WorldWideScience
1

Cellulose nanocrystal: electronically conducting polymer nanocomposites for supercapacitors  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes the use of cellulose nanocrystals for the fabrication of porous nanocomposites with electronic conducting polymers for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The exceptional strength and negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals are utilised in these nanocomposites. The negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals allow their simultaneous incorporation into electropolymerised, positively charged conducting polymer ...

Liew, Soon Yee

2012-01-01

2

Nanocrystal: Conducting Polymer Solar Cells via a New Synthetic Route  

CERN Document Server

In this letter we report photovoltaic devices fabricated from PbS nanocrystals and the conducting polymer MEH-PPV. This composite material was produced via a new single-pot synthesis which solves many of the issues associated with existing methods. Our devices have white light power conversion efficiencies under AM1.5 illumination of 0.7%.

Watt, A A R; Meredith, H; Watt, Andrew A. R.; Blake, David; Meredith, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop & Paul

2004-01-01

3

Non-volatile memory device using a polymer modified nanocrystal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thin-film planar structures using AgCl nanocrystals embedded in a polymer blend; exhibit reliable and reproducible switching between different non-volatile conductance states. It is shown that resistive switching in these systems cannot be related with migration diffusion or aggregation of metals to form metallic filaments. This is supported by temperature-dependent measurement showing that the current in the high conductance state is thermal activated (0.6 eV).

Kiazadeh, A., E-mail: asal.kiazadeh@gmail.com [Center of Electronics Optoelectronics and Telecommunications (CEOT), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, H.L., E-mail: hgomes@ualg.pt [Center of Electronics Optoelectronics and Telecommunications (CEOT), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); Rosa da Costa, A.M.; Moreira, J.A. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); Leeuw, D.M. de [Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4 WAG 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Meskers, S.C.J. [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2011-11-25

4

Non-volatile memory device using a polymer modified nanocrystal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin-film planar structures using AgCl nanocrystals embedded in a polymer blend; exhibit reliable and reproducible switching between different non-volatile conductance states. It is shown that resistive switching in these systems cannot be related with migration diffusion or aggregation of metals to form metallic filaments. This is supported by temperature-dependent measurement showing that the current in the high conductance state is thermal activated (0.6 eV).

5

Charge transport in hybrid films of ?-conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work is the study of photogenerated charge transport in hybrid films composed of ?-conjugated polymers and of semiconductor nanocrystals, designed for applications in optoelectronics. Chemical synthesis provides gram-scale samples of CdSe nanocrystals, of low polydispersity and con- trolled shapes (spherical, branched). In order to enhance their conductivity, the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals (stearic acid, oleylamine) are exchanged by smaller molecules, namely pyridin...

Couderc, Elsa

2011-01-01

6

Charge transport in hybrid films of ?-conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work is the study of photogenerated charge transport in hybrid films composed of ?-conjugated polymers and of semiconductor nanocrystals, designed for applications in optoelectronics. Chemical synthesis provides gram-scale samples of CdSe nanocrystals, of low polydispersity and con- trolled shapes (spherical, branched). In order to enhance their conductivity, the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals (stearic acid, oleylamine) are exchanged by smaller molecules, namely pyridin...

Couderc, Elsa

2012-01-01

7

'Stuffed' conducting polymers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Winther-Jensen, BjØrn; Chen, Jun

2005-01-01

8

Conductive Polymer Composites  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, nanotechnologies have led to the production of materials with new and sometimes unexpected qualities through the manipulation of nanoscale components. This research aimed primarily to the study of the correlation between hierarchical structures of hybrid organic-inorganic materials such as conductive polymer composites (CPCs). Using a bottom-up methodology, we could synthesize a wide range of inorganic nanometric materials with a high degree of homogeneity and purity, ...

Pierini, Filippo

2013-01-01

9

Synthesis of Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals and Conductive Coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Semiconductor nanocrystals are an intriguing class of materials because of their size-tunable properties. This makes them promising for future optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light emitting diodes. Realization of these devices, however, requires precise control of the flow of electricity through the particles. In bulk semiconductors, this is achieved by using materials with few unintentional defects, then intentionally adding particular defects or dopants to alter the semiconductor's electronic properties. In contrast, the addition of electrically active dopants has scarcely been demonstrated in semiconductor nanocrystals, and charge transport is hindered by the barrier of electron hopping between particles. The goal of this thesis, therefore, is to discover new methods to control charge transport in nanocrystals. It divides into three major thrusts: 1) the investigation of the doping process in semiconductor nanocrystals, 2) the invention of new synthetic methods to incorporate electrically active dopants into semiconductor nanocrystals, and 3) the invention of a new nanocrystal surface coating that aids processing of nanocrystals into devices but can be removed to enhance charge transport between particles. The first objective is achieved by the comparison of four different precursors that have been used to dope Mn into nanocrystals. Experiments show that dimethylmanganese incorporates efficiently into ZnSe nanocrystals while other precursors are less efficient and sometimes lower the quality of the nanocrystals produced. The second goal is met by the application of a core-shell synthetic strategy to the incorporation of non-isovalent impurities (Al and In) into CdSe nanocrystals. By separating the three steps of nucleation, dopant binding, and growth, each step can be optimized so that doping is achieved and high quality particles are produced. Detailed characterization shows dopant incorporation and local environment, while transistor measurements reveal that the nanocrystal Fermi level rises with increasing Al content. The third thrust is achieved by the use of primary dithiocarbamates as ligands to stabilize CdSe, and PbSe / CdSe core/shell nanoparticles. Primary dithiocarbamates bind well to metals but include a weak chemical bond that can be broken with gentle heating. This enables us to bind them to nanoparticles, process the particles into devices, then remove the ligand via gentle heating. Characterization of the ligand-particle interactions show excellent ligand binding to the particle surface and easy ligand removal with heating. After ligand removal, the inter-particle spacing shrinks. Transistor measurements reveal that this reduces the barrier to interparticle electron transport, enhancing the conductivity of the film.

Wills, Andrew Wilke

10

thermoresponsive assembly of polymer-grafted cellulose nanocrystals  

OpenAIRE

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), obtained by acid hydrolysis of native cellulose microfibrils as colloidal aquous suspensions, are bioresourced nanoparticles that have great mechanical and optical properties well adapted for the conception of new nanomaterials with high performance. In order to eliminate some of their limitations like sensitivity to salt and absence of interactions control, we studied in this work the chemical modification of these CNC by grafting thermoresponsive polymer chains...

Azzam, Firas

2012-01-01

11

Conducting Polymers: Emerging Commercial Materials .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting polymers are materials of recent origin. They are obtained by polymerisation of simple organic monomers and doping with electron acceptor or donor species and show conductivity ranging from that of a semiconductor to that of metal. These materials are now available with unique electronic and optical properties of metals and semiconductors in combination with the attractive mechanical and processable advantages of polymers. The field has progressed to a level of maturity consistent with a new set of opportunities to develop Wide range of applications based upon conducting polymers as materials for industrial products.Examples include: static charge dissipation, EMI shielding, flexible light emitting diodes, transparent electrodes, batteries, gas sensors, gas separators, etc. Many of the conducting polymers and devices based on them are now available commercially.

N. Kumar

2013-04-01

12

Si nanocrystals obtained through polymer pyrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter, we report the formation of bulk samples of silica-based glass containing Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs) by pyrolysis of a preceramic precursor. The starting precursor is a sol-gel-derived polysiloxane containing only Si-H groups which leads, after annealing in a controlled atmosphere in the range 1000-1200 deg. C, to the precipitation of Si-ncs. Characterization of the nanostructure was performed by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analyses. Room-temperature luminescence experiments show the interesting optical properties of the Si-ncs/SiO2 material

13

Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

Jenny Emnéus

2010-12-01

14

Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia

2010-01-01

15

Multifunctional Composites Obtained by Incorporating Nanocrystals into Decorated PVK Polymers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK was decorated with surfactant group to achieve amphiphilic polymer with luminescent property. The composition and properties of the polymers were systematically investigated using FTIR, EA, TGA, UV-Vis, and PL characterizations. Different CdTe nanocrystals (NCs prepared in aqueous medium were directly transferred to organic phase using the PVK-based polymers. The quantum yield of NCs in the composites had been improved by 50% compared with their parent aqueous solution due to the short distance from carbazole moieties to NCs, which facilitated the Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET between them. Moreover, efficient electron transfer at the interface of NCs and polymers had been confirmed which also indicated the application in photovoltaic cell for such composites.

Bai Yang

2007-10-01

16

Electrospun porous conductive polymer membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, two methodologies were used in fabricating conductive electrospun polymer fibers with nano features. We first investigated the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as conductive fillers at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10% into a polystyrene (PS) matrix. Electrospinning conditions were tailored to produce fibers with minimal beads. Next, we investigated the effects of coating electrospun fibers with nano structured conductive polymer. Oxidant (FeCl3) fibers were electrospun in PS and then exposed to a pyrrole (Py) monomer in a vacuum chamber. As a result, polypyrrole (PPy) was coated on the fibers creating conductive pathways. In both methods, the electrospun conductive fibers were characterized in terms of their morphologies, thermal stability and electrical conductivity. Strong correlations were found among PPy coating nanostructures, oxidant concentration and polymerization time. Electrospun fibrous membranes with conductive polymer coating exhibit much higher electrical conductivities compare to fibers with conductive fillers. Highest conductivity achieved was 9.5E-4 S/cm with 40% FeCl3/PS fibers polymerized with Py for 140 min.

Wang, Jingwen; Naguib, Hani E.; Bazylak, Aimy

2012-04-01

17

Superstructures of PbS nanocrystals in a conjugated polymer and the aligning role of oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a method to directly align PbS nanocrystals in micron-sized superstructures within a conjugated polymer. First, lead sulfide nanocrystals are directly synthesized in a MEH-PPV suspension via a single pot, surfactant-free method. Post-synthesis precipitation of the composite solution involving mild oxidation of the nanocrystals results in the formation of nanocrystal-polymer and nanocrystal-oxide superstructures. Detailed TEM is used to study the crystallographic nature of these structures and the roles of polymer and lead sulfate. An epitaxial relationship between lead sulfide and lead sulfate at the nanoscale is shown, giving insight into the oxidation rates of the PbS nanocrystals' facets.

18

Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter-particle transport is clearly observed. For the times immediately following carrier injection, we observe Drude-like long range transport that is rapidly replaced with a localized response on picosecond time scales. The localized response can be very well described by a phenomenological Drude-Smith model, verifying the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window.

Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.

2012-01-01

19

Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

1984-08-01

20

Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe nanocrystal films onto dielectric polymer thin films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrophoretic deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystal films from a stable hexane suspension onto a dielectric polymer film is reported. The electrodes were prepared by spin casting a {approx} 30 nm thick smooth, defect-free, polystyrene film on silicon substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the CdSe films deposited atop polystyrene possessed morphology comparable to CdSe films deposited on the bare silicon electrodes. Factors affecting deposition, such as nanocrystal charging in suspension and wetting of electrode surfaces, are reviewed. This approach to preparing nanocrystal films onto homogeneous dielectric layers will facilitate the fabrication of novel polymer-nanocrystal composites.

Hasan, Saad A. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Materials Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Kavich, Dustin W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Mahajan, Sameer V. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Materials Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Dickerson, James H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)], E-mail: james.h.dickerson@vanderbilt.edu

2009-02-27

21

Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe nanocrystal films onto dielectric polymer thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrophoretic deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystal films from a stable hexane suspension onto a dielectric polymer film is reported. The electrodes were prepared by spin casting a ? 30 nm thick smooth, defect-free, polystyrene film on silicon substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the CdSe films deposited atop polystyrene possessed morphology comparable to CdSe films deposited on the bare silicon electrodes. Factors affecting deposition, such as nanocrystal charging in suspension and wetting of electrode surfaces, are reviewed. This approach to preparing nanocrystal films onto homogeneous dielectric layers will facilitate the fabrication of novel polymer-nanocrystal composites

22

The workshop on conductive polymers: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reports are made by groups on: polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyaniline, and related systems; molecular, crystallographic, and defect structures in conducting polymers; heterocyclic polymers; synthesis of new and improved conducting polymers; future applications possibilities for conducting polymers; and challenges for improved understanding of properties. (DLC)

1985-01-01

23

Microwave properties of conductive polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conductive polymers are a new class of microwave absorbing materials which show a number of advantages over traditional granular materials. Polypyrrole, Polyaniline, and Polyalkylthiophenes can be applied in specific fields where the conductive inclusion is directly integrated in the matrix or on the substrate (honeycomb, textile) during synthesis, instead of being mechanically dispersed as in the case of extrinsic conductive materials. This method can be used to produce materials with specific properties, whose performances are equivalent to those of magnetic materials but with lower surface mass. The properties of these materials can be easily modified by chemical means and by tailoring the structural properties. We show that dielectric properties strongly depend on the microstructure of conductive polymer. For that purpose, the influence of the molecular weight, density of defects, size of the alkyl chain on the substituted monomer and nature of counter anion have been explored. Theoretical models using physicochemical properties of polymer have been developed in order to calculate the frequency dependence of ({epsilon}`,{epsilon}``) with for a chain of Polyaniline. (orig.)

Olmedo, L. [CEA/Centre d`Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Monts (France); Hourquebie, P. [CEA/Centre d`Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Monts (France); Jousse, F. [CEA/Centre d`Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Monts (France)

1995-03-01

24

Conduction Mechanism in Arrays of Lead Selenide Nanocrystals  

Science.gov (United States)

We perform transport measurements of a PbSe nanocrystal solid which serves as the channel of a field-effect transistor. We find that a simple model of hopping between intrinsic localized states describes the conduction mechanism. From the field effect, we see that the majority carriers are holes, which are thermally released from acceptor states. At low source-drain voltages, the activation energy for the conductivity is given by the energy required to generate holes plus the activation over barriers resulting from site disorder. At high source-drain voltages the activation energy is given by the former only. The thermal activation energy of the zero-bias conductance indicates that the Fermi energy is close to the highest-occupied valence level, the 1Sh state, and this is confirmed by field-effect measurements, which give a density of states of approximately 8 per nanocrystal as expected from the degeneracy of the 1Sh state. Using the Thomas-Fermi screening length in the NC solid, we find that the gate serves to modulate the charge density in the monolayer closest to the gate, while successive monolayers are screened from the field.

Mentzel, Tamar; Maclean, Kenneth; Geyer, Scott; Porter, Venda; Bawendi, Moungi; Kastner, Marc

2008-03-01

25

Enhanced Semiconductor Nanocrystal Conductance via Solution Grown Contacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a 100,000-fold increase in the conductance of individual CdSe nanorods when they are electrically contacted via direct solution phase growth of Au tips on the nanorod ends. Ensemble UV-Vis and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate this enhancement does not result from alloying of the nanorod. Rather, low temperature tunneling and high temperature (250-400 K) thermionic emission across the junction at the Au contact reveal a 75percent lower interface barrier to conduction compared to a control sample. We correlate this barrier lowering with the electronic structure at the Au-CdSe interface. Our results emphasize the importance of nanocrystal surface structure for robust device performance and the advantage of this contact method.

Sheldon, Matthew T.; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Mokari, Taleb; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2009-08-19

26

Nanostructured conducting polymers and their biomedical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much attention has been paid to nanostructured conducting polymers due to their unique properties, which arise from their nanoscale size, such as their large surface area, high electrical conductivity, electrochemical stability and quantum effects. This article reviews three methods to synthesize nanostructured conducting polymers and their applications in the biomedical field, focusing specifically on neural probes, biosensors, artificial muscles or actuators and controlled drug release. Challenges and future directions of these nanostructured conducting polymer are also discussed. PMID:24730285

Wang, G W; Lu, Y N; Wang, L P; Wang, H J; Wang, J Y

2014-01-01

27

Nanodisco balls: control over surface versus core loading of diagnostically active nanocrystals into polymer nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoparticles of complex architectures can have unique properties. Self-assembly of spherical nanocrystals is a high yielding route to such systems. In this study, we report the self-assembly of a polymer and nanocrystals into aggregates, where the location of the nanocrystals can be controlled to be either at the surface or in the core. These nanospheres, when surface decorated with nanocrystals, resemble disco balls, thus the term nanodisco balls. We studied the mechanism of this surface loading phenomenon and found it to be Ca(2+) dependent. We also investigated whether excess phospholipids could prevent nanocrystal adherence. We found surface loading to occur with a variety of nanocrystal types including iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, and nanophosphors, as well as sizes (10-30 nm) and shapes. Additionally, surface loading occurred over a range of polymer molecular weights (?30-3000 kDa) and phospholipid carbon tail length. We also show that nanocrystals remain diagnostically active after loading onto the polymer nanospheres, i.e., providing contrast in the case of magnetic resonance imaging for iron oxide nanoparticles and fluorescence for quantum dots. Last, we demonstrated that a fluorescently labeled protein model drug can be delivered by surface loaded nanospheres. We present a platform for contrast media delivery, with the unusual feature that the payload can be controllably localized to the core or the surface. PMID:25188401

Chhour, Peter; Gallo, Nicolas; Cheheltani, Rabee; Williams, Dewight; Al-Zaki, Ajlan; Paik, Taejong; Nichol, Jessica L; Tian, Zhicheng; Naha, Pratap C; Witschey, Walter R; Allcock, Harry R; Murray, Christopher B; Tsourkas, Andrew; Cormode, David P

2014-09-23

28

Orientation of Conductive Polymer PEDOT:PSS Films Prepared Under Magnetic Field  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the magnetic field orientation effect of the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The films prepared under the magnetic field parallel to the substrates show clear anisotropy of the polarized infrared reflectivity and DC resistivity. The results indicate that the nano-crystals of PEDOT are aligned in the polymer films by magnetic fields.

