation under anesthesia (MUA). Also, for different professions that treat the same types of spinal conditions via the same means, fundamental MUA decision points vary within the published protocols of different professional associations. The more recent chiropractic literature communicates that the evidence to support the efficacy of MUA of the spine remains largely anecdotal. In addition, it has been reported that the types of spinal conditions most suitable for MUA are without clear-cut consensus, with various indications for MUA of the low back resting wholly upon the opinions and experiences of MUA practitioners. This article will provide a narrative review of the MUA literature, followed by a commentary about the current lack of high quality research evidence, the anecdotal and consensus basis of existing clinical protocols, as well as related professional, ethical and legal concerns for the chiropractic practitioner. The limitations of the current medical literature related to MUA via conscious/deep sedation need to be recognized and used as a guide to clinical experience when giving consideration to this procedure. More research, in the form of controlled clinical trials, must be undertaken if this procedure is to remain a potential treatment option for chronic spine pain patients in the chiropractic clinical practice. PMID:23672974

Digiorgi, Dennis

2013-05-14

4

Spinal manipulation under anesthesia: a narrative review of the literature and commentary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As exhibited throughout the medical literature over many decades, there is a lack of uniformity in the manner in which spine pain patients have historically qualified for and received manipulation under anesthesia (MUA). Also, for different professions that treat the same types of spinal conditions via the same means, fundamental MUA decision points vary within the published protocols of different professional associations. The more recent chiropractic literature communicates that the evidence to support the efficacy of MUA of the spine remains largely anecdotal. In addition, it has been reported that the types of spinal conditions most suitable for MUA are without clear-cut consensus, with various indications for MUA of the low back resting wholly upon the opinions and experiences of MUA practitioners. This article will provide a narrative review of the MUA literature, followed by a commentary about the current lack of high quality research evidence, the anecdotal and consensus basis of existing clinical protocols, as well as related professional, ethical and legal concerns for the chiropractic practitioner. The limitations of the current medical literature related to MUA via conscious/deep sedation need to be recognized and used as a guide to clinical experience when giving consideration to this procedure. More research, in the form of controlled clinical trials, must be undertaken if this procedure is to remain a potential treatment option for chronic spine pain patients in the chiropractic clinical practice.

Digiorgi D

2013-01-01

5

A narrative literature review of the contribution of volunteers in end-of-life care services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Volunteers are integral to the history of hospices and continue to play a vital role. However, economic, policy and demographic challenges in the twenty-first century raise questions about how best to manage this essential resource. AIM: This narrative review explores the recent literature on end-of-life care volunteering and reflects upon the issues pertinent to current organisational challenges and opportunities. DESIGN: The parameters of the review were set deliberately wide in order to capture some of the nuances of contemporary volunteer practices. Articles reporting on research or evaluation of adult end-of-life care services (excluding prison services) that use volunteers and were published in English between 2000 and 2011 were included. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases, key journals and grey literature databases. RESULTS: Sixty-eight articles were included in the analysis. The articles were drawn from an international literature, while acknowledging that volunteer roles vary considerably by organisation and/or by country and over time. The majority of articles were small in scale and diverse in methodology, but the same topics repeatedly emerged from both the qualitative and quantitative data. The themes identified were individual volunteer factors (motivation, characteristics of volunteers, stress and coping, role boundaries and value) and organisational factors (recruiting for diversity, support and training and volunteers' place in the system). CONCLUSIONS: The tensions involved in negotiating the boundary spaces that volunteers inhabit, informality and regulation, diversity issues and the cultural specificity of community models, are suggested as topics that merit further research and could contribute to the continuing development of the volunteer workforce.

Morris S; Wilmot A; Hill M; Ockenden N; Payne S

2013-05-01

6

Comprehensive Primary Health Care in Australia: findings from a narrative review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the extent to which the Alma Atadefined Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC) approachis practised and evaluated in Australia and to describe the rolethat GPs and other medical practitioners play in it along withimplications of this for future policy in light of the Health andHospital Reform Commission (HHRC) and Primary Health Caretaskforce reports, 2009 recommendations.Methods: We conducted a narrative review of the literature(published and grey) from 1987 to mid 2007 as part of a globalreview carried out by teams of researchers in six regions in2007.Results: In Australia, the CPHC approach occurs chiefly inAboriginal Controlled Community Health Services, statefunded community health and in rural/remote and inner cityareas. Participation by GPs in CPHC is limited by fundingstructures, workforce shortages and heavy workloads. Factorsthat facilitated the CPHC approach include flexibility infunding and service provision, cultural appropriateness ofservices, participation and ownership by local consumers andcommunities and willingness to address the socialdeterminants of health.Conclusions: The recent HHRC and Primary Health CareTaskforce reports recommend an expansion of CPHC servicesas a means of tackling health inequities. The findings of thisreview suggest that resources will need to be directedbeyond individual treatment to population health issues,cross-sector collaboration and consumer participation inorder to realise the CPHC model. Without attention tothese areas PHC will not be comprehensive and its abilityto contribute to reducing inequities will be severelyhampered. The absence of an evaluation culturesupported with resources for CPHC programs and servicesalso hinders the ability of practitioners and policy makersto assess the benefits of these programs and how theirimplementation can be improved. Funding structures,workforce issues and evaluation of programs will all needto be addressed if the health sector is to contribute to thegoal of reducing health inequities.

Catherine Hurley; Fran Baum; Julie Johns; Ron Labonte

2010-01-01

7

Acupuncture in the treatment of obesity: a narrative review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is one of the leading health risk factors worldwide and is associated with several other risk factors and health problems including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and malignancies. Current conventional therapeutic strategies for obesity cannot achieve adequate weight control in all patients, so complementary types of treatment are also performed. Acupuncture, one of the oldest healing practices, represents the most rapidly growing complementary therapy which is recognised by both the National Institutes of Health and the WHO. A previous review concluded that acupuncture was superior to lifestyle advice, to sham acupuncture and to conventional medication. In this narrative review, the possible mechanisms of actions and the results of recent experimental and clinical studies with different forms of acupuncture (eg, body, auricular, manual and electroacupuncture) are presented. In particular, the effects of acupuncture on anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers are discussed. Both experimental and clinical current data suggest that acupuncture exerts beneficial effects on the mechanisms of obesity. Some data suggest that electroacupuncture may be more effective than manual acupuncture; however, the most effective frequency remains controversial. Combination of different forms of acupuncture with diet and exercise seems to be necessary for achieving and maintaining weight loss.  Further prospective clinical trials are needed to establish the effectiveness of this complementary method for obesity treatment.

Belivani M; Dimitroula C; Katsiki N; Apostolopoulou M; Cummings M; Hatzitolios AI

2013-03-01

8

Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for deteting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker.

Tajima-Pozo K; Montes-Montero A; Güemes I; González-Vives S; Díaz-Marsá M; Carrasco JL

2013-04-01

9

RAMESES publication standards: meta-narrative reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. DESIGN: A mixed method study synthesising data between 2011 to 2012 from a literature review, online Delphi panel and feedback from training, workshops and email list. METHODS: We: (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy, and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps, and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence review, and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. RESULTS: We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews, and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: This project used multiple sources to draw together evidence and expertise in meta-narrative reviews. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Meta-narrative review is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further theoretical and methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of meta-narrative reviews.

Wong G; Greenhalgh T; Westhorp G; Buckingham J; Pawson R

2013-05-01

10

RAMESES publication standards: meta-narrative reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways in which researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. METHODS: We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. RESULTS: We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 90%. CONCLUSION: This project used multiple sources to draw together evidence and expertise in meta-narrative reviews. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Meta-narrative review is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further theoretical and methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of meta-narrative reviews.

Wong G; Greenhalgh T; Westhorp G; Buckingham J; Pawson R

2013-01-01

11

[Nursing care during the preoperative stage and rehabilitation of mastectomy: narrative review of literature].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a bibliographic research carried out in Lilacs and Scielo database, which aimed to review the production about nursing care during the preoperative and rehabilitation stages of mastectomy. Eighteen articles were analyzed with focus in these categories: Nursing care in the preoperative mastectomy and The role of nursing in the rehabilitation of women submitted to a mastectomy. It was observed that nursing cares, in the two periods, are a key step for a more human treatment. However, they are scarce and with little enlightening guidance there must be a greater focus on the role by the nursing team in relation to women care.

Alves PC; Barbosa IC; Caetano JÁ; Fernandes AF

2011-07-01

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The ongoing impacts of hepatitis c - a systematic narrative review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have developed, or are developing, national strategies aimed at reducing the harms associated with hepatitis C infection. Making these strategies relevant to the vast majority of those affected by hepatitis C requires a more complete understanding of the short and longer term impacts of infection. We used a systematic approach to scope the literature to determine what is currently known about the health and psychosocial impacts of hepatitis C along the trajectory from exposure to ongoing chronic infection, and to identify what knowledge gaps remain. Methods PubMed, Current Contents and PsychINFO databases were searched for primary studies published in the ten years from 2000–2009 inclusive. Two searches were conducted for studies on hepatitis C in adult persons focusing on: outcomes over time (primarily cohort and other prospective designs); and the personal and psychosocial impacts of chronic infection. All retrieved studies were assessed for eligibility according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, data completeness and methodological coherence. Outcomes reported in 264 included studies were summarized, tabulated and synthesized. Results Injecting drug use (IDU) was a major risk for transmission with seroconversion occurring relatively early in injecting careers. Persistent hepatitis C viraemia, increasing age and excessive alcohol consumption independently predicted disease progression. While interferon based therapies reduced quality of life during treatment, improvements on baseline quality of life was achieved post treatment – particularly when sustained viral response was achieved. Much of the negative social impact of chronic infection was due to the association of infection with IDU and inflated assessments of transmission risks. Perceived discrimination was commonly reported in health care settings, potentially impeding health care access. Perceptions of stigma and experiences of discrimination also had direct negative impacts on wellbeing and social functioning. Conclusions Hepatitis C and its management continue to have profound and ongoing impacts on health and social well being. Biomedical studies provided prospective information on clinical aspects of infection, while the broader social and psychological studies presented comprehensive information on seminal experiences (such as diagnosis and disclosure). Increasing the focus on combined methodological approaches could enhance understanding about the health and social impacts of hepatitis C along the life course.

Miller Emma R; McNally Stephen; Wallace Jack; Schlichthorst Marisa

2012-01-01

13

The ongoing impacts of hepatitis c--a systematic narrative review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many countries have developed, or are developing, national strategies aimed at reducing the harms associated with hepatitis C infection. Making these strategies relevant to the vast majority of those affected by hepatitis C requires a more complete understanding of the short and longer term impacts of infection. We used a systematic approach to scope the literature to determine what is currently known about the health and psychosocial impacts of hepatitis C along the trajectory from exposure to ongoing chronic infection, and to identify what knowledge gaps remain. METHODS: PubMed, Current Contents and PsychINFO databases were searched for primary studies published in the ten years from 2000-2009 inclusive. Two searches were conducted for studies on hepatitis C in adult persons focusing on: outcomes over time (primarily cohort and other prospective designs); and the personal and psychosocial impacts of chronic infection. All retrieved studies were assessed for eligibility according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, data completeness and methodological coherence. Outcomes reported in 264 included studies were summarized, tabulated and synthesized. RESULTS: Injecting drug use (IDU) was a major risk for transmission with seroconversion occurring relatively early in injecting careers. Persistent hepatitis C viraemia, increasing age and excessive alcohol consumption independently predicted disease progression. While interferon based therapies reduced quality of life during treatment, improvements on baseline quality of life was achieved post treatment--particularly when sustained viral response was achieved. Much of the negative social impact of chronic infection was due to the association of infection with IDU and inflated assessments of transmission risks. Perceived discrimination was commonly reported in health care settings, potentially impeding health care access. Perceptions of stigma and experiences of discrimination also had direct negative impacts on wellbeing and social functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis C and its management continue to have profound and ongoing impacts on health and social well being. Biomedical studies provided prospective information on clinical aspects of infection, while the broader social and psychological studies presented comprehensive information on seminal experiences (such as diagnosis and disclosure). Increasing the focus on combined methodological approaches could enhance understanding about the health and social impacts of hepatitis C along the life course.

Miller ER; McNally S; Wallace J; Schlichthorst M

2012-01-01

14

Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: a narrative review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is classically considered to be a motor system affliction; however, also non-motor alterations, including sleep disorders, are important features of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide data on sleep disturbances in PD in the following grouping: difficulty initiating sleep, frequent night-time awakening and sleep fragmentation, nocturia, restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements, sleep breathing disorders, drug induced symptoms, parasomnias associated with rapid eye movements (REM) sleep, sleep attacks, reduced sleep efficiency and excessive daytime sleepiness. Research has characterized some of these disturbances as typical examples of dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep that are admixtures or incomplete declarations of wakefulness, REM sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Moreover, sleep disorders may precede the typical motor system impairment of PD and their ability to predict disease has important implications for development of neuroprotective treatment; in particular, REM sleep behavior disorder may herald any other clinical manifestation of PD by more than 10 years.

Raggi A; Bella R; Pennisi G; Neri W; Ferri R

2013-01-01

15

Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: a narrative review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is classically considered to be a motor system affliction; however, also non-motor alterations, including sleep disorders, are important features of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide data on sleep disturbances in PD in the following grouping: difficulty initiating sleep, frequent night-time awakening and sleep fragmentation, nocturia, restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements, sleep breathing disorders, drug induced symptoms, parasomnias associated with rapid eye movements (REM) sleep, sleep attacks, reduced sleep efficiency and excessive daytime sleepiness. Research has characterized some of these disturbances as typical examples of dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep that are admixtures or incomplete declarations of wakefulness, REM sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Moreover, sleep disorders may precede the typical motor system impairment of PD and their ability to predict disease has important implications for development of neuroprotective treatment; in particular, REM sleep behavior disorder may herald any other clinical manifestation of PD by more than 10 years. PMID:23612648

Raggi, Alberto; Bella, Rita; Pennisi, Giovanni; Neri, Walter; Ferri, Raffaele

2013-01-01

16

Tensions and paradoxes in electronic patient record research: a systematic literature review using the meta-narrative method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The extensive and rapidly expanding research literature on electronic patient records (EPRs) presents challenges to systematic reviewers. This literature is heterogeneous and at times conflicting, not least because it covers multiple research traditions with different underlying philosop...

Greenhalgh, T.; Potts, H.W.W.; Wong, G.; Bark, P.; Swinglehurst, D.

17

RAMESES publication standards: meta-narrative reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways in which researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 90%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to draw together evidence and expertise in meta-narrative reviews. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Meta-narrative review is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further theoretical and methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan). Please see related articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/21 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22

Wong Geoff; Greenhalgh Trish; Westhorp Gill; Buckingham Jeanette; Pawson Ray

2013-01-01

18

The patient's use of metaphor within a palliative care setting: theory, function and efficacy. A narrative literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The modes of communication which patients use are seen as important within the sphere of palliative care and have been the focus of much research. AIM: This literature review aims to identify and analyse one particular mode of patient expression, namely that of the figure of speech (trope) 'metaphor', and ask questions regarding metaphor's therapeutic usefulness when engaging with the life-limited patient. DATA SOURCES: The investigation revolves around a literature review of academic papers which focus on the metaphorical ways in which patients speak of their condition. RESULTS: This paper provides the theoretical foundations for the patient's metaphoric utterances. It also delineates the variety and diversity of metaphors used by patients and categorises them into broad groupings which encompass metaphors of war, journeying, personhood, the natural world and existential concepts. CONCLUSIONS: The papers reviewed suggest that metaphoric communication allows sensitive subjects to be dealt with and provides benefits for patients. The results suggest that engaging with patients at the metaphoric level enables them to create new ways of viewing their situation and opens up the possibilities of new coping strategies. Finally, some developmental trajectories emanating from the reviewed papers are suggested, which will allow the efficacy of metaphor to be explored further within a palliative care setting.

Southall D

2013-04-01

19

Is patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis an under-recognised outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A narrative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease capable of being a potent source of knee symptoms. Although anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction (ACLR) are well-established risk factors for the development of tibiofemoral joint OA, PFJ OA after ACL reconstruction has gone largely unrecognised. This is despite the high prevalence of anterior knee pain after ACLR, which can reduce the capacity for physical activity and quality of life. The susceptibility of the PFJ to degenerative change after ACLR may have implications for current rehabilitation strategies. This review summarises the evidence describing the prevalence of PFJ OA after ACLR and examines why this compartment may be at increased risk of early onset OA after ACLR. Strategies that address the modifiable factors for risk of PFJ OA may aid in alleviating joint loads and symptoms for people after ACLR. PMID:23038783

Culvenor, Adam G; Cook, Jill L; Collins, Natalie J; Crossley, Kay M

2012-10-04

20

Is patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis an under-recognised outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A narrative literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease capable of being a potent source of knee symptoms. Although anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction (ACLR) are well-established risk factors for the development of tibiofemoral joint OA, PFJ OA after ACL reconstruction has gone largely unrecognised. This is despite the high prevalence of anterior knee pain after ACLR, which can reduce the capacity for physical activity and quality of life. The susceptibility of the PFJ to degenerative change after ACLR may have implications for current rehabilitation strategies. This review summarises the evidence describing the prevalence of PFJ OA after ACLR and examines why this compartment may be at increased risk of early onset OA after ACLR. Strategies that address the modifiable factors for risk of PFJ OA may aid in alleviating joint loads and symptoms for people after ACLR.

Culvenor AG; Cook JL; Collins NJ; Crossley KM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Acute and chronic pain: a narrative review of the literature/ Dor aguda e crônica: revisão narrativa da literatura/ Dolor agudo y crónico: revisión narrativa de la literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as repercussões orgânicas, emocionais e psíquicas prevalentes em pacientes com dor aguda e dor crônica e pontuar os principais instrumentos de avaliação para essas dores. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionados a medição da dor, cuidados de enfermagem, sinais e sintomas, totalizando 184 artigos. As bases eletrônicas pesquisadas foram LILACS e MEDLINE, entre janeiro de 2000 (more) a dezembro de 2010. Esta revisão pontuou uma série de estudos conclusivos sobre as repercussões orgânicas mais freqüentes nos quadros álgicos agudos e crônicos e o uso de escalas de avaliação distintas para ambas as situações. Acredita-se que esses achados possam ser de grande valia para as equipes de saúde, contribua com melhores práticas e satisfação do cliente nos cenários intra hospitalar e domiciliário. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las repercusiones orgánicas, emocionales y psíquicas prevalentes en pacientes con dolor agudo y dolor crónico y puntuar los principales instrumentos de evaluación para esos dolores. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, utilizándose descriptores relacionados a la medición del dolor, cuidados de enfermería, signos y síntomas, en un total de 184 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILAC (more) S y MEDLINE, entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2010. Esta revisión puntuó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las repercusiones orgánicas más frecuentes en los cuadros álgicos agudos y crónicos y el uso de escalas de evaluación distintas para ambas situaciones. Se cree que esos hallazgos podrán ser de gran valía para los equipos de salud y que contribuya con mejores prácticas y satisfacción del cliente en los escenarios intra hospitalario y domiciliario. Abstract in english The study objectives were to identify the organic, emotional and psychic prevalent consequences in patients with acute and chronic pain and punctuate the main assessment tools for these pains. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using descriptors related to pain measurement, signs and symptoms, totalizing 184 articles. The electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS were searched from January 2000 to December 2010. The review pointed out a series of conclusive (more) studies about the organic repercussions more frequent in acute and chronic pain conditions and the use of different rating scales for both situations. It is believed that these findings could be of great values for health teams, could contribute with a better practice and with customer satisfaction in the hospital scenario and at home.

Sallum, Ana Maria Calil; Garcia, Dayse Maioli; Sanches, Mariana

2012-01-01

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Acute and chronic pain: a narrative review of the literature Dolor agudo y crónico: revisión narrativa de la literatura Dor aguda e crônica: revisão narrativa da literatura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study objectives were to identify the organic, emotional and psychic prevalent consequences in patients with acute and chronic pain and punctuate the main assessment tools for these pains. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using descriptors related to pain measurement, signs and symptoms, totalizing 184 articles. The electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS were searched from January 2000 to December 2010. The review pointed out a series of conclusive studies about the organic repercussions more frequent in acute and chronic pain conditions and the use of different rating scales for both situations. It is believed that these findings could be of great values for health teams, could contribute with a better practice and with customer satisfaction in the hospital scenario and at home.Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las repercusiones orgánicas, emocionales y psíquicas prevalentes en pacientes con dolor agudo y dolor crónico y puntuar los principales instrumentos de evaluación para esos dolores. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, utilizándose descriptores relacionados a la medición del dolor, cuidados de enfermería, signos y síntomas, en un total de 184 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILACS y MEDLINE, entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2010. Esta revisión puntuó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las repercusiones orgánicas más frecuentes en los cuadros álgicos agudos y crónicos y el uso de escalas de evaluación distintas para ambas situaciones. Se cree que esos hallazgos podrán ser de gran valía para los equipos de salud y que contribuya con mejores prácticas y satisfacción del cliente en los escenarios intra hospitalario y domiciliario.Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as repercussões orgânicas, emocionais e psíquicas prevalentes em pacientes com dor aguda e dor crônica e pontuar os principais instrumentos de avaliação para essas dores. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionados a medição da dor, cuidados de enfermagem, sinais e sintomas, totalizando 184 artigos. As bases eletrônicas pesquisadas foram LILACS e MEDLINE, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2010. Esta revisão pontuou uma série de estudos conclusivos sobre as repercussões orgânicas mais freqüentes nos quadros álgicos agudos e crônicos e o uso de escalas de avaliação distintas para ambas as situações. Acredita-se que esses achados possam ser de grande valia para as equipes de saúde, contribua com melhores práticas e satisfação do cliente nos cenários intra hospitalar e domiciliário.

Ana Maria Calil Sallum; Dayse Maioli Garcia; Mariana Sanches

2012-01-01

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The effect of high-heeled shoes on lumbar lordosis: a narrative review and discussion of the disconnect between Internet content and peer-reviewed literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Some women complain of low back pain that they believe is due to wearing high-heeled shoes, and some clinicians seem to think the reason is that high-heeled shoes cause increased lumbar lordosis. This article examines Internet information aimed at the general public and presents a literature review of available research in this area. METHODS: The keywords high heels and high-heeled shoes, combined with the words lumbar, lordosis, and pelvic tilt, were used in an Internet search of Ask.com; in published literature searches of PubMed, MANTIS, CINAHL, Scopus, and ProceedingsFirst; and in searches for theses and dissertations of PapersFirst through June 2010. RESULTS: There are many Internet sites that support the belief that high-heeled shoes cause increased lordosis. However, published research for this topic mostly does not support this belief; but some mixed results, small subject groups, and questionable methods have left the issue unclear. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that some health care providers are offering advice about the effect of high-heeled shoes on lumbar lordosis that conflicts with most published research. However, the prevalence of such advice is unknown; and the published research is equivocal. Considering that both low back pain and the wearing of high heeled-shoes are common, clinicians could use some clearer guidance; this is an area that deserves further investigation.

Russell BS

2010-12-01

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Literature Review Organizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors provide an explanation of a literature review and a form and frame of reference for organizing references for a literature review. There are several aspects of a literature review that can be streamlined with proper organization of the reference information. A review of why a literature review is needed is provide. Problems a writer of a literature review may encounter is also discussed. The form is divided into sections with questions and helpful hints on what should be included in each section.

Charles Edward Notar; Virginia Cole

2010-01-01

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The critical use of narrative and literature in gerontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that ‘‘age’’ and ‘‘ageing’’ are cultural concepts that are open to question. The thinking encouraged by critical gerontology has been crucially important in provoking questions about the complexities of later life, age and ageing. Similarly, the interrogation of stories of age and ageing via narrative approaches and as found in literature are increasingly recognised as an important source of knowledge for mining the intricacies of later life. There are close links between the interests of critical gerontologists and those who engage in narrative and literary gerontology. However, the potential that critical gerontology has for illuminating and probing these stories of age has often been neglected. The central argument of this article is that narrative and literary approaches to age and ageing when allied to perspectives from critical gerontology can furnish scholars with important perspectives for interpreting and re-configuring ‘‘age’’. The focus is upon how a genuinely dialogic relationship between critical gerontology and narrative and literary gerontology can be forged. In this way, the full potential of these stories of ageing; their epistemological status for enriching theoretical work on ageing, might be better exploited.

Hannah Zeilig

2012-01-01

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Elementary Science Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

2007-01-01

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Review Essay: Narrative Anfechtungen Review Essay: Narrative Contestations Ensayo: Controversias narrativas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Untersuchung von Gegen-Narrativen ist ein vielversprechender, aber zugleich weitgehend vernachlässigter Ansatz in der Erzählforschung. Ich gehe in diesem Beitrag davon aus, dass das Konzept der Gegen-Narrative in der Lage ist, theoretisch und methodologisch kulturelle, politische und individuelle Inhalte von Narrationen mit deren Form in neuer Weise in Beziehung zu setzen. Hierzu diskutiere ich die einzelnen Artikel in "Considering Counter-Narratives: Narrating, Resisting, Making Sense" im Lichte der Frage, welchen Beitrag sie zur Identifizierung und zur theoretischen Situierung von Haupt- und Gegen-Narrativen leisten. Zugleich führe ich in das Buch ein, das ich als spannendes Forum vieler aktueller Debatten im Bereich qualitativer Forschung verstehe. Die im Buch präsentierte Debatte zwischen Beitragenden und deren Kommentator(inn)en zeigt alternative Strategien der Annäherung an und des Verständnisses von narrativem Material. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703346The study of counter-narratives is a promising, yet largely neglected approach to narrative studies. This review draws on the idea that counter-narrativity might theoretically and methodologically connect the cultural, political and personal contents of narratives with the forms of narration in new ways. The anthology is discussed from the perspective of how each article contributes to identifying and theorizing both master and counter-narratives. At the same time, the book is introduced as an interesting forum for many current debates in qualitative research. The ongoing debate between contributors and discussants displays alternative strategies in reading narrative materials. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703346Pese a haber sido un enfoque ampliamente descuidado en los estudios narrativos, el estudio de las contra-narrativas es prometedor. Esta reseña recurre a la idea de que la contra-narrativa puede conectar teórica y metodológicamente los contenidos culturales, políticos y personales de las narrativas con formas novedosas de narrar de modos diversos. Se discute la antología desde la perspectiva de como cada artículo contribuye a identificar y teorizar la contra-narrativa y la narrativa dominante. Al mismo tiempo, el libro se presenta como un foro de debate para muchas de las actuales controversias sobre la investigación cualitativa. El debate entre los participantes ofrece estrategias alternativas para la lectura de materiales narrativos. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703346

Matti Hyvärinen

2007-01-01

28

A Wikipedia Literature Review  

CERN Multimedia

This paper was originally designed as a literature review for a doctoral dissertation focusing on Wikipedia. This exposition gives the structure of Wikipedia and the latest trends in Wikipedia research.

Martin, Owen S

2011-01-01

29

Team Modelling: Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasingly, Canadian Forces operations require the use of highly complex teams that function in joint, interagency, and often distributed environments. This report is a literature review of scientific and military research pertaining to team performance...

B. D. Adams J. A. Sartori S. Waldherr

2006-01-01

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Music therapy in dementia: a narrative synthesis systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review uses a narrative synthesis format to determine evidence for effectiveness and provide insight into a model of action. Method The narrative synthesis framework consists of four elements: (i) theory development; (ii) preliminary synthesis of findings; (iii) exploration of relationships between studies; and (iv) assessment of the robustness of the synthesis. Results Electronic and hand searches identified 263 potentially relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria. Three distinctive strands of investigations emerged: eight studies explored behavioural and psychological aspects, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings may improve the well-being of people with dementia.

McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia

2013-01-01

31

Music therapy in dementia: a narrative synthesis systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review uses a narrative synthesis format to determine evidence for effectiveness and provide insight into a model of action. METHOD: The narrative synthesis framework consists of four elements: (i) theory development; (ii) preliminary synthesis of findings; (iii) exploration of relationships between studies; and (iv) assessment of the robustness of the synthesis. RESULTS: Electronic and hand searches identified 263 potentially relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria. Three distinctive strands of investigations emerged: eight studies explored behavioural and psychological aspects, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for short-term improvement in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings may improve the well-being of people with dementia.

McDermott O; Crellin N; Ridder HM; Orrell M

2013-08-01

32

Homework. Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Although homework is assigned for a variety of academic and non-academic purposes, there is disagreement within the educational community about the value of homework and the amount of homework students should be assigned. This Literature Review summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of homework and examines how much time students should and…

Blazer, Christie

2009-01-01

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Pharmacological treatment of hemorrhoids: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction: Hemorrhoid disease is the cause of most proctologic complaints and hundreds of medical and surgical therapies have been proposed to relieve symptoms. However, the role and the correct indication of medical treatments are still controversial. Further, the utility of conservative measures are rarely scientifically supported by adequate trials. Areas covered: This narrative review is based on the search and analysis of full papers in English language selected from PubMed in the past 30 years using the following MeSH Editing: hemorrhoids, conservative treatment, medical treatment and hemorrhoids, pregnancy and hemorrhoids, thrombosed hemorrhoids, randomized trials and hemorrhoids, postoperative pain and hemorrhoids. Expert opinion: Early stages (I/II degrees) of this disease could be effectively managed conservatively with several approaches as lifestyle changes, fiber supplement, topical ointments and phlebotonic drugs. The more advanced hemorrhoid stages (III/IV degrees) need some type of surgery, but medical therapy is still useful to minimize anal symptoms as a bridge-to-surgery treatment. Further, post-hemorrhoidectomy pain, hemorrhoidal crisis even in pregnancy could benefit from the adjunct of local and systemic medical treatment. This expert opinion, based also on long-lasting clinical practice, also supports the use of medical treatment in symptoms relief in patients with hemorrhoid disease.

Altomare DF; Giannini I

2013-09-01

34

Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study. PMID:23590323

Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

2013-04-16

35

Technical literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review gives a comprehensive overview on the technical perspective of personal health monitoring. It is designed to build a mutual basis for the project partners of the PHM-Ethics project. A literature search was conducted to screen pertinent literature databases for relevant publications. All review papers that were retrieved were analyzed. The increasing number of publications that are published per year shows that the field of personal health monitoring is of growing interest in the research community. Most publications deal with telemonitoring, thus forming the core technology of personal health monitoring. Measured parameters, fields of application, participants and stakeholders are described. Moreover an outlook on information and communication technology that foster the integration possibilities of personal health monitoring into decision making and remote monitoring of individual people's health is provided. The removal of the technological barriers opens new perspectives in health and health care delivery using home monitoring applications.

Nußbeck G; Gök M

2013-01-01

36

Literature review, Denmark Literature review, Denmark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing

Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

37

Crouzon's syndrome: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The Crouzon syndrome or craniofacial dysostosis type I is a rare disease that affects the craniofacial skeleton development. Although it is uncommon, it has a transmission risk of 50% when one of the parents is a carrier. Objective: Performing a literature review about the Crouzon Syndrome, with emphasis on the current aspects. Method: As a methodology, a search on databases on-line, such as Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, OMIM and SciELO has been made, by applying for the search the key-word Crouzon's Syndrome for articles published until 2007, in addition to the literature already dedicated to the subject. Literature Review: This syndrome is characterized by craniofacial anomalies caused by the early loss of the cranium flexibility, and present since the birth with tendency to aggravation in time. The main clinic signs are craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, exophthalmia, external strabismus, "parrot-beaked nose", short upper lip, hypoplastic maxilla and a relative mandibular prognathism determining a mid-facial hypoplasia aspect. It is a hereditary affection with an autosomal dominant transmission with 100% of penetrance and large phenotypic scale. Final Considerations: The genetic advising and an individual study of each case are essential to promote the improvement of the diagnosis. An early multidisciplinary approach is necessary, with specific therapeutic program aiming at the prevention of late diagnosis effects.

Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes da; Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier; Carneiro, Stéphanie Gonçalves; Palheta, Angélica Cristina Pezzin; Monteiro, Marcela; Cunha, Sarah Crestian; Nunes, Cláudio Tobias Acatauassú

2008-01-01

38

Lysimeter literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs

1993-01-01

39

Compadrazgo: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compadrazgo, "coparenthood," is a traditional ritual fictive kinship system that provides a network of mutually supportive relationships in the Mexican American culture. A literature search of CINAHL, Medline, PsychoInfo, and Web of Science was used to identify peer-reviewed journals and original sources. Keywords included comadre, compadrazgo, fictive kin, social support, Mexican, and Mexican American. Additional resources were identified through a focused review of references. Findings from this study indicate knowledge about compadrazgo, is limited to the social organization, historical practices, and a preliminary description of the compadres role. Minimal information is available about the relationship between compadrazgo, and health, and variations in roles and responsibilities of compadrazgo, participants. Frequency of enactment of compadrazgo, responsibilities and barriers to the enactment of social support by compadres remain unknown. Variations in practice have not been explored. Nursing implication include the recommended ways that compadrazgo, can be encouraged or promoted in patient care.

Gill-Hopple K; Brage-Hudson D

2012-04-01

40

Periimplantitis treatment: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to review in theliterature the aim modalities of periimplantitis treatment. They were study the use of buccal antiseptics, antimicrobial treatment, open debridment,close debridment, osseous grafts, the use of membranes, combination with osseous grafts and membrane technique and laserteraphy.Literature review: The most of studies showed cases about these treatment types but only one related a specific protocol of peri-implantar disease. All of other demonstrated treatment associations had success on the most absolute cases, independent of treatment. Conclusion: The techniques association of treatment is valid and necessary, but to have a more specific conclusion should be done more studies in humans.

Leonardo FRANCIO; Andrea Maria de SOUSA; Carmen Lucia Mueller STORRER; Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR; Andressa Carla de SOUSA; Eduardo PIZZATTO; Tertuliano Ricardo LOPES

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Lysimeter literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (US)

1993-08-01

42

[Systematic review of diagnostic tests accuracy: a narrative review].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals. PMID:20549106

de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto

2010-04-01

43

Climate 2050 - Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature review aims at providing a relatively brief overview of the studies undertaken regarding large-scale emission reductions in the long term. The purpose of the review is to provide an indication the consequences of ambitious emission reduction targets as suggested by other studies and to help identify relevant assumptions, parameters etc. needed for scenarios analyses of this study. The approach to the literature review has been to focus attention on a number of issues with regard to: 1) The baseline emission scenario, i.e. the likely course of events in the absence of ambitious emission reduction targets and the corresponding policies and measures necessary to achieve the targets. 2) The reduction scenario in which policy action is undertaken to reduce emissions. For both the baseline and the reduction scenarios, a number of drivers determine the level of future emissions and the cost of reducing emissions. Different studies apply widely differing approaches to modelling the baseline, the reduction scenarios and the resulting abatement costs. Differences exist between models both with regard to the drivers that are included in the models and the modelling approach. Three types of studies were reviewed: 1) Key studies: These are comprehensive studies that provide significant information about emissions and abatement costs in several sectors and therefore both have the potential to provide input for the scenario analysis in this project. 2) Overview studies: A number of studies reviewing and comparing different studies have been made. These are sometimes carried out using a structured approach and labelled meta-studies. For the purpose of gaining quick access to a large number of scenario results, a selection of these overview studies have been included in the review. 3) Nordic studies: A few studies have been carried out in the Nordic countries with a focus on long-term climate mitigation, providing a useful opportunity to consider assumptions specific to the Nordic countries and in some cases more detailed country-specific information. Therefore two such studies have been reviewed. (ln)

2008-07-01

44

Revisão sistemática: uma revisão narrativa Systematic review: a narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão narrativa sobre revisão sistemática. FONTE DOS DADOS: foi realizada busca no Cochrane Methodology Register, na Medline, na LILACS, no Google Scholar e na Cochrane Library, no período de 2000 a janeiro de 2007. Foram utilizados a busca manual das listas de referências e os contatos pessoais. SELEÇÃO DOS ESTUDOS: a estratégia de busca empregou, na Medline, as seguintes combinações dos termos MeSH: "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine"[MeSH] Limits: Publication Date from 2000 to 2007, Humans, Systematic Reviews. Na LILACS: (metanalise) or "metanalise" [Descritor de assunto] and [ medicina baseada em evidências] or "medicina baseada em evidências" [Descritor de assunto]. No Cochrane Methodology Register e no Google Scholar: "revisão sistemática e metanálise" e "medicina baseada em evidências". Após uma revisão independente por dois revisores, dez artigos que se referiam ao objetivo proposto foram selecionados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: os temas mencionados nos estudos foram agrupados em duas categorias: aqueles que se reportavam à história da revisão sistemática e aqueles que definiam Medicina Baseada em Evidência, revisão sistemática e metanálise. CONCLUSÃO: os autores concluem com a necessidade de mais discussões sobre revisão sistemática entre os cirurgiões.PURPOSE: Conduct a narrative review about systematic review. DATA SOURCE: We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register, MEDLINE, LILACS, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library (2000 to January 2007). We also handsearched reference lists, and used personal communications. SELECTION OF STUDIES: This was supplemented with a search strategy in Medline using the following combinations of MeSH-terms "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [MeSH] Limits:Publication Date from 2000 to 2007, Humans. Systematic Reviews. In LILACS: (metanalise) or "METANALISE" [Descritor de assunto] and [medicina baseada em evidências] or "MEDICINA BASEADA EM EVIDÊNCIAS" [Descritor de assunto]. In The Cochrane Methodology Review Group and Google Scholar: "revisão sistemática e metanálise"; "medicina baseada em evidências". After independent review by two observers, ten articles that specifically addressed the stated purpose were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: The subjects assessed in these studies were grouped into two categories, ie, those addressing the history of systematic review, and the definitions of Evidence-Based Medicine, Systematic Review, Narrative Review and Meta-Analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The authors find that further discussion on systematic review should be encouraged among surgeons.