Guziak, Milena A.; Honma, Yuta; Hashimoto, Kenichiro; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sasaki, Takahiko

29

Study of heavy ion irradiated conducting polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conducting polymers are finding increasing use in varied fields. The present study reveals that the irradiated conducting polymer (polyaniline) remains thermally stable up to 610 deg C when bombarded with 100 MeV silicon ions having total fluence in the range of 1011 to 1013. Conducting polymers are being widely utilized due to their application in light weight batteries, biosensors and molecular electronics. It has been shown that the conducting polymer (polyaniline) when irradiated with 100 MeV of 1011 to 1013 silicon ions, exhibits increased thermal stability up to 610 deg C compared to the pristine polyaniline. (author)

30

Bridge Hopping on Conducting Polymers in Solution  

CERN Document Server

Configurational fluctuations of conducting polymers in solution can bring into proximity monomers which are distant from each other along the backbone. Electrons can hop between these monomers across the "bridges" so formed. We show how this can lead to (i) a collapse transition for metallic polymers, and (ii) to the observed dramatic efficiency of acceptor molecules for quenching fluorescence in semiconducting polymers.

Hone, D W; Hone, Daniel W.; Orland, Henri

2001-01-01

31

Bridge Hopping on Conducting Polymers in Solution  

OpenAIRE

Configurational fluctuations of conducting polymers in solution can bring into proximity monomers which are distant from each other along the backbone. Electrons can hop between these monomers across the "bridges" so formed. We show how this can lead to (i) a collapse transition for metallic polymers, and (ii) to the observed dramatic efficiency of acceptor molecules for quenching fluorescence in semiconducting polymers.

Hone, Daniel W.; Orland, Henri

2000-01-01

32

Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

Clare Kimblin, Kirk Miller, Bob Vogel, Bill Quam, Harry McHugh, Glen Anthony, Steve Jones, Mike Grover

2007-12-01

33

Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number

34

Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

2013-06-18

35

A Platform for Functional Conductive Polymers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conductive polymers have been studied extensively during recent years. In order to broaden the application field of conductive polymers different methods have been tested and recently an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3) was developed(1, 2). The azide functional conductive polymer can be postpolymerization functionalized to introduce a large number of functionalities through click chemistry(3). Through selection of reaction conditions it is possible control the depth of the reaction into the polymer film to the upper surface or the entire film(4). Thus a conductive polymer can be prepared with a subsurface layer of highly conductive polymer where only the upper surface has been grafted with functional groups to ensure selectivity of the surface layer for e.g. interaction with specific biospecies. The conductive polymer can be patterned using selective etching, which enables preparation of e.g. interdigitated electrodes or other surface structures. The electrodes have been applied in controlled localized click reactions through ”electroclick” reactions(5). This enables preparation of both highly functional electrodes as well as gradient surfaces(6). The system is very versatile in all dimensions and structures and allows for preparation of conductive polymers with very specific properties. Recent results on a grafting from method to modify the surface properties will be presented.

Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian

36

Interpenetrating networks of two conducting polymers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings, and because its reaction products can be removed efficiently after the formation of the composite. Several combinations of polymers are demonstrated, and the versatility of the proposed method allows extensions to a wide range of conjugated polymers. The IPNs show optical and electrochemical characteristics, which are sums of the characteristics from the participating conducting polymers.

Winther-Jensen, BjØrn; West, Keld

2005-01-01

37

Gyroid nanoporous scaffold for conductive polymers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conductive nanoporous polymers with interconnected large surface area have been prepared by depositing polypyrrole onto nanocavity walls of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene films with gyroid morphology. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole was used to generate ultrathin films and prevent pore blocking. The resulting nanoporous polymers exhibited a promising electroactivity.

Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars

2011-01-01

38

Tuning interfacial interactions between conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals for control over bulk thermoelectric properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic transport in conjugated polymers is highly dependent on doping level and chain conformation. Recent advances in next-generation thermoelectric devices rely on the fabrication of conjugated-polymer:inorganic-nanocrystal composites, but little is known about the how the thermoelectric properties are influenced by the doping level or morphology of the conjugated polymer at the organic-inorganic interface. A thorough understanding of the coupling between the molecular orbitals of conjugated polymers and the energy states of inorganic materials in such systems is, therefore, paramount for achieving improvements in these devices. In this study, we present our results on the coupling between Poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), a well-studied conjugated polymer, with solution-processed lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals of controlled shape and morphology. Conjugated oligomeric ligands are used to tailor the organic/inorganic interface between P3HT/PbSe. Our results address the effects of polymer conformation on the nanocrystal surface, polymer doping levels, and organic-inorganic energy level alignment on the bulk thermoelectric properties of these hybrid materials.

Russ, Boris; Coates, Nelson; Yee, Shannon; Urban, Jeffrey; Segalman, Rachel A.

2012-02-01

39

Efficient heterojunction photovoltaic cell utilizing nanocomposites of lead sulfide nanocrystals and a low-bandgap polymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A facile approach to make an efficient hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device with lead sulfide nanocrystals and a low-bandgap polymer is demonstarted, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of about 2-3%. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Seo, Jangwon; Cho, Min Ju; Prasad, Paras N. [Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, 14260 (United States); Lee, Dongho; Cartwright, A.N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, 14260 (United States)

2011-09-08

40

Radiation-induced doping of conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conducting polymers have the potential form many applications in electronics. The various patterns of doped regions of conducting polymers should be generated for the applications. Doping of conducting polymers is achieved by contact of the polymer with dopant or electrochemically. By these methods, doping occurs in the entire area exposed to the dopant. It is necessary to combine these doping techniques with lithography for achieving the patterned doping. Radiation-induced doping effects of conducting polymers have been reported. The doping is performed by irradiation of polymers in an atmosphere of gases, which do not react without irradiation, such as CH3Br, SF6, and N2O. If only the irradiated area was doped, patterned doping could be achieved without using lithography technique. We have elucidated the mechanism of the radiation-induced doping. The electrical conductivity was increased by irradiation the gas near the polymer film without irradiating the film itself. This result indicates that dopants were generated upon irradiation in the gas phase and the dopants react with the polymer. Hence, the pattern of doping is blurred by this method. We then developed another method of radiation-induced doping. Solid dopant precursor was coated on the polymer, and irradiation was performed. Figure 1 shows the results for poly(3-octylhitophene)(P3OT) by this method. A film of poly(3-octylthiophene) was prepared by spin coating from a solutiwas prepared by spin coating from a solution of tetrahydrofuran on a quartz plate. The thickness of the film was approximately 100 nm. The polymer film was dried overnight at 80 degree C in a vacuum, and Au electrodes were evaporated on the films for electrical conductivity measurements. Saturated solution of 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in 1-bromopropane was dropped on the film and dried at room temperature in a vacuum. The film was put in a vacuum chamber, which has a 0.2-mm-thick Be window. X rays entered through the Be window, and the films were irradiated under vacuum. The conductivity increased more than 104 times. Dopant of bromine was generated in the HBCD film, diffused to the P3OT film and the doping was achieved. Since the diffusion length of dopants in the solid is short, the pattern of doping is much less blurred. The patterned doping can be achieved using conducting polymers coated with solid dopant precursor. (authors)

41

Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail.

Alain Dufresne

2010-06-01

42

Extrusion of polysaccharide nanocrystal reinforced polymer nanocomposites through compatibilization with poly(ethylene oxide).  

Science.gov (United States)

Polysaccharide nanocrystals with a rodlike shape but with different dimensions and specific surface area were prepared from cotton and capim dourado cellulose, and with a plateletlike morphology from waxy maize starch granules. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with different molecular weights when adding these nanoparticles was investigated evidencing specific interactions between PEO chains and nanocrystals. Because PEO also bears hydrophobic moieties, it was employed as a compatibilizing agent for the melt processing of polymer nanocomposites. The freeze-dried mixtures were used to prepare nanocomposite materials with a low density polyethylene matrix by extrusion. The thermal and mechanical behavior of ensuing nanocomposites was studied. PMID:24840363

Pereda, Mariana; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

2014-06-25

43

Phonon dispersion and thermal conductivity of nanocrystal superlattices using three-dimensional atomistic models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computational study of thermal conductivity and phonon dispersion of gold nanocrystal superlattices is presented. Phonon dispersion curves, reported here for the first time from combined molecular dynamics and lattice dynamics calculations, show multiple phononic band gaps and consist of many more dispersion branches than simple atomic crystals. Fully atomistic three dimensional molecular dynamics calculations of thermal conductivity using the Green Kubo method are also performed for the first time on these materials. Thermal conductivity is observed to increase for increasing nanocrystal core size and decrease for increasing surface ligand density. Our calculations predict values in the range 0.1–1?W/m K that are consistent with reported experimental results.

Zanjani, Mehdi B.; Lukes, Jennifer R., E-mail: jrlukes@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2014-04-14

44

Thermal conductivity and multiferroics of electroactive polymers and polymer composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronically conducting polymers and electromechanical polymers are the two important branches of the cutting-edge electroactive polymers. They have shown significant impact on many modern technologies such as flat panel display, energy transport, energy conversion, sensors and actuators. To utilize conducting polymers in microelectronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, it is necessary to have a comprehensive study of their thermal conductivity since thermal conductivity is a fundamental materials property that is particularly important and sometimes a determining factor of the device performance. For electromechanical polymers, larger piezoelectric effect will contribute to the improvement of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling efficiency in their multiferroic composites. This dissertation is devoted to characterizing electronically conducting polymers for their electrical and thermal conductivity, and developing new classes of electromechanical polymers and strain-mediated electromechanical polymer-based multiferroic ME composites. Conducting polymers opened up new possibilities for devices combining novel electrical and thermal properties, but there has been limited understanding of the length-scale effect of the electrical and thermal conductivity, and the mechanism underlying the electricity and heat transport behavior. In this dissertation, the analytical model and experimental technique are presented to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of polyaniline thin films. For camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline patterned on silicon oxide/silicon substrate using photolithography and reactive ion etching, the thermal conductivity of the film with thickness of 20 nm is measured to be 0.0406 W/m?K, which significantly deviates from their bulk (> 0.26 W/m?K). The size effect on thermal conductivity at this scale is attributed to the significant phonon boundary scattering. When the film goes up to 130 nm thick, the thermal conductivity increases to 0.166 W/m?K, greatly affected by the phonon-phonon scattering and phonon boundary scattering. When the films are thicker than 130 nm, heat capacity also plays an important role in thermal conduction in polyaniline. The same technique is extended to measure the electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline thin films doped with different levels of camphorsulfonic acid. Results indicate that the effect of the doping level (camphorsulfonic acid/polyaniline ratio) is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% doping level, polyaniline thin film exhibits the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized polaron structures. It is suggested that polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, while phonons play a dominant role in the heat conduction in doped polyaniline thin films. Multiferroic materials combine unusual elastic, magnetic and electric properties, and have promising applications in many areas, such as sensors, transducers and read/write memory devices. For strain-mediated multiferroic ME composites, their ME effect are generated as a product property of the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. In this dissertation, new multiferroic composites are developed and presented. One of them is based on chain-end cross-linked ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE). With a low dc bias magnetic field, the ME coefficient of this composite is 17.7 V/cm Oe at non-resonance and 383 V/cm Oe at resonance, well above the reported ME voltage coefficient of polymer based ME composite in current literature. ME composite based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP) are also developed in this dissertation. Crystalline beta phase structure in P(VDF-HFP) is produced by uniaxially stretching of pre-melted and quenched films. ME voltage coefficient as a function of dc magnetic field at different poling field

Jin, Jiezhu

45

Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested, with particular focus on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on PMMA substrates. The structural, electrical and mechanical properties of this system has been characterised by atomic force microscopy, conductance measurements, and tribological tests. Furthermore, measurement ofconductivity and optical absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties of the substrate, resulting in a highly conducting surface with very good wear resistance.

Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld

2006-01-01

46

Ion bombardment effects in conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modification of properties of conducting polymers by ion bombardment offers interesting possibilities for their application in the field of microelectronics and electrochemistry. Therefore foils of intrinsically conducting polymers (polypyrrole and polythiophene) were modified by noble gas ion implantation. By ion bombardment the resistivity can be increased by several orders of magnitude. This effect depends on the species, energy and ion fluence. Cyclovoltammetric experiments show the same electrochemical features for the modified foils as the untreated polymers, but the observed currents are smaller by two orders of magnitude. The conductivity of the virgin foil (?=100 S/cm) is sufficient for galvanic metal deposition. The bombardment induced change of resistivity causes an inhibition of electrochemical deposition. By using masks lateral structures in the range of several ?m can be produced. During implantation the black colour of the untreated foil changes to brown depending on the implanted dose. The associated changes of the chemical structures, investigated by XPS, are discussed. ((orig.))

47

Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Program has developed new methods for the synthesis of conducting polymers and evaluated new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1996 included two ongoing efforts on membranes for gas separation and on electrochemical capacitors and a third new application: electrochemical reactors (ECRs) based on polymeric electrolytes. As a gas separation membrane, conducting polymers offer high selectivity and the potential to chemically or electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, electronically conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electric energy in low cost materials. Potential energy savings estimated at 1 quad/yr would result from introduction of electrochemical capacitors as energy storage devices in power trains of electric and hybrid vehicles, once such vehicles reach 20% of the total transportation market in the US. In the chlor-alkali industry, electrochemical reactors based on polymer electrolyte membranes consume around 1 % of the total electric power in the US. A new activity, started in FY 1996, is devoted to energy efficient ECRs. In the case of the chlor-alkali industry, energy savings as high as 50% seem possible with the novel ECR technology demonstrated by the author in 1996.

Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-04-01

48

Thin functional conducting polymer films  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, thin functional conducting polyaniline (PANI) films, either doped or undoped, patterned or unpatterned, were prepared by different approaches. The properties of the obtained PANI films were investigated in detail by a combination of electrochemistry with several other techniques, such as SPR, QCM, SPFS, diffraction, etc. The sensing applications (especially biosensing applications) of the prepared PANI films were explored. Firstly, the pure PANI films were prepar...

Tian, Shengjun

2005-01-01

49

Orienting semi-conducting ?-conjugated polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review focuses on the recent progress made in thin film orientation of semi-conducting polymers with particular emphasis on methods using epitaxy and shear forces. The main results reported in this review deal with regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s and poly(dialkylfluorenes). Correlations existing between processing conditions, macromolecular parameters and the resulting structures formed in thin films are underlined. It is shown that epitaxial orientation of semi-conducting polymers can generate a large palette of semi-crystalline and nanostructured morphologies by a subtle choice of the orienting substrates and growth conditions. PMID:24302347

Brinkmann, Martin; Hartmann, Lucia; Biniek, Laure; Tremel, Kim; Kayunkid, Navaphun

2014-01-01

50

Impregnation of porous silicon with conducting polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fabrication of porous silicon layers using the electrochemical technique followed by filling the nanopores with a group of conducting polymers is investigated. Our findings revealed that the deposition of polymer proceeds homogeneously inside the nanopores strating from the pore bottom and propagates into the outer surface. The polymerization process was conducted and controlled by the potentiostatic and galvanostatic modes with characteristic, defined polymerization stages. As-formed hybrid nanocomposites were characterized using different analytical techniques. Polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene were tested in this study. By selective dissolution of porous silicon template, polymeric nanowires were obtained. The fabrication process, the electrochemical measurements and the porous silicon filling mechanism with polymer are thoroughly addressed and discussed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Harraz, Farid A. [Advanced Materials Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box: 87, Hewan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

2011-06-15

51

Conductive Polymer Functionalization by Click Chemistry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Click chemistry is used to obtain new conductive polymer films based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) from a new azide functional monomer. Postpolymerization, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in DMF, using a catalyst system of CUS04 and sodium ascorbate, and different alkynes are performed to functionalize films of PEDOT-N3 and copolymers prepared from EDOT-N3 and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT). This approach enables new functionalities on PEDOT that could otherwise not withstand the polymerization conditions. Reactions on the thin polymer films have been optimized using an alkynated fluorophore, with reaction times of '"'-'20 h. The applicability of the method is illustrated by coupling of two other alkynes: a short chain fluorocarbon and a MPEG 5000 to the conductive polymer; this alters the advancing water contact angle of the surface by +20° and -20°/-25°, respectively. The targeted chemical surface modifications have been verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, SØren

2008-01-01

52

Multi-Scale Modeling of Conductive Polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the tremendous impact of conductive polymers in a number of technological applications, molecular engineering of these materials has not been accomplished yet. One of the main reasons is the lack or limited understanding of the connection between changes occurring at the molecular level and the resulting polymer conductivity. Understanding the influence that local changes to the polymer's structure and chemical composition have on polymer properties, is the key to reach the stage where polymer-based materials and devices can be molecularly engineered with optimum properties. A multiscale model able to predict and accurately describe such a connection is thus a much needed tool to achieve this goal. The main aspect of this project is the bridging between scales in such a way that properties of the polymer at the molecular level are reflected in the observed and measured macroscopic properties. However, to achieve that integration, adapting and improving models at each of the involved scales must be done first. The progress towards improved models at the atomic and at the macroscopic level will be described. The atomic level is dealt with by using quantum mechanics calculations including semiempirical and ab initio methods. A semi-empirical/DFT study of oligomers will be described were extrapolation of electronic properties to an essentially infinite chain show excellent agreement with experimental results. The macroscopic level is addressed with probabilistic models, based on the Monte Carlo Technique, to study the charge transport process. The efforts toward the improvement and implementation of an existing transport algorithm, based on the hopping model, will be described. Existing models consider polymer and polymer devices as a cubic arrangement of sites and incorporate disorder as an ad-hoc parameter, in our model, the use of realistic configurations allows the distinction of intra- vs. inter-molecular conduction and the modeling of polymer devices. In addition, the model is reformulated to incorporate parameters calculated at the atomic level, thus the effect of on macroscopic properties produced by changes at the atomic level can be studies. Plans for the integration across scales, the final step to achieve multiscale modeling, will also be discussed.

Derosa, Pedro

2008-03-01

53

Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity and strain sensitivity using two- and four-point measurement method. We have found that polyaniline has a negative gauge factor of K = -4.9, which makes it a candidate for piezoresistive read-out in polymer based MEMS-devices. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin

2008-01-01

54

Charge transport in mesoscopic conducting polymer wires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to reconcile transport in aniline oligomers with that observed in bulk polyaniline, we constructed meso-scale (60 nm) molecular junctions bridged by polyanion-stabilized polyaniline (PANI) strands. Junctions were characterized by their conductance versus electrochemical potential (G-E) and current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics, In contrast to bulk polyaniline, sharp peaks were seen in the G-E data, and these gave rise to negative differential resistance in the I-V curves, behavior much like that observed in aniline oligomers. The width of the conductance peaks increased with the amount of polymer deposited in the junction. In contrast to oligomers, the peaks in the meso-scale devices displayed a large hysteresis. The absolute conductance of the junctions is far too high to be consistent with transport along isolated chains, suggesting that a fundamental charge carrying unit is something morphologically more complex than a single polymer molecule

55

Photon-induced formation of CdS nanocrystals in selected areas of polymer matrices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate light-induced formation of semiconductor quantum dots in TOPAS registered polymer matrix with very high control of their size and their spatial localization. Irradiation with UV laser pulses of polymer films embedding Cd thiolate precursors results in the formation of cadmium sulfide nanocrystals well confined in the irradiation area, through a macroscopically nondestructive procedure for the host matrix. With increasing number of laser pulses, we accomplish the formation of nanoparticles with gradually increasing dimensions, resulting in the dynamic change of the spectra emitted by the formed nanocomposite areas. The findings are supported by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements

56

Effects of compatability on the conductivity of conducting polymer blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrical conductivity of chemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) blends with nylon 6,6 and polystyrene was measured. The conductivities of the top and bottom of the films cast from blend solutions were found to differ. This effect was most pronounced at low percent loadings of PANI. The maximum difference in conductivity between two sides of the same film was found to be five orders of magnitude in the case of a 5% PANI blend with polystyrene. In this case the conductive polymer appears to be rich on one side of the film rather than more homogeneously dispersed on both sides. SEM provides evidence for the formation of a percolation cluster on one side of the film which is most notable in polystyrene blends. X-ray and FTIR indicated that greater interaction between PANI and nylon 6,6 than PANI and polystyrene. It is proposed that the magnitude of the variation in conductivity between the two sides of the film depends on the compatibility of the conducting and insulating host polymers.

Liu, Mingjun; Nowak, C.K.; Gregory, R.V. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

1995-12-01

57

Soliton and polaron dynamics in conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solitons and polarons in conducting polymers are strongly coupled electron-lattice excitations. The lattice relaxation theory generalized by us to include the self-consistency of multi-electron states with lattice symmetry-breaking is summarized. The discrete symmetries and corresponding selection rules for both radiative and nonradiative processes are discussed. Theoretically calculated probability of nonradiative decay of an electron-hole pair into a soliton pair and that of electron (hole) into polaron as well as the probability of soliton pair photo-generation is compared with results of numerical and laboratory experiments. The resonance Raman scattering data of cis-polyacetylene are interpreted in terms of a bipolaron model. The parameters involved are determined directly from experimental data. Other applications of lattice relaxation theory to conducting polymers are briefly mentioned. (author). 40 refs, 5 figs

58

The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

2014-12-01

59

Conjugated Polymer and Luminescent Nanocrystals for Ink-Jet Printing  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanocomposite solutions formed of Poly [(9,9-diesilfluorene)-(2,7 diyl)-alt-(2,5-dimetil-1,4-phenilene)] and highly luminescent nanocrystals of CdSe coated with a shell of ZnS (CdSe@ZnS) with different size have been obtained by using a common solvent and characterized by means of absorption and emission spectroscopy. Viscosity has been investigated, in order to prove the suitability of the inks for the printing processing. The homogeneous nanocomposites have been precisely dispensed by ink-jet printing, using drop-on-demand mode onto glass substrates. The deposited micro-scale pixels have been morphologically characterized by means of fluorescence microscopy, 3D profilometry and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrate that the spectroscopical properties of the components have been effectively conveyed to the final nanocomposites, retaining the size dependent feature of the inorganic moiety, and providing a suitable ink with for fabricating reproducible microstructures.

Binetti, E.; Ingrosso, C.; Striccoli, M.; Cosma, P.; Agostiano, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Brugger, J.; Curri, M. L.

2010-06-01

60

Designing Conducting Polymers Using Bioinspired Ant Algorithms  

OpenAIRE

Ant algorithms are inspired in real ants and the main idea is to create virtual ants that travel into the space of possible solution depositing virtual pheromone proportional to how good a specific solution is. This creates a autocatalytic (positive feedback) process that can be used to generate automatic solutions to very difficult problems. In the present work we show that these algorithms can be used coupled to tight-binding hamiltonians to design conducting polymers with...

Martins, Bruno V. C.; Brunetto, Gustavo; Sato, Fernando; Coluci, Vitor R.; Galvao, Douglas S.

2007-01-01

61

Gas Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers  

OpenAIRE

The gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active layers have been reviewed. This review discusses the sensing mechanism and configurations of the sensors. The factors that affect the performances of the gas sensors are also addressed. The disadvantages of the sensors and a brief prospect in this research field are discussed at the end of the review.

Gaoquan Shi; Hua Bai

2007-01-01

62

Electrochromic window with lithium conductive polymer electrolyte  

OpenAIRE

An electrochromic window was built using WO3 as the electrochromic material and V2O5 as the counter-electrode. Both were deposited onto ITO coated glass panes by vacuum evaporation and were amorphous to X-ray diffraction. The electrolyte was a lithium conducting polymer constituted by a Poly (ethylene oxide) - lithium salt complex. The electrochemical characterization of electrodes was realized by cyclic voltammetry, coulometric titration, and impedance spectroscopy, which allowd the determin...

Baudry, Paul; Aegerter, Michel A.; Deroo, Daniel; Valla, Bruno

1990-01-01

63

Synthesis and characterization of soluble conducting polymers and conducting adhesives  

Science.gov (United States)

With the demanding nature of the technology today, scientists are looking for new materials in order to decrease the cost, increase the efficiency of the use of the materials, and decrease time-consuming steps in order to increase the speed of production. New materials are being studied to decrease the weight of cars, planes and space vehicles; surface properties are being modified to decrease the drag coefficient; new technologies are being introduced for speeding up applications in production and assembly lines. In this research we address the needs of different technological applications from a conductivity perspective. In the first part of the thesis, the synthesis of soluble conducting polymers in order to make them more processable for potential electronic and photovoltaic applications is presented. Soluble conducting polymers of 3-hexylthiophene, 3-octylthiophene, 3-decylthiophene and 3-dodecylthiophene were synthesized electrochemically and thus, doped during synthesis. It was found that the conductivities; molecular weights and degrees of polymerization of the polymers strongly depend on the side chain's length. The substitution of alkyl side chains decreases the reactivity of the growing chain, and with an increasing side-chain length, all of these properties show a decrease. The hexyl substituent, being the shortest of the four side chains, causes the least distortion in the background, has the highest conjugation, and has the highest shift in the UV spectrum when it polymerizes. As the length of the side chain increases, the shift in the UV spectrum decreases, too. Decrease in the pi-stacking, conjugation and delocalization decreases the conductivity. This gives the material an opportunity to be used in photovoltaic applications. In the second part of the thesis, a conducting adhesive formulation that eliminates the need for heat or other expensive and rather bothersome application methods to activate the adhesive is investigated. Using the quick setting feature of the cyanoacrylates, a fast and serviceable conducting adhesive is formulated. Environmentally stable and electrically conducting cyanoacrylate formulations have been successfully prepared by introducing silver particles into a stabilized cyanoacrylate formulation. Silver particles have been observed to increase the viscosity and decrease the thixotropicity of the formulations. The stability of the formulations was achieved by using excess amounts of anionic stabilizers. This excess amount of inhibitor increases the set time by delaying the start of the reaction. This inhibition problem was solved by introducing functional amine groups and accelerating the reaction. Addition of the amine groups created more nucleation sites on the surface, which competed with the stabilizer to start the reaction. The use of accelerators did not affect the adhesive strength of the bond, however, it did change the resistivity of the adhesive joint.

Oztemiz, Serhan

64

Electrochemical Analysis of Conducting Polymer Thin Films  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte multilayers built via the layer-by-layer (LbL method has been one of the most promising systems in the field of materials science. Layered structures can be constructed by the adsorption of various polyelectrolyte species onto the surface of a solid or liquid material by means of electrostatic interaction. The thickness of the adsorbed layers can be tuned precisely in the nanometer range. Stable, semiconducting thin films are interesting research subjects. We use a conducting polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene (PPV, in the preparation of a stable thin film via the LbL method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the ionic conductivity of the PPV multilayer films. The ionic conductivity of the films has been found to be dependent on the polymerization temperature. The film conductivity can be fitted to a modified Randle’s circuit. The circuit equivalent calculations are performed to provide the diffusion coefficient values.

Bin Wang

2010-04-01

65

Improving polymer/nanocrystal hybrid solar cell performance via tuning ligand orientation at CdSe quantum dot surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieving superior solar cell performance based on the colloidal nanocrystals remains challenging due to their complex surface composition. Much attention has been devoted to the development of effective surface modification strategies to enhance electronic coupling between the nanocrystals to promote charge carrier transport. Herein, we aim to attach benzenedithiol ligands onto the surface of CdSe nanocrystals in the "face-on" geometry to minimize the nanocrystal-nanocrystal or polymer-nanocrystal distance. Furthermore, the "electroactive" ?-orbitals of the benzenedithiol are expected to further enhance the electronic coupling, which facilitates charge carrier dissociation and transport. The electron mobility of CdSe QD films was improved 20 times by tuning the ligand orientation, and high performance poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT):CdSe nanocrystal hybrid solar cells were also achieved, showing a highest power conversion efficiency of 4.18%. This research could open up a new pathway to improve further the performance of colloidal nanocrystal based solar cells. PMID:25336155

Fu, Weifei; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yanfang; Ma, Ruisong; Zuo, Lijian; Mai, Jiangquan; Lau, Tsz-Ki; Du, Shixuan; Lu, Xinhui; Shi, Minmin; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng

2014-11-12

66

Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A [NNL-National Nanotechnology Laboratory, INFM, CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: despina.fragouli@unile.it

2009-04-15

67

Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

68

Conducting Polymers and Their Hybrids as Organic Thermoelectric Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Conducting polymers have received much attention recently as organic thermoelectric materials, because of such advantages as plentiful resources, easy synthesis, easy processing, low cost, low thermal conductivity, and easy fabrication of flexible, light, and printable devices with large area. Many reports on organic thermoelectric materials have recently been published. We have studied conducting polymers as organic thermoelectric materials since 1999. During these investigations, we found that the thermal conductivity of conducting polymers did not increase even though electrical conductivity increased; this was a major advantage of conducting polymers as organic thermoelectric materials. We also observed that molecular alignment was one of the most important factors for improvement of the thermoelectric performance of conducting polymers. Stretching of conducting polymers or their precursors was one of the most common techniques used to achieve good molecular alignment. Recently, alignment of the clusters of conducting polymers by treatment with solvents has been proposed as a means of achieving high electrical conductivity. Hybridization of conducting polymers with inorganic nanoparticles has also been found to improve thermoelectric performance. Here we present a brief history and discuss recent progress of research on conducting polymers as organic thermoelectric materials, and describe the techniques used to improve thermoelectric performance by treatment of conducting polymers with solvents and hybridization of conducting polymers with Bi2Te3 and gold nanoparticles.

Toshima, Naoki; Ichikawa, Shoko

2015-01-01

69

Structural investigations and processing of electronically and protonically conducting polymers  

OpenAIRE

Various conducting polymers form a special class of materials with the potential for many applications in organic electronics and functional materials. These polymers can be electronically conducting or semiconducting due to a conjugated polymer backbone, or alternatively possess conductivity due to mobile protons or other ions. This thesis discusses such conducting polymers and shows ways how they can be processed by printing and how the nanostructure allows controlling their electrical prop...

Vilkman, Marja

2010-01-01

70

Synthesis of novel electrically conducting polymers: Potential conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films and conducting polymers on defined surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on previous results involving thiophene derived electrically conducting polymers in which it was shown that thiophene, 3-substituted thiophenes, furans, and certain oligomers of these compounds showed electrical conductivity after polymerization. The conductivity was in the order of up to 500 S/cm. In addition, these polymers showed conductivity without being doped and most of all they were practically inert toward ambient conditions. They even could be used in aqueous media. With these findings as a guide, a number of 3-long-chain-substituted thiophenes and 1-substituted-3-long-chain substituted pyrrols were synthesized as monomers for potential polymeric electrically conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films.

Zimmer, Hans

1993-01-01

71

Biocompatible Ionic Liquid-Derived Conducting Polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant and frequently encountered challenge when making an electrical connection to a protein is that its electron-transfer sites are buried within the polypeptide matrix and thus, are not readily accessible to bulk metal electrodes. A further complicating factor is that inorganic (i.e., metallic) electrodes are often incompatible with biological samples. These obstacles might be overcome by the use of conducting oligomers and / or polymers, which are flexible, offering a means to access remote redox centers. These oligomers can be readily modified to include chemical moieties that can connect covalently to sites near redox centers. In addition, conducting polymers can be made to be environmentally responsive (dynamic), processable (conformal coating, soluble) and mechanically durable, thus enabling them to function as an electrical conduit (wire or electrode) to biomolecules. In this work, we describe the design, synthesis and electrochemical properties of thiophene-based ionic liquid monomers and their bulk polymerization by chemical oxidation to yield cationic, aqueous-soluble polymers. Preliminary studies evaluating the electropolymerization of these monomers into nanostructured thin films will also be presented.

Firestone, Millicent; Burns, Christopher; Lee, Sungwon

2009-03-01

72

Conducting polymer-hydrogels for medical electrode applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting polymers hold significant promise as electrode coatings; however, they are characterized by inherently poor mechanical properties. Blending or producing layered conducting polymers with other polymer forms, such as hydrogels, has been proposed as an approach to improving these properties. There are many challenges to producing hybrid polymers incorporating conducting polymers and hydrogels, including the fabrication of structures based on two such dissimilar materials and evaluation of the properties of the resulting structures. Although both fabrication and evaluation of structure property relationships remain challenges, materials comprised of conducting polymers and hydrogels are promising for the next generation of bioactive electrode coatings.