Alexander Magno Cordeiro; Glória Maria de Oliveira; Juan Miguel Rentería; Carlos Alberto Guimarães

2007-01-01

45

Temps et narration dans la littérature israélienne Time and Narration in Israeli Literature ???? ??????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article est une interprétation de la crise contemporaine du roman classique comme une difficulté à faire face à l'accélération constante de l'expérience subjective du temps. J’analyse la réaction de deux groupes d'écrivains israéliens à cette crise esthétique : un premier groupe (AB Yehoshua, Yitzhaq Laor et d'autres) ralentit le rythme narratif afin de saisir des détails du monde qui l'entoure, ces détails qui autrement échappent à la capacité de description des auteurs. Un deuxième groupe de jeunes auteurs (Orly Castel Bloom, Etgar Keret) qui a abandonné l'ambition de maîtriser le monde typique du roman classique, et se contente d'une littérature de fragments, apparemment glissant à la surface des choses, sans trame précise et avec une description des personnages qui semble superficielle.This article is an interpretation of the contemporary crisis of the classical novel as a difficulty to face the steady acceleration of the subjective experience of time. I analyze the reactions of two groups of Israeli writers to this aesthetic crisis: a first group (A. B. Yehoshua, Yitzhaq Laor and others) slow down the narrative rhythm in order to grasp details of the surrounding world, otherwise escaping to the writer's capacity of description. A second group of younger authors (Orly Castel Bloom, Etgar Keret) give up the ambition of mastering the world typical of the classical novel, and content themselves with a literature of fragments, apparently gliding at the surface of things, without a precise and organic plot and apparently superficial description of characters.???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????. ????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??: ?????? ???????, ?????? ?? ?. ?. ?????, ???? ???? ???', ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????, ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???, ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????.

Alessandro Guetta

2011-01-01

46

Conducting Systematic Review in Education: A Reflexive Narrative  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of systematic review as part of the evidence-based or evidence-informed practice movement is a dominant theme in current debates in educational research. This article contributes to the debate by offering a personal, reflexive narrative on the process of doing systematic review, relating some of the arguments regarding the merits…

Nind, Melanie

2006-01-01

47

Story immersion of videogames for youth health promotion: A review of literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews research in the fields of psychology, literature, communication, human–computer interaction, public health, and consumer behavior on narrative and its potential relationships with videogames and story immersion. It also reviews a narrative's role in complementing behavioral chan...

48

Real Options Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After 30 years of discussion and research, the academic community has established a complete theoretical system of real options and provided an excellent framework for the use of real options theory in the investment appraisal of high-tech projects. An option is an entitlement without any obligation and it has been used to describe a variety of management decisions in business investment. The description of management is effective and proper. Due to the introduction of real options theory, there has been a major breakthrough in the investment area. Project evaluation is the core content of bank credit risk assessment and business evaluation. The core content never changes from the investment evaluation framework to the credit risk evaluation framework. The project evaluation meets various needs of subject s in different ways. In this paper, the importance of real options is analyzed and the literature is reviewed

Shihong Zeng; Shuai Zhang

2011-01-01

49

CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical model develop from one waste-filter combination will more than likely not be applicable to another combination. It appears that filtration performance varies as wide as the range of the types of slurry wastes that exist. However, conclusions can be elicited from existing information so that filter performance can be better understood, and hopefully improved. Those conclusions and recommendations for the planned tests are listed.

Duignan, M.

2011-01-01

50

Crossflow Filtraton: Literature Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical model develop from one waste-filter combination will more than likely not be applicable to another combination. It appears that filtration performance varies as wide as the range of the types of slurry wastes that exist. However, conclusions can be elicited from existing information so that filter performance can be better understood, and hopefully improved. Those conclusions and recommendations for the planned tests are listed.

2011-01-01

51

Balloon sinuplasty: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal surgery showed a rapid development over the past two decades; but cicatricial stenoses secondary to surgical manipulation still occur, even in the hands of experienced surgeons and, especially, in narrow regions such as the frontal recess. The balloon sinuplasty uses the principle of dilatation of the sinus ostia by balloons guided by catheter. Objective: To present and discuss the surgical technique, indications, costs and results of the balloon sinuplasty, through articles published so far on the subject. Literature's Review: The balloon sinuplasty is an alternative in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. It is not substitute for the functional paranasal sinuses surgery. The use of balloon combined with endoscopic surgical approach may minimize surgical complications such as cicatricial stenosis, especially in regions such as the frontal recess. ICU Patients with a higher anesthetic risk and presenting isolated sphenoid disease may also benefit from the use of the balloon. The possibility of carrying out the dilation with local anesthesia is another advantage. As for the risks, they appear to be low, although there is a possibility of lesion to noble structures as the orbit and skull base. Conclusions: The balloon sinuplasty appears to be a feasible, safe and effective procedure in selected patients. It presents itself as an ancillary therapy and complementary to FESS. It has greater prospects in the treatment of the disease related to the frontal recess, febrile patients in ICU with sinus focus and patients at high anesthetic and bleeding risk.

Carreirão Neto, Waldir; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis

2008-01-01

52

[Severe amblyopia - literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterise the visual acuity prognosis in the therapy for severe amblyopia. METHODS: Literature review on the basis of studies in PubMed was undertaken. RESULTS: The studies investigating severe amblyopia due to anisometropia and/or strabismus are unanimous in their finding that the early onset of therapy leads to better results for visual acuity. In children under the age of seven years a visual acuity of at least 0.4 (logMAR 0.4); that is, the ability to read, is achieved. At the beginning of therapy, even a partial occlusion with a limited number of hours already shows an improvement in visual acuity. Poor visual acuity at the end of therapy worsens the long-term prognosis. Anisometropia has a poorer visual acuity prognosis than anisohyperopia. Recent studies investigating the possibility of still better visual acuity, and therefore less recurrence of amblyopia and better long-term prognosis, following long-term occlusion therapy are lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and early and long-term therapy are necessary in order to reduce the prevalence of severe amblyopia.

Gusek-Schneider GC

2011-10-01

53

Literature review, Denmark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing , prepared under the project "Overcoming barriers to organic farm...

Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

54

The insomnia patient perspective, a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder associated with substantial direct and indirect costs, yet there is a strong propensity among patients to self-medicate which often delays professional help. Understanding the process which underpins the initiation, engagement and adherence to insomnia treatment(s) is a vital step for understanding this phenomenon. The current paper explores how the patient perspective has been conceptualized in the research literature and its implications for insomnia treatment and health care delivery. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and PsycINFO databases. Articles have been thematically organized into patient correlates of health behaviors, patient experiences and treatment attitudes. Deferral of professional help among insomnia patients is partially related to barriers embedded in the health care system and patient health beliefs. PMID:23402684

Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Saini, Bandana

2013-02-12

55

School effectiveness: Literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the reader embarks on the first part of the review of school effectiveness research. The aim of the review is to offer a clearer picture on whether, which, and how much teacher and school variables impact student achievement, as there is currently no wider and accepted consensus on th...

Teodorovi? Jelena

56

[Literature review of pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review focuses on the following: the measurement and monitoring of pollutants; treatment systems, including physicochemical processes, as well as biological processes; industrial wastes (management); hazardous wastes (waste management as well as remediation); and the fate and effects of pollutants.

NONE

1999-08-01

57

Identity Theft Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review draws on available scientific studies and a variety of other sources to assess what we know about identity theft and what might be done to further the research base of identity theft. Until the federal Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence ...

G. R. Newman M. M. McNally

2005-01-01

58

Topic: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976). This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic al...

Dandan Zhang

59

Topic: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976). This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic also is concentrated.

Dandan Zhang

2009-01-01

60

Early morning hypertension: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early morning hypertension has attracted more attention because of the close relationship between blood pressure levels in the early morning and cardiovascular risk. However, there are some unsolved issues on early morning hypertension. First, is early morning hypertension more special than other hypertension evaluated by other blood pressure indices? Second, the concept of early morning hypertension and morning blood pressure surge is sometimes discussed in the same context. Finally, is there any benefit in reducing early morning hypertension independent of a reduction in any other blood pressure index? Here, we review the remaining unsolved issues on early morning hypertension.

Hoshide S; Kario K

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome (DDS) is characterized by neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid hemodialysis. This results in brain edema that manifests as neurological symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, tremors, disturbed consciousness, and convulsions. In severe cases, patients can die from advanced cerebral edema. Recent advancements in cell biology implicate the role of urea disequilibrium (with a smaller contribution from organic osmolytes) as the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for this syndrome. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical features and prevention of DDS. PMID:18764799

Patel, Nilang; Dalal, Pranav; Panesar, Mandip

2008-08-28

62

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome (DDS) is characterized by neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid hemodialysis. This results in brain edema that manifests as neurological symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, tremors, disturbed consciousness, and convulsions. In severe cases, patients can die from advanced cerebral edema. Recent advancements in cell biology implicate the role of urea disequilibrium (with a smaller contribution from organic osmolytes) as the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for this syndrome. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical features and prevention of DDS.

Patel N; Dalal P; Panesar M

2008-09-01

63

School effectiveness: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the reader embarks on the first part of the review of school effectiveness research. The aim of the review is to offer a clearer picture on whether, which, and how much teacher and school variables impact student achievement, as there is currently no wider and accepted consensus on this matter, in spite of the wealth of various school effectiveness studies. An introduction is followed by a section on fragmented research paradigms. Four subsequent sections describe and critique findings from these paradigms, namely from student background, input-output, effective-schools, and instructional effectiveness studies. The paper concludes with the section on synthesis of findings, which implicate student background variables as the most important for student achievement, followed by instruction and teacher-related variables (in very poor developing countries, input-output factors are also relevant for student success). Subsequent paper will showcase more recent school effectiveness studies that use appropriate methodology and conceptual framework for identification of the most important school effectiveness factors.

Teodorovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

64

Emergency cerclage: literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: This article reviews the use and effectiveness of emergency cerclage for women who present with a dilated cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy and seeks to identify predictors of favorable emergency cerclage outcomes. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for the period January 1995 to April 2012 and used the terms "emergency cerclage," "emergency stitch," "rescue cerclage," and "rescue stitch." Thirty-four studies in which transvaginal emergency cervical cerclage was performed in women with a dilated cervix were identified and included. Predictors of poor outcome were prolapsed membranes, evidence of intra-amniotic or systemic infection, symptomatic presentation, cervical dilatation greater than 3 cm, or cerclage after 22 weeks. According to observational and limited randomized controlled trials, the cerclage group did significantly better than the bed-rest group in mean randomization-to-delivery interval, preterm delivery before 34 weeks, and compound neonatal morbidity. The current data suggest that emergency cerclage is associated with a longer latency period and, most often, with better pregnancy outcomes when compared with bed rest. Many of the predictors of adverse outcomes appear to be associated with evidence of inflammation or infection. TARGET AUDIENCE: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review the use and evaluate the effectiveness of emergency cerclage for women who present with a dilated cervix in the second trimester, to identify predictors of favorable emergency cerclage outcomes, and to compare emergency cerclage versus bed rest.

Namouz S; Porat S; Okun N; Windrim R; Farine D

2013-05-01

65

Laryngeal sarcoidosis: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease representing a challenge as regards diagnosis and treatment. Method: In this review, all aspects of the disease are involved, including etiology, clinical manifestations in adults and children, diagnosis, and treatment, by searching through Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases, as well as English and Portuguese articles published from 1973 to 2008. Final Comments: Despite the breakthroughs in its diagnosis and treatment, sarcoidosis is a disease that remains without a clear etiology and physiopathology, becoming an exclusion diagnosis due to both the lack of precise exams and its likely multifactor background. Laryngeal impairment, however infrequent, is a suspicion mainly when there is a precedent history of systemic sarcoidosis, and the research for differentiated diagnosis must be wide-ranging so as to prevent severe diseases like malign neoplasia from being unnoticed.

Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de; Neves, Luciano Rodrigues; Brasil, Osíris de Oliveira Camponês do; Pedroso, José Eduardo de Sá; Melo Junior, Jose Elson Santiago de

2011-01-01

66

Trust Management: Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of trust has become popular in public debate andacademic analysis. In high income countries this interest is associatedwith concern for the decline of trust in governments andprofessionals, and in developing countries has been promptedby debates around the motion of social capital. Trust has beenidentified as a major factor influencing such things as capital investment,relationship marketing, cross-cultural communication,learning and various types of cooperation. Trust management isbecoming also very important inside the organization. The studywill review empirical research on organizational trust. The purposeof the study will be also evaluation of the advancements andsetbacks in current empirical research in terms of managementorganizational trust. This paper will analyze the theoretical approach,the conceptualization and the measurement issues coveredin studies on management organizational trust. Althoughtrust has emerged as an important factor in organizational relationships,there are still major conceptual and methodologicalchallenges to be met when studying this complex concept.

Joanna Olga Paliszkiewicz

2011-01-01

67

Helicobacter pylori-associated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori has a well-demonstrated role in several gastroduodenal diseases, including peptic ulcer disease, chronic active gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. In addition, more recently, several studies have focused on the possible causal role of H. pylori in various extragastric disorders, such as cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, skin, and autoimmune conditions. The current status of the research on the pathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of H. pylori-associated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults and children will be addressed in this narrative review.

Franchini M; Vescovi PP; Garofano M; Veneri D

2012-07-01

68

[Intrathoracic goitre: a literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intrathoracic goitre is defined as that goitre which is partially or totally found in the anterior or posterior mediastinum, and its incidence is associated with multinodular goitre. The diagnosis is relatively easy, mainly with imaging tests, and treatment varies, but of choice, surgical treatment is recommended. This article attempts to present a review of the literature on the diagnosis and management of this disease.

de Aguiar-Quevedo K; Cerón-Navarro J; Jordá-Aragón C; Pastor-Martínez E; Sales-Badia JG; García-Zarza A; Pastor-Guillén J

2010-09-01

69

Storylines of research in diffusion of innovation: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing literature reviews of complex evidence for policymaking questions is a challenging methodological area. There are several established and emerging approaches to such reviews, but unanswered questions remain, especially around how to begin to make sense of large data sets drawn from heterogeneous sources. Drawing on Kuhn's notion of scientific paradigms, we developed a new method-meta-narrative review-for sorting and interpreting the 1024 sources identified in our exploratory searches. We took as our initial unit of analysis the unfolding 'storyline' of a research tradition over time. We mapped these storylines by using both electronic and manual tracking to trace the influence of seminal theoretical and empirical work on subsequent research within a tradition. We then drew variously on the different storylines to build up a rich picture of our field of study. We identified 13 key meta-narratives from literatures as disparate as rural sociology, clinical epidemiology, marketing and organisational studies. Researchers in different traditions had conceptualised, explained and investigated diffusion of innovations differently and had used different criteria for judging the quality of empirical work. Moreover, they told very different over-arching stories of the progress of their research. Within each tradition, accounts of research depicted human characters emplotted in a story of (in the early stages) pioneering endeavour and (later) systematic puzzle-solving, variously embellished with scientific dramas, surprises and 'twists in the plot'. By first separating out, and then drawing together, these different meta-narratives, we produced a synthesis that embraced the many complexities and ambiguities of 'diffusion of innovations' in an organisational setting. We were able to make sense of seemingly contradictory data by systematically exposing and exploring tensions between research paradigms as set out in their over-arching storylines. In some traditions, scientific revolutions were identifiable in which breakaway researchers had abandoned the prevailing paradigm and introduced a new set of concepts, theories and empirical methods. We concluded that meta-narrative review adds value to the synthesis of heterogeneous bodies of literature, in which different groups of scientists have conceptualised and investigated the 'same' problem in different ways and produced seemingly contradictory findings. Its contribution to the mixed economy of methods for the systematic review of complex evidence should be explored further.

Greenhalgh T; Robert G; Macfarlane F; Bate P; Kyriakidou O; Peacock R

2005-07-01

70

Fuel cell applications literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel cell applications literature, both civilian and military, is reviewed and evaluated in this report. The purpose of our study is to identify those applications that show promise for fuel cell use and those that require further study. Over 40 computerized data bases were queried, and over 4000 abstracts were screened, resulting in the selection of over 600 pertinent documents that were entered into a fuel cell applications computerized data base. These pertinent documents were reviewed and evaluated. Fuel cells show promise for widespread use in utility, industrial, commercial, and residential applications. Fuel cells will need to be manufactured at a low cost in order to compete against internal combustion engines for land transportation applications. Fuel cells have attractive characteristics for other applications, but their potential was inadequately evaluated in the literature. Further study is recommended to evaluate fuel cell use in both fixed applications (industrial, institutional, and military) and mobile applications (marine, aircraft, space, and military land transportation). The reasons for recommending further study include the following: the economic evaluation was inadequate, the literature was outdated, a limited number of competitive alternative energy systems were evaluated, a limited number of applications were considered, and/or a more detailed technical evaluation was needed. In addition to the recommendations of this report, a computerized data base of literature covering fuel cell uses and applications has been established and is available for use. This data base can be updated on a regular basis to incorporate the most current literature. 157 refs.

Nochumson, D.H.; Altseimer, J.H.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Frank, J.A.; Peaslee, A.T.; Martinez, A.J.; Stroup, C.A.

1985-03-01

71

EOSINOPHLIC OESOPHAGITIS REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews the published literature on the topic eosinophilic oesophagitis. This is actually a recent entity. Diagnosis of this condition depends on the awareness of the treating physician.Diagnosis is actually made after excluding the diagnosis of GERD and demonstration of more than 50 eosinophilis / high power field in the mucosal specimen studied. These patients respond well totopical / systemic steroids. Oesophageal dilatation may be needed to treat patients with severe degree of dysphagia which is fortunately rare.

Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

2012-01-01

72

Immigrant women's experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Canada's diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1) accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access) to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2) the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. METHODS: The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs), and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include 'grey' literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates) to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure that key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their effect on policy and practice change throughout the health service, and the public health, immigration and community sectors. DISCUSSION: Narrative-synthesis methods of systematic review facilitate understanding and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical location. They also enable understanding of the shaping of differences between reported outcomes and study designs related to childbearing populations, and the development and implementation of maternity services and health interventions across diverse settings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: Number 2185.

Higginbottom GM; Morgan M; Dassanayake J; Eyford H; Alexandre M; Chiu Y; Forgeron J; Kocay D

2012-01-01

73

Disentangling manual muscle testing and Applied Kinesiology: critique and reinterpretation of a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cuthbert and Goodheart recently published a narrative review on the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing (MMT) in the Journal. The authors should be recognized for their effort to synthesize this vast body of literature. However, the review contains critical errors in the search methods...

Haas, Mitchell; Cooperstein, Robert; Peterson, David

74

Internet in Review of Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The Significance of research in the Promotion and development of Scientific Capabilities of a country in evident, provided that these research studies are done by analyzing and reviewing the information resources in such a way that avoids duplication of the work already done. Among The information resources, internet is to be the most complete and efficient source of information providing an easy access to a large volume of information in a short period of time. Methods: Data collection was done by a library and internet research. Findings: Playing an important role, internet, through a worldwide network, provides the background information required for review of literature, through subject index, online accent to libraries, articles and valid journals of the world, theses, dissertations of post-graduate studies, exploration based on subject content, address, title and connection with researchers, experts, specialists of different careers and professors in different stages of a research including the range and significance of the problem, review at the literature, prerequisite studies atc. Conclusion: Providing a world wide information network, along with diverse capabilities, internet plays a determining and prolific role in every stage of a research, and removes the limitations of the traditional system of getting access to the information. Thus, considering the effectiveness of this system it is recommended To promote researchers' Knowledge and skills for acknowledging and utilizing the system to help them conduct valuable research studies.

F Maleky; Z Maidany

2004-01-01

75

Review Of Plutonium Oxidation Literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 (micro)m). The particle size ratio is expected to be

2009-01-01

76

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12

77

Refeeding Syndrome: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome (RFS) describes the biochemical changes, clinical manifestations, and complications that can occur as a consequence of feeding a malnourished catabolic individual. RFS has been recognised in the literature for over fifty years and can result in serious harm and death. Crude estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality are available for specific populations. RFS can occur in any individual but more commonly occurs in at-risk populations. Increased awareness amongst healthcare professionals is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality. This review examines the physiology of RFS and describes the clinical manifestations. A management strategy is described. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized.

L. U. R. Khan; J. Ahmed; S. Khan; J. MacFie

2011-01-01

78

Is cardiovascular or resistance exercise better to treat patients with depression? A narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives: There is growing evidence regarding the efficacy of exercise as a treatment strategy for patients with depression. This paper summarises the benefits of both cardiovascular and resistance exercise for patients with depression. Design: A narrative review design was employed. Supporting literature for the individual and combined benefits of both modalities are presented. Studies comparing both modalities are then discussed. Results: The outcomes of the review indicate that there is evidence for the efficacy of both cardiovascular exercise and resistance exercise, either independently or combined, in the treatment of depression across the range of severity levels and age groups. Conclusion: Exercise interventions for the treatment of depression appear worthwhile and well tolerated. Exercise preference, access to resources and social support may shape the choice for the patient. The role of primary and allied health professionals in guiding this choice is discussed. Implications for clinical practice and further research are presented.

Stanton R; Reaburn P; Happell B

2013-07-01

79

The impact of halo-gravity traction on curve rigidity and pulmonary function in the treatment of severe and rigid scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis: a clinical study and narrative review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of rigid and severe scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis is a surgical challenge. Presurgical halo-gravity traction (HGT) achieves an increase in curve flexibility, a reduction in neurologic risks through gradual traction on a chronically tethered cord and an improvement in preoperative pulmonary function. However, little is known with respect to the ideal indications for HGT, its appropriate duration, or its efficacy in the treatment of rigid deformities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the use of HGT in severe deformities, we performed a retrospective review of 45 patients who had severe and rigid scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis. The analysis focused on the impact of HGT on curve flexibility, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), complications and surgical outcomes in a single spine centre. RESULTS: PFTs were used to assess the predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%). The mean age of the sample was 24±14 years. 39 patients had rigid kyphoscoliosis, and 6 had scoliosis. The mean apical rotation was 3.6°±1.4°, according to the Nash and Moe grading system. The curve apices were mainly in the thoracic spine. HGT was used preoperatively in all the patients. The mean preoperative scoliosis was 106.1°±34.5°, and the mean kyphosis was 90.7°±29.7°. The instrumentation used included hybrids and pedicle screw-based constructs. In 18 patients (40%), a posterior concave thoracoplasty was performed. Preoperative PFT data were obtained for all the patients, and 24 patients had ?3 assessments during the HGT. The difference between the first and the final PFTs during the HGT averaged 7.0±8.2% (p<.001). Concerning the evolution of pulmonary function, 30 patients had complete data sets, with the final PFT performed, on average, 24 months after the index surgery. The mean preoperative FVC% in these patients was 47.2±18%, and the FVC% at follow-up was 44.5±17% (a difference that did not reach statistical significance). The preoperative FVC% was highly predictive of the follow-up FVC% and the response during HGT. The mean flexibility of the scoliosis curve during HGT was only 14.8±11.4%, which was not significantly different from the flexibility measures achieved on bending radiographs or Cotrel traction radiographs. In rigid curves, the Cobb angle difference between the first and final radiographs during HGT was only 8°±9° for scoliosis and 7°±12° for kyphosis. Concerning surgical outcomes, 13 patients (28.9%) experienced minor and 15 (33.3%) experienced major complications. No permanent neurologic deficits or deaths occurred. Additional surgery was indicated in 12 patients (26.7%), including 7 rib-hump resections. At the final evaluation, 69% of the patients had improved coronal balance, and at a mean follow-up of 33±23.3 months, 39 patients (86.7%) were either satisfied or very satisfied with the overall outcome. CONCLUSION: The improvement of pulmonary function and the restoration of sagittal and coronal balance are the main goals in the treatment of severe and rigid scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis. A review of the literature showed that HGT is a useful tool for selected patients. Preoperative HGT is indicated in severe curves with moderate to severe pulmonary compromise. HGT should not be expected to significantly improve severe curves without a prior anterior and/or posterior release. The data presented in this study can be used in future studies to compare the surgical and pulmonary outcomes of severe and rigid deformities.

Koller H; Zenner J; Gajic V; Meier O; Ferraris L; Hitzl W

2012-03-01

80

Continuous auditing: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent fraud scandals involving highly known corporations like Enron, WorldCom, and Xerox have eroded public confidence in financial reporting. At the same time, the auditing profession has suffered a big hit. In this scenario, Continuous Auditing (CA) seems to have emerged as a response to recover the credibility of the auditing profession as well as meeting Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) requirements. This study, that adopts an exploratory approach, analyzes the existing literature on this topic. First, we address the concepts, models and implications of CA. After, throughout a search on the journals indexed at the CAPES's Basis, a literature review is conducted. A total of 57 articles were selected. We analyze authorship, affiliation, publications, year and type of research of papers that have addressed CA. Findings evidence that most articles addressing CA are non-empirical and adopt a conceptual approach. Also, there is an increasing tendency of continuous auditing studies. Rutgers University seems to be the World's leading research center on CA. This study aims to contribute to the Accounting Science by evidencing possibilities for research and publication in CA.

Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia; Flávia Cruz de Souza; José Alonso Borba

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Resilon: A Comprehensive Literature Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background and aims. An ideal root canal filling material should completely seal the entire root canal space and block communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues; it should also be nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, non-genotoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids and dimensionally stable. Bonding to dentin is a promising property, which can prevent leakage and improve the sealing ability of root canal filling materials. Resilon was developed and rec-ommended initially because the existing rootcanal filling materials did not bond to root canal dentin. Since its introduction in 2004, numerous reports have been published regarding various aspects of this material. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding Resilon's physical and chemical properties and leakage studies. Materials and methods. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for Resilon from May 2004 to April 2012. Results. There are many published reports regarding Resilon. The searchshowed that Resilon is composed of a parent polymer, polycaprolactone or Tone, which is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, with filler particles consisting of bioactive glass, bismuth oxychloride and barium sulfate. It possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is a promising material for root canal filling. Despite the presence of numerous case reports and case series regarding these applications, there are few designed research studies on clinical applications of this material. Resilon has some drawbacks such as high cost. Conclusion. Resilon seals well and is a biocompatible material. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy compared with other materials.

Lotfi M; Ghasemi N; Rahimi S; Vosoughhosseini S; Saghiri MA; Shahidi A

2013-01-01

82

Resilon: A Comprehensive Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and aims. An ideal root canal filling material should completely seal the entire root canal space and block communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues; it should also be nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, non-genotoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids and dimensionally stable. Bonding to dentin is a promising property, which can prevent leakage and improve the sealing ability of root canal filling materials. Resilon was developed and rec-ommended initially because the existing rootcanal filling materials did not bond to root canal dentin. Since its introduction in 2004, numerous reports have been published regarding various aspects of this material. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding Resilon’s physical and chemical properties and leakage studies. Materials and methods. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for Resilon from May 2004 to April 2012. Results. There are many published reports regarding Resilon. The searchshowed that Resilon is composed of a parent polymer, polycaprolactone or Tone, which is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, with filler particles consisting of bioactive glass, bismuth oxychloride and barium sulfate. It possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is a promising material for root canal filling. Despite the presence of numerous case reports and case series regarding these applications, there are few designed research studies on clinical applications of this material. Resilon has some drawbacks such as high cost. Conclusion. Resilon seals well and is a biocompatible material. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy compared with other materials.

Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Shahidi, Atabak

2013-01-01

83

Vitamin D in human reproduction: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Special attention has been given to the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fertility outcomes in both sexes. AIMS: The purpose of this narrative review was to elucidate the role of vitamin D in male and female reproduction, providing current evidence from both animal and human studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using PubMed and Medline, we searched for publications during the last 30 years regarding the role of vitamin D in human reproduction. RESULTS: Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D is involved in many functions of the reproductive system in both genders. In women, vitamin D status has been associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome, features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis. Although several data converge towards a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in metabolic disturbances in women with PCOS, a significant knowledge gap precludes the establishment of a clear cause-effect relationship. In men, vitamin D status has been associated with semen quality and sperm count, motility and morphology. There is evidence for a favourable effect of vitamin D supplementation on semen quality, testosterone concentrations and fertility outcomes. DISCUSSION: Studies with superior methodological characteristics are needed in order to establish a role for vitamin D on the treatment of female and male infertility. CONCLUSIONS: Recent data on vitamin D provide new insights in the complex pathogenesis and treatment of infertility.

Anagnostis P; Karras S; Goulis DG

2013-03-01

84

Modern concepts of transport in multiple trauma: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple variables can influence triage decision in multiple trauma. Recognition of priorities and selection of the destination can be successfully achieved by field triage and individualized clinical judgment. This narrative review summarizes the new options and protocols for transport of injured subjects. There are four levels of emergency medical providers including first responders and three levels of emergency medical technicians. Two distinct accepted protocols for transport are known as scoop and run and treat and then transfer. The former provides minimum lifesaving treatment at the scene of accident followed by transferring the patient(s) as soon as possible, and the latter mainly emphasizes the need for complete stabilization as a prerequisite for safe transport. The destination and mode of transport are selected according to clinical capabilities of the receiving hospital, transfer time from the scene to the facility, patient's medical condition, accessibility of the scene, and weather. Two common methods of transfer are ground transport, including various type of ambulances, and air medical transport, i.e. helicopter and airplane.

Zarei MR; Yarandi KK; Rasouli MR; Rahimi-Movaghar V

2013-06-01

85

WOUND INFECTION - SISTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To review, identify and analyze the main aspects of the scientific production of healthcare professionals about wound infection, providing an update of relevant technical information for improving their capabilities for a better injury care. Methods: This is a review of the literature contained at bireme and pubmed databases published from 2002 to 2008. Results: The results revealed nineteen publications and all the information data were subjected into thematic analysis, divided into three distinct categories: the best evidence for the prevention and control of the infections, the association between infections and the places where the injuries are present and the indication of the best healing implementation techniques. Conclusion: There is a consensus that professional nurses must always update themselves for the promotion of the correct epidemiological studies about the patient’s social and demographic profiles in order to improve adequate identification of the microorganisms probably concerned to these infections. The development of new standardized protocols leading to uniform practices into reliable results are necessary for delineating a pattern of a specialized nursing care in the search for the total quality being the nurse the prime agent in this question.

Edmar Jorge Feijó; Isabel Cristina da Fonseca Cruz; Dalmo Valério Machado de Lima

2008-01-01

86

Childhood intussusception: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Postlicensure data has identified a causal link between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in some settings. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced globally, monitoring intussusception will be crucial for ensuring safety of the vaccine programs. METHODS: To obtain updated information on background rates and clinical management of intussusception, we reviewed studies of intussusception in children <18 years of age published since 2002. We assessed the incidence of intussusception by month of life among children <1 year of age, seasonality, method of diagnosis, treatment, and case-fatality. FINDINGS: We identified 82 studies from North America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, Africa, Eastern Mediterranean, and Central & South America that reported a total of 44,454 intussusception events. The mean incidence of intussusception was 74 per 100,000 (range: 9-328) among children <1 year of age, with peak incidence among infants 5-7 months of age. No seasonal patterns were observed. A radiographic modality was used to diagnose intussusception in over 95% of the cases in all regions except Africa where clinical findings or surgery were used in 65% of the cases. Surgical rates were substantially higher in Africa (77%) and Central and South America (86%) compared to other regions (13-29%). Case-fatality also was higher in Africa (9%) compared to other regions (<1%). The primary limitation of this review relates to the heterogeneity in intussusception surveillance across different regions. CONCLUSION: This review of the intussusception literature from the past decade provides pertinent information that should facilitate implementation of intussusception surveillance for monitoring the postlicensure safety of rotavirus vaccines.

Jiang J; Jiang B; Parashar U; Nguyen T; Bines J; Patel MM

2013-01-01

87

Childhood Intussusception: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Postlicensure data has identified a causal link between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in some settings. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced globally, monitoring intussusception will be crucial for ensuring safety of the vaccine programs. Methods To obtain updated information on background rates and clinical management of intussusception, we reviewed studies of intussusception in children <18 years of age published since 2002. We assessed the incidence of intussusception by month of life among children <1 year of age, seasonality, method of diagnosis, treatment, and case-fatality. Findings We identified 82 studies from North America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, Africa, Eastern Mediterranean, and Central & South America that reported a total of 44,454 intussusception events. The mean incidence of intussusception was 74 per 100,000 (range: 9–328) among children <1 year of age, with peak incidence among infants 5–7 months of age. No seasonal patterns were observed. A radiographic modality was used to diagnose intussusception in over 95% of the cases in all regions except Africa where clinical findings or surgery were used in 65% of the cases. Surgical rates were substantially higher in Africa (77%) and Central and South America (86%) compared to other regions (13–29%). Case-fatality also was higher in Africa (9%) compared to other regions (<1%). The primary limitation of this review relates to the heterogeneity in intussusception surveillance across different regions. Conclusion This review of the intussusception literature from the past decade provides pertinent information that should facilitate implementation of intussusception surveillance for monitoring the postlicensure safety of rotavirus vaccines.

Jiang, James; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh; Nguyen, Trang; Bines, Julie; Patel, Manish M.

2013-01-01

88

Mastering verb tenses in literature reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deciding on which verb tense to use when writing the literature review section of a manuscript is challenging. Editors find that verb tense problems are common in literature report sections of manuscripts. Authors, reviewers, and editors need to be able to spot incorrect verb tenses in literature reviews. Try editing verb tenses in the sample enclosed in this article and compare your work with that of a nursing journal editor.

Johnson SH

2004-01-01

89

Distraction osteogenesis: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical-orthodontic technique, described primarily in orthopedic surgery in order to promote long-bone lengthening. This technique results in new bone formation through the lengthening of the bone callus, consisting of a biological process which sets off the bone neoformation after the separation of two bone structures that used to be a single unit. The induced traction generates tension within the callus and stimulates the formation of new bone parallel to the distraction vector. This force also creates tension on the surrounding soft tissues, initiating a sequence of adaptive changes known as distraction histogenesis. DO has been widely used in the treatment of patientswith great craniofacial bone deficiencies. Besides, it can eliminate the need for graft procedures and provide sufficient bone quality and quantity to allow implants and prostheses to be placed and orthodontic movements to be performed. The present study is a literature review that aims to illustrate the historic evolution and the biological principles of DO, describing its clinical applications and what can be expected for future treatments.

Fernanda Mara de Paiva BERTOLI; Lílian de Mello GIL; Paula do Nascimento Paiva IZQUIERDO

2010-01-01

90

CSR within SMEs: Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although CSR has traditionally been associated with big business, the SME business sector is such a significant sector worldwide in terms of the economic, environmental and social impact it makes, that attention has been turned to discussion and analysis of principles and practice of CSR in small and medium size businesses. SMEs are not merely small versions of big businesses, so as a result a particularly fast-growing body of academic work has become focused on commitment to CSR in the sector. As a result, the aim of this article is to set out an analysis of the main work carried out on the subject of CSR in SMEs. The analysis is a four part summary. In the first part, we explore the definition and the main CSR practices found in SMEs. The second part relates to determining characteristics of commitment to CSR within SMEs. Next we set out the challenges for SMEs and the constraints made upon them by CSR. Finally, the last section deals with positive examples of CSR in SMEs. Taking this literature review summary as a structural basis we then go on to demonstrate 3 research methodologies.

Amina Kechiche; Richard Soparnot

2012-01-01

91

Geopressured habitat: A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

Negus-de Wys, Jane

1992-09-01

92

Narrative Theology in the High School Classroom: Teaching Theology through the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

If Jesus taught most frequently through symbol and story, and the early Church passed on his teachings primarily through story, especially the four Gospels, why is today's catechesis and theological pedagogy not more informed by "narrative theology"--theology which focuses on the narratives told by Jesus and the Gospels precisely as narratives?…

Delfra, Louis A.

2005-01-01

93

Public involvement at the design stage of primary health research: a narrative review of case examples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review published examples of public involvement in research design, to synthesise the contributions made by members of the public, as well as the identified barriers, tensions and facilitating strategies. DESIGN: Systematic literature search and narrative review. FINDINGS: Seven papers were identified covering the following topics: breast-feeding, antiretroviral and nutrition interventions; paediatric resuscitation; exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy; hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer; stroke; and parents' experiences of having a pre-term baby. Six papers reported public involvement in the development of a clinical trial, while one reported public involvement in the development of a mixed methods study. Group meetings were the most common method of public involvement. Contributions that members of the public made to research design were: review of consent procedures and patient information sheets; outcome suggestions; review of acceptability of data collection procedures; and recommendations on the timing of potential participants into the study and the timing of follow-up. Numerous barriers, tensions and facilitating strategies were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The issues raised here should assist researchers in developing research proposals with members of the public. Substantive and methodological directions for further research on the impact of public involvement in research design are set out.