Rylie A Green, Sungchul Baek, Laura A Poole-Warren and Penny J Martens

2010-01-01

73

Conducting polymer films as model biological membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows the application of conducting polymers (CPs) for constructing model biological membranes in order to study potential formation mechanism. Two amino acids, asparagine and glutamine, were incorporated in the poly(pyrrole) matrix during electrochemical polymerization. The polymer film was characterized by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy. The ion-exchange behavior of PPy-Asn and PPy-Gln membranes in dependence on the conditioning solution are characterized using an open circuit potentiometric measurements. Close-to-Nernstian sensitivity was observed for the films under equilibrium. During equilibration provoked by the change in concentration of magnesium and/or calcium ions, the differences in the shape and evolution of the potential response with time were observed. The varying potential-time behavior after a bulk concentration change has been explained by a different participation of the magnesium and calcium ions on the ground diffusion layer model (DLM)

74

Polymer composite material structures comprising carbon based conductive loads  

OpenAIRE

The present invention provides a polymer composite material structure comprising at least one layer of a foamed polymer composite material comprising a foamed polymer matrix and 0.1 wt % to 6 wt % carbon based conductive loads, such as e.g. carbon nanotubes, dispersed in the foamed polymer matrix. The polymer composite material structure according to embodiments of the present invention shows good shielding and absorbing properties notwithstanding the low amount of carbon based conductive loa...

Je?ro?me, Robert; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Detrembleur, Christophe; Thomassin, Jean-michel; Huynen, Isabelle; Bailly, Christian; Bednarz, Luikasz; Daussin, Raphae?l; Saib, Aimad; Baudouin, Anne-christine; Laloyaux, Xavier

2007-01-01

75

Tuning electrical conductivity and surface area of chemically-exfoliated graphene through nanocrystal functionalization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silver nanocrystals were used to prevent the stacking of exfoliated graphene and to improve its conductivity. They were deposited onto chemically-exfoliated graphene through self-assembly and subsequent reduction of silver ions. Characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the formation of silver/graphene hybrid. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption tests indicated that the nanoparticles inhibited the restacking of these sheets, resulting in larger active surface areas. The electrical conductivity of silver-deposited graphene was increased by nearly 3 times. The hybrid material was also used as an electrode of a supercapacitor and the capacitance of 326 F g?1 was achieved at a scan rate of 2 mV s?1. In contrast, as-produced chemically-exfoliated graphene based supercapacitors exhibited a capacitance of 109 F g?1. These results provide a valuable guidance for tuning the properties of chemically-exfoliated graphene in potential applications. -- Graphical abstract: Silver nanocrystals/graphene hybrids were fabricated by self-assembly and subsequent reduction. Compared to as-synthesized graphene sheets, the resultant hybrids exhibited improved electrical conductivity and surface area. The supercapacitors using as-produced hybrids as an electrode demonstrated a specific capacitance as high as 326 F g?1. Highlights: ? We synthesize silver nanocrystals/graphene hybrid through in-situ ion assembly and reduction. ? We examine the effect of nanocrystals attachment on electrical conductivity and surface area. ? We examine the electrochemical behavior of silver/graphene-based supercapacitor. ? We elucidate the role of electrode electrical conductivity and surface area in the supercapacity capacitance.

76

Tuning electrical conductivity and surface area of chemically-exfoliated graphene through nanocrystal functionalization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silver nanocrystals were used to prevent the stacking of exfoliated graphene and to improve its conductivity. They were deposited onto chemically-exfoliated graphene through self-assembly and subsequent reduction of silver ions. Characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the formation of silver/graphene hybrid. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption tests indicated that the nanoparticles inhibited the restacking of these sheets, resulting in larger active surface areas. The electrical conductivity of silver-deposited graphene was increased by nearly 3 times. The hybrid material was also used as an electrode of a supercapacitor and the capacitance of 326 F g{sup -1} was achieved at a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup -1}. In contrast, as-produced chemically-exfoliated graphene based supercapacitors exhibited a capacitance of 109 F g{sup -1}. These results provide a valuable guidance for tuning the properties of chemically-exfoliated graphene in potential applications. -- Graphical abstract: Silver nanocrystals/graphene hybrids were fabricated by self-assembly and subsequent reduction. Compared to as-synthesized graphene sheets, the resultant hybrids exhibited improved electrical conductivity and surface area. The supercapacitors using as-produced hybrids as an electrode demonstrated a specific capacitance as high as 326 F g{sup -1}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesize silver nanocrystals/graphene hybrid through in-situ ion assembly and reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the effect of nanocrystals attachment on electrical conductivity and surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the electrochemical behavior of silver/graphene-based supercapacitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We elucidate the role of electrode electrical conductivity and surface area in the supercapacity capacitance.

Zhang, Yue [Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Wang, Shiren, E-mail: Shiren.Wang@ttu.edu [Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Li, Li; Zhang, Kun [Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Qiu, Jingjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Davis, Marauo; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

2012-08-15

77

Preparation by grafting onto, characterization, and properties of thermally responsive polymer-decorated cellulose nanocrystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grafting of thermosensitive amine-terminated statistical polymers onto the surface of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was achieved by a peptidic coupling reaction, leading to unusual properties like colloidal stability at high ionic strength, surface activity, and thermoreversible aggregation. We have used a large variety of experimental techniques to investigate the properties of the polymer-decorated CNCs at different length-scales and as a function of the different reaction parameters. A high grafting density could be obtained when the reaction was performed in DMF rather than water. Infrared and solid-state NMR spectroscopy data unambiguously demonstrated the covalent character of the bonding between the CNCs and the macromolecules, whereas TEM images showed a preserved individualized character of the modified objects. Dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements were also consistent with individual nanocrystals decorated by a shell of polymer chains. Surface tension measurements revealed that CNCs became surface-active after the grafting of thermosensitive amines. Decorated CNCs were also stable against high electrolyte concentrations. A thermoreversible aggregation was also observed, which paves the way for the design of stimuli-responsive biobased nanocomposite materials. PMID:21058640

Azzam, Firas; Heux, Laurent; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Jean, Bruno

2010-12-13

78

Laser induced forward transfer of conducting polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on laser printing of conducting polymers directly from the solid phase. Laser induced forward transfer is employed to deposit P3HT:PCBM films on glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS substrates. P3HT:PCBM is widely used as the active material in organic solar cells. Polyaniline films, which are also printed by laser induced forward transfer, find many applications in the field of biotechnology. Laser printing parameters are optimized and results are presented. To apply solid-phase laser printing, P3HT:PCBM films are spun cast on quartz substrates, while aniline is in-situ polymerized on quartz substrates.

Kandyla, M.; Chatzandroulis, S.; Zergioti, I.

2010-12-01

79

Laser induced forward transfer of conducting polymers  

OpenAIRE

We report on laser printing of conducting polymers directly from the solid phase. Laser Induced Forward Transfer is employed to deposit P3HT:PCBM films on glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS substrates. P3HT:PCBM is widely used as the active material in organic solar cells. Polyaniline films, which are also printed by Laser Induced Forward Transfer, find many applications in the field of biotechnology. Laser printing parameters are optimized and results are presented. To apply solid-phase l...

Kandyla, M.; Chatzandroulis, S.; Zergioti, I.

2010-01-01

80

Biomimetic electrochemistry from conducting polymers. A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Composition and properties of conducting polymers change during reactions. ? These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices. ? The state of the art for artificial muscles sensing working conditions was reviewed. ? Smart membranes, drug delivery devices and nervous interfaces were also reviewed. - Abstract: Films of conducting polymers in the presence of electrolytes can be oxidized or reduced by the flow of anodic or cathodic currents. Ions and solvent are exchanged during a reaction for charge and osmotic pressure balance. A reactive conducting polymer contains ions and solvent. Such variation of composition during a reaction is reminiscent of the biological processes in cells. Along changes to the composition of the material during a reaction, there are also changes to other properties, including: volume (electrochemomechanical), colour (electrochromic), stored charge (electrical storage), porosity or permselectivity (electroporosity), stored chemicals, wettability and so on. Most of those properties mimic similar property changes in organs during their functioning. These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices: artificial muscles and polymeric actuators; supercapacitors and all organic batteries; smart membranes; electron-ion transducers; nervous interfaces and artificial synapses, or drug delivery devices. In this review we focus on the state of the art for artificiathe state of the art for artificial muscles, smart membranes and electron-ion transducers. The reactive nature of those devices provide them with a unique advantage related to the present days technologies: any changes in the surrounding physical or chemical variable acting on the electrochemical reaction rate will be sensed by the device while working. Working under constant current (driving signal), the evolution of the device potential or the evolution of the consumed electrical energy (sensing signals) senses and quantifies the variable increment. Driving and sensing signals are present, simultaneously, in the same two connecting wires. It is possible to prepare electrochemical devices based on conducting polymers in which there are several kinds of different sensors and one actuator embedded in one device. Examples of the tools and products, start-up companies, increasing evolution of scientific literature and patents are also presented. Scientific and technological challenges are also considered.

81

Tunable surface plasmon resonance and enhanced electrical conductivity of In doped ZnO colloidal nanocrystals  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The dopant induced shape evolution changes the hexagonal pyramid structured ZnO to a platelet like structure upon 8% In doping. The introduction of trivalent In3+ into the ZnO lattice and consequent substitution of divalent Zn2+ generates free electrons in the conduction band which produces a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region. The electron concentration controls plasmon frequency as well as the band gap of host ZnO. The variation of the band gap and the modification of the conduction band have been explained by the Burstein-Moss effect and Mie's theory respectively. The In dopant changes the defect chemistry of pure ZnO nanocrystals which has been studied by photoluminescence and other spectroscopic measurements. The nanocrystals are highly stable in the organic medium and can be deposited as a crack free thin film on different substrates. Careful ligand exchange and thermal annealing of the spin cast film lead to a good conductive film (720 ? per square to 120 ? per square) with stable inherent plasmonic absorption in the infrared and 90% transmittance in the visible region. A temperature induced metal-semiconductor transition was found for doped ZnO nanocrystals. The transition temperature shifts to a lower temperature with increase of the doping concentration.We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The dopant induced shape evolution changes the hexagonal pyramid structured ZnO to a platelet like structure upon 8% In doping. The introduction of trivalent In3+ into the ZnO lattice and consequent substitution of divalent Zn2+ generates free electrons in the conduction band which produces a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region. The electron concentration controls plasmon frequency as well as the band gap of host ZnO. The variation of the band gap and the modification of the conduction band have been explained by the Burstein-Moss effect and Mie's theory respectively. The In dopant changes the defect chemistry of pure ZnO nanocrystals which has been studied by photoluminescence and other spectroscopic measurements. The nanocrystals are highly stable in the organic medium and can be deposited as a crack free thin film on different substrates. Careful ligand exchange and thermal annealing of the spin cast film lead to a good conductive film (720 ? per square to 120 ? per square) with stable inherent plasmonic absorption in the infrared and 90% transmittance in the visible region. A temperature induced metal-semiconductor transition was found for doped ZnO nanocrystals. The transition temperature shifts to a lower temperature with increase of the doping concentration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05608b

Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; de, S. K.

2014-05-01

82

Characterizations of proton conducting polymer electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid polymer electrolytes containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) and/or silicotungstic acid (SiWA) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were investigated for their proton conductivities. Enhanced conductivity was obtained when mixing PWA and SiWA at equal ratio. This polymer electrolyte was found viable for electrochemical capacitors. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted with DSC, XRD, and FTIR. The polymer electrolyte exhibited a different structure and different thermal properties from its respective components. The polymer electrolyte retained its original Keggin structure but contained crystallized protonated water in the form of H5O2+. The protonated water may contribute to the proton conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

83

Characterizations of proton conducting polymer electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid polymer electrolytes containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) and/or silicotungstic acid (SiWA) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were investigated for their proton conductivities. Enhanced conductivity was obtained when mixing PWA and SiWA at equal ratio. This polymer electrolyte was found viable for electrochemical capacitors. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted with DSC, XRD, and FTIR. The polymer electrolyte exhibited a different structure and different thermal properties from its respective components. The polymer electrolyte retained its original Keggin structure but contained crystallized protonated water in the form of H{sub 5}O{sub 2}{sup +}. The protonated water may contribute to the proton conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

Gao Han [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St. Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 3E4 (Canada); Lian, Keryn, E-mail: keryn.lian@utoronto.c [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St. Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2010-12-15

84

Preparation of Electroconductive Paper by Deposition of Conducting Polymer  

OpenAIRE

The thesis describes an investigation into the interaction between the conducting polymer and cellulosic materials, and the preparation of electroconductive paper. The adsorption behavior of the conducting polymer onto cellulosic materials was characterized. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used as conducting polymer because of its attractive properties in terms of conductivity, water solubility, and environmental stability. The model subst...

Montibon, Elson

2009-01-01

85

Transparent and conductive polymer layers by gas plasma techniques  

OpenAIRE

Polymers are widely used in a great number of applications because of their general properties such as low density, low cost, and processability. If these properties could be combined with electrical conductivity, this would open up the way to desirable applications such as flexible LCD’s and polymer electronics (cheap, lightweight, etc.). For applications requiring electrical conductivity, the choice of a suitable polymer is limited to polymers with a conjugated chemical structure such as ...

Groenewoud, Lucas Marinus Hendrikus

2000-01-01

86

Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

Lijia Pan

2010-07-01

87

Polypeptide-guided assembly of conducting polymer nanocomposites  

OpenAIRE

A strategy for fabrication of electroactive nanocomposites with nanoscale organization, based on self-assembly, is reported. Gold nanoparticles are assembled by a polypeptide folding-dependent bridging. The polypeptides are further utilized to recruit and associate with a water soluble conducting polymer. The polymer is homogenously incorporated into the nanocomposite, forming conducting pathways which make the composite material highly conducting.

Hamedi, Mahiar; Wigenius, Jens; Tai, Feng-i; Bjo?rk, Per; Aili, Daniel

2010-01-01

88

Anti-Corrosive Paint Systems Based on Conducting Polymers  

OpenAIRE

The corrosion protection of anti-corrosive paint systems based on conducting polymers is examined in the following four application areas: shopprimers, ballast tank protection, protection in off-shore environment and protection of aluminium. The conducting polymers used as an additive are polyaniline and polythiophene. Five possible hypotheses for the protection mechanism of conducting polymers are stated, and the aim is to examine the credibility of these hypotheses. For sh...

Petersen, Marie Louise

2007-01-01

89

Current Trends in Sensors Based on Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials  

OpenAIRE

Conducting polymers represent an important class of functional organic materials for next-generation electronic and optical devices. Advances in nanotechnology allow for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanomaterials through synthesis methods such as solid-phase template synthesis, molecular template synthesis, and template-free synthesis. Nanostructured conducting polymers featuring high surface area, small dimensions, and unique physical properties have been widely used to buil...

Hyeonseok Yoon

2013-01-01

90

Influence of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Concentration on Polymer Hole Transport in Hybrid Nanocomposites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article investigates hole transport in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV/CdSe colloidal quantum dot (CQD nanocomposites using a modified time-of-flight photoconductivity technique. The measured hole drift mobilities are analyzed in the context of Bässler’s Gaussian disorder model and the correlated disorder model in order to determine the polymer internal morphology of hybrid nanocomposite thin films. This work shows that increasing the CdSe CQD concentration decreases the polymer hole mobility from ~5.9 × 10?6 cm2/Vs in an MEH-PPV film to ~8.1 × 10?8 cm2/Vs in a 20:80 (wt% MEH-PPV:CdSe CQD nanocomposite film (measured at 25 °C and ~2 × 105 V/cm. The corresponding disorder parameters indicate increasing disruption of interchain interaction with increasing CQD concentration. This work quantifies polymer chain morphology in hybrid nanocomposite thin films and provides useful information regarding the optimal use of semiconductor nanocrystals in conjugated polymer-based optoelectronics.

Ryan Pate

2012-01-01

91

Mesoscopic modelling of charge evolution in conducting polymers  

OpenAIRE

We address here some of the issues relating to conducting polymer based devices. We examine the effects of polymer disorder on charge injection, transport, trapping and recombination in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using a mesoscopic model which includes specific realizations of the electroluminescent polymer network. A key point of this model is to consider both the intermolecular and the interdomain charge carrier transport which are strongly influenced by structural polymer disorder. Simul...

Ramos, Marta M. D.; Stoneham, A. M.

2000-01-01

92

Solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystals  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a new system of solar cells. Colloidal nanocrystals possess many physical and chemical properties which can be manipulated by advanced control over structural features like the particle size. One application field is photovoltaics where colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are explored as components of photo-active layers which can be produced from liquid media, often in combination with conductive polymers. The further development of this interdisciplinary field of research requires a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of colloidal nanocrystals, conducting poly

Borchert, Holger

2014-01-01

93

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

1996-01-01

94

Conducting polymer polypyrrole supported bilayer lipid membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrochemically synthesized conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) film on gold electrode surface was used as a novel support for bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). Investigations by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) suggest that dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidyl-L-serine (DMPS) can form BLMs on PPy film surface but dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) can not do so, indicating the formation of PPy supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs) is dependent on the chemical structure of the lipids used. The self-assembly of DMPC induces a smoother topography than the PPy layer with rms roughness decreasing from 4.484 to 2.914 nm convinced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Impedance spectroscopy measurements confirm that the deposition of BLM substantially increases the resistance of the system indicating a very densely packed BLM structures. The little change of PPy film in capacitance shows that solvent and electrolyte ions still retain within the porous PPy film after BLM deposition. Therefore, the PPy supported BLM is to some extent comparable to conventional BLM with aqueous medium retaining at its two sides. As an example and preliminary application, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reconstituted into the s-BLM shows the expected protein activity and can transfer electron from or to the underlying PPy support for its response to electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide in solution. Thus the system maybe possesses potential applications to biomimetic membrane studies. PMID:15590292

Shao, Yong; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Feng; Dong, Shaojun

2005-01-15

95

Solid Polymer Lithium-Ion Conducting Electrolytes for Structural Batteries  

OpenAIRE

This work comprises the manufacture and characterization of solid polymer lithium ion conducting electrolytes for structural batteries. In the study, polymer films are produced in situ via a rapid versatile UV irradiation polymerization route, in which ethylene oxide methacrylates are polymerized into thermoset networks. In the first part of the study, the simplicity and efficiency of this manufacturing route is emphasized. Polymer electrolytes are pro-duced with an ionic conductivity ranging...

Willgert, Markus

2014-01-01

96

Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules  

Science.gov (United States)

To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in fits and the most reasonable fitting parameters.

Pundsack, Thomas J.

97

In situ growth of well-dispersed CdS nanocrystals in semiconducting polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

A straight synthetic route to fabricate hybrid nanocomposite films of well-dispersed CdS nanocrystals (NCs) in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) is reported. A soluble cadmium complex [Cd(SBz)2]2·MI, obtained by incorporating a Lewis base (1-methylimidazole, MI) on the cadmium bis(benzyl)thiol, is used as starting reagent in an in situ thermolytic process. CdS NCs with spherical shape nucleate and grow well below 200°C in a relatively short time (30 min). Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements performed on CdS/MEH-PPV nanocomposites show that CdS photoluminescence peaks are totally quenched inside MEH-PPV, if compared to CdS/PMMA nanocomposites, as expected due to overlapping of the polymer absorption and CdS emission spectra. The CdS NCs are well-dispersed in size and homogeneously distributed within MEH-PPV matrix as proved by transmission electron microscopy. Nanocomposites with different precursor/polymer weight ratios were prepared in the range from 1:4 to 4:1. Highly dense materials, without NCs clustering, were obtained for a weight/weight ratio of 2:3 between precursor and polymer, making these nanocomposites particularly suitable for optoelectronic and solar energy conversion applications.

Laera, Anna Maria; Resta, Vincenzo; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Miceli, Valerio; Schioppa, Monica; Scalone, Anna Grazia; Benedetto, Francesca Di; Tapfer, Leander

2013-09-01

98

Electromagnetic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in an insulating matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to study the electronic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in zeolite. We studied two kinds of polymers: intrinsic conducting polymers (poly-pyrrole) and pyrolyzed polymers (polyacrylonitrile and poly-furfuryl alcohol). These systems were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave conductivity measurements. In the first part, we present the preparation and the characterization of encapsulated poly-pyrrole. Conductivity measurements show that the encapsulated material is insulating, certainly because a strong interaction with the zeolite traps the charge carriers. In the second part, we focus on pyrolyzed encapsulated polyacrylonitrile. This system has a metal-like susceptibility at room temperature and a relatively high microwave conductivity. These results demonstrate the formation during the pyrolysis of extended aromatic clusters. Finally, we study pyrolyzed encapsulated poly-furfuryl alcohol. We show that the only effect of the pyrolysis is to fragment the polymers. We also discuss the spin relaxation and the EPR line broadening. (author)

99

Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane  

Science.gov (United States)

Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-11-22

100

Highly conductive polymers: superconductivity in nanochannels or an experimental artifact?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a significant body of literature concerning the potential formation of electrically conductive moieties in polymeric materials. The conductive path is not associated with conjugation (such as in the case of 'conductive polymers') but rather associated with a new conductivity route. The objective of the experiments reported herein was to provide insight into the phenomenon of unusually high electrical conductivity in polymers that have been reported by several research groups. In some experiments, the test apparatus did indeed indicate high levels of conductance. Arguments pro and con for high conductivity based on known physical phenomena and the collected data were examined.

101

Conducting polymer/clay nanocomposites and their applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review aims at reporting on interesting and potential aspects of conducting polymer/clay nanocomposites with regard to their preparation, characteristics and engineering applications. Various conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and copolyaniline are introduced and three different preparation methods of synthesizing conducting polymer/clay nanocomposites are being emphasized. Morphological features, structure characteristics and thermal degradation behavior are explained based on SEM/TEM images, XRD pattern analyses and TGA/DSC graphs, respectively. Attentions are also being paid on conductive/magnetic performances as well as two potential applications in anti-corrosion coating and electrorheological (ER) fluids. PMID:18572558

Fang, Fei Fei; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Joo, Jinsoo

2008-04-01

102

Patterning of conducting polymers using charged self-assembled monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a new approach to pattern conducting polymers by combining oppositely charged conducting polymers on charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The polymer resist pattern behaves as a physical barrier, preventing the formation of SAMs. The patterning processes were carried out using commercially available conducting polymers: a negatively charged PEDOT/PSS (poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)/poly(4-stylenesulphonic acid)) and a positively charged polypyrrole (PPy). A bifunctional NH 2 (positively charged) or COOH (negatively charged) terminated alkane thiol or silane was directly self-assembled on a substrate (Au or SiO 2). A suspension of the conducting polymers (PEDOT/PSS and PPy) was then spin-coated on the top surface of the SAMs and allowed to adsorb on the oppositely charged SAMs via an electrostatic driving force. After lift-off of the polymer resist, i.e., poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA), using acetone, the conducting polymers remained on the charged SAMs surface. Optical microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy reveal that the prepared nanolines have low line edge roughness and high line width resolution. Thus, conducting polymer patterns with high resolution could be produced by simply employing charged bifunctional SAMs. It is anticipated that this versatile new method can be applied to device fabrication processes of various nano- and microelectronics. PMID:18661959

Jung, Mi-Hee; Lee, Hyoyoung

2008-09-01

103

Flexible conductive polymer polarizer designed for a chemical tag  

Science.gov (United States)

Conductive polymers with high solids loading (> 40wt.%) are challenging to pattern to single micron feature sizes and require unique techniques or templates to mold the material. The development of a conductive polymer optical tag is discussed for identifying the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and leverages free standing silicon fins as a template utilizing deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) techniques will be discussed. This work is aimed towards a future flexible conductive polymer tag to be transferred via adhesive or epoxy for a novel sensor surface. The advantage to this technique over wafer thinning is a higher throughput of device manufacture without damage to the silicon fins or polymer due to chemical-mechanical interactions or added protective layers. The gratings consist of a high spatial frequency (1.15 ?m pitch) grating consisting of lines of conductive polymer and lines of silicon which are free standing. A novel running bond pattern aims to minimize the intrinsic stress and allows the conductive polymer to infiltrate without distorting the template. The polymer conductivity mechanism has been designed to break down under a chemical binding to fluorine; changing its conductivity upon exposure, and results in a change in the polarization response. The use of the polarization response makes the signal more robust to intensity fluctuations in the background or interrogation system. Additionally, the use of optical interrogation allows for standoff detection in instances where hazardous conditions may be present. Examples of material and device responses will be shown and directions for further investigation are discussed.

Washburn, C. M.; Jones, J. C.; Vigil, S. R.; Finnegan, P. S.; Boye, R. R.; Hunker, J. D.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Dirk, S. M.; Hance, B. G.; Strong, J. M.; Massey, L. M.; Brumbach, M. T.

2013-03-01

104

Anisotropic polymer composites synthesized by immobilizing cellulose nanocrystal suspensions specifically oriented under magnetic fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel polymer composites reinforced with an oriented cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) assembly were prepared from suspensions of CNC in aqueous 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) via magnetic field application to the suspensions followed by polymerization treatment. The starting suspensions used at ?6 wt % CNC separated into an upper isotropic phase and a lower anisotropic (chiral nematic) one in the course of quiescent standing. A static or rotational magnetic field was applied to the isolated isotropic and anisotropic phases. UV-induced polymerization of HEMA perpetuated the respective states of magnetic orientation invested for the CNC dispersions to yield variously oriented CNC/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) composites. The structural characterization was carried out by use of X-ray diffractometry and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The result indicated that CNCs were aligned in the composites distinctively according to the static or rotational magnetic application when the anisotropic phases were used, whereas such a specific CNC orientation was not appreciable when the isotropic phases were sampled. This marks out effectiveness of a coherent response of CNCs in the mesomorphic assembly. In dynamic mechanical experiments in tensile or compressive mode, we observed a clear mechanical anisotropy for the polymer composites synthesized from wholly anisotropic suspensions under static or rotational magnetization. The higher modulus (in compression) was detected for a composite reinforced by locking-in the uniaxial CNC alignment attainable through conversion of the initial chiral nematic phase into a nematic phase in the rotational magnetic field. PMID:25390070

Tatsumi, Mio; Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Tsunehisa; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

2014-12-01

105

White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs (?PL=580 nm) and blue polyfluorene (?PL=439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of Tc=6962 K and CRI of Ra=53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs (?PL=580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene (?PL=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), Tc=14395 K and Ra=65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs (?PL=580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene (?PL=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), Tc=4052 K and Ra= 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitterss

106

Unusually conductive carbon-inherently conducting polymer (ICP) composites: Synthesis and characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Two groups of materials that have recently come to the forefront of research initiatives are carbon allotropes, especially nanotubes, and conducting polymers-more specifically inherently conducting polymers. The terms conducting polymers and inherently conducting polymers sometimes are used interchangeably without fully acknowledging a major difference in these terms. Conducting polymers (CPs) and inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) are both polymeric materials that conduct electricity, but the difference lies in how each of these materials conducts electricity. For CPs of the past, an electrically conductive filler such as metal particles, carbon black, or graphite would be blended into a polymer (insulator) allowing for the CP to carry an electric current. An ICP conducts electricity due to the intrinsic nature of its chemical structure. The two materials at the center of this research are graphite and polyaniline. For the first time, a composite between carbon allotropes (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer (PANI) has exhibited an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. Both components have a plethora of potential applications and therefore the further investigation could lead to use of these composites in any number of technologies. Touted applications that use either conductive carbons or ICPs exist in a wide range of fields, including electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar evasion, low power rechargeable batteries, electrostatic dissipation (ESD) for anti-static textiles, electronic devices, light emitting diodes (LEDs), corrosion prevention, gas sensors, super capacitors, photovoltaic cells, and resistive heating. The main motivation for this research has been to investigate the connection between an observed increase in conductivity and structure of composites. Two main findings have resulted from the research as related to the observed increase in conductivity. The first was the structural evidence from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis suggesting a more crystalline graphite matrix due to intimate interactions with PANI that resulted in a charge transfer. Confirmation of charge transfer was observed through magnetic susceptibility, electron paramagnetic resonance, and temperature dependent electrical conductivity studies.

Bourdo, Shawn Edward

107

Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

Daech, Alfred F.

1992-01-01

108

Current Trends in Sensors Based on Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent an important class of functional organic materials for next-generation electronic and optical devices. Advances in nanotechnology allow for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanomaterials through synthesis methods such as solid-phase template synthesis, molecular template synthesis, and template-free synthesis. Nanostructured conducting polymers featuring high surface area, small dimensions, and unique physical properties have been widely used to build various sensor devices. Many remarkable examples have been reported over the past decade. The enhanced sensitivity of conducting polymer nanomaterials toward various chemical/biological species and external stimuli has made them ideal candidates for incorporation into the design of sensors. However, the selectivity and stability still leave room for improvement.

Hyeonseok Yoon

2013-08-01

109

Electrically conducting shape memory polymer composites for electroactive actuator  

Science.gov (United States)

We have tried to apply electroactive shape memory polymer to smart actuator. Electroactive shape memory can be achieved by applying an electric field to shape memory polymer without any thermal heating as conventional shape memory polymers. For it, electrically conducting shape memory composites were prepared by incorporating carbon nanotube into polymer matrix. A segmented polyurethane block copolymer composed of 4,4'-methylene bis (phenylisocyanate), polycaprolactone, and 1,4-butanediol was synthesized to be used as shape memory polymer, and carbon nanotube was used after surface-modification by an acid. It was found that nanotube-reinforced composites could show high electrical conductivity with increased modulus at only several weight percentages of nanotube, and electroactive shape recovery effect more than 80% could be obtained. Consequently, electric field-stimulated shape memory could be demonstrated through combined composites of polyurethane and nanotube.

Jung, Yong Chae; Goo, Nam Seo; Cho, Jae Whan

2004-07-01

110

A conducting coordination polymer based on assembled Cu9 cages.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a novel highly semiconducting 1D coordination polymer architecture obtained by the reaction of a Cu(II) salt with 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide under microwave solvothermal conditions. This reaction proceeds with an unusual C-S and S-S bond cleavage of the 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide ligand. The unprecedented architecture of this coordination polymer consists of a 1D chain formed by the assembling of Cu9 cluster cages. The electrical conductivity behavior of this novel material suggests new perspectives for the use of coordination polymers as electrical conducting materials. PMID:18817369

Delgado, Salomé; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Priego, José L; Jiménez-Aparicio, Reyes; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Zamora, Félix

2008-10-20

111

Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis  

OpenAIRE

In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel ...

Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D.

2014-01-01

112

Conducting polymer nanofibers: Synthesis, properties and applications  

Science.gov (United States)

An interfacial polymerization method is described which enables the synthesis of polyaniline nanofibers with diameters tunable from 30 to 120 nm. This synthesis is template-free and readily scalable and can be applied to polyaniline derivatives and other conjugated polymers. Mechanistic studies reveal that nanofibers form naturally during the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in water without the need for any template, functional molecule or seed. In conventional polymerization, nanofibers are subject to secondary growth of amorphous particles which leads to irregularly shaped agglomerates. The key to producing pure nanofibers is to suppress secondary growth. This has been achieved with interfacial polymerization where the interface separates nanofiber formation from secondary growth and also by using rapidly mixed reactions where the initiator molecules are consumed before secondary growth begins. Polyaniline nanofibers dramatically enhance many applications of conventional polyaniline, such as in chemical sensors. Here, the small diameter, high surface area and water dispersibility of the nanofibers enable improved sensor performance and new sensing mechanisms. The nanofibers can also serve as a template to grow inorganic/polyaniline nanocomposites. Polyaniline nanofibers with 1--5 nm gold nanoparticles possess exciting applications such as in electronic non-volatile memory devices. Additionally, a novel flash welding technique for the nanofibers has been invented. A photographic camera flash sets off cross-linking reactions that can be used to make asymmetric polymer membranes, form patterned nanofiber films and create polymer based nanocomposites.

Huang, Jiaxing

113

Versatile solution for growing thin films of conducting polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

The method employed for depositing nanostructures of conducting polymers dictates potential uses in a variety of applications such as organic solar cells, light-emitting diodes, electrochromics, and sensors. A simple and scalable film fabrication technique that allows reproducible control of thickness, and morphological homogeneity at the nanoscale, is an attractive option for industrial applications. Here we demonstrate that under the proper conditions of volume, doping, and polymer concentration, films consisting of monolayers of conducting polymer nanofibers such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) can be produced in a matter of seconds. A thermodynamically driven solution-based process leads to the growth of transparent thin films of interfacially adsorbed nanofibers. High quality transparent thin films are deposited at ambient conditions on virtually any substrate. This inexpensive process uses solutions that are recyclable and affords a new technique in the field of conducting polymers for coating large substrate areas. PMID:21041676

D’Arcy, Julio M.; Tran, Henry D.; Tung, Vincent C.; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander K.; Wong, Rain P.; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B.