Boote J; Baird W; Beecroft C

2010-04-01

94

Dignity in care in the clinical setting: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review aimed to explore nursing literature and research on dignity in care of inpatients and to evaluate how the care patients received in the hospital setting was related to perceived feelings of being dignified or undignified. Studies conducted between 2000 and 2010 were considered, using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and MEDLINE, and the search terms 'patient dignity', 'dignity in care', 'human dignity and nursing' and 'dignity and nursing ethics'. Findings revealed, from the perspectives of nurses and patients, that dignity in care in the hospital setting is seen to be influenced by physical environment, staff attitude and behaviour, organisational culture and patient independence. This review can help nurses to better understand dignity in care, and for policy makers, there are implications about determining the physical environment, staff attitude and behaviour and organisational culture needed to promote patient dignity in nursing. By identifying the most important factors from patients' and nurses' perspectives that contribute to dignity in care, nursing interventions, such as campaigns and education in clinical practice, can be developed.

Lin YP; Watson R; Tsai YF

2013-03-01

95

Purchasing Organization and Design: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive literature review of the organization of purchasing covering the period from 1967 to 2009. The review provides a structured overview of prior research topics and findings and identifies gaps in the existing literature that may be addressed in future...

Glock, Christoph H.; Hochrein, Simon

96

Vanishing Testes: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vanishing testes syndrome is often referred to as testicular regression syndrome (TRS) in the recent medical literature. The most characteristic histological findings are presence of a fibrovascular nodule with associated hemosiderin-laden macrophages and dystrophic calcification. Residual testicula...

Pirgon, Özgur; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

97

Spherical Machines: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains a summary of the work with spherical electrical machines found in the specialised literature. Spherical actuators allow several degrees of freedom (DOF), which is particularly interesting in robotics. Complex movements are traditionally accomplished by combining several electric...

Martinez Munoz, David

98

Cine y literatura: Narrativa de la identidad/ Cinema and Literature: identity narration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo es resultado de la investigación La narrativa literaria y audiovisual en la construcción de la identidad cultural colombiana. Una mirada desde el cine y la literatura: adaptaciones de obras literarias llevadas al cine entre 1920 y 2008-1. En el presente texto se desarrolla un análisis de la relación de cine y literatura en la construcción de la identidad colombiana, a partir del rastreo bibliográfico de la crítica y las historias literarias y cinematográficas a un corpus seleccionado de obras literarias llevadas al cine. Abstract in english This article is the result of the research ''Literary and Audiovisual Narration in the Construction of Colombian Cultural Identity. A look from the cinema and the literature: Adaptations of literary works taken to the cinema between 1920 and 2008-1. In this text, an analysis of cinema-literature relation in the construction of Colombian identity, from the bibliographic consultation of criticism, literary and cinematographic stories to a corpus selected from literary works taken to the movies is developed.

Laverde Román, Alejandra; Parra, Martha Ligia; Montoya Giraldo, Alejandra; Uribe Alzate, Yennifer; Tobar Álvarez, Margarita

2010-06-01

99

A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Depression is among the most common psychiatric conditions in primary health care, and constitutes an important part of the global disease burden. However, it is difficult to obtain comparable data on depression worldwide and models for treatment and intervention need to be locally adapted. We conducted a narrative review of research literature on factors that influence depression screening, diagnosis and treatment among the Vietnamese population. This explorative approach included studies describing: a) culturally or contextually specific risk-factors for depression; b) any depression treatment seeking or treatment acceptability/adherence aspects or; c) depression screening among Vietnamese patients. We searched the PubMed and Cinahl databases, as well as relevant Vietnamese peer-reviewed journals and this produced 20 articles that were included in the review. Our findings indicate the importance of considering somatic symptoms when screening for depression in Vietnam as well as the use of culturally adapted and dimensional screening instruments. Our study confirms that depression reflects chronic social adversity, and thus an approach to mental health management that focuses solely on individual pathology will fail to address its important social causes. Further studies should elucidate whether neurasthenia is a commonly used illness label among Vietnamese patients that coincides with depression. The tendency among Vietnamese to seek traditional Vietnamese medicine and meditation practice when experiencing emotional distress was supported by our findings.

Niemi M; Målqvist M; Giang KB; Allebeck P; Falkenberg T

2013-01-01

100

A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is among the most common psychiatric conditions in primary health care, and constitutes an important part of the global disease burden. However, it is difficult to obtain comparable data on depression worldwide and models for treatment and intervention need to be locally adapted. We conducted a narrative review of research literature on factors that influence depression screening, diagnosis and treatment among the Vietnamese population. This explorative approach included studies describing: a) culturally or contextually specific risk-factors for depression; b) any depression treatment seeking or treatment acceptability/adherence aspects or; c) depression screening among Vietnamese patients. We searched the PubMed and Cinahl databases, as well as relevant Vietnamese peer-reviewed journals and this produced 20 articles that were included in the review. Our findings indicate the importance of considering somatic symptoms when screening for depression in Vietnam as well as the use of culturally adapted and dimensional screening instruments. Our study confirms that depression reflects chronic social adversity, and thus an approach to mental health management that focuses solely on individual pathology will fail to address its important social causes. Further studies should elucidate whether neurasthenia is a commonly used illness label among Vietnamese patients that coincides with depression. The tendency among Vietnamese to seek traditional Vietnamese medicine and meditation practice when experiencing emotional distress was supported by our findings.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Economic Value Added (EVA) - Literature Review and Relevant Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present a narrative literature review of 112 papers published on the EVA from 1994 to 2008. It provides a classification scheme, identifies the gaps in existing literature and suggests the direction for future research. Studies are classified and presented on the basis of the time period, issues covered, distribution of literature in various sources, methodology used, country-wise publications and contributions made by the researchers on the concept. The studies conducted in the developed countries have largely been found to be supporting EVA though there are certain studies in these countries too that consider conventional measures as better tools of corporate performance reporting. However, in developing economies less numbers of studies are available supporting the empirical validity of the concept as a corporate performance measurement tool. The concept of EVA has gained significant attention in the advanced economies, but implementation issues and its validity is under debate all over the world. The paper presents a comprehensive literature review and a critical analysis to move towards the advances in EVA. It may be a very useful source of information to the researchers and managers who wish to understand and implement EVA and carry out further research on the diverse issues of this interesting and value adding performance metric.

Anil K. Sharma; Satish Kumar

2010-01-01

102

Review article: reporting guidelines in the biomedical literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Complete and accurate reporting of original research in the biomedical literature is essential for healthcare professionals to translate research outcomes appropriately into clinical practice. Use of reporting guidelines has become commonplace among journals, peer reviewers, and authors. This narrative review aims 1) to inform investigators, peer reviewers, and authors of original research in anesthesia on reporting guidelines for frequently reported study designs; 2) to describe the evidence supporting the use of reporting guidelines and checklists; and 3) to discuss the implications of widespread adoption of reporting guidelines by biomedical journals and peer reviewers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Inadequate reporting can influence the interpretation, translation, and application of published research. As a result, reporting guidelines have been developed in order to improve the quality, completeness, and accuracy of original research reports. Biomedical journals increasingly endorse the use of reporting guidelines for authors and peer reviewers. To date, there is encouraging evidence that reporting guidelines improve the quality of reporting of published research, but the rates of both adoption of reporting guidelines and improvement in reporting are far from ideal. CONCLUSIONS: Use of reporting guidelines improves the quality of published research in biomedical journals. Nevertheless, the quality of research in the biomedical literature remains suboptimal despite increased adherence to reporting guidelines.

O'Leary JD; Crawford MW

2013-08-01

103

System Related Interventions to Reduce Diagnostic Error: A Narrative Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Diagnostic errors (missed, delayed, or wrong diagnosis) have gained recent attention and are associated with significant preventable morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the recent literature to identify interventions that have been, or could be, implemented to address systems-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic error. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search using multiple search strategies. We first identified candidate articles in English between 2000 and 2009 from a PubMed search that exclusively evaluated for articles related to diagnostic error or delay. We then sought additional papers from references in the initial dataset, searches of additional databases, and subject matter experts. Articles were included if they formally evaluated an intervention to prevent or reduce diagnostic error; however, we also included papers if interventions were suggested and not tested in order to inform the state-of-the science on the topic. We categorized interventions according to the step in the diagnostic process they targeted: patient-provider encounter, performance and interpretation of diagnostic tests, follow-up and tracking of diagnostic information, subspecialty and referral-related; and patient-specific. Results We identified 43 articles for full review, of which 6 reported tested interventions and 37 contained suggestions for possible interventions. Empirical studies, though somewhat positive, were non-experimental or quasi-experimental and included a small number of clinicians or health care sites. Outcome measures in general were underdeveloped and varied markedly between studies, depending on the setting or step in the diagnostic process involved. Conclusions Despite a number of suggested interventions in the literature, few empirical studies have tested interventions to reduce diagnostic error in the last decade. Advancing the science of diagnostic error prevention will require more robust study designs and rigorous definitions of diagnostic processes and outcomes to measure intervention effects.

Singh, Hardeep; Graber, Mark L.; Kissam, Stephanie M.; Sorensen, Asta V.; Lenfestey, Nancy F.; Tant, Elizabeth M.; Henriksen, Kerm; LaBresh, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

104

Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

Aphramor Lucy

2010-01-01

105

Refeeding Syndrome: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Refeeding syndrome (RFS) describes the biochemical changes, clinical manifestations, and complications that can occur as a consequence of feeding a malnourished catabolic individual. RFS has been recognised in the literature for over fifty years and can result in serious harm and death. Crude estima...

L. U. R. Khan; J. Ahmed; S. Khan; J. MacFie

106

Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves with the Help of Literature: Educational Possibilities of Narrative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Undoubtedly narrative in education has frequently been studied. Nonetheless, in this paper we want to explore the different educational possibilities offered by narrative in order to discover identity through tradition. MacIntyre’s thought offers the categories of practice, tradition and narrative, in order to penetrate the central questions of personal identity and communicability that we consider the most suggestive. Some authors understand narrative as a very accurate means to access tradition and self-knowledge as well as to show the unity of human life and to vindicate the unity of tradition that we can face and those elements that constitute our moral habitat.

Alfredo Rodríguez-Sedano; Aurora Bernal Martínez de Soria; Miguel Rumayor

2010-01-01

107

A systematic narrative review of consumer-directed care for older people: implications for model development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer-directed care is increasingly becoming a mainstream option in community-based aged care. However, a systematic review describing how the current evaluation research translates into practise has not been published to date. This review aimed to systematically establish an evidence base of user preferences for and satisfaction with services associated with consumer-directed care programmes for older people. Twelve databases were searched, including MedLine, BioMed Central, Cinahl, Expanded Academic ASAP, PsychInfo, ProQuest, Age Line, Science Direct, Social Citation Index, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and Google were also searched. Eligible studies were those reporting on choice, user preferences and service satisfaction outcomes regarding a programme or model of home-based care in the United States or United Kingdom. This systematic narrative review retrieved literature published from January 1992 to August 2011. A total of 277 references were identified. Of these 17 met the selection criteria and were reviewed. Findings indicate that older people report varying preferences for consumer-directed care with some demonstrating limited interest. Clients and carers reported good service satisfaction. However, research comparing user preferences across countries or investigating how ecological factors shape user preferences has received limited attention. Policy-makers and practitioners need to carefully consider the diverse contexts, needs and preferences of older adults in adopting consumer-directed care approaches in community aged care. The review calls for the development of consumer-directed care programmes offering a broad range of options that allow for personalisation and greater control over services without necessarily transferring the responsibility for administrative responsibilities to service users. Review findings suggest that consumer-directed care approaches have the potential to empower older people. PMID:23465034

Ottmann, Goetz; Allen, Jacqui; Feldman, Peter

2013-03-07

108

A systematic narrative review of consumer-directed care for older people: implications for model development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consumer-directed care is increasingly becoming a mainstream option in community-based aged care. However, a systematic review describing how the current evaluation research translates into practise has not been published to date. This review aimed to systematically establish an evidence base of user preferences for and satisfaction with services associated with consumer-directed care programmes for older people. Twelve databases were searched, including MedLine, BioMed Central, Cinahl, Expanded Academic ASAP, PsychInfo, ProQuest, Age Line, Science Direct, Social Citation Index, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and Google were also searched. Eligible studies were those reporting on choice, user preferences and service satisfaction outcomes regarding a programme or model of home-based care in the United States or United Kingdom. This systematic narrative review retrieved literature published from January 1992 to August 2011. A total of 277 references were identified. Of these 17 met the selection criteria and were reviewed. Findings indicate that older people report varying preferences for consumer-directed care with some demonstrating limited interest. Clients and carers reported good service satisfaction. However, research comparing user preferences across countries or investigating how ecological factors shape user preferences has received limited attention. Policy-makers and practitioners need to carefully consider the diverse contexts, needs and preferences of older adults in adopting consumer-directed care approaches in community aged care. The review calls for the development of consumer-directed care programmes offering a broad range of options that allow for personalisation and greater control over services without necessarily transferring the responsibility for administrative responsibilities to service users. Review findings suggest that consumer-directed care approaches have the potential to empower older people.

Ottmann G; Allen J; Feldman P

2013-03-01

109

Contraception in Adolescence: Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: It is worrisome to the public health the fact that adolescents are the portion of the population which has increased the fertility rate in recent years. This article aims to identify the reasons in the literature why adolescents are still presenting risk behavior despite of being informed about contraceptive methods. Two computerized databases were consulted: LILACS (Latino-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and MEDLINE (International Database for Medical Literature). It has been found 128 articles, from which 16 were chosen to fit more to the proposed research. After analyzing the article, the discussion was based on the main issues addressed by the studies: the level of knowledge of adolescents about contraceptives, the age of first sexual intercourse, the most used contraceptive method, the factors related to the no using of contraceptives, the use of methods related to the sex of the adolescent and the use of drugs related to the contraception. The research enabled to note the complexity of the factors that determine the behavior of young people about contraception. The data indicated can help to develop ways of dealing with adolescents and create different strategies to achieve healthy behaviors. There is also a need to develop educational strategies that address the matter in multiplies dimensions.

Ana Beatriz Santos Reis; Ianê Nogueira do Vale

2009-01-01

110

[Turcot syndrome. Rare observation and literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Turcot syndrome is a rare disease which is characterized by a combination of a brain tumor with a y at which the neoplasm of the colon. About 150 of such observations are described in world literature. Our own observation and a literature review are presented in this article. PMID:23866578

Ozerov, S S; Zakharov, I V; Talypov, S R; Konovalov, D M; Kisliakov, A N; Kachanov, D Iu; Zheludkova, O G; Varfolomeeva, S R; Rachkov, V E

2013-01-01

111

[Turcot syndrome. Rare observation and literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Turcot syndrome is a rare disease which is characterized by a combination of a brain tumor with a y at which the neoplasm of the colon. About 150 of such observations are described in world literature. Our own observation and a literature review are presented in this article.

Ozerov SS; Zakharov IV; Talypov SR; Konovalov DM; Kisliakov AN; Kachanov DIu; Zheludkova OG; Varfolomeeva SR; Rachkov VE

2013-01-01

112

Collective Intelligence in Humans: A Literature Review  

CERN Multimedia

This literature review focuses on collective intelligence in humans. A keyword search was performed on the Web of Knowledge and selected papers were reviewed in order to reveal themes relevant to collective intelligence. Three levels of abstraction were identified in discussion about the phenomenon: the micro-level, the macro-level and the level of emergence. Recurring themes in the literature were categorized under the above-mentioned framework and directions for future research were identified.

Salminen, Juho

2012-01-01

113

Science in Afterschool Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

In considering science in afterschool, research was reviewed and is presented in this document on how students learn science; how science is assessed, particularly inquiry science; recommended practices for afterschool science; and current afterschool science programs. Databases such as ERIC, Wilson Web, and PsychINFO were searched using…

Falkenberg, Karen; McClure, Patricia; McComb, Errin M.

2006-01-01

114

Review literature about nursing diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to identify in literature published about nursing diagnosis in the period 2000 and 2007. Methodology: the articles search was conducted in the databases of Bireme (Lilacs/Medline) focusing on the number of published articles, most studied topics, year of publication, categories of articles, countries that publish and theories that the researchers refer more. Results: after filtering were found 178 articles indexed with a majority of journals, the most frequently mentioned theme was the validation of the defining characteristics of nursing diagnoses, the year with more publications was 2000, followed by 2007, the more detailed study kind was the descriptive one, the country that more published was Brazil and the theoretical approach more quoted was the NANDA Taxonomy II. Conclusions: we conclude, thus, how small is the practice of nursing diagnoses in the Brazilian reality, given the prospect of advances as the journals analyzed.

Rejane Marie Barbosa Davim, Maria Gorete Pereira de Araújo, Mayana Camila Barbosa Galvão, Gabriela Miranda Mota

2010-01-01

115

Immigrant women's experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual factors and social determinants of health that influence immigrant women's reception of and behavior in accessing existing mental health services. Our research question is: what are the ethnoculturally defined patterns of help-seeking behaviors and decision-making and other predictive factors for therapeutic mental health care access and outcomes with respect to postpartum depression for immigrant women in Canada?Methods/design: Our synthesis incorporates a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports (peer- and non-peer reviewed) of empirical research and aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on postpartum mental health care services as experienced by immigrant women. To reach this goal we are using integrated knowledge translation, thus partnering with key stakeholders throughout the planning, implementation and dissemination stages to ensure topic relevancy and impact on future practice and policy. The search and selection strategies draw upon established systematic review methodologies as outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and also incorporate guidelines for selection and appraisal of gray literature. Two search phases (a database and a gray literature phase) will identify literature for screening and final selection based on an inclusion/exclusion checklist. Quality appraisal will be performed using the tools produced by the Centre for Evidence Based Management. The narrative synthesis will be informed by Popay et al.'s (2006) framework using identified tools for each of its four elements. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their impact on policy and practice change throughout health service, public health, immigration and community sectors. DISCUSSION: The narrative synthesis methodology will facilitate understandings and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socio-economic status, pre-migration history and geographical location. Our review aims to have a substantive and sustainable impact on health outcomes, practice, programs and/or policy in the context of postpartum mental health of immigrant women. PROSPERO registration number CRD42012003020.

Higginbottom GM; Morgan M; O Mahony J; Chiu Y; Kocay D; Alexandre M; Forgeron J; Young M

2013-08-01

116

Image Retrieval: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, with the acquaintance ofinternet, there has been large amount of data resides on theweb. Therefore it becomes necessity for fast retrieval searchengines that retrieve documents and images.This paper tries toprovide a comprehensive review and characterize the variousproblems of image retrial techniques. We present a survey ofthe most popular image retrieval techniques with their pros andcons. Content Based Image Retrieval is the latest technique forimage retrieval.In order to make image retrieval more effectiveresearcher are moving towards Association based imageretrieval, that is new direction of CBIR. Finally, based onexisting technologies and the demand from real-worldapplications, a few promising future research directions aresuggested

Meenakshi Shruti Pal, Dr. Sushil Kumar Garg

2013-01-01

117

SIX SIGMA: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite stiff international competition in the global market, world-class manufacturers are increasing their market share and profits through low-cost production, waste reduction in manufacturing, production of high quality products, and exceptional customer service. Six Sigma has been successfully implemented in this regard. In this paper, a selected survey of Six Sigma literature is presented to illustrate the wide scope of the application of the concept. This could be of immense benefit to organizations’ top management who need to understand the critical variables and factors for the successful implementation of Six Sigma programmes, leading to substantial, sustainable long-term improvement in performance results, value for money, and effort. The paper presents motivated pointers – substantiated as far as possible by data and evidence – to key success factors, variables, and their interrelationships.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sterk internasionale mededinging ten spyt verhoog wêreldklasvervaardigers hul markaandeel en winste via laekosteproduksie, skrootvermindering, die produksie van gehalteprodukte en die lewering van primadiens aan klante. Ses Sigma is in hierdie verband as gereedskap suksesvol geïmplimenteer. Die artikel behandel 'n gekeurde oorsig van Ses Sigmaliteratuur om sodoende die toepassingsveldwyde van die konsep te illustreer. Die artikel is nuttig vir organisasiebestuurders uit die oogpunt van veranderlikes en suksesfaktore wat deur die Ses Sigmametode tot substansiële en volhoubare langtermyn verbeterings van 'n onderneming kan lei.

S.A. Oke

2012-01-01

118

Purchasing Organization and Design: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comprehensive literature review of the organization of purchasing covering the period from 1967 to 2009. The review provides a structured overview of prior research topics and findings and identifies gaps in the existing literature that may be addressed in future research. The intention of the review is to a) synthesize prior research, b) provide researchers with a structural framework on which future research on the organization of purchasing may be oriented, and c) suggest promising areas for future research.

Christoph H. Glock; Simon Hochrein

2011-01-01

119

Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1) accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access) to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2) the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs), and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates) to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure that key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their effect on policy and practice change throughout the health service, and the public health, immigration and community sectors. Discussion Narrative-synthesis methods of systematic review facilitate understanding and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical location. They also enable understanding of the shaping of differences between reported outcomes and study designs related to childbearing populations, and the development and implementation of maternity services and health interventions across diverse settings. PROSPERO registration Number 2185.

Higginbottom Gina M A; Morgan Myfanwy; Dassanayake Jayantha; Eyford Helgi; Alexandre Mirande; Chiu Yvonne; Forgeron Joan; Kocay Deb

2012-01-01

120

Gestational trophoblastic disease: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease is characterized by abnormal proliferation of pregnancy-associated trophoblastic tissue with malignant potential. Gestational trophoblastic disease covers a spectrum of conditions including hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumour. It is very important to understand the pathophysiology and natural history of the disease in order to achieve faster recognition and effective treatment. The presence and course of the disease can be monitored with quantitative levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin in all cases. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually insufficient to diagnose and predict the extent of disease. Nowadays, gestational trophoblastic diseases are the best treated gynaecological malignancy thanks to modern technology. This review covers various aspects of gestational trophoblastic disease: its development, epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis, as well as its classification, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods.

Milenkovi? Vera; Lazovi? Biljana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Trace element emissions. Literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of fossil fuels by various utilities results in the emission of trace elements to air, water and solid waste streams. Elements present in coal are released as particles or as vapours during coal combustion or gasification. Owing to the increased consumption of coal, especially for power generation, huge quantities of potentially hazardous trace elements are released into the atmosphere every year. It is necessary to evaluate the emissions of each trace element from coal-fired combustion or gasification systems, and their effects on the environment. Present research interests should be aimed at determining the sources, concentrations, and environmental impact of trace elements related with energy generation and relevant control technologies. Two of the emerging advanced coal gasification technologies, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) are presently experiencing potential difficulties due to trace element emissions. In order to control the levels of these contaminants within regulatory limits and to ensure the efficient operation of fuel cells, it is necessary to determine the type and quantity of trace elements emitted from coal gasification-based systems as a function of system, operating conditions, and type of coal. The partitioning of the trace elements is influenced by the gasification conditions. In general, the following gasification conditions are expected to influence the distribution of trace elements between various product streams. (a) reducing and oxidizing environments (b) gas phase composition, pressure and temperature. The present report was aimed at finding and identifying gaps existing in the literature on the trace element transformations during gasification. Also included in the report is the modelling of relevant transformation mechanisms of the trace elements during gasification as a function of coal type and process conditions. 7 figs., 6 tabs., 69 refs.

1994-01-01

122

Trace element emissions. Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of fossil fuels by various utilities results in the emission of trace elements to air, water and solid waste streams. Elements present in coal are released as particles or as vapours during coal combustion or gasification. Owing to the increased consumption of coal, especially for power generation, huge quantities of potentially hazardous trace elements are released into the atmosphere every year. It is necessary to evaluate the emissions of each trace element from coal-fired combustion or gasification systems, and their effects on the environment. Present research interests should be aimed at determining the sources, concentrations, and environmental impact of trace elements related with energy generation and relevant control technologies. Two of the emerging advanced coal gasification technologies, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) are presently experiencing potential difficulties due to trace element emissions. In order to control the levels of these contaminants within regulatory limits and to ensure the efficient operation of fuel cells, it is necessary to determine the type and quantity of trace elements emitted from coal gasification-based systems as a function of system, operating conditions, and type of coal. The partitioning of the trace elements is influenced by the gasification conditions. In general, the following gasification conditions are expected to influence the distribution of trace elements between various product streams. (a) reducing and oxidizing environments (b) gas phase composition, pressure and temperature. The present report was aimed at finding and identifying gaps existing in the literature on the trace element transformations during gasification. Also included in the report is the modelling of relevant transformation mechanisms of the trace elements during gasification as a function of coal type and process conditions. 7 figs., 6 tabs., 69 refs.

Vuthaluru, H.B.; Eenkhoorn, S.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Veringa, H.J.

1994-12-01

123

The relationship among hypertension, antihypertensive medications, and osteoporosis: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osteoporosis and hypertension are two frequent diseases among the aging population that share a similar etiopathology and often coexist. Moreover, treatment of hypertension affects bone mineral density and, therefore, can worsen osteoporosis. This narrative review considers the influence of the main etiologic factors that contribute to the development of hypertension and osteoporosis and examines the effect of the most often used antihypertensives on bones. A computerized literature search of relevant English publications regarding the etiology of hypertension and osteoporosis as well as the impact of antihypertensives on osteoporosis from 1996 to 2011 was completed in October 2011. The latest update in the search was performed from May to June 2012. The most relevant nongenetic factors in the etiology of osteoporosis and hypertension are low calcium intake, vitamin D and vitamin K deficiency, high consumption of sodium salt, and the effects of different forms of nitric oxide. Thiazide diuretics are the only antihypertensives that have a positive influence on bone mineral density. For other antihypertensive drugs, the data are conflicting, indicating that they may have a potentially negative or positive influence on bone mineral density and fracture risk reduction. Some studies did not find a correlation between the use of antihypertensives and bone mineral density. Due to the frequent coexistence of hypertension and osteoporosis, when selecting long-term antihypertensive therapy the potential effects of antihypertensive drugs on development, worsening, or improvement of osteoporosis should also be considered.

Ili? K; Obradovi? N; Vujasinovi?-Stupar N

2013-03-01

124

The relationship among hypertension, antihypertensive medications, and osteoporosis: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis and hypertension are two frequent diseases among the aging population that share a similar etiopathology and often coexist. Moreover, treatment of hypertension affects bone mineral density and, therefore, can worsen osteoporosis. This narrative review considers the influence of the main etiologic factors that contribute to the development of hypertension and osteoporosis and examines the effect of the most often used antihypertensives on bones. A computerized literature search of relevant English publications regarding the etiology of hypertension and osteoporosis as well as the impact of antihypertensives on osteoporosis from 1996 to 2011 was completed in October 2011. The latest update in the search was performed from May to June 2012. The most relevant nongenetic factors in the etiology of osteoporosis and hypertension are low calcium intake, vitamin D and vitamin K deficiency, high consumption of sodium salt, and the effects of different forms of nitric oxide. Thiazide diuretics are the only antihypertensives that have a positive influence on bone mineral density. For other antihypertensive drugs, the data are conflicting, indicating that they may have a potentially negative or positive influence on bone mineral density and fracture risk reduction. Some studies did not find a correlation between the use of antihypertensives and bone mineral density. Due to the frequent coexistence of hypertension and osteoporosis, when selecting long-term antihypertensive therapy the potential effects of antihypertensive drugs on development, worsening, or improvement of osteoporosis should also be considered. PMID:23192372

Ili?, Katarina; Obradovi?, Nevena; Vujasinovi?-Stupar, Nada

2012-11-29

125

PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A.C.

2012-01-01

126

A meta-narrative review of recorded patient-pharmacist interactions: Exploring biomedical or patient-centered communication?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists worldwide require improved patient-centered communication skills as they transition from a dispensing role to enhanced involvement in patient care. Researchers have studied pharmacist communication through audio and video recordings of patient-pharmacist encounters. A meta-narrative review of research using these recordings will offer insight into the extent of biomedical vs. patient-centered communication in patient-pharmacist exchanges. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to characterize research on patient-pharmacists interactions using audio or video recordings and explore the 1) focus of research questions, 2) study design, 3) data analysis methods, 4) main findings and 5) presence of patient-centered vs. biomedical models of interaction. METHODS: Drawing on the principles of meta-narrative systematic review, a literature search was performed to identify studies published in English. No publication date limits were implemented. Key search terms included: "audio recording", "video recording", "communication", "patient counseling", "patient interaction", "discourse analysis", "conversation analysis", "narrative analysis", and "content analysis". The search was conducted in five databases: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Web of Science, and Academic Search Complete. RESULTS: Forty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and represent 32 unique collections of patient-pharmacist recordings. The 23 quantitative studies focused on "what" was in the interaction, whereas the 5 qualitative studies characterized specialized pharmacy practice and 13 studies used conversational analysis to describe "how" patients and pharmacists interact. The majority of research described the content of recorded interactions in community pharmacies. Twenty-three studies presented evidence of a biomedical model, whereas 8 studies characterized a patient-centered focus. CONCLUSIONS: A developing body of research used recordings to describe the content of patient-pharmacist communication and explore the quality of the interactions, validation of coding tools, impact of an intervention, and patient-pharmacist power asymmetry. Study findings, particularly the identification of biomedical vs. patient-centered communication, were guided by the quantitative, qualitative, or conversational analysis research paradigm.

Murad MS; Chatterley T; Guirguis LM

2013-04-01

127

A meta-narrative review of recorded patient-pharmacist interactions: Exploring biomedical or patient-centered communication?  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists worldwide require improved patient-centered communication skills as they transition from a dispensing role to enhanced involvement in patient care. Researchers have studied pharmacist communication through audio and video recordings of patient-pharmacist encounters. A meta-narrative review of research using these recordings will offer insight into the extent of biomedical vs. patient-centered communication in patient-pharmacist exchanges. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to characterize research on patient-pharmacists interactions using audio or video recordings and explore the 1) focus of research questions, 2) study design, 3) data analysis methods, 4) main findings and 5) presence of patient-centered vs. biomedical models of interaction. METHODS: Drawing on the principles of meta-narrative systematic review, a literature search was performed to identify studies published in English. No publication date limits were implemented. Key search terms included: "audio recording", "video recording", "communication", "patient counseling", "patient interaction", "discourse analysis", "conversation analysis", "narrative analysis", and "content analysis". The search was conducted in five databases: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Web of Science, and Academic Search Complete. RESULTS: Forty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and represent 32 unique collections of patient-pharmacist recordings. The 23 quantitative studies focused on "what" was in the interaction, whereas the 5 qualitative studies characterized specialized pharmacy practice and 13 studies used conversational analysis to describe "how" patients and pharmacists interact. The majority of research described the content of recorded interactions in community pharmacies. Twenty-three studies presented evidence of a biomedical model, whereas 8 studies characterized a patient-centered focus. CONCLUSIONS: A developing body of research used recordings to describe the content of patient-pharmacist communication and explore the quality of the interactions, validation of coding tools, impact of an intervention, and patient-pharmacist power asymmetry. Study findings, particularly the identification of biomedical vs. patient-centered communication, were guided by the quantitative, qualitative, or conversational analysis research paradigm. PMID:23608702

Murad, Muna S; Chatterley, Trish; Guirguis, Lisa M

2013-04-20

128

Mashups: A Literature Review and Classification Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolution of the Web over the past few years has fostered the growth of a handful of new technologies (e.g. Blogs, Wiki’s, Web Services). Recently web mashups have emerged as the newest Web technology and have gained lots of momentum and attention from both academic and industry communities. Current mashup literature focuses on a wide array of issues, which can be partially explained by how new the topic is. However, to date, mashup literature lacks an articulation of the different subtopics of web mashup research. This study presents a broad review of mashup literature to help frame the 1subtopics in mashup research.

Brandon Beemer; Dawn Gregg

2009-01-01

129

Four EIS Perspectives: A literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A literature review of the Enterprise Information Systems literature reveals a number of recurring issues. We identify and detail four different perspectives that together categorizes the topics found. The first being a technical-rational perspective. The second being a social perspective. The third being a more political and emergent perspective. Fourth, we identify a design-oriented perspective. We categorize the literature on EIS using these four perspectives, and for each perspective we identify core issues. Finally we discuss how the four perspectives complement each other.

Pries-Heje, Jan; Svejvig, Per

130

Expert consensus recommendations for the performance of peripheral nerve blocks for headaches--a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe a standardized methodology for the performance of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) in the treatment of headache disorders. BACKGROUND: PNBs have long been employed in the management of headache disorders, but a wide variety of techniques are utilized in literature reports and clinical practice. METHODS: The American Headache Society Special Interest Section for PNBs and other Interventional Procedures convened meetings during 2010-2011 featuring formal discussions and agreements about the procedural details for occipital and trigeminal PNBs. A subcommittee then generated a narrative review detailing the methodology. RESULTS: PNB indications may include select primary headache disorders, secondary headache disorders, and cranial neuralgias. Special procedural considerations may be necessary in certain patient populations, including pregnancy, the elderly, anesthetic allergy, prior vasovagal attacks, an open skull defect, antiplatelet/anticoagulant use, and cosmetic concerns. PNBs described include greater occipital, lesser occipital, supratrochlear, supraorbital, and auriculotemporal injections. Technical success of the PNB should result in cutaneous anesthesia. Targeted clinical outcomes depend on the indication, and include relief of an acute headache attack, terminating a headache cycle, and transitioning out of a medication-overuse pattern. Reinjection frequency is variable, depending on the indications and agents used, and the addition of corticosteroids may be most appropriate when treating cluster headache. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations from the American Headache Society Special Interest Section for PNBs and other Interventional Procedures members for PNB methodology in headache disorder treatment are derived from the available literature and expert consensus. With the exception of cluster headache, there is a paucity of evidence, and further research may result in the revision of these recommendations to improve the outcome and safety of these interventions.

Blumenfeld A; Ashkenazi A; Napchan U; Bender SD; Klein BC; Berliner R; Ailani J; Schim J; Friedman DI; Charleston L 4th; Young WB; Robertson CE; Dodick DW; Silberstein SD; Robbins MS

2013-03-01

131

Quality of life in older adults with aortic stenosis: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis in older adults can lead to symptoms of breathlessness, dizziness, syncope and angina. While surgical AVR is the optimum treatment, it is not suitable for frail older people who may have other significant comorbidities. TAVI provides a safer alternative. There is evidence that aortic valve replacement reduces mortality and morbidity, but less is known about its effect on quality of life (QoL) in older adults. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To carry out a narrative review of the existing literature on quality of life (QoL) after surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) with the aim of identifying what is known about QoL pre- and postvalve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that QoL improves after aortic valve replacement, but there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There are no studies that compare QoL after TAVI vs. surgical AVR; thus, we do not know the relative effect of the different procedures on QoL. The literature does not adequately explore why some people have improved QoL after aortic valve replacement and others do not. There appears to be some evidence that the existence of comorbidities may negatively influence QoL after valve replacement, but there is not enough consistent data on comorbidities to explore this further. Study designs are heterogeneous and prevent any meta-analysis of findings. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Decision-making processes regarding the suitability of patients for aortic valve replacement should include an assessment of the potential effects on overall QoL, rather than just relief of cardiac-related symptoms. Consideration of patients' social, emotional and physical needs both before and after valve replacement is essential if health services are serious about improving QoL as well as mortality and morbidity. PMID:23575032

Horrocks, Judith; Closs, José; Astin, Felicity

2013-04-11

132

Quality of life in older adults with aortic stenosis: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis in older adults can lead to symptoms of breathlessness, dizziness, syncope and angina. While surgical AVR is the optimum treatment, it is not suitable for frail older people who may have other significant comorbidities. TAVI provides a safer alternative. There is evidence that aortic valve replacement reduces mortality and morbidity, but less is known about its effect on quality of life (QoL) in older adults. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To carry out a narrative review of the existing literature on quality of life (QoL) after surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) with the aim of identifying what is known about QoL pre- and postvalve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that QoL improves after aortic valve replacement, but there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There are no studies that compare QoL after TAVI vs. surgical AVR; thus, we do not know the relative effect of the different procedures on QoL. The literature does not adequately explore why some people have improved QoL after aortic valve replacement and others do not. There appears to be some evidence that the existence of comorbidities may negatively influence QoL after valve replacement, but there is not enough consistent data on comorbidities to explore this further. Study designs are heterogeneous and prevent any meta-analysis of findings. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Decision-making processes regarding the suitability of patients for aortic valve replacement should include an assessment of the potential effects on overall QoL, rather than just relief of cardiac-related symptoms. Consideration of patients' social, emotional and physical needs both before and after valve replacement is essential if health services are serious about improving QoL as well as mortality and morbidity.

Horrocks J; Closs J; Astin F

2013-04-01

133

Simulation of bioreactors. A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the relevant literature has been done with the aim of it serving as a basis for the development of an adaptive on-line simulation model for biotechnical processes. The review is limited to the bioreactor, i.e., downstream processing is not considered. Different reactor types are briefly discussed. Summaries of transfer phenomena and simple kinetic expressions are given. A chapter on general modelling principles and monitoring possibilities is included, and some simulation models presented in the literature are reviewed at the end of the study.