2010-01-01

114

A facile solution-phase approach to transparent and conducting ITO nanocrystal assemblies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monodisperse 11 nm indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of indium acetylacetonate, In(acac)(3), and tin bis(acetylacetonate)dichloride, Sn(acac)(2)Cl(2), at 270 °C in 1-octadecene with oleylamine and oleic acid as surfactants. Dispersed in hexane, these ITO NCs were spin-cast on centimeter-wide glass substrates, forming uniform ITO NC assemblies with root-mean-square roughness of 2.9 nm. The assembly thickness was controlled by ITO NC concentrations in hexane and rotation speeds of the spin coater. Via controlled thermal annealing at 300 °C for 6 h under Ar and 5% H(2), the ITO NC assemblies became conductive and transparent with the 146 nm-thick assembly showing 5.2 × 10(-3) ?·cm (R(s) = 356 ?/sq) resistivity and 93% transparency in the visible spectral range--the best values ever reported for ITO NC assemblies prepared from solution phase processes. The stable hexane dispersion of ITO NCs was also readily spin-cast on polyimide (T(g) ~360 °C), and the resultant ITO assembly exhibited a comparable conductivity and transparency to the assembly on a glass substrate. The reported synthesis and assembly provide a promising solution to the fabrication of transparent and conducting ITO NCs on flexible substrates for optoelectronic applications. PMID:22816386

Lee, Jonghun; Lee, Sunghwan; Li, Guanglai; Petruska, Melissa A; Paine, David C; Sun, Shouheng

2012-08-15

115

Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding  

Science.gov (United States)

Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ?-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications.Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ?-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CNC surface chain fraction and degree of substitution after BriBBr modification, NMR spectra of the SI-ATRP reaction mixture at 0 and 120 min, conversion of the DMAEMA monomer during SI-ATRP, DLS size distribution profiles of CNCs and CNC-g-P(QDMAEMA), TEM images of NoV-VLPs and their complexes with CNC-g-P(QDMAEMA) at 0 mM NaCl. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03584d

Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R.; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

2014-09-01

116

Polymer Light-Emitting Diode Using Conductive Polymer as the Anode Layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis based on series equivalent circuit indicates that the resistance of electrode layers is the major factor limiting the current density of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) at higher voltages. The conductivity of 790 S/cm for the PEDOT:PSS film is achieved by secondary doping. At a thickness of 240 nm, the sheet resistance of the polymer layer is 51 ?/sq, which is comparable to that of ITO films. The current density and luminance of the PLEDs with the polymer anode layer is higher than the ITO anode device, suggesting that it is feasible to replace ITO anode with a highly conductive polymer in PLEDs

117

Synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer matrix: optical and structural studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CdS nanocrystals (NCs) were directly synthesized in P3HT matrix by decomposition of single-molecule precursor compound. In this process, a molecular precursor solution was mixed with the polymeric solution. On heating the solution to the decomposition temperature of the precursor compound, NCs were formed in situ at temperatures as low as 120 °C. The effects of the precursor concentration on the optical properties of the composite were studied. The results showed evidence of charge transfer and size variation depending on NCs concentration. CdS phase can be formed using this process at 120 °C temperature as was evident from the X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscope results confirm formation of monodispersed CdS nanoparticles of average size 4 nm. A possible mechanism of the CdS film formation was also investigated. UV–Vis measurements show that these CdS composites possess a direct band gap energy higher than 2.45 eV depending on the concentration of P3HT, indicating that the nano size can be controlled by the concentration of polymer additive in the composite. A higher concentration of P3HT showed more blue shift.

118

White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of T{sub c}=6962 K and CRI of R{sub a}=53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), T{sub c}=14395 K and R{sub a}=65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), T{sub c}=4052 K and R{sub a}= 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitters.

Demir, Hilmi Volkan [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Nizamoglu, Sedat [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozel, Tuncay [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Mutlugun, Evren [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Huyal, Ilkem Ozge [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sari, Emre [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Holder, Elisabeth [Functional Polymers Group and Institute of Polymer Technology, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Tian Nan [Functional Polymers Group and Institute of Polymer Technology, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

2007-10-15

119

Intercalation of ionically conductive polymers into Lithium Hectorite  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar have become appealing sources of energy with low environmental impact. However, the challenge with using these energy sources is their intermittent and unpredictable power generation. In order to overcome this challenge, energy storage mechanisms such as lithium-ion batteries are dependable systems for such applications. The purpose of this project is intended to synthesize environmentally benign and safe materials which can be used as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The ionically conductive polymers POEGO, POMOE, and MEEP were successfully intercalated into the two-dimensional layered structure Lithium Hectorite. The goal of the project was to synthesize a series of nanocomposites with increasing polymer molar ratios to Lithium Hectorite, and investigate the thermal and ionic conductivity properties of the synthesized nanocomposites. A second series of nanocomposites using the same polymer molar ratio to Lithium Hectorite were synthesized after the polymers were complexed with lithium triflate. The salt-complexed nanocomposites were compared to the pristine nanocomposites based on thermal stability, polymer flexibility, as well as their ionic conductivity. The synthesized polymers, nanocomposites, and salt-complexed materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Ionic conductivity data was investigated using AC impedance spectroscopy.

Saada, Iskandar

120

Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in Conducting Polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

The free-electron gas model proposed by Drude and Sommerfeld has been enormously successful at describing the electronic and thermal properties of highly electrically conducting materials. A prediction of the free-electron gas model is that the ratio of the electronic component of the thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity is proportional to a constant multiplied by the absolute temperature. This prediction is known as the Wiedemann-Franz law, and has been widely validated across various classes of materials. The validity of this law however has not been extensively studied in conducting polymer systems, primarily due to the challenges associated with fabricating highly electrical conductivity polymer devices for which both the electrical and thermal conductivity could be measured. Here, we investigate the relationship between thermal and electronic transport in conjugated polymers across a wide range conductivities, and find that the Wiedemann-Franz law is strongly violated. These results demonstrate that the link between charge transport and heat transport is fundamentally different in conjugated polymer systems than in the vast majority of high-conductivity materials.

Coates, Nelson; Liu, Jianfeng; McCulloch, Bryan; Yee, Shannon; Urban, Jeffrey; Segalman, Rachel; Wang, Xiaojia; Cahill, David

2013-03-01

121

Positron annihilation study in polyaniline conducting polymer  

OpenAIRE

The positron lifetime spectra in polyaniline have been measured as a function of protonation level (pH from 7 to -0.8). We observed that (1) the short lifetime ?1 decreased with the protonation level ; (2) the intermediate lifetime was constant (?2 ? 360 ps), whereas its intensity I2 increased with increasing protonation level which was related to the conductivity of material. These results are discussed in terms of conducting island model.

Peng, Z.; Li, S.; Dai, Y.; Wang, B.; Wang, S.; Liu, H.; Xie, H.

1993-01-01

122

Electrochemically driven actuators from conducting polymers, hydrogels, and carbon nanotubes  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms of actuation operating in polymeric actuators are reviewed along with a comparison of actuator performance. Polymer hydrogel actuators show very large dimensional changes, but relatively low response times. The mechanism of actuation involves several processes including electro-osmosis and electrochemical effects. Conducting polymer actuators operate by Faradaic reactions causing oxidation and reduction of the polymer backbone. Associated ion movements produce dimensional changes of typically up to 3%. The maximum stress achieved to date from conducting polymers is not more than 10 MPA. Carbon nanotubes have recently been demonstrated as new actuator materials. The nanotubes undergo useful dimensional changes (approximately 1%) but have the capacity to respond very rapidly (kHz) and generate giant stresses (600 MPa). The advantages of nanotube actuators stem from their exceptional mechanical properties and the non-Faradaic actuation mechanism.

Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Lewis, Trevor W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Dai, Liming; Baughman, Ray H.

2001-04-01

123

Electrochemical sensors based on conducting polymer-polypyrrole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conducting polymers can be exploited as an excellent tool for the preparation of nanocomposites with nano-scaled biomolecules. Polypyrrole (Ppy) is one of the most extensively used conducting polymers in design of bioanalytical sensors. In this review article significant attention is paid to immobilization of biologically active molecules within Ppy during electrochemical deposition of this polymer. Such unique properties of this polymer as prevention of some undesirable electrochemical interactions and facilitation of electron transfer from some redox enzymes are discussed. Recent advances in application of polypyrrole in immunosensors and DNA sensors are presented. Some new electrochemical target DNA and target protein detection methods based on changes of semiconducting properties of electrochemically generated Ppy doped by affinity agents are introduced. Recent progress and problems in development of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole are considered

124

Electrochemical sensors based on conducting polymer-polypyrrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conducting polymers can be exploited as an excellent tool for the preparation of nanocomposites with nano-scaled biomolecules. Polypyrrole (Ppy) is one of the most extensively used conducting polymers in design of bioanalytical sensors. In this review article significant attention is paid to immobilization of biologically active molecules within Ppy during electrochemical deposition of this polymer. Such unique properties of this polymer as prevention of some undesirable electrochemical interactions and facilitation of electron transfer from some redox enzymes are discussed. Recent advances in application of polypyrrole in immunosensors and DNA sensors are presented. Some new electrochemical target DNA and target protein detection methods based on changes of semiconducting properties of electrochemically generated Ppy doped by affinity agents are introduced. Recent progress and problems in development of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole are considered.

Ramanavicius, A. [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania) and Laboratory of Immunoanalysis and Nanotechnology, Institute of Immunology of Vilnius University, Moletu pl. 29, 08409 Vilnius (Lithuania)]. E-mail: arunas@imi.lt; Ramanaviciene, A. [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Laboratory of Immunoanalysis and Nanotechnology, Institute of Immunology of Vilnius University, Moletu pl. 29, 08409 Vilnius (Lithuania); Malinauskas, A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Gostauto 9, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

2006-08-25

125

Conducting interpenetrating polymer network actuator sensor for biomimetic perception system  

OpenAIRE

For many years researchers mimic the living in order to obtain systems that can adapt to complex environments. Today no conventional technology is able to fully compete with the functioning of a muscle. The objective of this work is to synthesize and integrate a new generation of actuators and sensors based on interpenetrating polymer networks of conductive polymers in biomimetic perceptions systems. We first carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel host matrix based on inter...

Festin, Nicolas

2012-01-01

126

Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conducting polymer bilayers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole (PPy), each containing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) as immobile dopant species, were synthesized galvanostatically. The electrochemical behaviour of the bilayers was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, optical absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques. Two important conclusions of relevance for actuator performance were reached: It is possible to make a bilayer film that does not delaminate – the two polymers are compatible; and both polymers are active in the redox process as ions are able to move through the PEDOT layer and penetrate into PPy.

Zainudeen, Umer L.; Careem, M.A.

2006-01-01

127

Study of PEDOT conductive polymer films by admittance measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Microwave technique to measure the conductivity of PEDOT films. {yields} PEDOT conductivity depends on its mesoscopic scale structure and oxidation level. {yields} Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis to study structure and morphology of PEDOT. {yields} Microwave measurements allow determination of the macroscopic scale conductivity. {yields} Microwave measurements overcome problems related to the local structural defects and inhomogeneities of PEDOT. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the use of a microwave technique to measure the conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films. The PEDOT layers were prepared by electropolymerization from aqueous solutions using both poly(sodium 4-styrene sulphonate) (NaPSS) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (NaDS) acting as monomer solubilizer and dopant for the polymer. The conductive properties of a series of samples produced under different synthesis conditions and characterized by different structures have been investigated by microwave measurements in the frequency range from 40 MHz to 40 GHz by using a Corbino disc geometry. Such technique allows to estimate the mean conductivity of the polymer samples overcoming the limitations of the measuring configurations typically imposed by the conventional d.c. measurements. The morphology of PEDOT films and the structure of polymer chains were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The correlated morphological, structural and microwave analysis enabled us to evidence several factors that affect the macroscopic scale conductivity of the polymer sample films and to identify the conditions for preparation of PEDOT films with functional properties relevant to technological applications.

Tamburri, Emanuela, E-mail: Emanuela.Tamburri@uniroma2.it [Dip.to di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche and Interdisciplinary Micro and NAno-structured Systems laboratory (MINAS), Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via Della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Sarti, Stefano [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia [Dip.to di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche and Interdisciplinary Micro and NAno-structured Systems laboratory (MINAS), Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via Della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Dip. di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy)

2011-02-15

128

Intrinsic electrical conductivity of nanostructured metal-organic polymer chains  

OpenAIRE

One-dimensional conductive polymers are attractive materials because of their potential in flexible and transparent electronics. Despite years of research, on the macro- and nano-scale, structural disorder represents the major hurdle in achieving high conductivities. Here we report measurements of highly ordered metal-organic nanoribbons, whose intrinsic (defect-free) conductivity is found to be 104?S?m?1, three orders of magnitude higher than that of our macroscopic crystals. This magn...

Hermosa, Cristina; Vicente A?lvarez, Jose; Azani, Mohammad-reza; Go?mez-garci?a, Carlos J.; Fritz, Michelle; Soler, Jose M.; Go?mez-herrero, Julio; Go?mez-navarro, Cristina; Zamora, Fe?lix

2013-01-01

129

Ion-Conducting Polymer Films as Chemical Sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are widely used in batteries and fuel cells because of the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at room temperature. The ions are usually Li or protons, although other ions can be shown to conduct in these polymer films. There has been very little work on using these films as chemical sensors. We have found that thin films of polymers like polyethyleneoxide (PEO) are very sensitive to low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) like common solvents. We will present impedance spectroscopy of PEO films in the frequency range 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz for different concentrations of VOCS. We find that the measurement frequency is important for distinguishing ionic conductivity from the double layer capacitance and parasitic capacitances

130

Hybridization of conductive few-layer graphene with well-dispersed Pd nanocrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To improve the activity of Pd nanocrystals (NCs) and maximize the applicability, we used a very simple, low-cost and environmentally benign method to hybridize conductive few-layer graphene with Pd NCs. The TEM results indicated that the monodispersed Pd NCs were well distributed on the graphene surface. The particle size and loading density can be easily tailored by varying reaction times. The XRD and Raman spectrum clearly demonstrated that the pristine exfoliated few-layer graphene are well-crystallized with very low defects, and still preserved the high crystalline structure after the chemical deposition of Pd NCs. Furthermore, this effective process does not require the use of surfactants during the entire reaction, resulting in a clean interface between Pd NCs and graphene substrate, with improved electron transmission. This work presents not only a promising methodology for the mass production of Pd@graphene hybrids, but also opening up the opportunity to develop graphene-Pd based devices for applications in catalysts, sensors and hydrogen storage.

131

Doping front migration in intrinsically conductive polymers and its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doping front migration is a recently discovered effect occurring in sandwich structures composed of intrinsically conductive polymers. A system based on chemical or electrochemical doping is capable of controlling an integrated display and modifying the electrical resistance of the conductive polymer. The effect does not require a battery and is capable of monitoring time and temperature exposure. Low-cost devices using doping front migration could be the basis of a new class of smart labels for applications such as electronic 'best before' labels on food and drink.

132

A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polythiophene (Pth) was electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel substrate from freshly distilled boron fluoride-ethyl ether containing 10 millimoles of thiophene per liter. The free-standing Pth film obtained at an applied potential of 1.3 volts (versus Ag/AgCl) had a conductivity of 48.7 siemens per centimeter. Its tensile strength (1200 to 1300 kilograms per square centimeter) was greater than that of aluminium (1000 to 1100 kilograms per square centimeter). This Pth film behaves like a metal sheet and can be easily cut into various structures with a knife or a pair of scissors. PMID:17811437

Shi, G; Jin, S; Xue, G; Li, C

1995-02-17

133

Thin film conductive polymer for microactuator and micromuscle applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conductive polymer/polyimide bimorphic microcantilevers have been actuated vertically (out-of-plane) upon the volumetric changes induced by electrochemical doping of the polymer. The microcantilevers that are 200-500 {mu}m in length and 50-100 {mu}m in width can be fully extended from a circularly-curled geometry, and thus generate more than 100 {mu}m displacement. Dynamically the microcantilevers have been driven as fast as 1.2 Hz and the polymer was stable for over a week stored in air and light. Residual stresses in the polymer film is estimated to be as high as 254 MPa, and actuation stresses are as high as 50 MPa.

Lee, A.P.; Hong, K.; Trevino, J.; Northrup, M.A.

1994-04-14

134

Mechanism of actuation in conducting polymers: Osmotic expansion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conducting polymers expand or contract when their redox state is changed. This expansion/contraction effect can be separated in an intrinsic part because of changes of the polymer backbone on reduction/oxidation and a part depending on the surrounding electrolyte phase, because of osmotic expansion of the polymer phase. The osmotic effect causes solvent molecules to move into the polymer in a number far in excess of those bound strongly in the solvation shell of the mobile ion, resulting in large volume changes. In this paper, a thermodynamic description of the osmotic expansion is worked out. The model is compared with measurements on PPy(DBS) films. The experiments show that the expansion decreases as the electrolyte concentration is increased. This means that a considerable part of the total expansion is due to the osmotic effect. The osmotic effect should be taken into account when interpreting and designing actuator experiments and when comparing experimental results from different sources.

Bay, Lasse; Jacobsen, Torben

2001-01-01

135

Electrically Conductive Multiphase Polymer Blend Carbon-Based Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of multiphase polymer blends provides unique morphologies and properties to reduce the percolation concentration and increase conductivity of carbon-based polymer composites. These systems offer improved conductivity, temperature stability and selective distribution of the conductive filler through unique morphologies at significantly lower conductive filler concentration. In this work, the kinetic and thermodynamic effects on a series of multiphase conductive polymer composites were investigated. The polymer blend phase morphology, filler distribution, electrical conductivity, and rheological properties of CB-filled PP/PMMA/EAA conductive polymer composites were determined. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were found to influence the morphology development and final composite properties. The morphology and CB distribution were found to be kinetically driven when annealed for a short period of time following the shear-intensive mixing process, whereas the three-phase polymer blend morphology is driven by thermodynamics when given sufficient time under high temperature annealing conditions in the melt state. At short annealing times, the CB distribution was influenced by the compounding sequence where the CB was added after being premixed with one of the polymer phases or directly added to the three phase polymer melt, but again was thermodynamically driven at longer annealing times with the CB migrating to the EAA phase. The resistivity was found to decrease by a statistically significant amount to similar levels for all of the composite systems with increasing annealing time, providing evidence of gradual phase coalescence to a tri-continuous morphology and CB migration. The addition of CB via the PP and EAA masterbatch results in significantly faster percolation and lower resistivity compared to when added direct to the system during compounding after 30 minutes annealing by a statistically significant amount. Dynamic oscillatory shear rheology using small-amplitude oscillations was used to probe for differences in the tri-continuous morphology and attempt to characterize the CB distribution with annealing time. Minor differences were observed in the PP/PMMA/(EAA-CB) as a function of annealing time, while the rheological behavior was not observed to be significantly different for the other multiphase composites as a function of annealing, nor for the compounding sequence after the same annealing time.