Saxen, B.

1991-12-31

134

Information literacy in Europe: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examines the developments in information literacy in Europe and provides an overview of the concepts used and discussed by European authors. Some examples of information literacy initiatives in schools and the higher education sector, as well as of institutions and organizations, projects and conferences concerned with information literacy, are given. Some research initiatives are also introduced. The overview is based on literature reviews and personal observations and involvement and presents a selective review.

Sirje Virkus

2003-01-01

135

Small bowel emergency surgery: literature's review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Emergency surgery of the small bowel represents a challenge for the surgeon, in the third millennium as well. There is a wide number of pathologies which involve the small bowel. The present review, by analyzing the recent and past literature, resumes the more commons. The aim of the present review is to provide the main indications to face the principal pathologies an emergency surgeon has to face with during his daily activity.

Vallicelli Carlo; Coccolini Federico; Catena Fausto; Ansaloni Luca; Montori Giulia; Di Saverio Salomone; Pinna Antonio D

2011-01-01

136

Transport Through Cracked Concrete: Literature Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

2012-01-01

137

Acknowledging the back patient : A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment.

Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

138

Black spot analysis methods: literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this text, a literature review is given of the methods and techniques that are used to analyse black spots and black zones. Although, no universally accepted definition of a black spot or black zone is given, these locations will in general be described as high risk accident locations. In this co...

GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert

139

Prevention of pressure ulcers : Systematic literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treating a pressure ulcer takes lots of nursing personnel's time and is costly both in terms of human suffering and use of resources. The purpose of this study was to collect and assamble research data about the prevention of pressure ulcers. The study was done as a systematic literature review. Wi...

Kavonen, Heidi

140

A literature review on wet deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature on wet deposition or precipitation scavenging have been reviewed with special reference to predicting the radiological consequences of accidental contamination. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIAF-423-DK(SD). (author)

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Loneliness among elderly women: A literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Loneliness among elderly women: a literature review The loneliness project belongs to the nation-wide life into year´s project of the Espoo city. The subject about loneliness among elderly women has been considered as one of the health problems in this present context. There is limited number of re...

Karki, Anita

142

Thoughts on the Literature Review and GT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thinking about epistemic questions always reminds me of Socrates’ cave allegory. In Plato’s most famous book,The Republic, Socrates talks to a young follower named Glaucon. I would like to include here a short excerpt of their conversation and discuss how this relates to my thoughts about preceding a classic GT study with a thorough literature review.

Thoughts on the Literature Review and GT

2006-01-01

143

Eosinophilic otitis media a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in...

Thiagarajan, Balasubramanian; Stanley Medical College

144

Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

2013-01-01

145

Occlusal trauma in mixed dentition: literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Controversy over the relationship between occlusion and the progression of periodontal destruction has been ongoing since the beginning of scientific studies of dental diseases. This paper reviews the literature and explores the relationship between trauma from occlusion with periodontal disease in children, presenting recommendations for clinical practice based on the available evidence.

Consoli G; Luzzi V; Lerardo G; Sfasciotti GL; Polimeni A

2013-03-01

146

Managing boxer's fracture: A literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Boxer's fractures are commonly seen in emergency departments (EDs) but how these injuries are managed varies widely. This article reports on the results of a literature review of management strategies and the development of a boxer's fracture care pathway in a London ED.

Keenan M

2013-09-01

147

EOSINOPHILIC OTITIS MEDIA A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition

Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

2013-01-01

148

Dry cooling of coke - a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review covers the non-Russian literature (excluding patents) of roughly the past decade on the dry cooling of coke, (i.e. that noted in BCRA Review and BCRA Quarterly from the beginning of 1981 to date). The present review is divided into seven sections: (1) introduction; (2) plant design, materials, and actual installations; (3) simulation and control; (4) circulating gas composition, coke burnoff, and dust formation; (5) coke quality and its effects in the blast furnace; (6) utilization of recovered heat, and economics; and (7) environmental benefits. The review continues the BCRA practice of using the term 'dry cooling', not dry quenching as is common elsewhere as 'quenching' suggests a sudden reduction in temperature whereas the dry process involves a gradual reduction. The review is reproduced from BCRA Quarterly Review (34) p.42-72 (Jan 1992). 88 refs., 1 tab.

Edwards, D.G. (BCRA Scientific and Technical Services Limited, Chesterfield (United Kingdom))

1992-01-01

149

Is endocervical curettage necessary? A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Invasive cervical cancer develops from a pre-invasive state named cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).CIN 1 represents mild dysplasia and is now classified as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL); CIN 2 and 3lesions encompass moderate-to-severe dysplasia and are now classified as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(HGSILs) based on the Bethesda cervical cytology reporting system. Most LGSIL lesions resolve spontaneously, whereasHGSIL lesions are more likely to progress to invasive cervical cancer. However, HGSILs are typically detected an averageof 10 to 15 years before invasive cervical cancer. In women, the typical age range for diagnosis of invasive cancer isgreater than 40 years. High-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HRHPV) infection is required for the development of virtuallyall cervical cancer, and the time from initial HPV infection to development of cervical cancer usually exceeds 10 years.Colposcopies that are performed for abnormal papanicolaou (pap) smears of LGSIL and HRHPV can include ectocervicaland endocervical biopsies. Given the likelihood of (a) spontaneous resolution of LGSIL and HRHPV, (b) the time todevelopment of cervical cancer after initial diagnosis of HPV and (c) the improbability of invasive cervical cancerdeveloping in women less than 40 years of age, there is evidence to suggest that endocervical curettage at the time ofcolposcopy is not necessary in a subgroup of women who are at low risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. At thecurrent time, no evidence based guidelines exist about the necessity of endocervical curettage (ECC) at the time ofcolposcopy in women who are at low risk for invasive cervical cancer. Therefore, a literature review was conducted toanalyze literature as it related to ECC at the time of colposcopy in who are at low risk for invasive cervical cancer. Aparticular subgroup of women that are at low risk for development of cervical cancer are less than 35 years of age withLGSIL or HRHPV cytology, and women who are less than 35 years of age are at an even lower risk of developing invasivecervical cancer because of their more robust immune system. The purpose of the literature review was to summarizefindings about endocervical curettage at the time of colposcopy to propose a study that could be conducted to establishevidence based guidelines for ECC that could be utilized in practice.Methods: The literature review summarizes current empirical and theoretical knowledge related to ECC at the time ofcolposcopy in women who are less than 35 years of age with LGSIL or HRHPV cytology. Concepts and keywords of theproposed literature review include: ECC-based diagnosis in each of three categories (benign, CIN 1 and CIN >1),ectocervical-based biopsy in each of three categories (benign, CIN 1 and CIN >1), LGSIL, HRHPV, colposcopy, andcervical cancer. Primary and secondary literature was examined to elucidate gaps in the literature related to evidence basedguidelines for ECC at the time of colposcopy.Results: The literature review includes an analysis of the literature related to ECC at the time of colposcopy in womenwho were less than 35 years of age with Cervical Cytology of LGSIL or HRHPV. Additionally, the literature reviewprovides a critique of the studies that were reviewed, details gaps in the literature and enumerates the problem of noevidence based guidelines for ECC curettage at the time of colposcopy.Conclusions: There is an absence in the literature about evidence based guidelines for performing ECC at the time ofcolposcopy in women who are less than 35 years of age with LGSIL or HRHPV; and additionally a paucity exists in theliterature about ECC at the time of colposcopy in this same subgroup of women. Therefore, the literature reviewestablishes the foundation and background for future studies that examine the need for ECC in Women less than 35 yearsof age with Cervical Cytology of LGSIL or HRHPV at the time of colposcopy.

Karen Herold

2012-01-01

150

Integrated team working: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: This literature review was conducted to provide a background understanding of the literature around integrated health and social care prior to a research project evaluating two integrated health and social care teams in England, UK.Methods: A systematic literature search of relevant databases was employed to identify all articles relating to integrated health and social care teams produced in the last 10 years in the UK.Results: 16 articles were found and reviewed; all were reviewed by the first reviewer and half by the second reviewer.Discussion: Key themes identified were: drivers, barriers and benefits of integrated working; staff development; and meeting the needs of service users.Conclusion: Recommendations for integrated working include; a focus on the management of integrated teams; a need to invest in resources for the successful integration of teams; a need for the development of clear standards for monitoring the success and failure of integrated teams; and the need for further empirical evidence of the processes used by integrated teams. These findings will be valuable for practitioners who are establishing services or want to improve integrated care in their own practice.

Sian E. Maslin_Prothero; Amy E. Bennion

2010-01-01

151

Health Technology Assessment in nursing: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Health Technology Assessment (HTA) approach, which provides scientific support for the decisions taken within the health field, is of increasing importance worldwide. In a context of limited resources, HTA has the potential of being an efficient tool for addressing the sustainability problems and the allocation choices arising from the constant increase in demand. AIM: This study aims to investigate HTA use in nursing, both in terms of quantifying HTA evaluations of nursing phenomena which have been conducted and in terms of the extent to which nursing has used the HTA approach. The Italian context has been analysed because of the growing diffusion of the HTA in Italy along with the recent developments in the nursing profession. METHODS: A narrative review of international literature was undertaken using the following databases: HTA, PubMed, CINAHL, ILISI. RESULTS: Seventy evaluation studies on nursing were identified from the HTA database (1.12% of all studies in the database). The areas of nursing intervention and the country of origin of the studies were identified. Two nursing studies on the HTA approach were found in the PubMed, CINAHL and HTA databases. The first focused on the evaluation of nursing technology process and analysed 126 studies in six main thematic areas; the second was a systematic review on HTA in nursing and analysed 192 studies (46 meta-analyses, 31 Finnish primary studies, 117 international primary studies). Three Italian studies were identified from the ILISI database and Italian grey literature. DISCUSSION: In the international literature, although analyses regarding the efficacy of nursing interventions have been conducted, there are to date very few research projects that focus exclusively on the HTA process as applied to nursing. The recent development of a standardized nursing language coupled with the open debate as to which research method (qualitative vs. quantitative) best serves to 'read' nursing phenomena may explain the scarce diffusion of HTA in the field of nursing.

Ramacciati N

2013-03-01

152

Meta-narrative and realist reviews: guidance, rules, publication standards and quality appraisal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, there has been an expansion of different forms of systematic review of research and the development of guidance and standards about particular types of review. These reviews can be best understood within a broad framework of the dimensions on which reviews differ, and how the review methodology relates to the methodology of primary research. Similarly, publication standards can be understood in terms of their relation to other standards such as guidance and rules for undertaking reviews and systems for appraising the quality of reviews. This commentary is written with special reference to the publication standards for meta-narrative and realist reviews being published in BMC Medicine.See related research articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/21.

Gough D

2013-01-01

153

Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited

1978-01-01

154

Crush Syndrome Case Report and Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extensive muscle crush injury culminating in a crush syndrome or traumatic rhabdomyolysis is often lethal unless treated actively on war footing. The causes of death in crush syndrome include hypovolemic shock, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, acute myoglobinuric renal failure and the acute muscle – crush compartment syndrome. The literature is divided on the treatment, while some surgeons advocate early surgery others maintain, late surgery is best. We report a case of young man with crush syndrome presenting 10 hours after he was entrapped under his car following road traffic accident. An attempt has been made to review the literature on this topic.

Dinesh Dhar; TP Varghese

2010-01-01

155

A brief review of selective mutism literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective mutism is a disorder characterized by a persistent failure to speak in certain social situations. It is typically diagnosed in childhood, and the disorder can last from just a few months to several years in some individuals. Debate surrounds the origins and causes of this disorder. Recent literature suggests that selective mutism may be a form of social phobia. The present article is a brief review of the literature on the etiology, assessment, comorbid diagnoses, and treatment perspectives from several theoretical orientations, including behavioral, family systems, and psychopharmacological. PMID:12661702

Krysanski, Valerie L

2003-01-01

156

Embedded Academic Librarianship: A Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives – The purpose of this review is to examine the development of embedded librarianship, its multiple meanings, and activities in practice. The review will also report on published outcomes and future research needs of embedded librarian programs.Methods – A search of current literature was conducted and summarized searching PubMed, CINAHL, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (EBSCO), Academic Search Complete, and ERIC (EBSCO) through August 23, 2012. Articles wereselected for inclusion in the review if they reported research findings related to embedded librarianship, if they provided unique case reports about embedded librarian programs, or if they provided substantive editorial comments on the topic. Relevant study findings were assessed for quality and presented in tabular and narrative form.Results – Currently, there is disparity in how embedded librarianship is being definedand used in common practice, ranging from embedding an online component into asingle course to full physical and cultural integration into an academic college orbusiness unit of an organization. Activities of embedded librarians include creatingcourse integrated instruction modules for either face-to-face or online courses, providingin depth research assistance to students or faculty, and co-locating within colleges orcustomer units via office hours for a few hours to all hours per week. Several case reports exist in the recent literature. Few high quality research studies reporting outcomes of librarians or library programs labeled as embedded exist at this point. Some evidence suggests that embedded librarians are effective with regards to student learning of information literacy objectives. Surveys suggest that both students and faculty appreciate embedded librarian services.Conclusion – Most published accounts discuss librarians embedding content and ready access to services in an online course management system. A few notable cases describe the physical and cultural integration of librarians into the library user environs. Future research using valid quantitative methods is needed to explore the impact of large scale, customized, embedded programs.

Stephanie J. Schulte

2012-01-01

157

Homelessness among female veterans: a systematic review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors conducted a systematic, critical review of the literature to assess and summarize existing research on homelessness among female veterans. They searched seven electronic databases (ERIC, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, and Sociological Abstracts), websites of several government and research organizations, and reference lists of prior studies. They abstracted data on study design, funding source, and topic from studies meeting inclusion criteria and classified each study into one of the following categories: epidemiology, health and other services utilization, and interventions. The authors included both experimental and observational studies of interventions in the review and performed a narrative synthesis for each of the 26 studies identified. No studies were experimental, 20 were observational, and the remainder were either qualitative or descriptive. Of the 26 identified studies, 14 were epidemiologic, 7 focused on the health and additional service utilization, and 5 were intervention studies. Findings provided important baseline epidemiologic information about homelessness among female veterans and indicated that female veterans were at an increased risk of homelessness relative to their male veteran and female non-veteran counterparts. Additional research is needed to develop and implement effective, evidence-based programs to prevent and end homelessness among women veterans. The contents of this article do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.

Byrne T; Montgomery AE; Dichter ME

2013-01-01

158

Extrapelvic endometriosis: report of three cases and narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extrapelvic endometriosis is the presence of endometrialtissue distant of the uterus. The diagnosis is delay because itsprevalence is unknown and the clinic signs have many variations.Clinic suspicion is fundamental and is based in cyclic symptomsassociated with the menstrual period. Three clinic cases, one inthe cesarean scar, and two in the episiotomy scar and a review ofEnglish and Spanish publications in Medline, Proquest and Ovid are present

Ricardo Ortiz Serrano; Eliana Maribel Quintero Roa,

2005-01-01

159

Alcohol expectancy challenges for college students: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heavy alcohol use among college students has become a substantial health concern. With national survey data indicating that 40% of college students report consuming five or more alcoholic drinks at least monthly (Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2009), prevention and intervention programs are needed to address this problem. The Task Force on College Drinking, commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), designated alcohol expectancy challenges (ECs) as a recommended treatment strategy to reduce alcohol use among college students (NIAAA, 2002). This paper is a systematic critical review of the studies that have been conducted to assess for the efficacy of ECs among college students with a focus on changes in expectancies and alcohol consumption, and possible differences in efficacy for men and women. The review revealed that ECs were most efficacious when administered to male-only groups of participants; while ECs for female-only and mixed-gender groups demonstrated less consistent results. The implications of the findings of this critical review for the direction of future research are discussed.

Labbe AK; Maisto SA

2011-06-01

160

Gender discrimination and nursing: ? literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article aims to examine gender stereotypes in relation to men in nursing, discuss gender discrimination cases in nursing, and explore methods used for promoting equal educational opportunities during nursing studies. The literature review was based on related databases, such as CINAHL, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and EBSCO. Legal case studies are included in order to provide a more practical example of those barriers existing for men pursuing nursing, as well as statistical data concerning gender discrimination and male attrition to nursing schools in relation to those barriers. These strengthen the validity of the manuscript. Literature review showed that gender discrimination is still prevalent within nursing profession. Nursing faculty should prepare male nursing students to interact effectively with female clients as well. Role modeling the therapeutic relationship with clients is one strategy that may help male students. In general, the faculty should provide equal learning opportunities to nursing students.

Kouta C; Kaite CP

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Infiltration models for multicellular structuresa literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infiltration models are used to simulate the rates of incoming and outgoing air flows for a building with known leakage under given weather and shielding conditions. Additional information about the flow paths and air-mass flows inside the building can only be made available by using multichamber infiltration models. This review of the literature revealed the existence of 15 multichamber infiltration models, all developed between 1966 and 1983 and differing significantly in the number of cells they can handle, depending on the date of their development. In terms of the flow equations these programs use, they are very similar; most of the differences between them are in the description of the building and the algorithm provided for solving the set of nonlinear equations. In this literature review, the authors found that only a few of the 15 models are able to describe and simulate the ventilation system and the interrelation of mechanical and natural ventilation.

Feustel, H.E.; Kendon, V.M.

1985-05-01

162

Motives for barter : A literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Barter is not something that was present only before invention of money. Even Fortune 500 companies are involved in barter. The most common bartered goods and services are media and travel. As the amount of barter increases even in the U.S., it is worth investigating the reasons why organizations use barter. The paper provides a literature review of barter motives digested from academic journal articles covered in the Web of Science and EBSCO databases. The review includes also drivers that are specific for developing countries.

Sudzina, Frantisek

2011-01-01

163

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma: a review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma is a rare variant of osteosarcoma and hence its occurrence, presentation, and prognosis are poorly understood. With advancements in technology and available treatment options, the scenario of its diagnosis, management, and outcome has changed. Chemotherapy with surgery was challenged previously, but has now been proved to be beneficial. We reviewed the available literature and compared results to define the characteristics of the disease, its presentation, radiographic and pathologic features, optimal treatment, and prognosis.

Liu JJ; Liu S; Wang JG; Zhu W; Hua YQ; Sun W; Cai ZD

2013-01-01

164

Aortic atheromas and stroke: review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aortic atherosclerosis is the most common disease of the aortic arch, and patients with complicated aortic atheroma should be considered at risk of stroke. There is indeed controversy about whether and how to treat these patients. This review analyzes the literature data about the epidemiology, the association between atheroma and stroke, the classification of aortic atheroma plaques, the imaging diagnostic process, the therapeutics options, and the clinical trials performed in this clinical setting.

Vizzardi E; Gelsomino S; D'Aloia A; Lorusso R

2013-08-01

165

Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty - A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Professor Grammont revolutionised shoulder surgery with his reverse shoulder arthroplasty design. Patients who had poor results from a conventional shoulder replacement because of cuff deficiency can now be treated effectively. Although designed for cuff tear arthropathy, indications continue to evolve and broaden. The initial results look very promising and the implant has gained much popularity over the years. The article provides an extensive literature review of the indications, results and complications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

Mahmood, Aatif; Malal, Joby Jacob George; Waseem, Mohammed

2013-01-01

166

Female genital mutilation: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice involving the removal or alteration of parts of the female genitalia for non-therapeutic reasons. It may be carried out on cultural grounds, and is associated with immediate and long-term physical and psychological problems. This literature review explores the prevalence of and attitudes to FGM, personal experiences of women who have undergone the procedure and effective nursing care of this patient group.

Terry L; Harris K

2013-09-01

167

Community Libraries: a review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to conceptualize the term "community library" from a literature review. Thusto address some factors that help to characterize this type of library: history, objectives,management, users and collections. Based on research sources noted that the InformationScience, and more specifically the Librarianship has difficulty in defining what is CommunityLibrary. At the end of the article it appears the low amount of material, especially today,addressing the theme.

Cinthia Kath Blank

2010-01-01

168

Female genital mutilation: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice involving the removal or alteration of parts of the female genitalia for non-therapeutic reasons. It may be carried out on cultural grounds, and is associated with immediate and long-term physical and psychological problems. This literature review explores the prevalence of and attitudes to FGM, personal experiences of women who have undergone the procedure and effective nursing care of this patient group. PMID:24003818

Terry, Louise; Harris, Kate

2013-09-01

169

[Sclerosing perineurioma: case report and literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sclerosing perineurioma is a rare benign neoplasm composed exclusively of perineural differentiation cells spread in a dense fibrous stroma. It affects primarily the skin of fingers and that of the palm of the hands. It appears as a hard papule or nodule, normochromic and asymptomatic. A case of sclerosing perineurioma in the left palm of a 16-year-old female is described, with detailed demonstration of clinical aspects, histopathology and literature review published in the English language.

Vargas TJ; Sousa MA; Sampaio AL; Mourad JD; Golttlieb GJ

2009-11-01

170

Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty - A Literature Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Professor Grammont revolutionised shoulder surgery with his reverse shoulder arthroplasty design. Patients who had poor results from a conventional shoulder replacement because of cuff deficiency can now be treated effectively. Although designed for cuff tear arthropathy, indications continue to evolve and broaden. The initial results look very promising and the implant has gained much popularity over the years. The article provides an extensive literature review of the indications, results and complications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

Mahmood A; Malal JJ; Waseem M

2013-01-01

171

Towards Sustainable Facility Location – A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facility location methods play a crucial role in specifying the optimum location options for various types of facilities. A question that arises is what makes a facility location decision a sustainable one? Facility location, also known as location analysis, is a known concept in the literature, but sustainable facility location is not. This requires appropriately defining the concept and framing the problem in order to address the relevant issues. Facility location models in the existing literature do not effectively include all the requirements of sustainable development. This paper serves as a discussion of the current literature concerning the sustainability aspects of the location problem. The aim is to conduct a comprehensive literature review to identify the characteristics of the sustainable facility location problem and propose a framework for classification of sustainability characteristics. The study shows that the location literature has steadily progressed toward considering not only economic but also social and environmental criteria in location decisions; but that many steps remain to be taken toward developing location models that integrate all three aspects of sustainability into decision making. The main motivation for the current study is to provide a foundation from which issues of sustainable development can be built into facility location and siting models.

Seyyed Amin Terouhid; Robert Ries; Maryam Mirhadi Fard

2012-01-01

172

Medicinal leech therapy in pain syndromes: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicinal leech therapy is used in a variety of conditions; most of which have pain as a major symptom. Its mode of action relies on the injection of leech saliva into patients' tissues during the process of blood withdrawal. Leech saliva contains active ingredients with anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, anti-coagulant and blood- and lymph-circulation enhancing properties. A specific analgesic substance within the leech saliva is yet to be identified. Pain relief from leech therapy is rapid, effective and long-lasting in many conditions. This review compiles studies and case reports that provide clinical evidence for leech therapy's analgesic effects.

Koeppen D; Aurich M; Rampp T

2013-10-01

173

The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives: a critical narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting between 2 and 17% of women of reproductive age. Common symptoms are chronic pelvic pain, fatigue, congestive dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding and deep dyspareunia. Studies have demonstrated the considerable negative impact of this condition on women's quality of life (QoL), especially in the domains of pain and psychosocial functioning. The impact of endometriosis is likely to be exacerbated by the absence of an obvious cause and the likelihood of chronic, recurring symptoms. The aims of this paper are to review the current body of knowledge on the social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives; to provide insights into women's experience of endometriosis; to provide a critical commentary on the current state of knowledge and to make recommendations for future psycho-social research. METHODS The review draws on a method of critical narrative synthesis to discuss a heterogeneous range of both quantitative and qualitative studies from several disciplines. This included a systematic search, a structured process for selecting and collecting data and a systematic thematic analysis of results. RESULTS A total of 42 papers were included in the review; 23 used quantitative methods, 16 used qualitative methods and 3 were mixed methods studies. The majority of papers came from just four countries: UK (10), Australia (8), Brazil (6) and the USA (5). Key categories of impact identified in the thematic analysis were diagnostic delay and uncertainty; 'QoL' and everyday activities; intimate relationships; planning for and having children; education and work; mental health and emotional wellbeing and medical management and self-management. CONCLUSIONS Endometriosis has a significant social and psychological impact on the lives of women across several domains. Many studies have methodological limitations and there are significant gaps in the literature especially in relation to a consideration of the impact on partners and children. We recommend additional prospective and longitudinal research utilizing mixed methods approaches and endometriosis-specific instruments to explore the impact of endometriosis in more diverse populations and settings. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to develop and evaluate interventions for supporting women and partners living with this chronic and often debilitating condition. PMID:23884896

Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline; Hudson, Nicky; Denny, Elaine; Mitchell, Helene; Baumgarten, Miriam; Raine-Fenning, Nick

2013-07-24

174

The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives: a critical narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUNDEndometriosis is a chronic condition affecting between 2 and 17% of women of reproductive age. Common symptoms are chronic pelvic pain, fatigue, congestive dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding and deep dyspareunia. Studies have demonstrated the considerable negative impact of this condition on women's quality of life (QoL), especially in the domains of pain and psychosocial functioning. The impact of endometriosis is likely to be exacerbated by the absence of an obvious cause and the likelihood of chronic, recurring symptoms. The aims of this paper are to review the current body of knowledge on the social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives; to provide insights into women's experience of endometriosis; to provide a critical commentary on the current state of knowledge and to make recommendations for future psycho-social research.METHODSThe review draws on a method of critical narrative synthesis to discuss a heterogeneous range of both quantitative and qualitative studies from several disciplines. This included a systematic search, a structured process for selecting and collecting data and a systematic thematic analysis of results.RESULTSA total of 42 papers were included in the review; 23 used quantitative methods, 16 used qualitative methods and 3 were mixed methods studies. The majority of papers came from just four countries: UK (10), Australia (8), Brazil (6) and the USA (5). Key categories of impact identified in the thematic analysis were diagnostic delay and uncertainty; 'QoL' and everyday activities; intimate relationships; planning for and having children; education and work; mental health and emotional wellbeing and medical management and self-management.CONCLUSIONSEndometriosis has a significant social and psychological impact on the lives of women across several domains. Many studies have methodological limitations and there are significant gaps in the literature especially in relation to a consideration of the impact on partners and children. We recommend additional prospective and longitudinal research utilizing mixed methods approaches and endometriosis-specific instruments to explore the impact of endometriosis in more diverse populations and settings. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to develop and evaluate interventions for supporting women and partners living with this chronic and often debilitating condition.

Culley L; Law C; Hudson N; Denny E; Mitchell H; Baumgarten M; Raine-Fenning N

2013-07-01

175

Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Reseña: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jane ELLIOTT hat mit Using Narrative in Social Research einen originären und gut zugänglichen Beitrag zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Methodenliteratur geleistet. Die Originalität ist insbesondere den beiden Zielen geschuldet, die sie mit diesem Buch verfolgt: ELLIOTT beschreibt nicht nur qualitative und quantitative narrationsanalytische Verfahren, sondern sie nutzt das Konzept der "Narration" auch zur Dekonstruktion traditioneller Grenzen zwischen qualitativer und quantitativer Sozialforschung. Im Grunde kommt dem zweiten Ziel auch größere Aufmerksamkeit zu, und insoweit eröffnet das Buch auch weniger eine praktische Annäherung an Narrationsanalysen als der Titel des Buches vermuten lassen würde. Vor allem anderen erlaubt Using Narrative in Social Research insbesondere fortgeschrittenen Studierenden und Forschenden eine profunde Reflektion des Gegensatzes zwischen qualitativen und quantitativen Ansätzen sowie Möglichkeiten, über diesen Gegensatz hinauszugehen. Obwohl das Buch für alle Sozialwissenschaftler(innen) lesenswert ist, richtet es sich doch in erster Linie an ein eher "quantitatives Publikum", um es für den "interpretive turn" zu interessieren. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602192With Using Narrative in Social Research Jane ELLIOTT has made an original and very accessible contribution to the methodological literature in social research. The originality of the work lies most of all in its double aim. ELLIOTT not only presents both qualitative and quantitative approaches to narrative analysis but also uses the concept of narrative as a sensitizing tool to explore and to deconstruct the boundaries between qualitative and quantitative social research. Actually, this second aim receives more attention than the first. Consequently, the book offers less practical guidance to the analysis of narratives than its title suggests. Most of all it provides advanced students and researchers with a sound reflection on the qualitative-quantitative divide and on possible ways to overcome it. Although insightful for every social scientist, the book tries in the first place to win the "quantitative audience" for an interpretive turn. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602192Con Uso de la narrativa en la investigación social, Jane ELLIOTT realiza una contribución original y muy accesible a la literatura metodológica en investigación social. La originalidad del trabajo consiste sobre todo en su doble objetivo: ELLIOT no solo presenta las aproximaciones cualitativa y cuantitativa al análisis narrativo, también utiliza el concepto de narrativa como una herramienta sensible para explorar y deconstruir las fronteras entre investigación social cualitativa y cuantitativa. Realmente, este segundo objetivo recibe una mayor atención que el primero. En consecuencia, el libro ofrece menos orientación práctica para el análisis de narrativas de lo que sugiere el título. Sobre todo proporciona a estudiantes avanzados e investigadores una profunda reflexión sobre la división cualitativo-cuantitativo y posibles modos de superarla. Aunque es intuitivo para cualquier investigador social, el libro trata en primer término de ganar a la "audiencia cuantitativa" para un giro interpretativo. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602192

Leen Beyers

2006-01-01

176

Epicardial fat and vascular risk: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We comment on the associations between epicardial adiposity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors. The effects of lifestyle measures and CVD drugs on cardiac adipose tissue are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epicardial adipose tissue exerts cardioprotective properties; however, in cases of pathological enlargement, epicardial fat can lead to myocardial inflammation and dysfunction as well as left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery disease (CAD) due to paracrine actions that include increased production of reactive oxygen species, atherogenic and inflammatory cytokines. Cardiac adiposity is associated with CAD, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease, as well as with CVD risk factors such as lipids, hypertension, obesity markers, and carotid atherosclerosis. SUMMARY: Due to its anatomical and functional proximity to the coronary circulation, epicardial adipose tissue may represent an even more direct CVD risk marker than central adiposity. Lifestyle measures and certain drugs may affect its thickness, although there are limited data currently available. The clinical implications of epicardial fat in daily practice remain to be established in future studies.

Katsiki N; Mikhailidis DP; Wierzbicki AS

2013-07-01

177

Blood conservation devices in critical care: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaemia is associated with inferior outcomes in critically ill patients. It is difficult to prevent and is treated commonly with the transfusion of packed red cells. However, transfusion to augment oxygen delivery has not been shown to consistently offer a survival advantage when the haemoglobin concentration exceeds 7 g/dL. Several studies point to inferior outcomes when patients are transfused. Observational studies have confirmed that critically ill patients have frequent blood draws as part of their routine daily care. Cumulatively large volumes of blood are frequently taken, which contribute significantly towards the development of anaemia. Reducing iatrogenic blood loss may reduce the risk of developing anaemia and possibly the need for transfusion. Blood conservation devices may help to achieve this goal. The integration of blood conservation devices into routine care has been relatively slow in critical care. This review summarises the current evidence base and confirms that blood conservation devices do reduce the volume of iatrogenic blood loss. In the most recent studies, these devices have been shown to reduce transfusion requirements even in those intensive care units that follow a restrictive transfusion strategy. PMID:23714376

Page, Catherine; Retter, Andrew; Wyncoll, Duncan

2013-05-28

178

Blood conservation devices in critical care: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaemia is associated with inferior outcomes in critically ill patients. It is difficult to prevent and is treated commonly with the transfusion of packed red cells. However, transfusion to augment oxygen delivery has not been shown to consistently offer a survival advantage when the haemoglobin concentration exceeds 7 g/dL. Several studies point to inferior outcomes when patients are transfused. Observational studies have confirmed that critically ill patients have frequent blood draws as part of their routine daily care. Cumulatively large volumes of blood are frequently taken, which contribute significantly towards the development of anaemia. Reducing iatrogenic blood loss may reduce the risk of developing anaemia and possibly the need for transfusion. Blood conservation devices may help to achieve this goal. The integration of blood conservation devices into routine care has been relatively slow in critical care. This review summarises the current evidence base and confirms that blood conservation devices do reduce the volume of iatrogenic blood loss. In the most recent studies, these devices have been shown to reduce transfusion requirements even in those intensive care units that follow a restrictive transfusion strategy.

Page C; Retter A; Wyncoll D

2013-05-01

179

Instrumentation of dental implants: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to review the literature on the systems used to decontaminate the implant’s surface. Different instruments have been proposed, but there is no agreement in the literature about which methods would be more efficient with no damage to the implant surface. It was reported the use of plastic, carbon fiber, stainless-steel and titanium curettes and also the use of other systems such as ultrasonic points with different tips, rubber cups and air abrasion. Literature review: In most of the studies, the injury caused on the titanium surface at the time of instrumentation was examined. In others, the cell adhesion on the titanium dental implants following instrumentation of the implant surface was observed. Moreover, to enhance cleaning around implants, ultrasonic systems were recently tested. Conclusion: Metal instruments can lead to major damage to implant surface, therefore, they are not indicated for decontamination of dental implants surfaces. Furthermore, non-metallic instruments, such as plastic curettes, rubber cups, air abrasion and some ultrasonic systems seem to be better choices to remove calculus and plaque of the sub- and supra-gingival peri-implant area. It is noteworthy that more studies evaluating the effects of these systems are required to establish best practices to be used in the treatment of patients with dental implants.

Fabiana de Almeida Curylofo; Lígia Araújo Barbosa; Ana Lúcia Roselino; Laiza Maria Grassi Fais; Luís Geraldo Vaz

2013-01-01

180

The healers journey: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While much important research has gone into identifying the efficacy and importance that healing interventions can make to healthcare this paper seeks to synthesise some of the core themes of the processes that healers go through in their journey to becoming a healer. Through the process of a literature review of seminal texts and current literature the paper identifies the key themes of, healer as facilitator, connecting to sources of healing, an appreciation of the healee, an expanded sense of spirituality, an acknowledgement of the wider archetypal significance of the healer, the importance of the wound and the role that these can play in the process of personal transformation and also acceptance. In doing so it hopes to offer that the journey of the healer plays a crucial role in guiding the quality of the healing that healers share in a healing encounter.

Kenny G

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Onychomatricoma: a case report with literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onychomatricoma (OM) is a fibroepithelial tumor of nail matrix that occurs in the digits of both the hands and feet. This was first reported by Baran and Kint. They initially described 3 cases, all of which demonstrated a filamentous tumor of matrix tissue that resulted in a thickened funnel-shaped nail. Although apparently benign, it is subject to recurrence, and long-term follow-up is recommended because it is not known whether there is a conversion to malignancy. Even though this neoplasm was first described more than 18 years ago, there remains a dearth of case reports (currently fewer than 50) in the literature. This is a single case report and literature review. Levels of Evidence : Therapeutic, Level IV.

Durrant MN; Palla BA; Binder SW

2012-02-01

182

Social marketing and breastfeeding: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. METHOD: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. RESULTS: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally.

Schmidt M

2013-05-01

183

Social Marketing and Breastfeeding: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. Results: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Conclusions: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally.

Manuela Schmidt

2013-01-01

184

Understanding Knowledge Management: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM) characterizing the various terminologies and aims to explore the world of KM in a different way, to review the current status andanalyze the main contributions, agreements and disagreements among researchers and practitioners. It provides a high-level overview of a number of key terms, concepts, traditional definition and theoryinvolved with KM, which are critically reviewed and their features are highlighted. Approaches to KM process are considered and their connections and differences are discussed. There are a number of different approaches to the KM process such as those by Dagnfous & Kah(2006), Lee et.al.(2005), Wong & Aspinwall (2004), Bukowitz & Williams (2003), Mc Elory (1999), Meyer & Zack (1996), and Wiig(1993). By comparing and doing the critical analysis of these approaches, the major stages are identified as Knowledge capture and creation, Knowledge organization and retention, Knowledge dissemination and Knowledge utilization. At the end we have summarized the benefits of KM. The main contribution of this study is the compilation of literature on KM and to understand the basic concepts and different approaches, depending on their more descriptive perspective.

Apurva Anand; M.D.Singh

2011-01-01

185

Implant platform switching concept: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The platform switching concept involves the reduction of the restoration abutment diameter with respect to the diameter of dental implant. Long-term follow up around these wide-platforms showed higher levels of bone preservation. AIM: The aim of this article is to carry out a literature review of studies which deal with the influence of platform-switched implants in hard and soft oral tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All papers involving "platform switching" that are indexed in MedLine and published between 2005 and 2011 were used. Clinical cases, experimental and non-experimental studies were included, as well as literature reviews. RESULTS: In our search, we analized 18 clinical cases and 3 reviews. The results indicate that peri-implant bone resorption is reduced with platform switching system. CONCLUSIONS: All papers written by different researchers show an improvement in peri-implant bone preservation and satisfactory aesthetic results. Further long-term studies are necessary to confirm these results.