Brigandi, Paul James

136

Electrically conducting novel polymer films containing pi-stacks  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary focus of this thesis is to expand our knowledge of ion radicals of ?-dimers and ?- stacks in solutions and apply these insights in the development and understanding of new electrically conducting polymers. Two types of the conducting polymers were investigated. The first is the conducting polymer composites embedded with ?-stacks of ion radicals. Flexible and air stable n-typed conducting thin films were prepared from imide/poly(vinyl alcohol) aqueous solutions. Conducting thin films of terthiophene/poly(methyl methacrylate) were cast from hexafluoro-2-propanol. Effects of casting conditions on the morphology and conductivity of the films were investigated. These films were fully characterized by UV- vis, NIR, IR, XRD, SEM and ESR. In the second type of conducting polymer system, PAMAM dendrimers generation 1 through 5 were peripherally modified with cationically substituted naphthalene diimide anion radicals. NMR, UV, IR, CV and Elemental Analysis were used to characterize modified dendrimers. Reduction with sodium dithionite in solution showed anion radicals were aggregated into ?-dimers and ?- stacks. Formamide was used to cast conducting dendrimer films. ESCA, SEM and optical microscope were used to study the composition and the morphology of the films. XRD showed complete amorphous nature of these films. NIR revealed that the ?-stack aggregation depend strongly on the casting temperature and the degree of reduction. Four- probe co-liner conductivity of the films is on the order of 10-2 to 10-1/ S/ cm-1. ESR and conductivity measurements also revealed the isotropic nature of the conductivity. Conductivity/humidity relationship was discovered by accidental breathing over the films. Using a home-made controlled humidity device and PACERTM hygrometer, the conductivity of the films can be varied quickly and reversibly within two orders of a magnitude. This phenomenon was probed with NIR, XRD and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. These studies suggest that the amorphous films absorb water from the air and at high humidity they are plasticized, allowing faster stack-to-stack electron hopping and increased conductivity. Films with conductivity as high as 18 S cm-1 can be achieved at 90% RH. These rare, n- type, air stable, free standing electric conducting films along with their fast and reversible nature of the conductivity/humidity response promises commercial applications.

Duan, Robert Gang

1997-12-01

137

Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface. By use of an alkyne modified fluorescein derivative the reaction conditions have been optimized in a conventional MW oven, enabling the use of different sizes of substrates. The optimization resulted in a reduction of reaction times of approximately 20h to only 2min for bulk film functionalization. The method has been applied for anchoring of the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on the conductive polymer. The chelating linkage ability of NTA on the surface was investigated through a sandwich ELISA study confirming the selective bonding of a histidine tagged protein.

Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.

2011-01-01

138

Chemical sensors using peptide-functionalized conducting polymer nanojunction arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a heavy metal-ion sensor for drinking water analysis using a conducting polymer nanojunction array. Each nanojunction is formed by bridging a pair of nanoelectrodes separated with a small gap (ion chelating peptide. The nanojunction sensor allows real-time detection of Cu2+ and Ni2+ at ppt range.

Aguilar, Alvaro Díaz; Forzani, Erica S.; Li, Xiulan; Tao, Nongjian; Nagahara, Larry A.; Amlani, Islamshah; Tsui, Raymond

2005-11-01

139

Physical properties of Li ion conducting polyphosphazene based polymer electrolytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a systematic study of the transport properties and the underlying physical chemistry of some polyphosphazene (PPhz)-based polymer electrolytes. We synthesized MEEP and variants which employed mixed combinations of different length oxyethylene side-chains. We compare the conductivity and ion-ion interactions in polymer electrolytes obtained with lithium triflate and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) salts added to the polymer. The combination of the lithium imide salt and MEEP yields a maximum conductivity of 8 x 10{sup -5} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at room temperature at a salt loading of 8 monomers per lithium. In one of the mixed side-chain variations, a maximum conductivity of 2 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} was measured at the same molar ratio. Raman spectral analysis shows some ion aggregation and some polymer - ion interactions in the PPhz-LiTFSI case but much less than observed with Li CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. A sharp increase in the Tg as salt is added corresponds to concentrations above which the conductivity significantly decreases and ion associations appear.

Sanderson, S.; Zawodzinski, T.; Hermes, R.; Davey, J.; Dai, Hongli

1996-12-31

140

Applications of conductive polymers; Les applications des polymeres conducteurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Researches at the Cea concerning conductive polymers, aimed at gaining a better knowledge of their electric and physical properties, are briefly reviewed. Applications may include their combination with other materials for processing or properties objectives such as electromagnetic materials (radar and infrared stealth materials), electrochemical materials (batteries...), optical materials (electro-luminescent diodes), electrical materials (heating systems, cable semiconductors...)

Olmedo, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)

1997-12-31

141

Structure, morphology and ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional atomic force image of pure polyethylene oxide presents a crystallized network of regular spherulites developing spirals and branches of well distributed surface contours. Highlights: ? The incorporation of ceria significantly modifies the morphology of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-KI complex. ? The ionic conductivity increases by about two orders of magnitude by the addition of ceria nanoparticles. ? Ionic conductivity as a function of ceria concentration reveals two maxima. ? Grain boundary effect of nanofiller, strong Lewis acid-base interaction between PEO and nanosized ceria, change of conformation of PEO molecule and epitaxial effect of ceria nanoparticles control the ionic conductivity of composite polymer electrolyte. -- Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) complexed with potassium iodide (KI) is synthesized to investigate the ionic conductivity of alkaline based polymer electrolytes. The structural and morphological characterizations of the nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The ionic conductivity increases with the increase of KI concentration up to about 20 wt.%. The effect of nanosized ceria (CeO2 ? 10 nm) fillers on ionic conductivity in PEO-KI polymer electrolyte is also carried out, keeping PEO to KI wt.% ratio 80:20 and 85:15. The result reveals that the addition of ceria nanoparticles enhances the conductivity by two orders of magnitude. The presence of ceria at the highest concentration induces the same molecular environment within PEO chain as that of undoped PEO. Temperature dependence of ionic conductivity follows Arrhenius mechanism.

142

An electroactive conducting polymer actuator based on NBR/RTIL solid polymer electrolyte  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the fabrication of a dry-type conducting polymer actuator using nitrile rubber (NBR) as the base material in a solid polymer electrolyte. The conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X (where X = BF4-, PF6-, (CF3SO2)2N-), were absorbed into the composite film. The compatibility between the ionic liquids and the NBR polymer was confirmed by DMA. The effect of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator was examined. The displacement increased with increasing anion size of the ionic liquids. The cyclic voltammetry responses and the redox switching dynamics of the actuators were examined in different ionic liquids.

Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

2007-04-01

143

Hybrid proton-conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic material formed by phosphomolybdic acid H3PMo12O40 (PMo12) and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) is reported. This material, composed of two proton-conducting components, can be cast in the form of membranes from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions. Upon impregnation with phosphoric acid, the hybrid membranes present higher conductivity than the best ABPBI polymer membranes impregnated in the same conditions. These electrolyte membranes are stable up to 200 deg. C, and have a proton conductivity of 3 x 10-2 S cm-1 at 185 deg. C without humidification. These properties make them very good candidates as membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at temperatures of 100-200 deg. C

144

Hybrid proton-conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic material formed by phosphomolybdic acid H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMo{sub 12}) and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) is reported. This material, composed of two proton-conducting components, can be cast in the form of membranes from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions. Upon impregnation with phosphoric acid, the hybrid membranes present higher conductivity than the best ABPBI polymer membranes impregnated in the same conditions. These electrolyte membranes are stable up to 200 deg. C, and have a proton conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 185 deg. C without humidification. These properties make them very good candidates as membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at temperatures of 100-200 deg. C.

Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro.gomez@icmab.es; Asensio, Juan Antonio [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain); Borros, Salvador [Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain)

2005-08-30

145

Investigations of proton conducting polymers and gas diffusion electrodes in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

OpenAIRE

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) convert the chemically bound energy in a fuel, e.g. hydrogen, directly into electricity by an electrochemical process. Examples of future applications are energy conversion such as combined heat and power generation (CHP), zero emission vehicles (ZEV) and consumer electronics. One of the key components in the PEFC is the membrane / electrode assembly (MEA). Both the membrane and the electrodes consist of proton conducting polymers (ionomers). In the membr...

Gode, Peter

2005-01-01

146

PbSe nanocrystal network formation during pyridine ligand displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solution-phase pyridine treatment displaced oleic acid capping ligands from the surface of PbSe nanocrystals. During ligand displacement the nanostructure morphology dramatically changed from well-stabilized, individual nanocrystals to form crystallographically connected nanocrystal networks. The network morphology was governed by the diameter of the constituent nanocrystals. Larger nanocrystals showed dipolar alignment but maintained individual nanocrystal character, while smaller nanocrystals crystallographically fused along the axis. Optical studies of nanocrystal thin films showed that pyridine ligand displacement quenches the nanocrystal photoluminescence. Blends of nanocrystals and conjugated polymer showed photoluminescence quenching of the polymer with increasing nanocrystal content. The extent of photoluminescence quenching was only weakly dependent on the nanocrystal size or surface chemistry, suggesting that the interaction between nanocrystal and polymer is mostly in the form of energy transfer rather than charge transfer. PMID:20353209

Hanrath, Tobias; Veldman, Dirk; Choi, Joshua J; Christova, Christina G; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

2009-02-01

147

Preparation and Characterization of Conducting Polymer Materials for Electrochromic Devices  

OpenAIRE

An attempt has been made to improve the physical-chemical properties of conducting polymers by switching from aqueous solutions towards ionic liquids as novel electrolytic media in order to fabricate novel electrochromic materials. Formation and electrochemical characterization of Poly (2,3,5,6- Tetrafluoroaniline) (PTFA) was performed in aqueous solutions. The optical response was observed in order to establish the electrochromic properties of this material. Electrochromic activity of PTFA c...

Astratine, Lavina

2012-01-01

148

A chemically diverse conducting polymer-based "electronic nose".  

OpenAIRE

We describe a method for generating a variety of chemically diverse broadly responsive low-power vapor sensors. The chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of plasticizers has yielded conducting organic polymer films whose resistivities are sensitive to the identity and concentration of various vapors in air. An array of such sensing elements produced a chemically reversible diagnostic pattern of electrical resistance changes upon exposure to different odorants. Principal component...

Freund, M. S.; Lewis, N. S.

1995-01-01

149

Effects of high frequency ultrasound on conducting polymers electrosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

This study deals with the effects of high frequency ultrasound (500 kHz) irradiation on the electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers in aqueous media. Ultrasound favors electrochemical polymerization reaction by improving mass transfer of electroactive species towards the electrode. It leads to films more compact, presenting a thinner and more homogeneous topography. Chemical effects generated by the acoustic wave propagation enable a higher doping level for the films. However, their ...

Et Taouil, Abdeslam

2011-01-01

150

High sensitivity DNA detection using gold nanoparticles and conducting polymers  

OpenAIRE

The detection and quantitation of specific nucleic acid (NA) sequences continues to grow in importance driven by issues ranging from personalized medicine to companion diagnostics such as antibiotic selection for infectious diseases. In order to enhance the sensitivity of electrochemical detection of DNA, novel conducting polymer- metal nanoparticle composites have been created. An electrode modified with nanostructured gold (AuNP-elec) has been used to increase the surface of the electrode a...

Spain, Elaine

2011-01-01

151

ATOM-PROBE STUDY OF CONDUCTING POLYMER : POLYPYRROLE  

OpenAIRE

A thin layer of conducting polymer, polypyrrole, was deposited on a Pt tip and mass analyzed by the atom-probe. The variation of the mass spectrum of fragment ions of the polypyrrole with exposure time to air indicates that the first stage of oxidation proceeds fairly rapidly but the transition to the fully oxidized stage is rather slow. The estimated thickness of the fully oxidized section is about 45 nm in three months.

Nishikawa, O.; Kato, H.

1986-01-01

152

Pedot and PPy Conducting Polymer Bilayer and Trilayer Actuators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Actuators based on conducting polymers are attracting increasing interest due to their desirable features such as large mechanical stress generated, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility, good safety properties and the possibility of precise control using small voltages. Many attempts have been made to improve the actuator performance. We report electromechanical measurements on actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers. Both types of conducting polymer are pre-doped during synthesis with dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS). These multilayer films were prepared electrochemically so that the PEDOT layer is very thin compared to that of the PPy layer. In the trilayer film, the PEDOT layer is sandwiched between two PPy layers.The films were characterized electromechanically and the results compared with those of PPy single layer film. Bilayer films show a significant increase in the strain measured at higher scan rates (>100mVs?1). The force difference generated between the reduced and oxidized states is much higher for trilayer films and higher for bilayer films than that in a single layer of PPy. Trilayer films are both stronger and faster than a single layer PPy film of half the thickness.

Zainudeen, Umer Lebbe; Careem, Mohamed Abdul

2008-01-01

153

Ab-initio study of napthelene based conducting polymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we have identified structural and electronic properties of conducting polymers by using DFT based ATK-VNL ab-initio tool. Naphthalene derivative structures were stabilized by varying the bond length between two atoms of the molecule C-N and C-C. We have also studied the molecular energy spectrum of naphthalene derivatives and found the HOMOLUMO for the same. A comparison of structural and electronic properties of naphthalene derivatives by attaching the functional group of amine, have been performed and found that they show good semi conducting properties.

Ruhela, Ankur [Advanced Materials Research Group, Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab (CNTL), ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior -474010, India and Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida-201303 (India); Kanchan, Reena, E-mail: reena.kanchan1977@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474001 (India); Srivastava, Anurag [Advanced Materials Research Group, Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab (CNTL), ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior -474010 (India); Sinha, O. P. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida-201303 (India)

2014-04-24

154

Ab-initio study of napthelene based conducting polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we have identified structural and electronic properties of conducting polymers by using DFT based ATK-VNL ab-initio tool. Naphthalene derivative structures were stabilized by varying the bond length between two atoms of the molecule C-N and C-C. We have also studied the molecular energy spectrum of naphthalene derivatives and found the HOMOLUMO for the same. A comparison of structural and electronic properties of naphthalene derivatives by attaching the functional group of amine, have been performed and found that they show good semi conducting properties

155

Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

2014-10-07

156

Synthesis of luminescent and rodlike CdS nanocrystals dispersed in polymer templates  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple synthetic route for the preparation of luminescent and rodlike CdS nanocrystals embedded in poly(BA -co-GMA -co-GMA-IDA) (PBGM) copolymer templates, by soap-free emulsion copolymerization, is presented. In this study, GMA-IDA chelating groups within the copolymer were the coordination sites for chelating Cd2+, at which nanosized CdS nanocrystals were grown by the dry method (H2S) and the wet method (Na2S). The particle size and morphology of CdS nanocrystals were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TEM observations demonstrate that the mean diameters of CdS nanoparticles can be prepared between 1 and 2 nm inside the matrix of PBGM membranes by the dry method and between 3 and 6 nm by the wet method. AFM images reveal that CdS nanocrystals on the surfaces of PBGM membranes formed by the dry method have rodlike morphology. The optical absorption spectra indicate a clear blue-shift in the absorption edge for the PBGM-CdS membranes, such that the bandgaps calculated from the absorption spectra are higher than those calculated for the bulk CdS. The particle sizes, estimated from the bandgaps, are in the nanometre range, suggesting that both the particle size and the bandgap can be adjusted via the mole fraction of GMA-IDA in the PBGM membranes. Luminescence spectrophotometry of the samples also indicates a blue-shift in the emission spectra.

Chu, Yuan-Chih; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, Chuh-Yung

2005-01-01

157

Conductivity of oriented bis-azo polymer films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The conductivity properties of electro-optic photoaddressable, dense bis-ozo chromophore polymer films are investigated by using samples corona poled at various temperatures. A dielectric spectrometer is applied to measure the frequency dependence of the conductivity at different temperatures before and after heating the material to above the glass transition temperature. The results show that the orientation of the chromophores changes the charge-carrier mobility. Ionic conductivity dominates in a more disordered configuration of the material, while the competing process of hole hopping takes over as a transition to a liquid-crystalline phase occurs when the material is heated to much higher than the gloss transition temperature. Such micro-crystallization strongly enhances the conductivity.