Cumbo C; Marigo L; Somma F; La Torre G; Minciacchi I; D'Addona A

2013-02-01

186

A literature review of safety culture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of safety culture, organizations have a better chance of understanding, evaluating, and making positive changes towards safety within their own organization.

Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

2013-03-01

187

Work motivation of nurses: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to describe nurses' work motivation from the perspective of staff nurses. This information would be useful for the development of motivation strategies and further research into nurses' work motivation. DESIGN: A thorough review of the research literature. DATA SOURCES: The literature search was performed using four databases: CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and SocINDEX. Only studies that met the following criteria were selected for review: (1) were published between 1990 and 2009, (2) were written in English, (3) dealt with work motivation, (4) concerned working staff nurses, (5) involved empirical research, (6) clearly and explicitly provided the research results about the factors affecting nurses' work motivation. Altogether 24 studies met these criteria and were included in this review. REVIEW METHODS: Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. RESULTS: Nursing research has neither clear understanding nor consensus about the concept of work motivation; nor has a universal definition been adopted. Despite limited empirical evidence it may be concluded that staff nurses appear to be motivated. Five categories of factors affecting their work motivation were identified: (1) work-place characteristics, (2) working conditions, (3) personal characteristics, (4) individual priorities, and (5) internal psychological states. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive insight into nurses' work motivation and the factors affecting it. This can be achieved by defining the concept of work motivation as precisely as possible, working out a pertinent research methodology, and subsequently developing and testing a theoretical model of nurses' work motivation.

Toode K; Routasalo P; Suominen T

2011-02-01

188

Symptom response following acute bouts of exercise in concussed and non-concussed individuals - A systematic narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Athletes suspected of being concussed are frequently evaluated on the side-line for self-reported symptoms which guide subsequent management and return-to-play decisions. Concussion-like symptoms have been shown to be influenced by prior participation in physical activity; however, the potential contribution of acute exercise on symptoms is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature in order to further understand the acute effects of exercise on documented self-reported symptoms in both concussed and non-concussed individuals. DESIGN: Systematic narrative review. METHODS: Nine electronic databases were systematically searched using keywords and MeSH terms that included; self-reported symptoms, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, exercise and athletic injuries. In addition, an extensive search of the grey literature was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 785 articles retrieved, only five met the inclusion criteria comprising a total of 295 concussed and non-concussed participants. In general, the mean symptom scores increased from pre-exercise to post-exercise levels immediately following acute bouts of exercise in both concussed and non-concussed individuals. CONCLUSION: Although the symptom scores increased following exercise in both concussed and non-concussed participants, this increase was only maintained for a relatively short duration. Thus, the application to real world situation is still to be established.

Balasundaram AP; Sullivan JS; Schneiders AG; Athens J

2013-07-01

189

Thoughts about conceptual models, theories, and literature reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This essay focuses on various types of literature reviews, including scoping reviews, realist reviews, and integrative reviews. As contributions to understanding the state of nursing science about a particular topic, each literature review should be but rarely is guided by a nursing conceptual model, and the research findings should be but rarely are interpreted as theories that were generated or tested. Examples that are exceptions to usual literature reviews are given.

Fawcett J

2013-07-01

190

The methodological quality of systematic reviews published in high-impact nursing journals: a review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyse systematic review articles published in the top 10 nursing journals to determine the quality of the methods employed within them. BACKGROUND: Systematic review is defined as a scientific research method that synthesises high-quality scientific knowledge on a given topic. The number of such reviews in nursing science has increased dramatically during recent years, but their methodological quality has not previously been assessed. DESIGN: A review of the literature using a narrative approach. METHODS: Ranked impact factor scores for nursing journals were obtained from the Journal Citation Report database of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge). All issues from the years 2009 and 2010 of the top 10 ranked journals were included. CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched to locate studies using the search terms 'systematic review' and 'systematic literature review'. A total of 39 eligible studies were identified. Their methodological quality was evaluated through the specific criteria of quality assessment, description of synthesis and strengths and weaknesses reported in the included studies. RESULTS: Most of the eligible systematic reviews included several different designs or types of quantitative study. The majority included a quality assessment, and a total of 17 different criteria were identified. The method of synthesis was mentioned in about half of the reviews, the most common being narrative synthesis. The weaknesses of reviews were discussed, while strengths were rarely highlighted. CONCLUSION: The methodological quality of the systematic reviews examined varied considerably, although they were all published in nursing journals with a high-impact factor. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Despite the fact that systematic reviews are considered the most robust source of research evidence, they vary in methodological quality. This point is important to consider in clinical practice when applying the results to patient care.

Pölkki T; Kanste O; Kääriäinen M; Elo S; Kyngäs H

2013-03-01

191

Nurse turnover: a literature review - an update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Concerns related to the complex issue of nursing turnover continue to challenge healthcare leaders in every sector of health care. Voluntary nurse turnover is shown to be influenced by a myriad of inter-related factors, and there is increasing evidence of its negative effects on nurses, patients and health care organizations. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to conduct a comprehensive review of the related literature to examine recent findings related to the issue of nursing turnover and its causes and consequences, and to identify on methodological challenges and the implications of new evidence for future studies. DESIGN: A comprehensive search of the recent literature related to nursing turnover was undertaken to summarize findings published in the past six years. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PubMed, reference lists of journal publications. REVIEW METHODS: Keyword searches were conducted for publications published 2006 or later that examined turnover or turnover intention in employee populations of registered or practical/enrolled or assistant nurses working in the hospital, long-term or community care areas. Literature findings are presented using an integrative approach and a table format to report individual studies. RESULTS: From about 330 citations or abstracts that were initially scanned for content relevance, 68 studies were included in this summary review. The predominance of studies continues to focus on determinants of nurse turnover in acute care settings. Recent studies offer insight into generational factors that should be considered in strategies to promote stable staffing in healthcare organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing turnover continues to present serious challenges at all levels of health care. Longitudinal research is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships between nurse turnover and related costs, and the impact on patients and the health care team.

Hayes LJ; O'Brien-Pallas L; Duffield C; Shamian J; Buchan J; Hughes F; Laschinger HK; North N

2012-07-01

192

Why residents should teach: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resident doctors contribute significantly to the quality of undergraduate medical training and it is assumed that by participating in the process, they also improve their own professional competency. We decided to investigate whether there is evidence to support this assumption. Our hypothesis, the physician-as-teacher rule, stated that 'A skilled teacher has an increased likelihood of becoming a competent clinician, than a skilled clinician has of becoming a competent teacher' . We conducted a literature review to search for evidence to confirm or refute this assumption. Twenty-four articles written after 1990 were identified as relevant from 132 references we generated by searching Medline. The identified articles were qualitatively reviewed to identify key research conclusions and/or main discussion points. The findings from the review were collated and discussed. None of the studies showed specific evidence of how teaching results in improved professional competence. However, there was evidence that teaching ability correlated positively with the perception of clinical competency. There was also need for improved supervision and training programmes for residents in teaching skills. The review provided evidence that teaching influenced the perceived professional competency of physicians positively. Physicians who were perceived as competent were those who taught effectively, and who had a basic understanding of teaching and learning. The review shows that training in teaching is essential for physicians, and that further research is still needed to demonstrate the effect of good teaching on professional competency.

Busari J; Scherpbier Albert

2004-01-01

193

Appendix E – Literature Review on Anterior Vault of the ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... The sponsor was asked for a literature review, however, DOED has decided to do an internal literature review to understand the full scope of the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

194

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Preschool Age Children Tables  

Science.gov (United States)

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Dietary Assessment Literature Review: Home About the Literature Review Methodology Age Groups Pregnancy and Lactation Infants

195

Emphysematous gastritis: case report and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis that results from infection of the stomach wall by gas-forming organisms. Diagnosis of this commonly fatal condition rests on radiological demonstration of gas within the stomach wall. This can be observed on plain radiographs or CT scans of the abdomen. Only by prompt diagnosis and treatment can mortality be avoided. A new case of empysematous gastritis, diagnosed on CT scan by the demonstration of both intramural and portal venous gas, is presented and the literature is reviewed. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2001-01-01

196

Queilitis: Revisión bibliográfica Cheilitis: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realiza una actualización bibliográfica de la queilitis, en la que se analizan las formas clínicas más generales de su presentación. Se muestran los datos recogidos de mayor interés sobre su sinonimia, clasificación, etiología y patogenia. Se muestran los diferentes métodos terapéuticos utilizados incluyendo la medicina natural y tradicional, la homeopatía y el láser como alternativas de tratamiento.A literature review of cheilitis was made in which the most general clinical forms of presentation were analyzed. Interesting data on synonyms, classification, etiology and pathogeny were presented. Various therapeutic methods including herb and traditional medicine, homeopathy and laser technique were offered as treatment options.

Eneida García López; Antonio O. Blanco Ruiz; Luis Orlando Rodríguez García; Delis Reyes Fundora; Jorge Sotres Vázquez

2004-01-01

197

Conforto: revisão de literatura Comfort: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A autora apresenta uma revisão de literatura sobre o tema conforto. Retrata analiticamente a concepção, as definições encontradas e os estudos que focaram o conforto sob a perspectiva dos sujeitos. Destaca algumas lacunas existentes nesta área do conhecimento e sugere aspectos importantes a serem considerados no desenvolvimento de pesquisas.The authoress presents a literature review on the comfort theme and analytically describes conceptualizations, discovered definitions, and studies focusing comfort from the subjects' perspective; a number of existing gaps within this area of knowledge are emphasized and suggestions are made concerning the important aspects in the research development.

Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

1996-01-01

198

Otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of cystic fibrosis: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic Fibrosis is the most common recessive autosomic genetic disease among Caucasians. It's caused by mutations in the gene that decodes regulatory protein for transmembrane conductance, resulting in defective transport of chlorine. Objective: Review the literature about Cystic Fibrosis, with emphasis on otorhinolaryngologic manifestations. Method: The online Pub Med databases were researched and we applied the following search terms Fibrosis Cystic and Sinusitis, and Mucoviscidosis and Sinusitis. Conclusions: Although it is not the main cause of death, the otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of the Cystic Fibrosis bring important morbidity to these patients.

Carvalho, Carolina Pimenta; Teixeira, Daniel Caldeira; Ribeiro, Carolina Gonçalves; Barreiros, Aureliano Carneiro; Fonseca, Marconi Teixeira

2008-01-01

199

Queilitis: Revisión bibliográfica/ Cheilitis: Literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realiza una actualización bibliográfica de la queilitis, en la que se analizan las formas clínicas más generales de su presentación. Se muestran los datos recogidos de mayor interés sobre su sinonimia, clasificación, etiología y patogenia. Se muestran los diferentes métodos terapéuticos utilizados incluyendo la medicina natural y tradicional, la homeopatía y el láser como alternativas de tratamiento. Abstract in english A literature review of cheilitis was made in which the most general clinical forms of presentation were analyzed. Interesting data on synonyms, classification, etiology and pathogeny were presented. Various therapeutic methods including herb and traditional medicine, homeopathy and laser technique were offered as treatment options.

García López, Eneida; Blanco Ruiz, Antonio O.; Rodríguez García, Luis Orlando; Reyes Fundora, Delis; Sotres Vázquez, Jorge

2004-08-01

200

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): a review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease in children and an exceptionally rare occurrence in adults. It is categorized broadly into primary (familial) or the secondary types; the latter being associated most commonly with an underlying malignancy. HLH carries a high rate of mortality, and the treatment itself is associated with significant morbidity and risk of mortality. A high degree of suspicion for the diagnosis, early treatment and aggressive supportive care is critical for management. We present a comprehensive review of literature describing the clinical features, diagnosis, management and outcome of HLH. PMID:24105023

Mehta, Rohtesh S; Smith, Roy E

2013-10-09

 
 
 
 
201

Collaboration for Improved Disease Surveillance Literature Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ObjectiveTo improve the method of automated retrieval of surveillance-related literature from a wide range of indexed repositories.IntroductionThe ISDS Research Committee (RC) is an interdisciplinary group of researchers interested in various topics related to disease surveillance. The RC hosts a literature review process with a permanent repository of relevant journal articles and bimonthly calls that provide a forum for discussion and author engagement. The calls have led to workgroups and society-wide events, boosted interest in the ISDS Conference, and fostered networking among participants.Since 2007, the RC has identified and classified published articles using an automated search method with the aim of progressing ISDS’s mission of advancing the science and practice of disease surveillance by fostering collaboration and increasing awareness of innovations in the field of surveillance. The RC literature review efforts have provided an opportunity for interprofessional collaboration and have resulted in a repository of over 1,000 articles, but feedback from ISDS members indicated relevant articles were not captured by the existing methodology. The method of automated literature retrieval was thus refined to improve efficiency and inclusiveness of stakeholder interests.MethodsThe earlier literature review method was implemented from March 2007 to March 2012. PubCrawler [1] (articles indexed in Medline) and Google Scholar [2] search results were sent to the RC via automated e-mail. To refine this method, the RC developed search strings in PubMed [3], Embase [4], and Scopus [5], consisting of over 100 terms suggested by members. After evaluating these methods, we found that the Scopus search is the most comprehensive and improved the cross-disciplinary scope. Scopus results allowed filtering of 50–100 titles and abstracts in fewer than 30 minutes each week for the identification of relevant articles (Figure).Journal titles were categorized to assess the increased range of fields covered; categories include epidemiology, agriculture, economics, and medicine (51 categories total).ResultsSince implementing the new method, potentially relevant articles identified per month increased from an average of 19 (SD: 13; n= 31) to 159 (SD: 63; n= 3). Both methods identified articles in the health sciences, but the new search also captured articles in the life, physical, and social sciences. Between March 2007 and March 2012, articles selected were classified into an average of 10 different categories per literature review (SD: 4; n= 31) versus an average of 33 categories (SD: 5; n= 3) with the updated process.ConclusionsThe new search method improves upon the previous method – it captures relevant articles indexed in health science and other secondary databases beyond Medline. The new method has resulted in a greater number of relevant literature articles, from a broader range of disciplines, and in reduced amount of preparation time as compared to the results of the previous search method. This improvement may increase multi-disciplinary discussions and partnerships, but changes in online publishing pose challenges to continued access of the new range of articles.

Reynolds T; Suda K; Reeder B; Storm W; Ozonoff A; Burkom H

2013-01-01

202

Effective shift handover - a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews available literature on the topic of shift handover. The topic is defined and the task of controlling complex systems is examined, with particular reference to the offshore industry. Relevant theoretical work on effective communication is described and implications for effective communication at shift handover are drawn. The report then examines published accidents/incidents, where failures of communication at shift handover were amongst the contributory causal factors. Lessons from these incidents for effective shift handover are also explored. Various studies and surveys which have sought to understand and improve the process of shift handover are then described. Finally, existing guidance on shift handover is analysed and compared to knowledge which has been identified elsewhere in the review. (author)

Lardner, R.

1996-06-01

203

[Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.

Brandão DF; Martín JI

2012-06-01

204

[Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study. PMID:23155599

Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

2012-06-01

205

Postoperative pain assessment in pediatric patients : a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this literature review was to explore the methods and tools used in postoperative pediatric pain assessment. The purpose of this literature review was to conduct a comprehensive description of pain assessment in pediatric patients in surgical settings. The literature review is based on ...

Kontkanen, Irene; Kariniemi, Tristan

206

[The cost of schizophrenia: a literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia represents a major burden for patients, their families, healthcare systems and societies. The objective of this literature review is to document the economic burden of schizophrenia. METHOD: The literature search was performed using the MEDLINE-PUBMED database and the following keywords: schizophrenia and cost, burden of disease, qaly or price. The grey literature search was performed using several databases (e.g. Banque de Données en Santé Publique) and the Google Scholar(®) web search engine. The studies that met the following criteria were included: published since 1998, written in English or French, studied OECD countries and presented costs data that were given in monetary terms. The costs data identified in the literature were classified into the following five main categories: cost for healthcare system, cost for social and medico-social system (medico-social system is a French specificity), cost for prison and legal systems, cost of informal care given by family, and cost associated with productivity losses. To improve comparability, costs were reported as a percentage of health care expenditures and as a per-ten-thousand of GDP (gross domestic product). RESULTS: Among the 201 articles identified as potentially relevant to the topic, nine were included in the literature review. Schizophrenia health care costs ranged from four (Ireland) to 140000 of GDP (Spain). Hospital care was the main health care cost driver but ranged from 19 (USA) to 92% (Belgium) demonstrating a great variability in treatment patterns. The costs for social and medico-social system ranged from 1.3 (Korea) to 13.80000 of GDP (USA) and the costs of informal caregivers ranged from 1.2 (Australia) to 12.70000 of GDP (Spain). The productivity losses associated with unemployment ranged from 6.2 (Australia) to 21.30000 of GDP (USA). The productivity losses associated with premature mortality ranged from less than 0.01 (Canada) to 3.850000 (Ireland). Among others factors, such as targeted population, the choice of valuation method between "Friction costs" and "Human Capital" could account for the heterogeneity of estimates. DISCUSSION: Median health care costs of schizophrenia represented 1.1% of total national health care expenditures. Productivity losses associated with morbidity constituted the major cost burden of schizophrenia. Valuation method, costs items, target populations and prevalence rates differed widely from study to study. Furthermore, the burden attributable to loss of quality of life was not estimated in the studies. CONCLUSION: Cost-of-illness studies of schizophrenia provide information about its burden on society. The external validity of such studies however is poor and justifies country-specific data collection.

Charrier N; Chevreul K; Durand-Zaleski I

2013-05-01

207

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare soft tissue tumor that is locally aggressive and has traditionally had a high rate of recurrence after surgical intervention. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on DFSP and present its epidemiology, clinical features, histology, immunohistochemisty, tumor biology, prognosis, and treatment options. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review using PubMed search for articles related to DFSP. RESULTS: DFSP is a slow-growing tumor that often presents as a skin-colored plaque on the trunk, although it may arise anywhere on the body. DFSP has a distinctive histologic appearance but can mimic other diseases, and immunhistochemical studies can be helpful in making the diagnosis of DFSP. Most tumors have a translocation between chromosomes 17 and 22. Surgery is the treatment of choice, in the form of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) or wide local excision (WLE), although imatinib has emerged as a promising treatment option for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: For DFSP, MMS is associated with a lower rate of recurrence than WLE and is particularly useful for tumors on the head and neck. Imatinib is used in advanced disease and may take on a larger role in the treatment of DFSP in the future.

Bogucki B; Neuhaus I; Hurst EA

2012-04-01

208

Regional Innovation Systems: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though various authors have offered reviews of the Regional Innovation Systems (RIS) literature and some have described their personal intellectual voyage amongst the building blocks that constitute this area of scientific enquiry (for example, Cooke 2008), these often illuminating illustrations are nonetheless subjective and, thus, suffer from biases which pertain to the actor performing the analysis. The study proposed in this paper aims to overcome the aforementioned limitation by elaborating an objective review of the main contributions to the RIS field of research, highlighting the main themes studied and the principal approaches followed. The analysis has been conducted following the Author Co-citation method, applied to the literature regarding RIS present in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) of Thomson-ISI in the time span from 1990 to 2009. The results allow to trace an overview of how the RIS research area is actually composed, identifying six main research themes which characterize the field and varied approaches according to which each theme has been analyzed. Main contributions are positioned against each other in order to foster an increase in efforts from future research.

Giorgia M. D'Allura; Marco Galvagno

2012-01-01

209

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease: literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease is a rare syndrome that affects tissues with melanocytes like eyes, central nervous system, skin and inner ear. It affects primarily Asians, Indians and Latin Americans and also women. Objective: To review in the literature the several aspects of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease focusing on its cause and also to study its otolaryngology aspects through online databases Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, OMIM e SciELO. Literature Review: This exact cause remains unknown, but there are evidences of an autoimmune process against an antigenic component on the melanocyte configuring an inflammatory T-cell-mediated immune response. The HLADRB1* 0405 allele is the one that is most associated to the disease. The clinic manifestations are divided in four: prodromal, uveitic, chronic and recurrence stages. The otolaryngology's aspects occur at the uveitic stage. Hearing loss is sensorineural bilateral and quickly progressive and could be associated with tinnitus. The vestibular component is less affected with vertigo, nystagmus and abnormal vestibular reflex. The otolaryngology's manifestations do not influence the recurrences or complications and they also have great prognosis with the treatment established. The diagnosis of this syndrome is based on clinical criteria, but audiological test could help. The therapy is corticosteroid-based. Final Comments: The most important factor for prognosis is the immediately treatment. The rarity of this syndrome makes its diagnosis a challenge and the presence of deafness, tinnitus and vertigo must consider its diagnosis.

Carneiro, Stephanie Gonçalves; Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes da; Palheta, Angélica Cristina Pezzin; Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier; Nunes, Cláudio Tobias Acatauassú; Ferreira, Thaís Oliveira; Pereira, Talita Valleska de Campos; Monteiro, Viviane Cristina dos Santos

2008-01-01

210

Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular dysfunction: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Several studies have associated temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and fibromyalgia (FM) finding a wide variation of results. The aim of this study was to review the literature about the relationship between TMD and FM. Literature review: For many years, TMD and FM were considered different clinical entities, but recently, some authors have reported that these two clinical situations have similarities. It is important to emphasize that both in FM and TMD pain is the main symptom, including pain in face, mandible, and headache. Besides, these pain syndromes are characterized by a decrease in pain threshold and in the capacity of attenuation of descending systems of pain modulation. The relationship of comorbidity between TMD and FM may indicate, therefore, the existence of some form of central sensitization, which is common to both diseases, sharing neurochemical events. In addition, it was found that the presence of TMD is a common finding in FM patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that FM and TMD are distinct clinical entities, although they share common signs and symptoms, especially those related to pain. Furthermore, it was observed that the prevalence of TMD in FM patients is higher than the other way around. It is also important in the diagnosis of these two diseases the differentiation between trigger and tender points, thus avoiding false diagnoses of TMD in FM patients.

Byanka Porto Fraga; Emanuella Barros dos Santos; Thalyta Porto Fraga; José Caetano Macieira; Jader Pereira de Farias-Neto; Lucindo José Quintans Júnior

2011-01-01

211

A literature review of nursing turnover costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To report the findings of a literature review of studies examining nursing staff turnover costs published between 1990 and 2010. BACKGROUND: Nurse turnover is a global concern that is both costly for health-care organizations and, in the context of the work environment, affects quality and safety. EVALUATION: We reviewed past literature and describe the conceptualization of nurse turnover, evaluate the methodologies and calculation of costs, identify the reported range of turnover costs and provide suggestions for future study. KEY ISSUES: We report inconsistencies in past studies in terms of the conceptualization and measurement of nurse turnover and turnover rates, the methodologies for gathering data and the data sources used, the approaches for calculating turnover costs and the resulting nursing staff turnover costs estimated. CONCLUSION: Past studies reached different conclusions about nurse turnover. We still need to explore the actual costs and benefits of nurse turnover and retention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This study should be helpful for nurse executives as they build a business case to address nurse turnover in their organizations, and for policy-makers as they develop policies about turnover.

Li Y; Jones CB

2013-04-01

212

The Disease Imagery and the Healing Narratives: between Literature and Pathography. Max Blecher’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Romanian author Max Blecher suffered from spinal tuberculosis (Pott’s disease). His works Corpul transparent (Transparent Body, 1934), Întâmpl?ri în irealitatea imediat? (Adventures in Immediate Unreality, 1936), Inimi cicatrizate (Scarred Hearts, 1937), and Vizuina luminat?: Jurnal de sanatoriu (The Lit Up Burrow: A Sanatorium Journal, 1971), along with a series of articles, essays, short fictions and letters, form a homogenous and rich imagery in which illness acts as the canvas for the dismantlement of the puzzle of life and the fragmentation of speech. The illness experience represents for Max Blecher an identity revealer and in the same time a modulator for the narrative voice: faced with a tragic diagnosis the author refuses to be just a passive instance as a patient and he also assumes an active role as a “film director” of his own life in his writings where he can go beyond recording his experiences by processing them through the filter of unreality.

Cristina VIDRU?IU

2012-01-01

213

Outcomes of inpatient mobilization: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review current research evidence on the outcomes of mobilising hospitalised adults. BACKGROUND: Although immobility is known to cause functional decline or complications, inpatient ambulation emerged as the most often missed element of nursing care. This study is designed to review research studies that give evidence as to the consequences of mobilising or not mobilising hospitalised adult patients. DESIGN: A literature review of published peer-reviewed empirical research was undertaken. METHODS: The electronic databases of MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, and PubMed were accessed to search for relevant empirical articles, supplemented by a search of reference lists contained in retrieved articles and citation tracking. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Four areas (study design, sample size, measurement and statistical analysis) were evaluated for methodological quality, and most studies showed strong quality. A synthesis of the findings generated four themes of the effects of inpatient mobilisation: (1) physical outcomes included pain, deep vein thrombosis, fatigue, etc.; (2) psychological outcomes included anxiety, depressive mood, distress, comfort and satisfaction; (3) social outcomes included quality of life and independence; and (4) organisational outcomes included length of stay, mortality and cost. CONCLUSION: Mobilising hospitalised adults brings benefits for not only physical functioning, but also their emotional and social well-being. Moreover, ambulation yields important organisational benefits. These benefits of mobilisation on four areas required viewing the patient in a holistic manner. Even though each study approached different types of patients, illnesses and procedures, this review showed that most inpatients would benefit from mobilisation and would experience optimal functions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The importance of mobilisation for positive patient outcomes highlights the need to develop methods to ensure that this nursing action is completed on a systematic basis.

Kalisch BJ; Lee S; Dabney BW

2013-09-01

214

Differences between selective termination of pregnancy and fetal reduction in multiple pregnancy: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although selective termination of pregnancy and fetal reduction in multiple pregnancy both involve the termination in utero of the development of live fetuses, these two procedures are different in several aspects. Nevertheless, several authors tend to amalgamate and confuse their psychosocial consequences and the ethical issues they raise. Therefore, this narrative review, derived from a comparative analysis of 91 articles, shines a light on these amalgamations and confusions, as well as on the medical, contextual, experiential and ethical differences specific to selective termination and fetal reduction.

Legendre CM; Moutel G; Drouin R; Favre R; Bouffard C

2013-06-01

215

Topical therapies for oral lichen planus management and their efficacy: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition implicating T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and involving oral mucosal surfaces. Several therapeutic regimens have been evaluated to treat OLP and pain related, but often without high level of evidence. Topical formulations are the favourite for the majority of cases; bioadhesive formulations have been considered very useful and practical for local drug delivery in oral mucosa, due to the increased residence time on the oral mucosa of the dosage forms and better therapeutic efficacy. In this narrative review, authors try to illustrate the current topical managements for OLP from the accessible literature on this topic. Steroids are very helpful in discomfort and making better quality of life: they are considered the first-line treatment even if they could cause secondary candidosis, and sometimes bad taste, nausea, dry mouth, sore throat or swollen mouth. Other substances or devices by topical administration are adopted especially when the first line approach is refractory. This is the case when retinol with its synthetic and natural analogues (retinoids), hyaluronic acid, or Aloe Vera are chosen. Recent topical applications for OLP therapy include phototherapy and low/high energy pulsing light; the treatment with extracorporeal photochemotherapy is also reasonable and promising. Finally, calcineurin inhibitors (i.e. cyclosporine, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus), antioxidant and biologics (i.e alefacept, efalizumab, basiliximab, TNF-? inhibitors - infliximab, rituximab) may be alternative approaches when OLP does not respond to the standard protocols. In this scenario, there are several studies on molecules different from glucocorticosteroids, but not sufficient or statistically adequate to justify their evidence-based use in OLP; large randomized placebo controlled trials are required to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of these non conventional therapies. In conclusion, since OLP is a chronic disease and requires long-term management, the dental/medical practitioner, who treats OLP patients, needs to know the natural history of OLP, how to monitor, and how to treat, taking in account all of the available modalities conventional and not, with pros and cons.

Bagan J; Compilato D; Paderni C; Campisi G; Panzarella V; Picciotti M; Lorenzini G; Di Fede O

2012-01-01

216

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Surgery and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To highlight the clinical and radiologic features and management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia with review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment in a tertiary healthcare centre was done using the parameters of patients' details, clinical features, radiological findings, management and postoperative review. RESULTS: Of the six patients, 3 females and 2 males were in the 2(nd) decade of life and 1 male in the 1(st) decade of life. The disease was restricted to maxilla in 3 patients, involved the temporal and frontal bones in addition to maxilla in one, involved the frontal bone in one patient and involved frontal and parietal bones in one patient. The primary reason for seeking treatment in all the 6 cases was facial deformity. There was absence of pain in all 6 cases. For surgical treatment in all three cases involving the maxilla, the approach was intraoral while bicoronal approach was used for the other three cases. Treatment consisted of surgical contouring and reshaping the area. All cases were followed up over a period of 2 years with no signs of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Treatment of craniofacial fibro-osseous lesions is highly individualized. Most cases of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia manifest as swellings that cause facial deformity and surgical recontouring after cessation of growth seems to provide the best results.

Menon S; Venkatswamy S; Ramu V; Banu K; Ehtaih S; Kashyap VM

2013-01-01

217

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01

218

Religiosity and health outcomes: review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into a connection between religiosity and health was neglected in scientific circles until recently. However, the interest in interactions between religiosity and mental and physical health has started to grow lately. A large proportion of published empirical data suggest that religious commitment shows positive associations with better mental and physical health outcomes. There are relatively few studies showing no effect or negative effect of religiosity on health outcomes. Despite somewhat inconclusive empirical evidence, because of the difficulties encountered in studying the topic, this area is worth of further investigation. The article reviews the literature on epidemiological and clinical studies regarding the relationship between religiosity and mental and physical health. The mentioned issues are discussed and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:16117349

Aukst-Margeti?, Branka; Margeti?, Branimir

2005-06-01

219

Temozolomide and unusual indications: review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Temozolomide (TMZ) was first known to be useful as a radiosensitiser in both primary brain tumours like glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendroglioma. Later, TMZ proved its efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. Multiple publications have demonstrated the benefit of TMZ in terms of efficacy and tolerance (used as mono-therapy or as adjuvant chemotherapy) compared to the "gold standard" treatment of this kind of tumours. Furthermore, several recent clinical trials have shown the particular importance of TMZ in other types of cancer. This publication deals with the use of TMZ in cancers which are not formal indications for TMZ (excluding glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendroglioma and melanoma). It also includes a necessary review of recent literature about the role of TMZ in the treatment of brain metastases, lymphomas, refractory leukaemia, neuroendocrine tumours, pituitary tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumours, lung cancer and other tumours.

Tatar Z; Thivat E; Planchat E; Gimbergues P; Gadea E; Abrial C; Durando X

2013-04-01

220

Integrated Literature Review of Postdischarge Telephone Calls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements.

Bahr SJ; Solverson S; Schlidt A; Hack D; Smith JL; Ryan P

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

UNDERSTANDING OF SUPPLY CHAIN: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supply Chain Management is a network of facilities that produce raw materials, transform them into intermediate goods and then final products, and deliver the products to customers through a distributionsystem. The management of the supply chain and the roles of various actors involved differ from industry to industry and company to company. As a result Supply Chain Management (SCM) has become a vital issue for manufacturers, professionals and researchers. It is felt that to manage the supply chain effectively entire structure of upply chain must be understood properly. This paper attempts to rovide the reader a complete picture of supply chain management through a systematic literature review. It presents main activities of supply chain and the step-by-step approach for understanding a complete picture of supply chain.

Rajendra Kumar Shukla,; Dr. Dixit Garg,; Dr. Ashish Agarwal

2011-01-01

222

Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Ciurea AV; Palade C; Voinescu D; Nica DA

2013-06-01

223

In Search Of Passion– Review Of Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As business environment is changing faster than before, organizations are concentratingmore on their manpower to cope up with such rapid changes. Now days, organizationwants “Passion” in their employees as it is one trait which can turn failure into success.Passion is no more a word which has its place only in the area of romance or perusinghobbies but it has taken an important position in the realm of work also. The presentpaper intends to provide a systematic review of literature on the concept of passion, itstypes and outcomes. The dualistic model of passion (Vallerand, 2003) suggests thatpassion can be Harmonious and obsessive. Past researches reveals that passion can leadto both positive and negative outcomes depending upon the type of passion one has.Results of previous studies conducted in the area of non-work activities and work settingsare presented in this paper.

Rupali Johri; Jyoti Yadav

2012-01-01

224

Men and preventive health: systematic literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to check the scientific production on men´s health, especially with regard to health promotion in the context of basic care. Methodology: it´s a systematic literature review research performed through articles published between the years 2000 and 2008, in the LILACS and SCIELO. Access to these databases occurred in July 2009 and studies indexed as articles published in national scientific journals, related to the theme of men and primary health care were selected. Results: 47 articles were found, of which 11 were selected for fulfilling the criteria for inclusion. It was found that selected articles included topics currently, giving rise to three thematic groups: men and the ideal of masculinity, men and violence and men and preventive health. Conclusion: it´s verified the influence of masculinity on health care than men have with the health, exposing them to situations of risk.

Rosineide Santana de Brito, Danyelle Leonette Araújo dos Santos

2010-01-01

225

Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - Literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Ciurea, AV; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, DA

2013-01-01

226

Calciphylaxis: case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tissue calcification is a well-recognized common metabolic disease, but calciphylaxis still remains an enigmatic rarity. The latter may be induced experimentally and acquired naturally in human diseases. Although many chronic azotemic or end stage renal disease patients (ESRD) with hyperparathyroidism (HPT) are at risk of calciphylaxis not all of them do develop the disease, even non-renal, patients may also develop this disease. Out of a total of about 2000 hemodialysis, 15,000 dermatology and 26,000 medical patients seen over a three year period in a busy Saudi Arabian tertiary medical centre, we report a sentinel nephrology patient with sudden excruciatingly painful cutaneous calciphylaxis that necessitated acute dermatology emergency consultation, and present a review of the medical literature. In order to institute appropriate total quality management of this life-threatening, rare disease, it is advisable that a high index of suspicion should be entertained by dermatologists, general physicians, nephrologists, and pulmonologists in an appropriate clinical scenario.

Somorin AO; Al Harbi A; Subaity Y; Zaman AU

2002-06-01

227

[Elderly maltreatment: integrative review of the literature].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study aimed to identify, through an integrative literature review, scientific knowledge, produced between 2005 and 2009 about the mistreatment of the elderly. It was selected sixteen studies in the data banks LILACS, SciELO and BDENF. Of the sixteen studies, 56.25% comprised original articles. The journal that published the most was the Public Health Journal (25%), being the majority of the studies from the Southeast (56.25%). The survey revealed that the physical violence was prevalent among the elderly; the home was the environment where aggression occurs more frequently; and family members were the main aggressors. Among the elderly attacked, it was observed that women are the victims most affected. These findings raise the development of other researches that might clarify the multiple dimensions of violence against the elderly.

Oliveira AA; Trigueiro DR; Fernandes Md; Silva AO

2013-01-01

228

[Nursing audit: systematic review of the literature].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to analyze the scientific production about audit in nursing, published in national papers, between 1998 and 2008. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, with articles being searched in the databases LILACS and SciELO, from the key words: audit, nursing, quality health care and nursing supervision. The sample consisted of ten works. The analyzed publications describe the main distortions and non-conformities found in nursing records, relating them mainly with the quality of nursing care and with the financial damage to the institutions. The publications also include the administrative role of the nurse, especially her/his leadership role in the team of nursing; and nursing audit as an educational process.

Dias TC; Santos JL; Cordenuzzi Oda C; Prochnow AG

2011-09-01

229

Literature review for steam pretreatment. [85 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature survey has been conducted to support an experimental investigation of steam pretreatment of coal for improving liquid yields and quality in gasification processes. Experiments have so far shown pretreatment to be effective from 320 to 360/sup 0/C in 50 atm. steam. Information on thermal effects, steam reactivity, and phase equilibrium at temperatures and pressures which are relevant, but not restricted, to these conditions have been reviewed. Evidence for thermal activity below 350/sup 0/C comes from observation of softening and/or melting, acidity, volatiles loss, solvent extraction, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, electron spin resonance, and mild oxidation reactions. Reaction of steam with shale oils at 425/sup 0/C and with coal and model compounds in the neighborhood of the critical point have been reported. Phase equilibrium data show complete mutual solubility of water and aromatic hydrocarbons at conditions approaching those of pretreatment. A few pretreatments reported for other processes are noted. A survey of studies of weathering is included for its possible relevance to the observed sensitivity of pretreated coal to ambient air exposure. These literature citations corroborate our experimental findings and offer possible explanations for pretreatment. To discriminate among these possibilities and to provide a more detailed picture of the processes will require further experimental work. 85 refs.

Brandes, S.D.; Graff, R.A.

1985-02-01

230

Energy storage: a review of recent literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent literature on the technological and economic status of reversible energy storage has been reviewed. A broad range of research and development activities have been pursued between 1975 and the present. Most of this work has concentrated on improving technical and economic performance of previously known storage technologies. Hydraulic pumped storage with both reservoirs above ground and compressed air storage (1 plant) are the only methods that have been adopted by electric utilities. The need for electrical energy storage in Canada has not been acute because of the large proportion of hydraulic generation which incorporates some storge and, in most cases, can readily be used for load-following. Residential heat storage in ceramic room heaters has been used in Europe for several years. For Canadian climatic and market conditions larger, central heating units would be required. Residential heat storage depends upon utilities offering time-of-use rates and none in Canada do so at present. Most seasonal storage concepts depend upon storage of low-grade heat for district heating. The cost of energy storage is highly dependent upon annual energy throughput and hence favours smaller capacity systems operating on frequent charge/discharge cycles over long-term storage. Capital costs of energy storage methods from the literature, expressed in constant dollars, are compared graphically and tentative investment costs are presented for several storage methods

1981-01-01

231

Wipe sampling - review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods for characterization of solid, non-compactable radioactive wastes contaminated in the surface are developed aiming at estimating the waste radioisotopic inventory for regulatory compliance and operational purposes. The wastes of interest here are mainly composed of plastic, metallic, or other materials parts originated in the decommissioning and maintenance operations of nuclear facilities. One way of measuring surface contamination is the indirect method of wiping the contaminated surface and counting the wipe, a common method of detecting non-fixed contamination in the radiation protection routine. The wipe sampling is an important tool in controlling the quality of the workplace in nuclear and radioactive facilities. Although radioprotection regulations establish quantitative limits, the practice in the radiation protection routine is to use wipe sampling as a qualitative measurement. To product useful quantitative results for inventorying radioactive wastes, a quantitative approach must be adopted. A previous paper presented by the authors in the last INAC Conference discussed alternative wipe materials and protocols. The method of wipe sampling underwent small changes since it started to be used but still is the object of study, as it is attested by many recent papers and patents on the subject. This article consists of a literature review. Results of a survey in the literature about wipe sampling techniques that can be applied to waste characterization are presented. (author)

2011-01-01

232

Preventing Inhospital Newborn Falls: A Literature Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inhospital newborn falls are arguably one of the most underresearched and underreported issues for organizations that care for newborn patients. From the few published statistics of inhospital fall rates, we know that perhaps 600 to 1,600 newborn falls occur annually. Many of these falls can result in injury or even death of the newborn, legal issues for the institution, and severe emotional stress to the caregiver(s) and parents. Therefore, we searched the literature to ascertain causation and associated risks associated with inhospital newborn falls. This is an important issue for nurses to understand because not only can the newborn be harmed due to a fall, but the actual newborn fall can also elicit strong feelings of guilt and culpability in the caregiver(s). This article reviews the literature to examine what is known about the factors associated with inhospital newborn falls, to explore prevention measures, and to present best practices for how to adopt safe-sleep policy to prevent newborn falls.

Matteson T; Henderson-Williams A; Nelson J

2013-09-01

233

Corporate reputation: a review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term corporate reputation has been mentioned in academic papers for some decades however since the 90's the debate about it has been intensified by authors of different areas of study. Therefore, there is a growing pressure around the definition of a construct and the way to measure an organization's corporate reputation. The purpose of this article is to present a literature review on corporate reputation in three different perspectives. At first, we intended to go through the literature, pointing out the different definitions presented on this theme. The second aspect refers to the identification of terms related to corporate reputation, such as corporate brand, corporate identity and corporate communication. Finally, broadening the possibilities of future empiric works, a review of the different proposals of measuring the corporate reputation of organizations is made.O tema reputação corporativa tem sido objeto de estudos acadêmicos há algumas décadas, porém, somente a partir da década de 90 intensificou-se esse interesse, manifestado por autores de diferentes áreas de estudo. A diversidade de abordagens pressiona o debate sobre a definição de um constructo e sobre a forma mais adequada de mensuração da reputação corporativa de uma organização. O propósito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre a questão da reputação corporativa em três perspectivas distintas. Pretende-se, em primeiro lugar, percorrer a literatura sobre o assunto, apontando as diferentes definições apresentadas do tema. Em seguida, identificar os termos correlatos à reputação corporativa, como: marca corporativa, identidade corporativa e comunicação corporativa. E, finalmente, a fim de ampliar as possibilidades de trabalhos empíricos futuros, examinar criticamente as diferentes propostas de mensuração da reputação corporativa das organizações.

Patricia de Salles Vance; Claudio Felisoni de Ângelo

2007-01-01

234

Acknowledging the back patient : A thematic synthesis of Qualitative research. A systematic literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical Responsibility, Acknowledgement Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories. According to international research, back conditions rank among the costliest conditions worldwide. A thorough review of the literature in the field has further revealed that back conditions are associated with heavy personal costs. It is therefore of utmost importance that these conditions are dealt with as efficiently and effectively as possible as failure to do so can have severe implications for society as a whole. In order to gain a better idea of the most ideal treatment process, it is important to first investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. It is the aim of this qualitative literature review based on thematic synthesis to shed more light on these two particular areas. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to get a deeper understanding of the illness trajectory for back patients. Thus, the literature review therefore seeks to locate, systematise and synthesize findings derived from qualitative research in order to visualise barriers or implications for intervention development. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens article "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews". The thematic synthesis aims to systematise and integrate findings of qualitative studies. The synthesis takes form of three stages which overlaps to some degree: the free "line by line coding" of the findings of primary studies; the organzation of these "free codes" into related areas to construct "descriptive themes" and the development of "analytical themes". The integrations are more than the sum of parts, in that they offer novel interpretations and findings. These interpretations will not be found in any one research report but, rather, are inferences derived from taking all the reports in a sample as a whole. Results: The thematic analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalized and reluctant to speak out. It is through telling other people about our experiences that we create an awareness of ourselves. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms and binding. Thus, in order to acknowledge the back patient, it is important for the health professionals to be somebody the back patients can count on. The health professionals must incorporate the patients' narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argue for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment.

Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

235

Literature review: patients' and health care providers' perceptions of stressors in critical care units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article was to provide a historical review and analysis of the research literature focusing on patients', nurses', and health care providers' perceptions of stressors in the critical care setting. A narrative historical literature review method was used. The inclusion criteria include English-language studies of stressors as perceived by patients and health care providers from 1984 to 2011. Several studies investigated perceptions of stressors using the Environmental Stressors Questionnaire and the findings did not show any significant changes of stress perception over time since 1989 until the present. There is a need to further investigate stress perceptions in the health care setting using a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach to provide a more precise description of stressors and stress perceptions in the critical care setting.

Abuatiq A; Burkard J; Clark MJ

2013-01-01

236

Spiritual distress: integrative review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to identify concepts and clinical indicators that evidence spiritual distress in patients. Integrative review was the method adopted for the development of the study. In the initial stage, 82 studies were found in the following databases PUBMED, COCHRANE, CINAHL, LILACS and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Conference Proceedings and 18 were selected. The descriptors used were spirituality and nursing diagnosis in addition to the term spiritual distress. Literature review (38.9%) and articles with level of evidence IV (27.8%) were the predominant types of study. The analysis of the articles revealed that the identified concepts of spiritual distress presented common and related elements to the human being subjective and individual response to life experiences, which harm the human spiritual dimension. Defining spiritual distress is a complex task since it depends on the perspective of those evaluating it, limiting in this way, its generalization. However, knowledge regarding the constructs that guide the understanding of human spirituality can base the nursing care in its spiritual dimension, thus providing theoretical support for the diagnosis.

Erika Cássia Lopes Chaves; Emília Campos de Carvalho; Sueli Leiko Takamatsu Goyatá; Cristina Maria Galvão

2008-01-01

237

Vitamins in schizophrenia: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A number of hypotheses and theories about schizophrenia have tried to explain the disease in various dimensions. Past scientif ic research demonstrated the relevance of nutrients in mental health.Neurodevelopmental and transmethylation theories suggest the role of nutritional factors (vitamins) and genetic factors in the development of the disease. Vitamins and minerals are involved in one or more biochemical pathways and/or physiological actions which influence the function of the human brain. Vitamin deficiencies leading tooxidative damage, methylation deficits, affecting brain developmental mechanisms and neuro-degeneration may explain well some of the symptoms seen in schizophrenia. Methods: Pubmed and Medline search, Scopus, journal and textbook articles have been accessed for the review of literature on Vitamin deficiencies in Schizophrenia.Results: Several nutritional epidemiological studies have provided evidence on the role of vitamins in schizophrenia either in the causation of the illness or as an adjunct in the treatment.Conclusions: This review provides an overview of the role of vitamins in schizophrenia.

Padmavati Ramachandran; Priyadarshini Thirunavakarasu

2012-01-01

238

Occlusion and periodontics: a critical literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Occlusal trauma is defined as an injury resulting intissues changes within the attachment apparatus as result of occlusalforce(s). Since 1901, when Karolyi reported a possible interactionbetween occlusal disharmony and periodontal alterations, severalstudies have tried to find scientific evidence that corroborates or not this interrelationship. Objective and literature review: In this paper,the authors review the studies that have analyzed traumatic occlusion as a presumed aggravating factor in periodontal disease, as well as those suggesting possible advantages with the concomitant use of occlusal and periodontal therapies. Even though there are still many doubts to be clarified in order to completely understand the effects of occlusal forces on the periodontium, it is well known that a functional occlusion is fundamental for the equilibrium of the diverse components of the stomatognathic system, including the periodontal tissues.Conclusion: An occlusal adjustment should be done, whenever it is indicated, as a routine procedure during periodontal treatment.Furthermore, it is evident that additional studies, with more precise and reproducible methodology, are needed in order to clarify the interaction between the occlusion with the periodontal tissues.

Flávia Aparecida Chaves FURLANETO; Luiz Gustavo Nascimento de MELO; Maria José Hitomi NAGATA; Alvaro Francisco BOSCO; Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR; Michel Reis MESSORA; Alicio Rosalino GARCIA

2009-01-01

239

Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

2002-01-01

240

Young men with cancer: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impacts of cancer on young men are reportedly different from the experiences of others. These impacts may adversely affect the health and the healthcare of young men. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to conduct a literature review to examine what is known about the experiences of young men with cancer. METHODS: A systematic strategy was used to locate original research that included 4 electronic databases using the search terms men, young men, male, father, parents, and cancer experience. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies used qualitative methodology, and 4 studies used a quantitative method; no mixed-method studies were found. Of the studies reviewed, 6 focused on the experiences of men but not young men aged 20 to 44 years exclusively, 10 studies had male and female respondents. Analysis revealed 5 themes: (1) manhood in question, (2) the good father or not, (3) family and that special bond, (4) silencing cancer talk, and (5) living with uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS: Young men are building resources while creating family bonds, and they identify themselves through their work. Young men with cancer have needs specific to their gender and cohort. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Methodological and conceptual recommendations are presented. This includes conducting research focusing on this cohort and using a life-course perspective. Understanding the overall experience of this cohort will enable the development of clinical interventions for young men with cancer. Supportive care in a nonthreatening environment is needed to help young men cope with the problems described.

Campbell-Enns HJ; Woodgate RL

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

CUBOID SYNDROME: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to inform all medical health care professionals about cuboid syndrome, which has been described as difficult to recognize and is commonly misdiagnosed, by explaining the etiology of this syndrome, its clinical diagnosis in relation to differential diagnoses, commonly administered treatment techniques, and patient outcomes. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature was conducted with MEDLINE, EBSCO, and PubMed (1960 - Present) using the key words cuboid, cuboid syndrome, foot anatomy, tarsal bones, manual therapy, and manipulation. Medical professionals must be aware that any lateral foot and ankle pain may be the result of cuboid syndrome. Once properly diagnosed, cuboid syndrome responds exceptionally well to conservative treatment involving specific cuboid manipulation techniques. Other methods of conservative treatment including therapeutic modalities, therapeutic exercises, padding, and low dye taping techniques are used as adjuncts in the treatment of this syndrome. Immediately after the manipulation is performed, the patient may note a decrease or a complete cessation of their symptoms. Occasionally, if the patient has had symptoms for a longer duration, several manipulations may be warranted throughout the course of time. Due to the fact radiographic imaging is of little value, the diagnosis is largely based on the patient's history and a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the condition. Additionally, an understanding of the etiology behind this syndrome is essential, aiding the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. After the correct diagnosis is made and a proper treatment regimen is utilized, the prognosis is excellent

Stephen M. Patterson

2006-01-01

242

Paracoccidioidomicose: revisão de literatura = Paracoccidioidomycosis: Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar uma revisão da literatura sobre a paracoccidioidomicose, abordando aspectos clínicos importantes da doença. Fonte de dados: Foram consultados artigos indexados no Medline e livros-texto sobre o tema, ambos publicados no período de 1990 a 2004. Síntese de dados: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma doença sistêmica, endêmica, causada pelo fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Embora a via primária de infecção seja a pulmonar, pela inalação de esporos ou partículas do fungo, vários sítios anatômicos podem ser acometidos pela disseminação linfoematogênica, inclusive a mucosa oral. Conclusão: A via primária de infecção da paracoccidioidomicose é pulmonar, mas a doença é, freqüentemente, diagnosticada a partir de manifestações orais. A abordagem clínica de pacientes portadores de lesões ulceradas crônicas de mucosa oral deve, portanto, considerar a paracoccidioidomicose como possibilidade diagnóstica. Purpose: The aim of this work was to present a literature review about paracoccidioidomycosis, focusing important clinical aspects of this disease. Data source: Articles indexed on Medline and scientific books, both published from 1990 to 2004, were reviewed. Data synthesis: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic disease, with endemic profile, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The primary way of infection is pulmonary, by the inhalation of fungus spores or particles. Several anatomic sites can be involved by lymphohematogenic dissemination to other organs and systems, including oral mucosa. Conclusion: Although paracoccidioidomycosis affects lungs primarily, it is often diagnosed through oral manifestation. It is important to pay attention to chronic ulcerated lesions of oral mucosa, considering the possible diagnosis of this disease.

Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Cherubini, Karen; Yurgel, Liliane Soares

2005-01-01

243

Pediatric septoplasy: a review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Controversy has surrounded the procedure of pediatric septoplasty since the 1950s due to concerns over an adverse effect on nasal and facial growth. However, more recent evidence has demonstrated that septoplasty can be safely performed without affecting nasal and facial development in the appropriately selected pediatric patient. The purpose of this article is to establish the impact of pediatric septoplasty on nasal and facial growth and review the clinical indications and evidence for timing of surgery according to the most recent literature. METHODS: A structured review of the PubMed, Ovid Medline and Cochrane Collaboration databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews) was undertaken, using the terms: pediatric, childhood, septoplasty, nasal septum, indications, nasal growth and facial growth. RESULTS: Three long term follow up studies using anthropometric measurements were identified which concluded that pediatric septoplasty does not interfere with normal nasal or facial development. A further similar study concluded that external septoplasty does not affect most aspects of nasal and facial growth, but may negatively influence growth of the nasal dorsum. Furthermore, one study demonstrated that a group of children with symptomatic uncorrected deviated nasal septum had a statistically significant increased occurrence of facial and dental anomalies compared with age and sex matched controls, therefore supporting a role for septoplasty. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence exists to support that pediatric septoplasty can be performed without affecting most aspects of nasal and facial growth. Furthermore, not performing or delaying septoplasty when indicated may adversely affect nasal and facial growth with compounding adverse effects in terms of deformity and asymmetry. Despite the majority advocating the timing of septal surgery to be 6 years and older, more clinical studies are required that may provide further evidence for correction of septal deviations in younger children, perhaps even at birth.

Lawrence R

2012-08-01

244

Mitochondrial diseases and anesthesia: a literature review of current opinions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This course explores the considerations that the anesthesia provider has to be aware of, when caring for a patient with a mitochondrial myopathy. Even though these disorders are rare, these patients may also need surgical care, requiring that the anesthesia provider be informed of the best anesthesia options to consider. A narrative review of documented cases and their outcomes is used to generate a resource of current opinions in the anesthetic care of this patient population.

Rivera-Cruz B

2013-06-01

245

Steroids in severe pneumonia: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite more than sixty years of scientific medical research, severe pneumonia, either community-acquired or nosocomial, remains a leading cause of death regardless of the patients' immunity state. The clinical introduction of new and more potent antibiotic molecules and the continuous development of efficient respiratory assistance devices may not be able to radically improve the clinical outcome of pneumonia. Adjunctive therapies based on the physiopathological mechanisms of lung damage in severe pneumonia have been strongly advocated, and corticosteroids, which present many properties that theoretically interfere with these pathways, have been widely used, with conflicting results. The aim of this review is to examine existing literature data on steroid use in severe pneumonia. Molecular, endocrinological and clinical studies will be described to help physicians to clarify the reasons for the historical debate about steroid use as an adjunctive treatment in severe pneumonia. There is growing evidence that, during lung infection, an excessive inflammatory response can have deleterious effects and contribute to tissue damage mechanisms. Because of their immunomodulatory properties, glucocorticoids have been suggested as a useful tool for regulating the complex balance of cytokine networks, and they are commonly used as an adjunctive therapy during serious infections. In severe pneumonia, preclinical data, including cytokine level detection and animal studies, have shown encouraging results, although the clinical data is controversial. Moreover, large randomized controlled trials have not been conducted to determine steroid side effects and the risk of immunosuppression-induced superinfections. The benefits of steroid use in patients with severe pneumonia have not been proven by current literature, but ongoing investigations of anti-inflammatory molecules probably represent the key point of severe infection management in the near future. PMID:21878872

De Pascale, G; Bello, G; Antonelli, M

2011-09-01

246

Steroids in severe pneumonia: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite more than sixty years of scientific medical research, severe pneumonia, either community-acquired or nosocomial, remains a leading cause of death regardless of the patients' immunity state. The clinical introduction of new and more potent antibiotic molecules and the continuous development of efficient respiratory assistance devices may not be able to radically improve the clinical outcome of pneumonia. Adjunctive therapies based on the physiopathological mechanisms of lung damage in severe pneumonia have been strongly advocated, and corticosteroids, which present many properties that theoretically interfere with these pathways, have been widely used, with conflicting results. The aim of this review is to examine existing literature data on steroid use in severe pneumonia. Molecular, endocrinological and clinical studies will be described to help physicians to clarify the reasons for the historical debate about steroid use as an adjunctive treatment in severe pneumonia. There is growing evidence that, during lung infection, an excessive inflammatory response can have deleterious effects and contribute to tissue damage mechanisms. Because of their immunomodulatory properties, glucocorticoids have been suggested as a useful tool for regulating the complex balance of cytokine networks, and they are commonly used as an adjunctive therapy during serious infections. In severe pneumonia, preclinical data, including cytokine level detection and animal studies, have shown encouraging results, although the clinical data is controversial. Moreover, large randomized controlled trials have not been conducted to determine steroid side effects and the risk of immunosuppression-induced superinfections. The benefits of steroid use in patients with severe pneumonia have not been proven by current literature, but ongoing investigations of anti-inflammatory molecules probably represent the key point of severe infection management in the near future.

De Pascale G; Bello G; Antonelli M

2011-09-01

247

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: LITERATURE REVIEW AND TIME EVOLUTION.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of an economic entity requires approaching several criteria, such as industry and economic entity type, managerial and entrepreneurial strategy, competitive environment, human and material resources available, using a system of appropriate performance indicators for this purpose.The exigencies of communication occurred on the growing number of phenomena that marked the global economy in recent decades (internationalization and relocation of business crises and turmoil in financial markets), demand performance measurement to be made in a comprehensive way by financial and non-financial criteria. Indicators are measures of performance used by management to measure, report and improve performance of the economic entity. The relationship between indicators and management is ensured by the existence of performance measurement systems. Studies to date indicate that economic entities using balanced performance measurement systems as a key management tool registered superior performance compared to entities not using such systems. This study attempts to address the issue of performance evaluation by presenting opinions of different authors concerning the process of performance measurement and to present, after revising the literature, the evolution of the performance evaluation systems. We tried to do this literature review because sustainable development and, therefore, globalization require new standards of performance that exceeds the economic field, both for domestic companies as well as international ones. So, these standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities undertaken by harmonizing the economic, social and environmental objectives. To assess the performance of economic entities it is required that performance evaluation to be done with a balanced multidimensional system, including both financial ratios and non-financial indicators in order to reduce the limits of the two categories of indicators. Performance measurement and management can’t be separated; performance management is a philosophy that is supported by performance measurement. Performance management precedes performance measurement and creates the context for performance measurement.

Pintea Mirela-Oana

2012-01-01

248

Homeopathy and cancer: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Health Organization states that deaths from cancer are increasing reaching an estimated 12 million deaths by 2030 [1]. In Brazil will be about 480,000 new cases by the end of 2011 [2]. For the treatment of cancer conventional therapies are used, such as chemotherapy[3] and radiotherapy [4] which can cause many adverse reactions. Complementary therapies such as homeopathy can be combined to traditional cancer treatment with the aim of minimizing these adverse reactions, relieving the symptoms of the disease itself and its treatment. Other complementary therapies which can aid in cancer treatment are electrotherapy, acupuncture and electroacupuncture, nutritional supplements, probiotics, phytotherapy, among others[5]. The literature shows the homeopathic medicines can be prescribed using the patient’s physical constitution as one strategy to help cancer patients [6-11]. This work aims to compile the literature review done with in vitro and in vivo models describing the mechanisms of action of homeopathic medicines used to treat different kinds of cancer. The research findings showed that homeopathy can help the patient to come to terms with the disease, after cancer diagnosis which often brings with itself denial, fear and a host of psychological disorders that cause an unbalance in the body. In addition, some works done with in vitro and in vivo models have shown that homeopathic medicines can modulate the immune system, activating macrophages and inducing the release of cytokines. These and other effects may help the body to overcome the cancer. The use of homeopathic therapy as complementary to conventional cancer treatment has promising results and should be further investigated.

Marina das Neves Gomes; Carla Holandino

2011-01-01

249

Conceptualising and measuring the well-being of people with psychosis: systematic review and narrative synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Well-being has become a prominent term in the political arena in recent years. However, in research the concept and use of well-being has been unclear, especially in the context of severe mental illness such as psychosis. This systematic review aims to characterise the evidence base relating to well-being in people with psychosis, by reviewing how well-being is measured, developing a new conceptual framework, and summarising empirical evaluations of psychosocial interventions to improve well-being. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of controlled trials of interventions investigating well-being in people with psychosis. The 28 studies meeting the inclusion criteria used 20 different measures of well-being. Five dimensions of well-being emerged: non-observable, observable, proximal, distal, and self-defined. Interventions to improve well-being vary widely. The investigated interventions have been targeted at non-observable, observable and proximal levels, while evaluation measures span all five dimensions. This review offers an evidence based conceptual framework of well-being which can provide an empirical basis for organising future well-being research in psychosis. The review also shows that the evidence base for interventions is small and methodologically weak. Recommendations are made for choosing well-being measures for future research.

Schrank B; Bird V; Tylee A; Coggins T; Rashid T; Slade M

2013-09-01

250

Adult Wilms' tumor: review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The most common renal tumors in adults is renal cell carcinoma. Wilms' tumor in subjects older than 16 years is rare; only 3% of Wilms' tumors are reported in adults, which explain the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this tumor entity in this age group. METHODS: Patient with stage IV adult nephroblastoma with favorable histology was described, current treatment modalities were discussed, and the literature was reviewed. RESULTS: Nineteen year old female patient is presented with renal mass, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and bilateral pulmonary deposits. Sonar guided biopsy from the renal mass was taken and pathology revealed nephroblastoma. Right nephrectomy was performed and the pathological examination revealed classic histology of nephroblastoma. The case diagnosed as stage IV adult Wilms' tumor with favorable histology. According to National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS-3), multimodal therapy was initiated immediately after surgery. The patient failed to respond to the first line therapy and died due to disease progression. CONCLUSION: Adult Wilms' tumor has no specific guidelines and this may lead to improper or incorrect treatment.

Ali EM; Elnashar AT

2012-03-01

251

Neurobrucellosis: three case reports and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a multisystem disease which may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. This article aims to present clinical manifestations and to discuss the clinical features and management of 3 neurobrucellosis cases. Methods The diagnosis, treatment, laboratory results and accessory examination findings of 3 patients with neurobrucellosis between August 2010 and March 2012 were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results All the 3 cases had definite history of exposure to epidemic areas or infectious diseases, and history of being infected with Brucella by drinking raw milk. During the screening because of fever for reasons unknown, they were proved to be infected with Brucella by etiological or serological tests. Initial clinical manifestations consisted of fever and headache, with meningitis symptoms and signs, spondylitis, uroschesis and constipation (which might be caused by lumbosacral nerve root lesion), or neurological manifestations in auditory nerve and abducent nerve, such as hearing loss and diplopia. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis presents with various clinical signs and symptoms, and is often accompanied by systemic infection. Brucellosis should be kept in mind during the screening of fever for reasons unknown, and be differentiated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The combined treatment by antibotics of different pharmacological mechanisms with full dose and long range is effective, and the prognosis is favorable.

GUO Yan-jun; YI Li; LIU Lei; BI Hong-yan; ZHANG Yong-bo; ZHAO Wei-qin; LI Ji-mei; WANG Jia-wei

2013-01-01

252

Microbial-influenced cement degradation: Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews literature which addresses the effect of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are identified, which are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with concrete and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Mechanisms inherent in microbial-influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. This report provides sufficient evidence of the potential for microbial-influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW to justify the enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion, as well as the development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbiological-induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form.

Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; McConnell, J.W. Jr. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-03-01

253

Microbial-influenced cement degradation: Literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews literature which addresses the effect of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are identified, which are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with concrete and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Mechanisms inherent in microbial-influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. This report provides sufficient evidence of the potential for microbial-influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW to justify the enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion, as well as the development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbiological-induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form

1993-01-01

254

Familial Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: A Literature Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Many genes/loci associated with Parkinsonian disorders have been identified. However, the genetic causes for a number of familial forms of Parkinsonian disorders remain to be elucidated. Objective: It was the aim of this paper to review the familial progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases without any known gene mutations published in the English literature. Methods: We searched the PubMed database for reports of familial PSP cases without known mutations. Results: We found 19 PSP families. The mean age at onset was approximately 60 years, and the mean disease duration was about 8 years. Parkinsonism and ophthalmoplegia were most frequently reported, and a vast majority of patients manifested with these two symptoms. Other symptoms such as falls, postural instability and pyramidal signs were also common. A small subset of patients transiently responded to L-dopa therapy. Conclusion: There is an increasing number of reported familial PSP. A recently performed genome-wide association study indicated genetic factors for this condition. Furthermore, clinical, pathological and genetic investigations will open new avenues to the discovery of causative genes and new therapeutics for PSP. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Fujioka S; Van Gerpen JA; Uitti RJ; Dickson DW; Wszolek ZK

2013-09-01

255

Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program's proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

2004-01-01

256

Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

2004-03-01

257

Surface water acidification literature review. Vol. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the state of scientific knowledge on the effects on acidic atmospheric deposition on surface water chemistry. There appear to be two views on the mechanism of surface water acidification: that it is caused by the long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of acidic substances, or by internal generation of hydrogen ions in watersheds. The main findings of the literature review are as follows. Uncontaminated precipitation can have pH levels below 5.6. Some surface waters are naturally acidic. Quantity and quality of atmospheric deposition and atmospheric events can increase hydrogen ion concentration in surface waters. Internal generation of hydrogen ions in watersheds and their input to surface waters can be many times greater than input from atmospheric sources. Surface water susceptibility to acidification depends on factors including bedrock geology, soil type, topography, land use practices, and climatic/meteorological conditions. In North America, trends of decreasing surface water pH have been observed in Ontario, Nova Scotia, the Adirondacks, and northern New England. Comparison of historical with recent data needs to be viewed cautiously; problems are associated with use of more than 2 different methods of data comparison and with inferring trends. There are conflicting data on response to aquatic biota to acidification, yet a number of effects have been well documented. Numerous models have been developed to evaluate effects of acid deposition on surface water quality; however, most of these assume acidification is caused by atmospheric deposition of sulfuric acid alone. 381 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Telang, S.A.

1987-02-01

258

Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

1987-10-01

259

Monovision: a review of the scientific literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reviewed the scientific literature on monovision to compare the visual performance of monovision patients with that of others wearing more traditional prescriptions. We found that visual performance of monovision patients was comparable to that of control patients wearing a balanced binocular correction, provided that reading adds were not greater than about +2.5 D, that illumination was photopic, and that stimuli were presented at supra-threshold levels. Under these conditions, monovision patients were satisfied with their perceptual experience and performed within 2 to 6% of balanced binocular control patients on a range of occupational tasks. It is noteworthy that monovision patients had relatively more difficulty with acuity-based tasks than with tasks demanding good depth perception. With reading adds over +2.5 D, at low levels of illumination, or with near-threshold level stimuli, visual performance of monovision patients was reduced compared with controls. Subjectively, under low levels of illumination, monovision patients experienced problems with glare and halos around point sources of light.

Johannsdottir KR; Stelmach LB

2001-09-01

260

Oral tissue complications during endodontic irrigation: literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The literature concerning the etiology, symptomatology and management of complications during root canal irrigation is reviewed. Clinical symptoms are discussed, as well as preventive and therapeutic considerations.

Kishor N

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Tools to measure quality of life and carer burden in informal carers of heart failure patients: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a complex cardiac syndrome prevalent in an older population. Caring for heart failure patients through the disease trajectory presents physical and emotional challenges for informal carers. Carers have to deal with clinically unstable patients, the responsibility of managing and titrating medication according to symptoms and frequent admissions to acute care. These challenges compound the demands on caregivers' physical and psychosocial well-being. Alongside the negative impact of being a carer, positive aspects have also been demonstrated; carers describe feelings of shared responsibility of caring with professional carers and the reward of supporting a loved one, which creates a new role in their relationship. AIM: This review explores the dimensions that impact caregiver burden and quality of life in carers of patients with heart failure and highlights both the negative and positive aspects of being an informal carer for heart failure patients. DESIGN: This review followed the processes recommended for a narrative review. Studies identified were selected systematically following the PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords of the following search engines: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), PsycINFO and Cochrane for literature published until January 2012. RESULTS: Quality assessment of the studies was conducted using quality indicators, and the studies included in this review were categorised as fair or good according to the criteria. Of the 1008 studies initially identified, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. A thematic synthesis was undertaken, and the following themes were identified Perceived carer control; Mental and emotional well-being; Types and impact of caregiving tasks; Impact of patients' physical condition; Impact of age/gender/demographic factors; Positive aspects of caregiving. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights evidence that informal carers supporting patients with heart failure face many challenges impacting their physical and mental well-being. The studies described provide an insight into the individual dimensions that make a carer particularly vulnerable, namely, younger carers, female carers and carers with existing physical and emotional health issues. Additionally, there are external influences that increase risk of burden, including New York Heart Association Score status of the patient, if the patient has had recurrent emergency admissions or has recently been discharged home and the level of social support available to the carer. A further finding from conducting this review is that there are still limited measures of the positive aspects of caregiving.

Whittingham K; Barnes S; Gardiner C

2013-07-01

262

[Psychological interventions in surgical care: a narrative review of current meta-analytic evidence].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies investigating the effects of adjunctive psychological interventions to surgical routine care are summarized as a narrative review of existing meta-analyses. Primary studies evaluate the effects of the provision of information, supportive approaches, coping skills training, behavioural instructions, cognitive-behavioural strategies, relaxation, and hypnosis. The meta-analyses include studies of different methodological quality, also considering non-randomized trials, and indicate small to large effects depending on the type of intervention and outcome measure. The greatest effects were achieved on patient satisfaction, recovery, and the reduction of postoperative pain, with a slight advantage of complex interventions. Since most of the meta-analyses reveal methodological limitations, an updated and methodologically improved quantitative research synthesis seems to be required.

Tefikow S; Rosendahl J; Strauß B

2013-06-01

263

[Psychological interventions in surgical care: a narrative review of current meta-analytic evidence].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies investigating the effects of adjunctive psychological interventions to surgical routine care are summarized as a narrative review of existing meta-analyses. Primary studies evaluate the effects of the provision of information, supportive approaches, coping skills training, behavioural instructions, cognitive-behavioural strategies, relaxation, and hypnosis. The meta-analyses include studies of different methodological quality, also considering non-randomized trials, and indicate small to large effects depending on the type of intervention and outcome measure. The greatest effects were achieved on patient satisfaction, recovery, and the reduction of postoperative pain, with a slight advantage of complex interventions. Since most of the meta-analyses reveal methodological limitations, an updated and methodologically improved quantitative research synthesis seems to be required. PMID:23390014

Tefikow, Susan; Rosendahl, Jenny; Strauß, Bernhard

2013-02-06

264

Disentangling manual muscle testing and Applied Kinesiology: critique and reinterpretation of a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cuthbert and Goodheart recently published a narrative review on the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing (MMT) in the Journal. The authors should be recognized for their effort to synthesize this vast body of literature. However, the review contains critical errors in the search methods, inclusion criteria, quality assessment, validity definitions, study interpretation, literature synthesis, generalizability of study findings, and conclusion formulation that merit a reconsideration of the authors' findings. Most importantly, a misunderstanding of the review could easily arise because the authors did not distinguish the general use of muscle strength testing from the specific applications that distinguish the Applied Kinesiology (AK) chiropractic technique. The article makes the fundamental error of implying that the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing lends some degree of credibility to the unique diagnostic procedures of AK. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a critical appraisal of the review, suggest conclusions consistent with the literature both reviewed and omitted, and extricate conclusions that can be made about AK in particular from those that can be made about MMT. When AK is disentangled from standard orthopedic muscle testing, the few studies evaluating unique AK procedures either refute or cannot support the validity of AK procedures as diagnostic tests. The evidence to date does not support the use of MMT for the diagnosis of organic disease or pre/subclinical conditions.

Haas Mitchell; Cooperstein Robert; Peterson David

2007-01-01

265

Integrated Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated instruction may be everyone's ideal, but it is the reality in few classrooms. In this review of existing literature, Gavelek and his colleagues examined research to determine why this ideal may be infrequently realized. Soon into the review, Ga...

D. Wang J. R. Gavelek S. M. Blondo T. E. Raphael

1999-01-01

266

Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to suggest that risk factors for suicide in deaf people differed systematically from those in the general population. However, studies did report higher levels of depression and higher levels of perceived risk among deaf individuals than hearing control groups. No firm evidence was found regarding the effectiveness of suicide prevention strategies in deaf people, but suggested strategies include developing specific screening tools, training clinical staff, promoting deaf awareness, increasing the availability of specialist mental health services for deaf people. Conclusion There is a significant gap in our understanding of suicide in deaf populations. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between suicide and deafness. Specialist mental health services should be readily accessible to deaf individuals and specific preventative strategies may be of benefit. However, further research using a variety of study designs is needed to increase our understanding of this issue.

Turner Oliver; Windfuhr Kirsten; Kapur Navneet

2007-01-01

267

Intestinal and multivisceral retransplantation results: literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal/multivisceral transplantation (IT/MVT) is the gold standard treatment for patients with intestinal failure and complications related to total parenteral nutrition, gastrointestinal inoperable indolent tumors, or diffuse portal trombosis. Currently, the reported 1-year patient survival rate is around 80%, similar to other solid organ abdominal transplantations. Unfortunately, the patient survival decreases after the first year with the 5-year rate not close to 70% yet. Acute cellular rejection is the main cause of graft loss. Its early diagnosis may make it possible to improve survival of retransplantations. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reported results published in the last 5 years by leading transplant centers to evaluate IT/MVT retransplantation results. METHODS: We performed a literature review using PubMed focusing on multivisceral and intestinal retransplantation in articles published between 2006 and 2012. In relation to the first transplantation, we analyzed demographics, imunosuppression, rejection, infection as well as graft and patient survival rates. RESULTS: Two centers reported results on intestinal and multivisceral retransplantations. Mazariegos et al reported their experience with 15 intestinal retransplantations in 14 pediatric recipients. Four patients died from posttransplant lymphoperliferative disease, severe acute cellular rejection, fungal sepsis, or bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm at a mean time of 5.7 months post-transplantation. Total parenteral nutrition was weaned at a median time of 32 days. Abu-Elmaged et al reported 47 cases with a 5-year survival of 47% for all retransplant modalities. Retransplantation with liver-contained visceral allograft achieved a 5-year survival rate of 61% compared with 16% for liver-free visceral grafts. CONCLUSION: Despite those huge improvements, some transplanted patients develop severe acute cellular rejection, culminating in graft loss and retransplantation. Repots on multivisceral and intestinal retransplantation outcomes suggest that it is a viable procedure with appropriate patient survival after primary graft loss.

Trevizol AP; David AI; Yamashita ET; Pecora RA; D'Albuquerque LA

2013-04-01

268

LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

2011-09-22

269

Biologic coal beneficiation: Literature review: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several approaches to the biological beneficiation of coal have been suggested in the literature. The chemical similarity between coal, especially low-rank coal, and lignin suggest that lignin-degrading microorganisms, particularly white-rot fungi, could degrade coal by oxygen-requiring reactions. There are some indications that these processes can occur. Solubilization of coal by the action of white-rot fungi, such as Polyporus vesicolor has been reported. Bacterium such as Pseudomonas fluorescence appear capable of biodegrading coals including higher rank materials such as anthracite. Besides degrading coal, this bacterium was shown to produce extracellular protein that adsorbed to the surface of the coal particles. The adsorbed protein significantly reduced the surface tension of the coal, suggesting a potential role of this protein as a surfactant in coal slurrying. In coals containing finely dispersed pyrite, pyritic sulfur and, to a degree, organic sulfur can be removed by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, which oxidizes sulfur for energy production. Based on laboratory data, the biological, coal-desulfurization process appears to be cost-effective when compared to other chemical-desulfurization methods. This review reveals the general absence of data on coal degradation, enzyme production and characterization, and effects of coal substrate, nutritional requirements, on degradation rates. Screening of additional organisms for coal degrading activity or isolation and evaluation of cell-free-enzyme extracts as bioreagents for coal conversion appear to be areas which may be fruitful in the near term. Each of these issues must be addressed if progress in this new area of biotechnology is to continue. 76 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Pyne, J.W.; Wilson, B.W.

1986-11-01

270

Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

1984-08-01

271

Short rotation coppice: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Report summarises scientific literature relating to the influence of coppice management upon wildlife. Where information is available, special attention is given to short rotation coppice. The Report also summarises the literature regarding coppice woodland management techniques which could be applied to enhance the nature conservation interest of short rotation coppice sites generally. (2 tables, 57 references) (author)

Beaumont, N.

1993-01-01

272

An Integrative Literature Review of Knowledge Sharing through Cultural Lenses  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an integrative review of literature on cultural dimensions that have been suggested as facilitative and inhibitive to knowledge sharing in organizations. Content analysis was conducted on articles related to national, organizational and professional culture and knowledge sharing process. Based on a review of existing literature

Kim, EunJee

2007-01-01

273

Life events and treatment outcomes among individuals with substance use disorders: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Substance use disorders are characterized by a variable course, in which multiple treatment attempts and relapses are typical. Consistent with conceptualizations of substance use and relapse, life events have been implicated in contributing to poor substance use disorders treatment outcomes. However, inconsistencies in empirical findings regarding the life events-substance use disorders outcome literature have been previously observed. This review provides an updated critique of the literature since the previous review published in 1987 (O'Doherty & Davies, 1987), examining the relationship between life events and substance use disorders treatment outcome among clinical samples of individuals. Review of 18 peer-reviewed articles suggested that data on the life events-outcome relationship continue to be inconclusive. Inconsistencies across studies in the operationalization of life events and substance use treatment outcomes and lack of theoretically driven designs may be contributing to differences in findings. Recommendations for future research that will increase the clinical utility of the life events construct are provided.

Krenek M; Maisto SA

2013-04-01

274

Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Reseña: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jane ELLIOTT hat mit Using Narrative in Social Research einen originären und gut zugänglichen Beitrag zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Methodenliteratur geleistet. Die Originalität ist insbesondere den beiden Zielen geschuldet, die sie mit diesem Buch verfolgt: ELLIOTT beschreibt nicht nur qualitative u...

Leen Beyers

275

Social and Cutural Aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa : A narrative review of qualitative research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the increasing focus on the role of social aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African region and to analyze the main research findings in order to identify possible gaps and recommend new research themes to inform future research-based interventions. The analysis is based on a total of 58 articles published from 2001 to 2009 in English or French identified through a literature search in seven scientific, bibliographical databases. Searches included terms related to qualitative studies combined with various terms related to HIV/AIDS. The results of this narrative review show that there was a geographical concentration on Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Coˆte d’Ivoire and a strong urban bias, with most studies taking place in the capital cities of these countries. The majority of the studies focused on women or women and men; only four articles dealt exclusively with men, of which only two were on men who have sex with men. The main study groups were people living with HIV, young people or female sex workers. Sexual risk-taking and stigmatization were the themes that were most prominently explored in the articles we reviewed. We conclude that research needs to be strengthened in relation to the analysis of experiences with antiretroviral therapy and the non-optimal access to treatment in West Africa. Also, more research is needed on men and their exposure to HIV/AIDS, as well as on the role of concurrent partnership in the spread of HIV.

Samuelsen, Helle; Ostergaard, Lise Rosendal

2012-01-01

276

Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elisabeth Fernell,1 Mats Anders Eriksson,1,2 Christopher Gillberg11Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008–2012) presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband “early intervention” programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be “created” around affected individuals.Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, epidemiology, screening, etiology, intervention, outcome

Fernell E; Eriksson MA; Gillberg C

2013-01-01

277

Spa treatment (balneotherapy) for fibromyalgia-a qualitative-narrative review and a historical perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms "Spa therapy," "Balneotherapy," and "Fibromyalgia" between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS. PMID:23983795

Ablin, Jacob N; Häuser, Winfried; Buskila, Dan

2013-07-31

278

Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia--A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

Ablin, Jacob N.; Buskila, Dan

2013-01-01

279

Spa treatment (balneotherapy) for fibromyalgia-a qualitative-narrative review and a historical perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms "Spa therapy," "Balneotherapy," and "Fibromyalgia" between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

Ablin JN; Häuser W; Buskila D

2013-01-01

280

Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. METHODS: A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. RESULTS: Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access.

DiGiacomo M; Davidson PM; Abbott P; Delaney P; Dharmendra T; McGrath SJ; Delaney J; Vincent F

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Continuity of Care: Literature review and implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Continuity of care is widely regarded as a core value of primary care. The objective of this article is to explore the literature about the concept of continuity of care focusing on factors that influence continuity; advantages and disadvantages of continuity and the effect of continuity on outcomes...

Alazri, Mohammed; Heywood, Philip; Neal, Richard D; Leese, Brenda

282

Uranium and human diet: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium is present in the environment from industrial activities, nuclear power generation and from primordial sources. This report discusses a survey of the literature of the occurrence of uranium in the foodchain and human diet. The dietary absorption and human metabolism of uranium present in foodstuffs are discussed. (author).

Long, S.E.

1987-12-01

283

NCMS Total Productive Maintenance Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the document is to provide to the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) members a dissection of a number of pertinent research papers and product literature information to help get a clearer understanding of the current state-of...

1990-01-01

284

Frailty in Older Adults Using Pre-hospital Care and the Emergency Department: A Narrative Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Older adults use more health-care services per capita than younger age groups and the older adult population varies greatly in its needs. Evidence suggests that there is a critical distinction between relative frailty and fitness in older adults. Here, we review how frailty is described in the pre-hospital literature and in the broader emergency medicine literature. METHODS: PubMed was used as the primary database, but was augmented by searches of CINAHL and EMBASE. Articles were included if they focused on patients 60 years and older and implemented a definition of frailty or risk screening tool in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) or Emergency Department setting. RESULTS: IN THE BROAD CLINICAL LITERATURE, THREE TYPES OF MEASURES CAN BE IDENTIFIED: frailty index measures, frailty scales, and a phenotypic definition. Each offers advantages and disadvantages for the EMS stakeholder. We identified no EMS literature on frailty conceptualization or management, although some risk measures from emergency medicine use terms that overlap with the frailty literature. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of research on frailty in the Emergency Medical Services literature. No research was identified that specifically addressed frailty conceptualization or management in EMS patients. There is a compelling need for further research in this area.

Goldstein JP; Andrew MK; Travers A

2012-03-01

285

Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention.

Gudrunardottir, Thora; Sehested, Astrid

2011-01-01

286

Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. This article will review the structure, systemic transformation and bioavailability of g...

Leung Kar; Wong Alice

287

Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. This article will review the structure, systemic transformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides before ...

Leung, KW; Wong, AS

288

Immunology of root resorption: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

Silva Luciano; Guimaraes Carolina; Santos Roberto

2008-01-01

289

Projects and Their Management: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years and more importantly in the recent past projects have been used as a delivery mechanism to do business and accomplish objectives. No wonder it has become one of the fastest growing professions in the world. Although the understanding of what constitutes a project and what doesn’t continues to be a topic of debate. This paper attempts to provide literature search on what is a project, its classification, characteristics, its life cycle, phases, tools etc.

Guru Prakash Prabhakar

2009-01-01

290

OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major focus of this review is based on earlier & present day developments encompassing the field of radio transmission & propagation. It covers a wide area of radio communication in a moresubtle & elastic manner, the leading aspects of the review involves an overall discussion of different models & techniques developed so far, facilitating radio propagation. A more penetrating aspect of mobility lead communications & associated software developments along with recent advancements also forms an important part of it.

Mr. Sumit Joshi

2012-01-01

291

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS’ ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS AT UNIVERSITY: A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptation to the new environment is critical for international students’ successful engagement with their learning at university. Identifying factors that influence their adaptation will be of great significance to help improve their adjustment. This paper critically reviews previous literature that investigated issues that hinder international undergraduate students’ adaptation at university. The literature search was carried out across four databases, i.e. Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC), British Education Index (BEI), Australian Education Index (AEI) and Scopus, by drawing on techniques adopted in both systematic literature review and naturalistic literature review. The problems identified in the literature are categorized into five groups: personal psychological issues, academic issues, socio-cultural issues, general living issues and English language proficiency, among which English language proficiency, financial problem, academic progress and homesickness seem to face most international students, though there has not been a consensus yet among researchers about the magnitude of these problems.

Hu Wenhua; Zhang Zhe

2013-01-01

292

A narrative review of recent progress in understanding the relationship between tuberculosis and protein energy malnutrition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and tuberculosis (TB) are the major public health issues, particularly in the developing country setting. Malnutrition is an underlying cause of many deaths and when left untreated devastates normal physical and cognitive development. TB continues to gather momentum as a serious infectious killer. They have both rightly been highlighted as important global health issues by their inclusion in the Millennium Development Goals. But what is known of their relationship with one another? It is historically accepted that PEM and TB have a synergistic relationship adversely having an impact on one another. However, researchers have sought to apply this understanding in an examination of the relationship between TB and PEM with often inconclusive results. This narrative review of recently published research and current knowledge may help delineate the association between PEM and TB mortality. Such results will assist future research in this important area of health-an area lacking evidence-based guidance.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.143.

Hood ML

2013-08-01

293

Diagnostic imaging for spinal disorders in the elderly: a narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of neck and low back pain in the rapidly aging population is associated with significant increases in health care expenditure. While spinal imaging can be useful to identify less common causes of neck and back pain, overuse and misuse of imaging services has been widely reported. This narrative review aims to provide primary care providers with an overview of available imaging studies with associated potential benefits, adverse effects, and costs for the evaluation of neck and back pain disorders in the elderly population. While the prevalence of arthritis and degenerative disc disease increase with age, fracture, infection, and tumor remain uncommon. Prevalence of other conditions such as spinal stenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) also increase with age and demand special considerations. Radiography of the lumbar spine is not recommended for the early management of non-specific low back pain in adults under the age of 65. Aside from conventional radiography for suspected fracture or arthritis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) offer better characterization of most musculoskeletal diseases. If available, MRI is usually preferred over CT because it involves less radiation exposure and has better soft-tissue visualization. Use of subspecialty radiologists to interpret diagnostic imaging studies is recommended.

Taylor John AM; Bussières André

2012-01-01

294

The complex interaction between obesity, metabolic syndrome and reproductive axis: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this narrative review is to provide current evidence for the interaction between obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS) and reproductive axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses and, consequently, normal function of reproductive (hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal) axis depend on normal energy balance, which presupposes sufficient food intake, reasonable energy consumption and average thermoregulatory costs. In case of an energy imbalance, reproductive dysfunction may occur. In young women, excessive leanness is accompanied by puberty delay, whereas premature puberty might be a manifestation of obesity. In a similar way, obesity in men affects fertility. Excess adipose tissue results in increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol, which may lead to secondary hypogonadism through reproductive axis suppression. Moreover, oxidative stress at the level of the testicular micro-environment may result in decreased spermatogenesis and sperm damage. Products of the adipocyte, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and gut peptides, such as ghrelin, are considered to be crucial in the interaction between energy balance and reproduction. Finally, an indirect evidence for the interplay between MS and reproductive axis is the fact that when treating components of one, parameters of the other can be improved as well. These therapeutic interventions include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological agents, such as sex hormone replacement therapy, and surgical procedures. Although many issues remain unclear, the elucidation of the complex interaction between MS and reproductive axis will have obvious clinical implications in the therapeutic approach of both entities.

Michalakis K; Mintziori G; Kaprara A; Tarlatzis BC; Goulis DG

2013-04-01

295

Pediatric spinal osteochondromas: Case report and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteochondromas, though common in appendicular skeleton, are a rarity in spine, that too in young age. We present two case reports - one solitary, one multiple - in young age patients and review the literature.

Sil K; Basu S; Bhattacharya M; Chatterjee S

2006-01-01

296

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. Review of literature and case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome with the classic triad of symptoms is presented. The literature is reviewed with respect to clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management of this syndrome.

Winnie R; DeLuke DM

1992-04-01

297

Current status of the neutral zone: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several studies have been published on the neutral zone regarding materials, techniques, and different prostheses; however, the data are incongruent, and a literature review was necessary. This review summarizes the literature on the neutral zone and identifies deficiencies suggesting future research. The English language peer-reviewed dental literature was reviewed from the period January 1, 1900 to June 30, 2011. Articles were searched in Medline (PubMed) and Google scholar for the term "neutral zone" and were supplemented by a hand search in prosthodontic publications. Deficiencies in the literature were found, including materials and techniques for recording the neutral zone, the comparison of different neutral zone dentures, and the effect of the period of edentulism on the neutral zone.

Porwal A; Sasaki K

2013-02-01

298

The burden of influenza B: a structured literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and economic burden of influenza B as reported in the peer-reviewed published literature. We used MEDLINE to perform a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed, English-language literature published between 1995 and 2010. Widely variable frequency data were reported. Clinical presentation of influenza B was similar to that of influenza A, although we observed conflicting reports. Influenza B-specific data on hospitalization rates, length of stay, and economic outcomes were limited but demonstrated that the burden of influenza B can be significant. The medical literature demonstrates that influenza B can pose a significant burden to the global population. The comprehensiveness and quality of reporting on influenza B, however, could be substantially improved. Few articles described complications. Additional data regarding the incidence, clinical burden, and economic impact of influenza B would augment our understanding of the disease and assist in vaccine development.

Paul Glezen W; Schmier JK; Kuehn CM; Ryan KJ; Oxford J

2013-03-01

299

[Ureteritis cystica. Case report and review of the literature].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors report one case of ureteritis cystica in 40 years old women. The diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination. The epidemiologic, etiopathogenic, radio-diagnosis and therapeutic aspects are discussed with a review of literature.

Binous MY; Chtourou M; Kbaier I; H'Midi M; Horchani A

2003-06-01

300

[Intrasellar arachnoid cysts. Two case reports and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intrasellar arachnoid cysts are an uncommon pathology, with only a few cases reported in scientific literature. Their physiopathology is still unknown, with different hypothesis about their development. Differential diagnosis with other cystic sellar lesions is difficult. We report two cases of two intrasellar arachnoid cysts that were treated surgically using transsphenoidal approach and present a review of the literature.

Lorente-Muñoz A; Lisbona-Alquézar MP; Alberdi-Viñas J; Orduna-Martinez J; González-Martínez L; Fernández-Liesa R

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Literature review on energy conservation investment in nonresidential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the product of a study conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support the overall design effort for a region-wide nonresidential building survey. The study involved review of literature and data sources related to conservation investment decision-making in the commercial sector. It paralleled another study reviewing literature and data sources on the physical aspects of the building and equipment stock in nonresidential buildings.

Nieves, L.A.; Fang, J.M.

1986-01-01

302

INSIDE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT - A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of continuous improvement (CI) by looking beyond what traditionally highlighted in literature concerning continuous improvement or Total Quality Management (TQM). The primary argument put forwarded in the discussion is that despite the undeniable positive results from CI practices, the way these activities are implemented, however, will lead to most programs becoming self-limiting. It needs to be asserted here that this paper is not intended to despise CI, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward CI.

Daniel Indarto Prajogo

2000-01-01

303

[Kidney and smoking: literature review and focus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Smoking remains a major public health problem. It is associated with a considerable number of deaths in the world's population. Smoking is just like high blood pressure, an independent predictor of progression to any primary renal disease and renal transplant patients. It seems that smoking cessation slows the progression of kidney disease in smokers. The literature data are sometimes contradictory about it because of some methodological weaknesses. However, experimental models highlight the harmful effects of tobacco by hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors. The conclusion is that a major effort should be further produced by the nephrology community to motivate our patients to stop smoking.

Phan O; El Housseini Y; Burnier M; Vogt B

2013-04-01

304

Solid fuel grindability: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most commonly used measurement of coal grindability is the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) however, many solid fuels do not exhibit the grinding performance predicted by this index. Parameters which can influence grindability and possibly lead to inaccurate prediction of grindability as determined by HGI include: composition and texture, mineral components, brittleness, and rank (which establishes carbon, volatile matter, and moisture contents). Descriptions of these parameters are provided. Alternative measurements of grindability from literature are presented. The most promising may be a revision on the standard HGI, in which a mill capacity factor is derived from the number of mill rotations to crush coal to a specific fineness. 88 refs.

Hills, L.

2007-07-01

305

Intractable sneezing: case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intractable sneezing is rare; the 12th case is reported here. Various causative factors have been identified in the literature; these include psychologic problems, cervical lymphadenitis, epilepsy, and allergy. The sneeze reflex consists of two phases, nasal and respiratory, which are mediated by cranial nerves V and VII and by brain-stem respiratory centers. Hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the multiple causation of sneezing are the concept of the trigeminal system as a central neuronal pool, optic-trigeminal summation, and parasympathetic generalization.

Co S

1979-02-01

306

Is there an association between low dose aspirin and anemia (without overt bleeding)?: narrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt bleeding associated with low dose aspirin (LDA) is well-recognized, little attention is given to the possibility of association between LDA and occult bleeding, although this is known to occur in healthy volunteers. LDA is used increasingly in primary and secondary prevention of a number of medical conditions, many of which are common in older people, as is anemia. Anemia in older people is associated with adverse outcomes including disability, morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence that LDA might cause anemia without overt bleeding. Methods An extensive narrative review was carried out. Electronic searching (including database links) and reference lists of reports were used to identify studies reporting on use of aspirin ?325 mg/day and anemia or change in hemoglobin (Hb) without overt bleeding. Data were extracted from reports of trials, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and prevalence studies of adults aged ?18 years, published since 1980. Results There are few relevant data, with considerable heterogeneity among trial designs, duration, and patient characteristics in studies of LDA. In five randomised trials (n = 5879) in (mostly secondary) prevention, the majority of patients were men without peptic ulcer disease aged 50-70 years and no consistent association between LDA and change in Hb was found. In two smaller studies (n = 609) of primary prevention in healthy patients aged ?70 years, there was a small but statistically significant fall in Hb with LDA. Observational studies, and data from trials in which use of LDA was not a primary focus of the study, were inconclusive. Conclusions It is not clear whether there is an association between LDA and anemia in the absence of overt bleeding, but there may be an association between LDA and fall in Hb in (a subset of) older patients. The available evidence has significant limitations, which are discussed; studies including more older patients, and publication of individual patient data, would help clarify this important matter.

Gaskell Helen; Derry Sheena; Moore R Andrew

2010-01-01

307

Literature review of SNOMED CT use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to report on the use of the systematised nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT) by providing an overview of published papers. METHODS: Published papers on SNOMED CT between 2001 and 2012 were identified using PubMed and Embase databases using the keywords 'systematised nomenclature of medicine' and 'SNOMED CT'. For each paper the following characteristics were retrieved: SNOMED CT focus category (ie, indeterminate, theoretical, pre-development/design, implementation and evaluation/commodity), usage category (eg, prospective content coverage, used to classify or code in a study), medical domain and country. RESULTS: Our search strategy identified 488 papers. A comparison between the papers published between 2001-6 and 2007-12 showed an increase in every SNOMED CT focus category. The number of papers classified as 'theoretical' increased from 46 to 78, 'pre-development/design' increased from 61 to 173 and 'implementation' increased from 10 to 34. Papers classified as 'evaluation/commodity' only started to appear from 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of studies focused on 'theoretical' and 'pre-development/design'. This is still encouraging as SNOMED CT is being harmonized with other standardized terminologies and is being evaluated to determine the content coverage of local terms, which is usually one of the first steps towards adoption. Most implementations are not published in the scientific literature, requiring a look beyond the scientific literature to gain insights into SNOMED CT implementations.

Lee D; de Keizer N; Lau F; Cornet R

2013-07-01

308

Environmental efficiency indicators. A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This literature survey presented some of the indicators found in the literature. The emphasis has been on indicators related to environmental issues. Environmental issues are a growing concern in the society today and it is something that companies cannot by-pass. Moreover, the growing competition forces companies to strive for more efficient processes to gain advantage against their competitors. Based on these reasons, the follow-up of important indicators is beneficial. One set of such indicators are eco-efficiency indicators. They provide information about the efficiency of water, energy, and material usage, and about the level of pollutant emissions. These parameters can be to some extent followed on-line and also during longer time-spans to follow the progress of the indicators. One of the most important parameters to be optimized is energy consumption due to the high energy costs. Energy efficiency parameters are, therefore, an important category of process efficiency indicators. Indicators are useful at different levels in a company. The hierarchic model can be used when developing indicators for the different levels. In addition, descriptive and explanatory indicators are useful for showing and explaining the trends of process efficiency when time series analysis is used. These are especially beneficial for analyzing the indicators at the middle levels of the hierarchic system (foreman and operating engineer levels). Appendix 2 summarizes the indicators found in this report. Other process efficiency indicators can be found in the report by Antti Isomaeki (2004)

Penttinen, I.

2004-07-01

309

Mobile Assisted Language Learning : A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile assisted language learning (MALL) is a subarea of the growing field of mobile learning (mLearning) research which increasingly attracts the attention of scholars. This study provides a systematic review of MALL research within the specific area of second language acquisition during the period...

Viberg, Olga; Grönlund, Åke

310

A Literature Review on Document Clustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Retrieval (IR) is the discipline of searching for documents, for information within documents and metadata about documents. The document clustering improves the retrieval effectiveness of the IR System. If documents can be clustered together in a sensible order, then indexing and retrieval operations can be optimized. This study presents a review on document clustering.

K. Premalatha; A.M. Natarajan

2010-01-01

311

Shared care: A review of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review examines broad issues of concern regarding the primary/secondary care interface. The main purpose was to identify areas of good practice which could be adapted for more general use. One of the most fundamental aspects identified was communication, which is discussed in some detail. Also ...

Hampson, JP; Roberts, Rl; Morgan, DA; Mcghee, SM; Hedley, AJ

312

Literature Review in Primary Science and ICT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review focuses on the development of primary science since it was first introduced in 1989 as a compulsory, core subject in the primary curriculum in England and Wales. It considers the impact of ICT in primary science in relation to the role of teacher and learner, teachers' subject knowledge,...

Murphy, Colette

313

Literature Review in Games and Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review is intended as a timely introduction to current thinking about the role of computer games in supporting children's learning inside and out of school. It highlights the key areas of research in the field, in particular the increasing interest in pleasurable learning, learning through doin...

Kirriemuir, John; Mcfarlane, Angela

314

International emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the specialty of emergency medicine evolves in countries around the world, and as interest in international emergency medicine (IEM) grows within the United States, the IEM Literature Review Group recognizes an ongoing need for a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence base of literature. The IEM Literature Review Group produces an annual publication that strives to provide readers with access to the highest quality and most relevant IEM research from the previous year. This publication represents our fifth annual review, covering the top 24 IEM research articles published in 2009. Articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that emphasize both methodologic quality and impact of the research. It is our hope that this annual review acts as a forum for disseminating best practices, while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM.

Foran M; Levine A; Lippert S; Chan J; Aschkenasy M; Arnold K; Rosborough S

2011-01-01

315

International emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the specialty of emergency medicine evolves in countries around the world, and as interest in international emergency medicine (IEM) grows within the United States, the IEM Literature Review Group recognizes an ongoing need for a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence base of literature. The IEM Literature Review Group produces an annual publication that strives to provide readers with access to the highest quality and most relevant IEM research from the previous year. This publication represents our fifth annual review, covering the top 24 IEM research articles published in 2009. Articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that emphasize both methodologic quality and impact of the research. It is our hope that this annual review acts as a forum for disseminating best practices, while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM. PMID:21182567

Foran, Mark; Levine, Adam; Lippert, Suzanne; Chan, Jennifer; Aschkenasy, Miriam; Arnold, Kris; Rosborough, Stephanie

2010-12-23

316

Treatments for methamphetamine abuse: a literature review for the clinician.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methamphetamine (METH) use and dependence is a serious public health concern with implications across multiple areas from societal impact to burden on psychiatric and medical resources. An estimated 8% of admissions to substance abuse treatment programs are related to stimulants with METH/amphetamine abuse. To date, effective pharmacotherapy options to enhance abstinence have not been identified. The objective of this article is to critically review the literature of METH treatment options. Preclinical research and human research with compounds not yet available commercially in the United States will not be included. A literature review was conducted for research on pharmacological treatments for METH use and addiction. Trial information on the use of sertraline, bupropion, mirtazapine, modafinil, dextroamphetamine, ondansetron, risperidone, aripiprazole, baclofen, and gabapentin was reviewed. Aripiprazole trials appeared in the reviewed literature more frequently than the other medications. Based on the findings of this review, no single medication demonstrated consistent efficacy and each trial contained a variety of methodological limitations.

Brackins T; Brahm NC; Kissack JC

2011-12-01

317

Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review and classification for electronic commerce research. The authors examined 4,948 articles listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and 2,875 articles in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) published from 1999 to 2008. The results revealed that electronic commerce literature can be classified into seven categories: business and management; computer and information science; industrial engineering and operation research; engineering; economics; law; and others. The study also examined the country distribution of authors. This literature review should serve as a supplemental resource for electronic commerce academics to formulate future research.

Chih-Chien Wang; Chien-Chang Chen

2010-01-01

318

A literature review to explore integrated care for older people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reports on some of the findings of a literature review commissioned to explore integrated care for older people. Methods: The process of revising included finding and selecting literature from multidisciplinary sources, and encompassed both published papers and ‘grey’ literature, i.e. material which had not been reviewed for publication. Results: The study found that thinking has moved on from a focus on the problems of accessing services to exploring ways in which they may function in an integrated way. Conclusions: The study shows how thinking on integrated care for older people has developed, and knowledge of micro, mezzo and macro strategies is now more available.

Jan Reed; Glenda Cook; Sue Childs; Brendan McCormack

2005-01-01

319

Situating Disability within Comparative Education: A Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into where the topic of disability falls within the vast field of comparative education research. It explores the extent to which disability is present in comparative education literature, and in what ways it is represented. A review of literature across the core comparative education peer-reviewed journals was conducted. Findings show that a limited number of studies in comparative education have examined students with disabilities, though numbers have increased in recent years. Additionally, two major themes emerged from the literature: (1) social interpretations of disability, and (2) global versus local. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for inclusive education and future research.

Alisha M. B. Brown

2013-01-01

320

Hydrolysis of lactose: a literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lactose is the sugar found in milk and whey. Its hydrolysis to glucose and galactose in milk would solve the problem of milk-intolerant people and in whey it would avoid environmental pollution and offer an interesting possibility of by-product utilization. The prepared sweet syrup has many potential applications in the food industry. Hydrolysis of lactose can be carried out by heating at low pH (acid hydrolysis) or by enzymatic catalysis with the enzyme (lactase or ..beta..-D-galactosidase) either free in solution or immobilized by one of the several enzyme immobilization methods which are abundant in the literature. Selection of the proper method depends on many factors: the nature of substrate, use of the final product, need for sanitary conditions, and, of course, capital and processing costs. 157 references.

Gekas, V.; Lopez-Leiva, M.

1985-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Aetiology of supernumerary teeth: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Supernumerary teeth are teeth, or tooth-like structures that have either erupted or remain unerupted in addition to the 20 primary and 32 permanent teeth. AIMS: This paper attempts to (a) provide an overview of the proposed hypotheses and the current understanding of the aetiology of supernumerary teeth, and (b) review the published cases of supernumerary teeth occurring in families. REVIEW: No studies have been able to distinguish between different aetiologies for the different locations of supernumerary teeth, while, from a developmental or molecular perspective, the proposed hypotheses may be plausible and explains the origin of different types of supernumerary teeth. CONCLUSION: The only clearly evident feature, based on the existing published reports, is that it is logical to state that supernumerary teeth have a genetic component in their aetiology.

Anthonappa RP; King NM; Rabie AB

2013-09-01

322

Forty years of SNOMED: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over a period of 40 years, SNOMED has developed from a pathology-specific nomenclature (SNOP) into a logic-based health care terminology. In spite of its long existence and continuous evolvement, it is yet unknown to what extent SNOMED is used in clinical practice, and what benefits were achieved. The aim of this paper is to investigate this by providing an overview of published studies in which a version of SNOMED was studied or applied. Methods This paper analyzes the use of SNOMED over time, as reflected in scientific publications, by means of Medline literature search in PubMed. The search included papers from 1966 until June 2006. For each selected paper the following characteristics were classified: version, medical domain, coding moment (during or after the care process), usage, and type of evaluation (e.g., does SNOMED work, does SNOMED help). Results 250 papers were included in this research. The number of annual publications has increased, as has the number of domains in which SNOMED is being used. Theoretical studies mainly concern comparison of SNOMED to other terminological systems and SNOMED as an illustration of a terminological systems' theory. Few studies are available on the usage of SNOMED in clinical practice, largely involving coding information and retrieval/aggregation based on SNOMED codes. Conclusion The clinical application of SNOMED is broadening beyond pathology. The majority of studies concern proving the value of SNOMED in theory. Fewer studies are available on the usage of SNOMED in clinical practice. Literature gives no indication of the use of SNOMED for direct care purposes such as decision support.

Cornet Ronald; de Keizer Nicolette

2008-01-01

323

DEPLETED URANIUM INDUCED FETAL MALFORMATIONS - LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Depleted uranium is a byproduct of the enrichment process of uranium for its more radioactive isotopes to be used in nuclear energy .Because depleted uranium is pyrophoric and a dense metal with unique features when combined with alloys ,it is used by the military in armor and ammunition and frequently used in combat scenarios. This review reports on uranium uses and its published health effects, with major focus on its effects on reproduction and fetal development.

A Radulescu; ES Boia; RE Iacob; V David

2006-01-01

324

[Hypophysitis autoimmune. Case series and literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare condition that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pituitary tumor. We present a series of nine patients with clinical and radiologic diagnosis of autoimmune hypophysitis that were admitted to the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ) in Mexico City between 2000-2012. Clinical, biochemical, imaging features (on MRI), treatment, and follow-up are described, and a review on this disease is presented.

Pérez G; Almeda-Valdés P; Cuevas-Ramos D; Juárez-Comboni SC; Higuera-Calleja J; Gómez-Pérez FJ

2013-03-01

325

Teledentistry: a systematic review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a systematic review of teledentistry applications. We searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles published from 1992 to 2012. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. A total of 878 studies were identified, of which 59 fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the review. The articles covered several dental specialties, mostly oral surgery, oral medicine and oral pathology. The most common type of teledentistry application was education (n = 21), followed by diagnosis (n = 16), consultation (n = 3) and treatment (n = 2). Teledentistry studies were reported in a total of 15 countries. The largest number of studies were conducted in the US (n = 22) and there were no studies from developing countries. Most of the reports referred to pilot projects and short-term outcomes, and most of the studies were descriptive. The review indicates that although teledentistry is an area of expansion, there are still some barriers to its increased use. PMID:23512650

Mariño, Rodrigo; Ghanim, Aghareed

2013-03-19

326

Accommodative Insufficiency: A Literature and Record Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Accommodative Insufficiency (AI)is a condition in which a patient has an inability tofocus or sustain focus at near. Several managementoptions are available including plus lenses for near,optometric vision therapy, and monitoring.Methods: A database of patients evaluated at theNova Southeastern University Eye Institute between1/03 and 6/04 diagnosed with accommodativedysfunction was reviewed. A total of 504 charts wereidentified via an electronic database search. A manualchart review was performed of the identified charts.Results: Fifty-four cases met the eligibility criteriafor AI as defined in this paper. Myopia (56%) was mostcommonly found refractive condition in this groupfollowed by emmetropia (37%), and hyperopia (7%).The most frequently encountered chief complaint wasdistance blur (n=20 subjects) followed by headaches(n=8), both distance and near blur (n=7) and nearvision blur only (n=5). Optometric vision therapy wasprescribed in 27.8 % of the cases, while plus at nearwas given in 74% of the cases. Of 40 patients issuedplus at near, bifocals (40.7%) were most commonlyprescribed, followed by reading glasses (29.6%) andprogressive addition lenses (3.7%).Conclusions: This study finds that the mostcommon treatment of accommodative insufficiencyin an academic health center is prescribing a near addition power lens. This article discusses the results ofthe record review, as well as the definition, diagnosis,and treatment of accommodative insufficiency.

Mary Bartuccio, OD, FAAO; Marc B. Taub, OD, FAAO; Jennifer Kieser, BS

2008-01-01

327

The experience of living with chronic heart failure: a narrative review of qualitative studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the leading cause of all hospitalisations and readmissions in older people, accounting for a large proportion of developed countries' national health care expenditure. CHF can severely affect people's quality of life by reducing their independence and ability to undertake certain activities of daily living, as well as affecting their psychosocial and economic capacity. This paper reports the findings of a systematic narrative review of qualitative studies concerning people's experience of living with CHF, aiming to develop a wide-ranging understanding of what is known about the patient experience. Methods We searched eight relevant electronic databases using the terms based on the diagnosis of 'chronic heart failure', 'heart failure' and 'congestive heart failure' and qualitative methods, with restrictions to the years 1990-May 2008. We also used snowballing, hand searching and the expert knowledge of the research team to ensure all relevant papers were included in the review. Of 65 papers collected less than half (n = 30) were found relevant for this review. These papers were subsequently summarised and entered into QSR NVivo7 for data management and analysis. Results The review has identified the most prominent impacts of CHF on a person's everyday life including social isolation, living in fear and losing a sense of control. It has also identified common strategies through which patients with CHF manage their illness such as sharing experiences and burdens with others and being flexible to changing circumstances. Finally, there are multiple factors that commonly impact on patients' self care and self-management in the disease trajectory including knowledge, understanding and health service encounters. These health service encounters encompass access, continuity and quality of care, co-morbid conditions, and personal relationships. Conclusions The core and sub-concepts identified within this study provide health professionals, service providers, policy makers and educators with broad insights into common elements of people's experiences of CHF and potential options for improving their health and wellbeing. Future studies should focus on building a comprehensive picture of CHF through examination of differences between genders, and differences within age groups, socioeconomic groups and cultural groups.

Jeon Yun-Hee; Kraus Stefan G; Jowsey Tanisha; Glasgow Nicholas J

2010-01-01

328

The experience of living with chronic heart failure: a narrative review of qualitative studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the leading cause of all hospitalisations and readmissions in older people, accounting for a large proportion of developed countries' national health care expenditure. CHF can severely affect people's quality of life by reducing their independence and ability to undertake certain activities of daily living, as well as affecting their psychosocial and economic capacity. This paper reports the findings of a systematic narrative review of qualitative studies concerning people's experience of living with CHF, aiming to develop a wide-ranging understanding of what is known about the patient experience. METHODS: We searched eight relevant electronic databases using the terms based on the diagnosis of 'chronic heart failure', 'heart failure' and 'congestive heart failure' and qualitative methods, with restrictions to the years 1990-May 2008. We also used snowballing, hand searching and the expert knowledge of the research team to ensure all relevant papers were included in the review. Of 65 papers collected less than half (n = 30) were found relevant for this review. These papers were subsequently summarised and entered into QSR NVivo7 for data management and analysis. RESULTS: The review has identified the most prominent impacts of CHF on a person's everyday life including social isolation, living in fear and losing a sense of control. It has also identified common strategies through which patients with CHF manage their illness such as sharing experiences and burdens with others and being flexible to changing circumstances. Finally, there are multiple factors that commonly impact on patients' self care and self-management in the disease trajectory including knowledge, understanding and health service encounters. These health service encounters encompass access, continuity and quality of care, co-morbid conditions, and personal relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The core and sub-concepts identified within this study provide health professionals, service providers, policy makers and educators with broad insights into common elements of people's experiences of CHF and potential options for improving their health and wellbeing. Future studies should focus on building a comprehensive picture of CHF through examination of differences between genders, and differences within age groups, socioeconomic groups and cultural groups.

Jeon YH; Kraus SG; Jowsey T; Glasgow NJ

2010-01-01

329

Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review of customer value concepts and distinguishes complex customer value from the various perspectives. It structures the themes and dimensions between the various approaches along the customer value main lines in the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current literature and illustrates different types of value representations through a case example. Findings: Based on a comprehensive literature review, a framework how to scholars can structure customer value constructs is presented. Originality/value: In business and management research a conceptual confusion prevails and this paper attempts to clarify different types of customer value to provide a better resolution tool for scholars.

Aija Paananen; Marko Seppänen

2013-01-01

330

Living on the Edge: A Review of the Literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comprehensive review of the literature of the universal experience of living on the edge is discussed. Literature was reviewed from biology, criminology, ecology, economics, ethics, finance, fine arts, historical biography, medicine, nursing, philosophy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and theology. Three themes emerged with this literature review: living on the edge as a sacred place one travels to or where one lives, living on the edge as a choice in taking risks and surviving danger, and living on the edge as engaging with health experiences in which persons and nurses coparticipate. Living on the edge is a visionary quest into a new frontier that holds illimitable possibilities that transform the world. The literature is discussed according to theoretical and research findings.

Petersonlund RR

2013-10-01

331

Living on the edge: a review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comprehensive review of the literature of the universal experience of living on the edge is discussed. Literature was reviewed from biology, criminology, ecology, economics, ethics, finance, fine arts, historical biography, medicine, nursing, philosophy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and theology. Three themes emerged with this literature review: living on the edge as a sacred place one travels to or where one lives, living on the edge as a choice in taking risks and surviving danger, and living on the edge as engaging with health experiences in which persons and nurses coparticipate. Living on the edge is a visionary quest into a new frontier that holds illimitable possibilities that transform the world. The literature is discussed according to theoretical and research findings.

Petersonlund RR

2013-10-01

332

Retirement Financial Planning and the RN: An Integrative Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability. PMID:24153198

Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

2013-11-01

333

Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention. METHODS: We reviewed all peer-reviewed English publications on cerebellar mutism between the years of 1985 and 2009. The majority were found by searching for ‘cerebellar mutism’ and ‘posterior fossa syndrome’ in PubMed. Additional cases were identified by cross-checking reference lists. RESULTS: The overall incidence of postoperative cerebellar mutism is 11-29%, and patients with medulloblastomas and/or brainstem invasion are at a greater risk of developing it than those with other kinds of tumors and/or without brainstem invasion. Permanent sequelae in the form of both motor- and non-motor-related speech deficits are common, especially when the right cerebellar hemisphere is involved. The mutism is caused by bilateral pertubation of the dentate nuclei and their efferent pathways, which emphasizes the need to explore surgical methods that spare these structures. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed onset and resolution of cerebellar mutism are not clear, but axonal damage, edema, perfusional defects and metabolic disturbances may be involved. CONCLUSION: The incidence of cerebellar mutism is well documented in children with medulloblastoma, but precise figures for those with astrocytoma and ependymoma are lacking. Further anatomical, functional imaging and neuropsychological studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms in order to define preventive measures during surgery. Randomized, controlled trials of the effects of different medication and post-operative speech therapy are necessary for improving treatment.

Gudrunardottir T; Sehested A; Juhler M; Schmiegelow K

2011-03-01

334

A Literature Review on Water Marking Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available this paper presents a review on different digital watermarking techniques and their properties. The main reason for development of digital watermarking research is to protect intellectual properties of the digital world. Since the recent technology makes it easy copying the digital contents without any restrictions and editing without any prohibitive professional efforts. In the absence of protecting techniques, it difficult to rely on digital storage & communication systems for secure medical, business, and military applications. Watermarking is one of the most common solutions to make the data transferring secure from the illegal interference.

Vishal Shrivastava

2012-01-01

335

Guided bone regeneration: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a reconstructive procedure of alveolar ridge using membranes. This procedure isindicated when there is no sufficient bone for implantation, or in the case of optimal implant installation for esthetic orfunctional needs. GBR can be performed before implant placement, when there is not enough bone for initial stability ofimplants and less predictable outcomes (staged approach), or performed simultaneously with implantation (combinedapproach). GBR techniques have been used for vertical and horizontal ridge augmentations with acceptable results. Thisliterature review discusses the background, principles of GBR, the materials used in GBR (types of membranes andbone grafts), success criteria and long term results of GBR

Maryam Farzad DDS; Mohammad Mohammadi DDS, MSc

2012-01-01

336

Septum nasal perforation: treatments and literature' review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The present study consists in a bibliographical' review concerning the articles related to the different manifestations and forms of the septum nasal perforation, with a main emphasis in the description of its techniques of surgical correction. As the etiology, that is fundamentally iatrogenic, accordingly surgical trauma. Other causes include exhibition to chemical industrial reagents, cocaine use, intranasal steroidal therapeutic, neoplasia and, infectious conditions. There is a few data concerning the prevalence of septum perforation in the general population. The decision making about surgical correction or medical treatment depend on the anatomic characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the septal perforation.

Martinez Neto, Eulógio Emílio; Dolci, Luiz Eduardo Lutaif; Murta, Alexandre Antonio; Zanini, Fábio Duro

2010-01-01

337

CHEMORADIATION FOR PANCREATIC ADENOCARCINOMA. LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surgery remains the cornerstone treatment for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, 5% to 20% of tumors only are regarded as resectable, and, among them, only few benefit from a histological complete resection, major survival parameter. These data explain the overall poor prognosis of this disease, with a respectively 20% and 5% 1- and 5-year survival rate. These results justify an adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapeutic approach, mainly based on concurrent chemoradiation, with and without surgery. This paper reviews the different therapeutic approaches of non metastattic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

I. Flandin; Francoise Mornex; L. Claude; A. Kubas; M. Khodri; V. Wautot; R. Mazeron; C. Partensky

2005-01-01

338

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

Rafiqul Zaman Khan; Noor Adnan Ibraheem

2012-01-01

339

Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. This article will review the structure, systemic transformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides before illustration on how these molecules exert their functions via interactions with steroidal receptors. The multiple biological actions make ginsenosides as important resources for developing new modalities. Yet, low bioavailability of ginsenoside is one of the major hurdles needs to be overcome to advance its use in clinical settings.

Leung Kar; Wong Alice

2010-01-01

340

Phlebosclerotic colitis: three cases and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three cases of phlebosclerotic colitis (PC) are presented and all in males. The etiology of the PC still remains unknown. The characteristic manifestations of PC were transmural calcifications on CT and dark purple mucosa on endoscopy. Cases 1 and 2 underwent computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopy while case 3 underwent CT and endoscopy. Cases 1 and 2 were admitted to our hospital for ileus. Case 3 had been diagnosed as ischemic colitis and came to our hospital for re-examination. Calcifications could be found within the colon wall and adjacent mesenteric vein from cecum to transverse colon in case 1 and from cecum to descending colon in cases 2 and 3. Extensive mural thickening of the colon could be seen on CT imaging and MRI, while dark purple mucosa was found on endoscopy in all three patients. However, their extents were more than those of calcifications. The literature is limited to a few case reports. Clinicians should be familiar with the imaging and endoscopy features of PC and radiologists should pay attention to the thickening of colon wall beside the calcifications.

Hu P; Deng L

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs).The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

Calero PA; Cañón GA

2012-01-01

342

Spontaneous combustion: part 1 - literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Review of spontaneous combustion includes the reaction mechanism, influencing factors, methods of storing coal, prevention and detection. Spontaneous combustion is mainly caused by oxidation of carbonaceous matter at ambient temperatures. In the absence of oxygen or air, reactions which support spontaneous combustion will not proceed. The oxygen taking part in the reaction is chemisorbed at active sites on the surface of coal particles. The available reaction sites progressively increase with the reduction in coal rank. Readsorption of moisture, available oxygen concentration or airflow, quantity of coal fines, and particularly temperature of coal all play a significant role in the rate of spontaneous heating. Coal is most liable to spontaneous combustion if it is stored in a conical pile. Thus the procedure of placing the coal in layers and compacting each layer to eliminate oxygen penetration has been suggested. Other methods of storage and capping with impervious substances are reviewed. Anti-pyrogens such as calcium bicarbonate, petroleum products and their emulsions have been tried in the past. Heating zones in a coal stockpile are generally located by inserting a pipe (probe) and then simply measuring the local temperature. More recently combustion products such as CO and CO/SUB/2 have been monitored to estimate the conditions in inaccessible zones.

Rashid, M.A.; McIntyre, C.D.

1982-07-01

343

A literature review on biotic homogenization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biotic homogenization is the process whereby the genetic, taxonomic and functional similarity of two or more biotas increases over time. As a new research agenda for conservation biogeography, biotic homogenization has become a rapidly emerging topic of interest in ecology and evolution over the past decade. However, research on this topic is rare in China. Herein, we introduce the development of the concept of biotic homogenization, and then discuss methods to quantify its three components (genetic, taxonomic, and functional homogenization), and their driving mechanisms. Species invasions and extinctions are the root cause of biotic homogenization, whilst other habitat alterations that facilitate these two processes, such as environment degradation and disturbance, urbanization, and habitat homogenization, also influence biotic homogenization. Biotic homogenization was tempo-spatial-scale dependant. The homogenization degree differed between various ecosystems and taxa, as well as in different regions. We also reviewed ecological and evolutionary consequences and effects on human dimension (economics and biodiversity conservation) due to biotic homogenization. Considering the distinctness of China’s biodiversity, we suggest that it is time to strengthen research on biotic homogenization in China. In our view, the most fundamental need is to establish open, reliable databases to foster biotic homogenization research. We hope this review will stimulate biotic homogenization research in China.

Guangmei Wang; Jingcheng Yang; Chuangdao Jiang; Hongtao Zhao; Zhidong Zhang

2009-01-01

344

Web Services Supply Chains: A Literature Review  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this review paper is to bring into light a potential area i.e., web services supply chains for research by analyzing the existing state of art in this. It is observed from the review process that there seems to be much less work done in the area of web service supply chains as compared to e-commerce and product oriented service supply chains. The service quality assurance models, end to end Quality of Service (QoS) models, attempts made to QoS attributes are also found to be from individual perspectives of participating entities in a service process rather than a collective perspective considering individual QoS attributes rather than multiple QoS attributes. In light of these gaps we highlight the comparison between product oriented and pure online/ web service supply chains, a need for quality driven optimization in the web services supply chains, perceived complexities in the existing work and propose a conceptual model.

Krithika, V; Sekaran, Dr K Chandra

2012-01-01

345

Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk.

Torricelli FC; Mazzucchi E; Danilovic A; Coelho RF; Srougi M

2013-06-01

346

LITERATURE REVIEW OF PURCHASING MANAGEMENT IN SERVICE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It’s necessary for every organization in service industry to purchase goods and services in order to carry out its missions and goals.The objectives of this paper are to review the knowledge and develop the argument of existing research findings about purchasing management especially in service industry. There are three phases in the purchasing management that have been discussed in the section of literature review in this paper, including objectives of purchasing management; global sourcing and partnership relationships with suppliers. Key words: literature review, purchasing management,global sourcing, partnership relationships;supply chain

Zhen-jia ZHANG

2008-01-01

347

Medidas do Estresse: Uma Revisão Narrativa/ Stress Measures: A Narrative Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A presente revisão narrativa teve como objetivos reunir informações sobre medidas do estresse, aliando-as à perspetiva teórica que subsidia os modos de estudo na temática e, também, apontar evidências, características e limitações das diversas formas de mensuração do fenômeno, o que pode favorecer à melhor estruturação de futuras pesquisas e a consequente escolha dos métodos de cotejamento do estresse. Para tanto, são descritas possibilidades de mensura (more) ção de acordo com as vertentes teóricas e evidências empíricas que orientam as pesquisas na temática, estando divididas entre medidas biológicas, ambientais e de autopercepção do estresse, respectivamente situadas nas perspetivas baseada na resposta, baseada no estímulo e cognitiva. Ao final, pretendeu-se incitar a postura reflexiva dos pesquisadores diante dos métodos de cotejamento existentes e, também, a possível consideração de técnicas combinadas para o mais profundo escrutínio do estresse. Abstract in english This narrative review aimed to gather information on measures of stress according to the theoretical perspectives that underpins the methods of study in the area and also point out the evidences, characteristics and limitations of the various ways of measuring the phenomenon, favoring the better structuring of futures researches and consequent choice of measure methods of stress. Thereby, possibilities of measure are described according to the theoretical and empirical ev (more) idence that guides the researches on the topic, being divided between biological, environmental and self-perception measures of stress, respectively located in the response-based perspective, the stimulus-based perspective and the cognitive perspective. Finally, we sought encouraging the reflective stance of the researchers on the measurement methods and also the possible consideration of combined techniques for deeper scrutiny of stress.

Faro, André; Pereira, Marcos Emanoel

2013-03-01

348

Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of strategy for policy makers that address organisational level support, joint clinical problem solving, local joint care guidelines, staff training and supervision and feedback.

Fuller Jeffrey D; Perkins David; Parker Sharon; Holdsworth Louise; Kelly Brian; Roberts Russell; Martinez Lee; Fragar Lyn

2011-01-01

349

Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. METHODS: A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. RESULTS: A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. CONCLUSION: The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of strategy for policy makers that address organisational level support, joint clinical problem solving, local joint care guidelines, staff training and supervision and feedback.

Fuller JD; Perkins D; Parker S; Holdsworth L; Kelly B; Roberts R; Martinez L; Fragar L

2011-01-01

350

Literatures Review on Transaction Costs Measurement Advances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theory of transaction costs and its measurement has been regarded as the focus since its being put forward by scholars. Additionally, researches on the measurement are relatively less in China. This paper devotes to reviewing and analyzing present advanced methodologies of transaction costs measurement. And it summarizes the difficulties of measurement based on the concept of transaction costs. Furthermore, it presents three difficulties of measuring. They are unclear definition of transaction costs, unobservable costs in non-market and the unable replacement of opportunity costs. It concludes the measuring methods both on the macro and micro aspects. On macro aspect, it introduces methods as direct measuring, model-built measuring and margin analysis measuring. On micro aspect, it introduces methods as buy-sale price margin, typical reference quantities method, investigating method and data statistics method.

Zhengchao Lv; Qin Liu; Pan Wang

2012-01-01

351

A literature review on integrated perinatal care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: The perinatal period is one during which health care services are in high demand. Like other health care sub-sectors, perinatal health care delivery has undergone significant changes in recent years, such as the integrative wave that has swept through the health care industry since the early 1990s. Purpose: The present study aims at reviewing scholarly work on integrated perinatal care to provide support for policy decision-making. Results: Researchers interested in integrated perinatal care have, by assessing the effectiveness of individual clinical practices and intervention programs, mainly addressed issues of continuity of care and clinical and professional integration. Conclusions: Improvements in perinatal health care delivery appear related not to structurally integrated health care delivery systems, but to organizing modalities that aim to support woman-centred care and cooperative clinical practice.

Rodríguez, Charo; Rivières-Pigeon, Catherine des

2007-01-01

352

Zirconia dental implants: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants. Because of potential immunologic and possible esthetic compromises with titanium implants, novel implant technologies are being developed. However, these novel technologies must maintain the characteristics that provide titanium implants with their high success rates. Zirconia implants were introduced into dental implantology as an alternative to titanium implants. Zirconia seems to be a suitable implant material because of its toothlike color, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and low plaque affinity. The aim of this study is to review clinical and research articles conducted on zirconia dental implants, compare them with titanium dental implants, and provide information on zirconia dental implant osseointegration and mechanical strength. Zirconia dental implants have the potential to become alternative dental implants to titanium dental implants, but they are not yet in routine clinical use.

Özkurt Z; Kazazo?lu E

2011-06-01

353

[Ambulatory phlebectomy. Literature review and personal experience].  

Science.gov (United States)

Outpatient varicose veins surgery, "Phlébectomie Ambulatoire" (FA) introduced by R. Muller in 1966, is now a widespread technique; modified by many authors with personal tips, FA enables most lower limb varicosities to be treated on an outpatient basis and under local anaesthesia. To achieve good functional results, an accurate preoperative diagnostic examination is mandatory; the authors present a review of the indications of FA and their personal experience. Precision in performing micro-incisions, accurate dissection of the varicosities in the subcutaneous tissue and an adequate postoperative elastic bandage guarantee good aesthetic results. At present the treatment of Saphena magna with FA is debated, but some authors have already reported encouraging results. PMID:9213827

Alonzo, U; Ruffolo, F; Leonardi, L; Sadighi, A; Garavello, A

1997-04-01

354

Optimum Stimulation Level Theory: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimum stimulation level theory (OSLT) is a fairly influential theory with strong explanatory power. It establishes the relationships between individuals’ physio-psychological factors and cognitive/emotional/attitudinal/behavioral responses. It also provides insightful guidance for understanding the different patterns and characteristics in individuals’ daily and working life. This paper introduces the theoretical assumptions and main ideas of OSLT, and reviews the relevant confirmative studies as well as its main applications. Based on the comparison among three types of measurement scales and their different versions, this paper recommends Arousal Seeking Tendency II, Change Seeker Index and its short version. Several future studies have been identified, including the role of age, the internal processes and mechanisms. In addition, this paper points out that it is necessary to develop measurement scales upon different contexts and subjects, and to extend the theory to different research contexts and areas by combining with other relevant theories.

Rui Gu; Kanliang Wang

2012-01-01

355

LITERATURE REVIEW OF FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) have been used for a variety of structural memberships for chemical plants and airplanes, since they have outstanding performances, such as lightweight and good fatigue properties. To hold the long-term durability and to estimate the residual life of the composites under some hostile environments, it is an important issue to clarify the facture and/or the failure mechanism in each service conditions. Degradation of components made from polymeric materials occurs in a wide variety of environments and service conditions, and very often limits the service lifetime. Degradation occurs as the result of environment-dependent chemical or physical attack, often caused by a combination of degradation agents, and may involve several chemical and mechanical mechanisms. The main concern of this review will be to examine the causes of degradation of polymeric components from the completion of fabrication to ultimate failure.

Shivakumar S; G. S. Guggari

2011-01-01

356

Styloid syndrome: A review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The American otolaryngologist Eagle was the first to describe styloid syndrome in 1937. Stylohyoid complex is composed of styloid process, stylohyoid ligament and a lesser horn of the hyoid bone. Embriologicaly, these anatomical structures originate from Reichert's cartilage of the second brachial arch. In the general population, the frequency of the elongated styloid process is estimated to be 4%, of which only 4% show clinical manifestations suggesting that the incidence of styloid syndrome is 0.16% (about 16,000 persons in Serbia). The styloid process deviation causes external or internal carotid impingement and pains which radiate along the arterial trunk. Classical stylohyoid syndrome is found after tonsillectomy and is characterized by pharyngeal, cervical, facial pain and headache. Stylo-carotid syndrome is the consequence of the pericarotid sympathetic fibres irritation and compression on the carotid artery. Clinical manifestations are found most frequently after head turning and neck compression. The diagnostic golden standard for styloid syndrome is 3D CT reconstruction. Sagital CT angiography has a leading role in the radiological diagnosis of the stylo-carotid syndrome. Differential diagnosis requires the differentiation of the styloid syndrome from numerous cranio-facio-cervical painful syndromes. If conservative treatment (analgesics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and local infiltration with steroids or anaesthetic agents) has no effect, surgical treatment is applied. Styloid syndrome is underrepresented in neurological literature. The syndrome is considered important, because it is clinically similar to many other painful cranio-facial syndromes; it is difficult to be recognized, and the patient should be treated adequately.

Petrovi? Branko; Radak ?or?e; Kosti? Vladimir; ?ovi?kovi?-Šterni? Nadežda

2008-01-01

357

West Nile virus: review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE: Since its introduction in North America in 1999, West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW: PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS: West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16,196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780,000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In North America, West Nile virus has and will remain a formidable clinical and public health problem for years to come.

Petersen LR; Brault AC; Nasci RS

2013-07-01

358

Diet and endometriosis risk: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A connection between dietary factors and endometriosis onset has become a topic of interest mostly due to the observation that physiological and pathological processes of the disease can be influenced by diet. This paper systematically reviews prior publications dealing with this aspect in order to identify potentially modifiable risk factors. Comprehensive searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded were conducted to identify published studies evaluating the association between food intake (nutrients and food groups) and endometriosis. Eleven studies were identified: 10 case-control and one cohort study. Information on diet was collected using food frequency questionnaires in seven studies, while in one study the questionnaire focused on caffeine and alcohol intake. Women with endometriosis seem to consume fewer vegetables and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and more red meat, coffee and trans fats but these findings could not be consistently replicated. Most data have also been discussed herein in light of the available experimental and animal model results. At present, evidence supporting a significant association between diet and endometriosis is equivocal. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of diet on endometriosis risk and progression. A connection between dietary factors and endometriosis onset has become a topic of interest mostly due to the observation that physiological and pathological processes of the disease can be influenced by diet. We have herein systematically reviewed prior publications dealing with this aspect in order to identify risk factors for the disease. Comprehensive searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded were conducted to identify studies published on the relationship between endometriosis and both nutrients and food groups. We identified 11 studies: 10 case-control studies and one cohort study. Information on diet was collected using food frequency questionnaires in seven studies. A protective effect on endometriosis risk has been suggested for vegetable consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes, whereas a negative impact has been reported for red meat consumption and trans fats and coffee intakes, but these findings could not be consistently replicated. Evidence supporting a role of diet on endometriosis risk is equivocal. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of diet on endometriosis risk and progression.

Parazzini F; Viganò P; Candiani M; Fedele L

2013-04-01

359

Pain in CF: review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This review evaluated pain research in cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, Pubmed, PsychINFO and PsychARTICLES were searched from January 1995-December 2012 to locate papers assessing pain in CF. A proforma was used to record the rationale for the study, characteristics of the sample, pain assessment tools, pain location, frequency and severity, treatment/self-management, coping and the impact on daily activities and quality of life. RESULTS: All studies (n=13) were retrospective. Chest and abdominal pains were most commonly reported. Pain was negatively associated with pulmonary exacerbations, quality of life and treatment adherence. Approximately 50% of patients do not consult their GP or CF team about pain, with many patients reporting self-management. CONCLUSION: A high incidence of pain is reported in CF although there is little standardization of CF pain measurement. The way forward is to develop guidelines on how to assess pain and provide adequate treatment for pain in CF.

Havermans T; Colpaert K; De Boeck K; Dupont L; Abbott J

2013-09-01

360

Abetalipoproteinemia: two case reports and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL, OMIM 200100) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by fat malabsorption, acanthocytosis and hypocholesterolemia in infancy. Later in life, deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins is associated with development of atypical retinitis pigmentosa, coagulopathy, posterior column neuropathy and myopathy. ABL results from mutations in the gene encoding the large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; OMIM 157147). To date at least 33 MTP mutations have been identified in 43 ABL patients. We describe the clinical progress of two patients, both currently in the fifth decade of life, who were diagnosed with ABL as children and were treated with high oral doses of fat soluble vitamins, including vitamin E over the last three decades. Treatment appears to have been associated with arrest of the neuropathy and other complications in both patients. Because pharmacologic inhibition of MTP is being developed as a novel approach to reduce plasma cholesterol for prevention of cardiovascular disease, defining the long-term clinical features of patients with a natural deficiency in MTP might provide some insight into the possible effects of such treatments. We review the range of clinical, biochemical and molecular perturbations in ABL.

Zamel Rola; Khan Razi; Pollex Rebecca L; Hegele Robert A

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Clinicopathological analysis of paraganglioma with literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the 152 cases of paragangliomas resected over the past 32 years in West China Hospital clinicopathologically.METHODS: All cases of paragangliomas diagnosed at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, China were reviewed. The pathological documents were supplied by the Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, and other necessary data were extracted from the hospital records. The statistical analyses were performed by survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method), descriptive statistical analyses and ?2 analysis.RESULTS: The neuroendocrine marker vimentin was found to be selectively expressed in the benign tumors, and there were significant differences in the expression of those markers in both benign and malignant tumors. The survival analysis revealed that survival correlated significantly with the malignancy, metastasis and nodal status.CONCLUSION: Vimentin may be useful in the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign tumors. The difference in the expression of this marker in the tumors could be a clue to the future clinical diagnosis. The malignancy, metastasis and the nodal status may predict the prognosis of this disease.

Ning Feng, Wen-Yan Zhang, Xiao-Ting Wu

2009-01-01

362

Fatigue in cancer: A review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatigue is a common symptom of advanced cancer limiting one?s activity and affecting the quality of life. It is a multidimensional symptom complex with subjective and objective components. Hence, its definition and assessment seems arbitrary, incomplete, and elusive. Components of fatigue often merge with other ?disease states? as anemia, depression and so on, compounding difficulty to assess it separately. Fatigue has a high prevalence rate, and lasts longer in chronic diseases like cancer. Its association with treatment modalities like chemotherapy, radiotherapy alongside the primary disease process makes it seemingly ubiquitous in many cases. Systemic manifestation of cancer causes excess demand on body resources on cell repair, uncontrolled growth with metabolite accumulation causing fatigue. Co-morbid conditions of organic and psychological nature causes fatigue. There are many assessment tools for fatigue with different uses and objectives, simple and reproducible tools like Brief Fatigue Inventory, Edmonton Symptom assessment scale seem feasible in everyday practice. Management of fatigue is not straightforward and rewarding. Although treatment of cause appears to be an attractive option, it is not possible in all cases. Therapeutic agents targeting cytokine load is in early stages of study and available results are not favorable. Specific measures aimed at pain relief, prevention/treatment of sepsis, management of depression, avoidance of drugs causing fatigue, restoring the metabolic profile are important. Methyl phenidate, megestrol, and modafinil are some drugs with promising effect to treat fatigue, though confirmatory studies are yet to be established. Non-pharmacological methods are also helpful. Forewarning patients on upcoming fatigue, active regular exercise, and stress management are some of them. Fatigue being a multidimensional entity, single mode of therapy is insufficient. Combined modality tailored to individual patient need and understanding may be the right way to battle this ill-understood symptom. This review article examines the etiopathogenesis and management strategies of fatigue in cancer.

Narayanan Vijayakumar; Koshy Cherian

2009-01-01

363

Models of delivering palliative and end-of-life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a narrative review of the evidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review examines evidence for models of palliative and end-of-life (eol) care delivery in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2010. It highlights recent developments, on-going challenges and innovative approaches used to address obstacles to increased access to care. RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic databases were searched for the literature published in English during the period 2010-2012 around broad thematic areas of palliative and eol care delivery models in SSA. Literature showed increased palliative and eol care service development, underpinned by advocacy work undertaken by regional and national palliative care associations. Despite this increase, care provision remains inadequately integrated in national public health agendas and systems. Consequently, it continues to be heavily reliant upon nongovernmental, community-based and home-based care (HBC) models. Efforts are, however, underway to integrate palliative care into national health systems, which should increase access to care. National policies and government financing will be important to sustain this integration. SUMMARY: Although community and HBC programs remain primary models of palliative and eol care delivery in SSA, there is an urgent need to develop a public health approach that integrates care into national health systems to increase accessibility.

Mwangi-Powell FN; Powell RA; Harding R

2013-06-01

364

Conducting reserach literature reviews from the internet to the paper  

CERN Multimedia

Providing readers with an accessible, in-depth look at how to synthesize research literature, Conducting Research Literature Reviews is perfect for students, researchers, marketers, planners, and policymakers who design and manage public and private agencies, conduct research studies, and prepare strategic plans and grant proposals. Bestselling author Arlene Fink shows readers how to explain the need for and significance of research, as well as how to explain a study’s findings. Offering a step-by-step approach to conducting literature reviews, the Fourth Edition features updated examples and covers: how to select databases and evaluate their quality; selecting and organizing key words and other terms in order to effectively search databases and the Web; setting standards for evaluating the quality of research and other literature; extracting and recording information from articles and studies; synthesizing what the reader finds either descriptively or via a meta-analysis; recording and storing the results ...

Fink, Arlene

2014-01-01

365

Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC), MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.

Yan Huang; Jing Ren

2011-01-01

366

Searching the scientific literature: implications for quantitative and qualitative reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Literature reviews are an essential step in the research process and are included in all empirical and review articles. Electronic databases are commonly used to gather this literature. However, several factors can affect the extent to which relevant articles are retrieved, influencing future research and conclusions drawn. The current project examined articles obtained by comparable search strategies in two electronic archives using an exemplar search to illustrate factors that authors should consider when designing their own search strategies. Specifically, literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO and PubMed targeting review articles on two exemplar disorders (bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and issues of classification and/or differential diagnosis. Articles were coded for relevance and characteristics of article content. The two search engines yielded significantly different proportions of relevant articles overall and by disorder. Keywords differed across search engines for the relevant articles identified. Based on these results, it is recommended that when gathering literature for review papers, multiple search engines should be used, and search syntax and strategies be tailored to the unique capabilities of particular engines. For meta-analyses and systematic reviews, authors may consider reporting the extent to which different archives or sources yielded relevant articles for their particular review.

Wu YP; Aylward BS; Roberts MC; Evans SC

2012-08-01

367

Laryngeal Myxoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Myxomas are a rare benign neoplasm of uncertain mesenchymal cell origin, typically involving the heart. Laryngeal myxomas are uncommon, and are usually misdiagnosed as laryngeal polyp. To the best of our knowledge, there are only nine reported cases in the English literature. We report a case of a laryngeal myxoma presenting clinically as a left vocal cord polyp in a 77 year old male, and review the literature related to this rare entity.

Ritchie A; Youngerman J; Fantasia JE; Kahn LB; Cocker RS

2013-08-01

368

Engaging people who use drugs in policy and program development: A review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Health policies and programs are increasingly being driven by people from the community to more effectively address their needs. While a large body of evidence supports peer engagement in the context of policy and program development for various populations, little is known about this form of engagement among people who use drugs (PWUD). Therefore, a narrative literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of this topic. Searches of PubMed and Academic Search Premier databases covering 1995–2010 were conducted to identify articles assessing peer engagement in policy and program development. In total, 19 articles were included for review. Our findings indicate that PWUD face many challenges that restrict their ability to engage with public health professionals and policy makers, including the high levels of stigma and discrimination that persist among this population. Although the literature shows that many international organizations are recommending the involvement of PWUD in policy and program development, our findings revealed a lack of published data on the implementation of these efforts. Gaps in the current evidence highlight the need for additional research to explore and document the engagement of PWUD in the areas of policy and program development. Further, efforts to minimize stigmatizing barriers associated with illicit drug use are urgently needed to improve the engagement of PWUD in decision making processes.

Ti Lianping; Tzemis Despina; Buxton Jane A

2012-01-01

369

Delirium in adult patients receiving palliative care: A systematic review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Delirium in palliative care patients is common and its diagnosis and treatment is a major challenge. Our objective was to perform a literature analysis in two phases on the recent scientific evidence (2007-2012) on the diagnosis and treatment of delirium in adults receiving palliative care. In phase1 (descriptive studies and narrative reviews) 133relevant articles were identified: 73addressed the issue of delirium secondarily, and 60articles as the main topic. However, only 4prospective observational studies in which delirium was central were identified. Of 135articles analysed in phase2 (clinical trials or descriptive studies on treatment of delirium in palliative care patients), only 3 were about prevention or treatment: 2retrospective studies and one clinical trial on multicomponent prevention in cancer patients. Much of the recent literature is related to reviews on studies conducted more than a decade ago and on patients different to those receiving palliative care. In conclusion, recent scientific evidence on delirium in palliative care is limited and suboptimal. Prospective studies are urgently needed that focus specifically on this highly vulnerable population.

Sánchez-Román S; Beltrán Zavala C; Lara Solares A; Chiquete E

2013-07-01

370

The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the social scientific literature associated with medical imaging technology. Methods: An extensive search of published studies in nursing, psychology and anthropology was undertaken to support the radiography specific literature. Results: Following a broad definition of technology and its profound influence on society, an analysis of imaging literature revealed a complex relationship between technology and human interactions. Examples are cited for CT, MRI and ultrasound. Conclusion: It is suggested that any attempt to understand imaging technology must place at its centre the perspectives of patients and radiographers. Scientific descriptors must be balanced with equal deliberation given to 'soft technology'.

Murphy, F.J. [School of Radiography, University of Wales, Bangor Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: f.murphy@bangor.ac.uk

2006-05-15

371

The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the social scientific literature associated with medical imaging technology. Methods: An extensive search of published studies in nursing, psychology and anthropology was undertaken to support the radiography specific literature. Results: Following a broad definition of technology and its profound influence on society, an analysis of imaging literature revealed a complex relationship between technology and human interactions. Examples are cited for CT, MRI and ultrasound. Conclusion: It is suggested that any attempt to understand imaging technology must place at its centre the perspectives of patients and radiographers. Scientific descriptors must be balanced with equal deliberation given to 'soft technology'.

2006-01-01

372

Literature Review on Interactive Whiteboard Studies in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new kind of teaching aid, Interactive whiteboard combines the strengths of traditional blackboard writing and modern multimedia teaching function. It has begun to receive more and more attention and applications in Chinese educational system. By reviewing literature related to interactive whiteboard in education during the period of 2004-2011, the paper analyzed the studies on interactive whiteboard from three perspectives: teaching theory, teaching practice and users of interactive whiteboard. Based on the literature review and analysis, the paper proposed some suggestions and hopefully these suggestions could shed some lights on the better application of interactive whiteboard in education in the near future.

Dan Wan; Yan Li

2013-01-01

373

Lipoblastomatosis: case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe an unusual presentation of lipoblastomatosis and review the existing literature on lipoblastomatosis and lipoblastoma. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 9-year-old girl was originally diagnosed as having preseptal cellulitis. After failure of systemic therapy, a CT scan showed a mass in the orbit. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed the presence of lipoblastomatosis, consisting of immature lipoblasts admixed with more-mature adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoblastomatosis is a rare benign diffuse lipomatous tumor of embryonal fat that is uncommonly found in the head and face of children.

Dutton JJ; Escaravage GK Jr; Fowler AM; Wright JD

2011-11-01

374

Adhesive Restorative Materials in the Pediatric Dentistry: Review of Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: A range of direct adhesive restorative materials are available in the market and can be used for filling primary molars by Pediatric Dentistry. Objective: The aim of this study was to review in the dental literature the main properties of many direct resin based restorative materials and associates them with their clinical performance, in order to better understand their clinical behaviour. Conclusion: Considering this review of dental literature, the selection of direct adhesive restorative materials should based on the knowledge of them, in order to improve the life span of these restorations.

Márcia Pereira Alves dos SANTOS; Lucianne Cople MAIA

2006-01-01

375

Global emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2012.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and grey literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a worldwide audience of academics and clinical practitioners. METHODS: This year, our search identified 4,818 articles written in six languages. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM. Two additional reviewers searched and screened the grey literature. A total of 224 articles were deemed appropriate by at least one reviewer and were approved by their editor for formal scoring of overall quality and importance. RESULTS: Of the 224 articles that met our predetermined inclusion criteria, 56% were categorized as Emergency Care in Resource-limited Settings, 18% as EM development, and 26% as Disaster and Humanitarian Response. A total of 28 articles received scores of 16 or higher and were selected for formal summary and critique. Inter-rater reliability for two reviewers using our scoring system was good, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.625 (95% confidence interval = 0.512 to 0.711). CONCLUSIONS: In 2012 there were more disaster and humanitarian response articles than in previous years. As in prior years, the majority of articles addressed the acute management of infectious diseases or the care of vulnerable populations such as children and pregnant women.

Jacquet GA; Foran M; Bartels S; Becker TK; Schroeder ED; Duber HC; Goldberg E; Cockrell H; Levine AC

2013-08-01

376

Understanding and encouraging feedback-seeking behaviour: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The goals of this paper are to review the literature on feedback-seeking behaviour using a self-motives framework and to provide practical recommendations for medical educators on how to encourage feedback-seeking behaviour. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of feedback-seeking behaviour, we apply a self-motives framework. Through this conceptual lens, we define feedback-seeking behaviour and review its antecedents and consequences. We provide an overview of the key findings and answer to a number of unresolved issues in the literature. RESULTS: On the basis of the literature review, we present six evidence-based insights to encourage feedback-seeking behaviour in practice. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review shows that feedback-seeking behaviour is a valuable resource for individuals in work and educational settings as it aids their adaptation, learning and performance. Several individual and contextual factors that promote the seeking of feedback are presented. Although feedback-seeking behaviour has been a subject of research for over 25 years, some unresolved issues remain. We present a self-motives framework to resolve those issues and to stimulate future research. We conclude this paper with six actionable insights for medical educators based on the evidence reviewed.

Crommelinck M; Anseel F

2013-03-01

377

Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

NONE

1993-01-01

378

International emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to evolve in countries around the world, and as interest in international emergency medicine (IEM) continues to grow within the United States, the IEM Literature Review Group recognizes a need for a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence base of literature. In response to that need, the group created an annual publication that strives to provide readers with access to the highest quality and most relevant IEM research. This publication represents our fourth annual review, covering the top 26 IEM research articles published in 2008. Articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that include both methodologic quality and perceived impact of the research. It is our hope that this annual review will act as a forum for disseminating best practices while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM.

Lippert S; Levine AC; Becker J; Foran M; Rosborough S; Arnold K

2009-12-01

379

International emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to evolve in countries around the world, and as interest in international emergency medicine (IEM) continues to grow within the United States, the IEM Literature Review Group recognizes a need for a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence base of literature. In response to that need, the group created an annual publication that strives to provide readers with access to the highest quality and most relevant IEM research. This publication represents our fourth annual review, covering the top 26 IEM research articles published in 2008. Articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that include both methodologic quality and perceived impact of the research. It is our hope that this annual review will act as a forum for disseminating best practices while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM. PMID:20053257

Lippert, Suzanne; Levine, Adam C; Becker, Joseph; Foran, Mark; Rosborough, Stephanie; Arnold, Kris

2009-12-01

380

Organics contamination of groundwater: an open literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted an open literature review of organics contamination of groundwater. The purpose of this review is to provide the DOE community with a brief summary of available field data on (1) the most commonly found organics of concern in groundwater, (2) the behavior of organics in groundwater (e.g., transport and transformation mechanisms), and (3) the extent of documented organics migration from the source of contamination. 24 references, 2 tables.

Steelman, B.L.; Ecker, R.M.

1984-10-01