Apitz, D.; Bertram, R.P.

2006-01-01

158

New transparent conductive metal based on polymer composite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently great efforts are made to develop new kind of transparent conductors (TCs) to replace ITO. In this regard different materials and composites have been proposed and studied including conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal grids, and random networks of metallic nanowires. But so far none of them could be used as a replacing material, since either they are either fragile and brittle or their electrical conductivity is below the typical ITO. Thin metallic films due to their high electrical conductivity could be one of the best replacing materials for ITO, however their poor transparency makes their application as TCs limited. Here we design and fabricate a new polymeric composite coating which enhances the transparency of the thin metal film up to 100% relative to the initial value while having a high electrical conductivity of typical metals. Therefore our proposed device has a great potential to be used as new transparent conductor.

Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Jamali, Mohammad [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Zaporochentko, Vladimir; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

2011-07-01

159

Cellulose nanocrystals vs. cellulose nanofibrils: a comparative study on their microstructures and effects as polymer reinforcing agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. This study systematically compared their morphologies, crystalline structure, dispersion properties in polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix, interactions with matrix, and the resulting reinforcing effects on the matrix polymer. Transparent PEO/CNC and PEO/CNF nanocomposites comprising up to 10 wt % nanofibers were obtained via solution casting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), and tensile testing were used to examine the above-mentioned properties of nanocellulose fibers and composites. At the same nanocellulose concentration, CNFs led to higher strength and modulus than did CNCs due to CNFs' larger aspect ratio and fiber entanglement, but lower strain-at-failure because of their relatively large fiber agglomerates. The Halpin-Kardos and Ouali models were used to simulate the modulus of the composites and good agreements were found between the predicted and experimental values. This type of systematic comparative study can help to develop the criteria for selecting proper nanocellulose as a biobased nano-reinforcement material in polymer nanocomposites. PMID:23521616

Xu, Xuezhu; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Long; Zhu, J Y; Haagenson, Darrin; Wiesenborn, Dennis P

2013-04-24

160

Electroluminescence of a single active layer polymer-nanocrystal hybrid light-emitting diode with inversion symmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) device with a single active layer structure is simply fabricated by a spin coating. From a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study, each PVK polymer particle is observed to be capped with TPBi molecules and CdSe/ZnS NCs are mainly distributed along the circumference of PVK and TPBi surfaces, resulting in a core-shell polymer-NC hybrid of [CdSe/ZnS]/TPBi/[CdSe/ZnS]/PVK. An Al/[CdSe/ZnS]/TPBi/[CdSe/ZnS]/PVK/indium-tin oxide(ITO)/glass LED shows electroluminescence (EL) centered at around 585 nm at the forward bias of +10 V, which clearly reveals that CdSe/ZnS NCs existing at the interface between PVK and TPBi act as recombination centers for excitons. In particular, EL can be observed at both forward bias and reverse bias, and this means that this device with an isotropic distribution of NCs has an inversion symmetry.

161

Multi-component single-substrate conducting polymer actuation systems and fabrication techniques  

OpenAIRE

Conducting polymer materials can be employed as actuation elements, length sensors, force sensors, energy storage devices, and electrical components. Combining the various functionalities of conducting polymers to create singlesubstrate, integrated systems remains a challenge, as chemical and electrical insulation barriers, adhesion techniques, and the possibility of scaling need to be taken into consideration. Here fabrication techniques for combining multiple conducting polymer components b...

Paster, Eli Travis; Ruddy, Bryan P.; Pillai, Priam V.; Hunter, Ian

2011-01-01

162

Multidimensional conducting polymer nanotubes for ultrasensitive chemical nerve agent sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tailoring the morphology of materials in the nanometer regime is vital to realizing enhanced device performance. Here, we demonstrate flexible nerve agent sensors, based on hydroxylated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes (HPNTs) with surface substructures such as nanonodules (NNs) and nanorods (NRs). The surface substructures can be grown on a nanofiber surface by controlling critical synthetic conditions during vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) on the polymer nanotemplate, leading to the formation of multidimensional conducting polymer nanostructures. Hydroxyl groups are found to interact with the nerve agents. Representatively, the sensing response of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) as a simulant for sarin is highly sensitive and reversible from the aligned nanotubes. The minimum detection limit is as low as 10 ppt. Additionally, the sensor had excellent mechanical bendability and durability. PMID:22545863

Kwon, Oh Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Lee, Jun Seop; Park, Eunyu; Kim, Taejoon; Park, Hyun-Woo; You, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Jang, Jyongsik

2012-06-13

163

Radiation cross-linking of PTC conductive polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical device comprising a PTC conductive polymer is irradiated so that it is very highly cross-linked. A dosage of at least 50 Mrads, preferably at least 80 Mrads, especially at least 120 Mrads is used except that where the device includes planar electrodes which are present during irradiation the minimum dose is 120 Mrads. In this way, for example, it is possible to make a circuit protection device which will continue to provide effective protection even after repeated exposure to a voltage of 200 volts. A PTC protection device may be produced by moulding carbon loaded polymer round three electrodes the centre one of which is then removed to leave an aperture between the other two electrodes. (author)

164

Ion beam effects on electrical characteristics of proton conductive polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of MeV ion irradiation on the perfluorosulphonic polymer membrane was studied concerning with electrical characteristics. The DC electrical conductivity in dry condition increased of three orders of magnitude as a consequence of irradiation with MeV H and He ion beam at a fluence of 2 x 1013 ions/cm2. The ion induced improvement of the conductivity was independent of the penetrating depth of the ions. The electron and gamma-ray irradiation showed similar enhancement of the conductivity when the same energy was deposited in the membrane. The optical absorption in the ultra-violet region increased in the ion irradiated membrane due to the formation of fluorocarbon and peroxy radicals, while the up-take of the water molecules were not found by the absorption in the infrared region. The ion irradiation may promote the dissociation of the water molecules at the surface and also improve the transport property of protons in the membrane

165

Nanocrystal doped matrixes  

Science.gov (United States)

Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

Parce, J. Wallace (Palo Alto, CA); Bernatis, Paul (Sunnyvale, CA); Dubrow, Robert (San Carlos, CA); Freeman, William P. (San Mateo, CA); Gamoras, Joel (Vallejo, CA); Kan, Shihai (San Jose, CA); Meisel, Andreas (Redwood City, CA); Qian, Baixin (Sunnyvale, CA); Whiteford, Jeffery A. (Belmont, CA); Ziebarth, Jonathan (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-01-12

166

Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material and the water content of the pores. The effect of the average distance between the sulfonate groups, which changes during membrane swelling, is analyzed in particular, and the factors which determine the temperature dependence of the macroscopic membrane conductance are disclosed. Numerical estimates of the specific membrane conductivity obtained from the theory agree very well with typical experimental data, thereby confirming the appropriateness of the theoretical concepts. Moreover, the versatility of the models offers a useful and transparent frame for combining the analysis of both experimental data and the results of molecular dynamics simulations.

Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.

2001-01-01

167

Supercapacitors based on conducting polymers/nanotubes composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of electrically conducting polymers (ECPs), i.e. polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been tested as supercapacitor electrode materials in the form of composites with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The energy storage in such a type of composite combines an electrostatic attraction as well as quick faradaic processes called pseudo-capacitance. It has been shown that carbon nanotubes play the role of a perfect backbone for a homogenous distribution of ECP in the composite. It is well known that pure conducting polymers are mechanically weak, hence, the carbon nanotubes preserve the ECP active material from mechanical changes (shrinkage and breaking) during long cycling. Apart of excellent conducting and mechanical properties, the presence of nanotubes improves also the charge transfer that enables a high charge/discharge rate. For an optimal use of ECPs in electrochemical capacitors, a special electrode composition with ca. 20wt.% of CNTs and a careful selection of the potential range is necessary. The capacitance values ranging from 100 to 330Fg{sup -1} could be reached for different asymmetric configurations with a capacitor voltage from 0.6 to 1.8V. It is also noteworthy that such a type of ECP/CNTs composite does not need any binding substance that is an important practical advantage. (author)

Frackowiak, E.; Jurewicz, K.; Lota, K. [Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, ul. Piotrowo 3 (Poland); Khomenko, V.; Beguin, F. [CRMD, CNRS-University, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France)

2006-02-28

168

A General One-Pot Strategy for the Synthesis of High-Performance Transparent-Conducting-Oxide Nanocrystal Inks for All-Solution-Processed Devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

For all-solution-processed (ASP) devices, transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanocrystal (NC) inks are anticipated as the next-generation electrodes to replace both those synthesized by sputtering techniques and those consisting of rare metals, but a universal and one-pot method to prepare these inks is still lacking. A universal one-pot strategy is now described; through simply heating a mixture of metal-organic precursors a wide range of TCO NC inks, which can be assembled into high-performance electrodes for use in ASP optoelectronics, were synthesized. This method can be used for various oxide NC inks with yields as high as 10 g. The formed NCs are of high crystallinity, uniform morphology, monodispersity, and high ink stability and feature effective doping. Therefore, the inks can be readily assembled into films with a surface roughness of 1.6 nm. Typically, a sheet resistance of 110 ??sq(-1) can be achieved with a transmittance of 88?%, which is the best performance for TCO NC ink-based electrodes described to date. These electrodes can thus drive a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) with a luminance of 2200 cd?m(-2) at 100 mA?cm(-2) . PMID:25403980

Song, Jizhong; Kulinich, Sergei A; Li, Jianhai; Liu, Yanli; Zeng, Haibo

2014-11-17

169

Electrical conductivity of radiation-processed wood polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two species of wood, viz. Haldu (Adina Cordifolia) and Jamun (Syzygium Cumini) were vacuum-impregnated with two styrene-based monomer systems and polymerized in situ with gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The electrical conductivity of these specimens was determined at various polymer loadings under dry conditions, after wetting and after wet recovery as per ASTM standards. The water absorption characteristics are also presented. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of water. Potential applications are also discussed. 7 figures

170

Conducting polymer transistors making use of activated carbon gate electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of the gate electrode have significant effects on the behavior of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), which are intensively investigated for applications in the booming field of organic bioelectronics. In this work, high specific surface area activated carbon (AC) was used as gate electrode material in OECTs based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). We found that the high specific capacitance of the AC gate electrodes leads to high drain-source current modulation in OECTs, while their intrinsic quasi-reference characteristics make unnecessary the presence of an additional reference electrode to monitor the OECT channel potential. PMID:25510960

Tang, Hao; Kumar, Prajwal; Zhang, Shiming; Yi, Zhihui; Crescenzo, Gregory De; Santato, Clara; Soavi, Francesca; Cicoira, Fabio

2015-01-14

171

Fabrication and characterization of solid-state, conducting polymer actuators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report here the fabrication and characterization of solid-state, conducting polymer actuators. The electrochemical activity of polyaniline (PANI) thin film coated with solid-state polyelectrolyte is very similar to the polyaniline thin film in an aqueous solution. The solid-state actuator is adhere to a lever arm of an force transducer and the force generation is measured in real time. The force generated by the actuator is found to be length dependent. However, the overall torques generated by the actuators with different lengths remains essentially the same. The effect of stimulation signals such as voltage, current, on the bending angle and displacement is also studied using square wave potential.

Xie, J. (Jian); Sansinena, J. M. (Jose-Maria); Gao, J. (Junbo); Wang, H. L. (Hsing-Lin)

2004-01-01

172

Synthesis and applications of electrically conducting polymer nanocomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

This research focuses on the synthesis and applications of electrically conducting polymer nanocomposites through molecular self-assembly. Two different classes of polymers, polyaniline (PANI) and polyacetylenes have been synthesized by biomimetic catalysis and spontaneous polymerization method. For gas barrier materials, commercially available polymers, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), have also been used and thermally cross-linked. The morphological, optical and electrical properties of amphiphilic polyacetylenes have been studied. Furthermore, barrier properties, permselectivity, pervaporation properties of polyacetylenes/aluminosilicate nanocomposites have been investigated. For processability and electrical properties of carbon nanotube and conducting polymers, substituted ionic polyacetylenes (SIPA) have been covalently incorporated onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using the "grafting-from" technique. In the first study, a nanocomposite film catalyst has been prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer (ELBL) self-assembly of a polyelectrolyte and a biomimetic catalyst for synthesis of polyaniline. Poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride) (PDAC) and hematin have been used as polycation and counter anions, respectively. The absorption spectra by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that conductive form polyaniline was formed not only as a coating on the surface of the ELBL composites but was also formed in solution. Furthermore, it was found that the reaction rate was affected by pH and concentration of hematin in the multilayers. The feasibility of controlled desorption of hematin molecules from the LBL assembly was explored and demonstrated by changing the pH and hematin concentration. The polymerization rate of aniline in solution was enhanced with decreasing pH of the solutions due to increased desorption of hematin nanoparticles from the multilayers. These ELBL hematin assemblies demonstrated both a way to functionalize surfaces with conductive polyaniline and a potential method of reusability of the catalyst for improved cost effectiveness. For fabrication of multifunctional nanocomposite membranes, (P2EPy-R/Saponite) n on NafionRTM substrate was demonstrated by electrostatic layer-by layer assembly technique. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Ku, Bon-Cheol

173

Utilization of novel bithiazole based conducting polymers in electrochromic applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we disclose the synthesis of a novel monomer (2,2?-di-pyrrol-1-yl-[4,4?]bithiazolyl, PyDBTH) and the optoelectronic properties of the resultant conducting polymers. PyDBTH was synthesized via the Clauson-Kaas reaction of 2,2?-diamino-4,4?-bithiazole with 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran in acetic acid which was characterized by 1H, 13C-NMR, FTIR and MS analyses. Homopolymerization and copolymerization (in the presence of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) were achieved in a tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) dichloromethane system. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the homopolymer and copolymers were examined by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR, spectroelectrochemistry and kinetic studies. Depending on the synthesis conditions, the bithiazole based polymers exhibited optical band gaps ranging from 2.60 to 1.75 eV and the copolymers displayed multichromism within a wide span of the visible spectrum. The copolymers revealed short switching times and useful optical contrast of 0.6 s and 54%, respectively. Due to its favorable electrochromic properties, utilization of bithiazole based polymers in electrochromic devices was also investigated. These devices exhibited low switching voltages and switching times with reasonable stability under atmospheric conditions. (paper)

174

Smart conducting polymer composites having zero temperature coefficient of resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

Zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is essential for the precise control of temperature in heating element and sensor applications. Many studies have focused on developing zero-TCR systems with inorganic compounds; however, very few have dealt with developing zero-TCR systems with polymeric materials. Composite systems with a polymer matrix and a conducting filler show either a negative (NTC) or a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance, depending on several factors, e.g., the polymer nature and the filler shape. In this study, we developed a hybrid conducting zero-TCR composite having self-heating properties for thermal stability and reliable temperature control. The bi-layer composites consisted of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based layer having an NTC of resistance and a carbon black (CB)-based layer having a PTC of resistance which was in direct contact with electrodes to stabilize the electrical resistance change during electric Joule heating. The composite showed nearly constant resistance values with less than 2% deviation of the normalized resistance until 200 °C. The CB layer worked both as a buffer and as a distributor layer against the current flow from an applied voltage. This behavior, which was confirmed both experimentally and theoretically, has been rarely reported for polymer-based composite systems.Zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is essential for the precise control of temperature in heating element and sensor applications. Many studies have focused on developing zero-TCR systems with inorganic compounds; however, very few have dealt with developing zero-TCR systems with polymeric materials. Composite systems with a polymer matrix and a conducting filler show either a negative (NTC) or a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance, depending on several factors, e.g., the polymer nature and the filler shape. In this study, we developed a hybrid conducting zero-TCR composite having self-heating properties for thermal stability and reliable temperature control. The bi-layer composites consisted of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based layer having an NTC of resistance and a carbon black (CB)-based layer having a PTC of resistance which was in direct contact with electrodes to stabilize the electrical resistance change during electric Joule heating. The composite showed nearly constant resistance values with less than 2% deviation of the normalized resistance until 200 °C. The CB layer worked both as a buffer and as a distributor layer against the current flow from an applied voltage. This behavior, which was confirmed both experimentally and theoretically, has been rarely reported for polymer-based composite systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Normalized resistance as a function of increasing temperature for CNTs with different aspect ratios, other configurations of the bi-layered composite with the corresponding circuit diagrams, an SEM image of the CNT/PDMS composite with low resolution and dependence of DC conductivity on the number of three roll passes, numerically calculated normalized resistance of the bi-layer composite with different thickness ratios, streamlines and arrow plots of the current densities of the bi-layer composites with other configurations. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04489d

Chu, Kunmo; Lee, Sung-Chul; Lee, Sangeui; Kim, Dongearn; Moon, Changyoul; Park, Sung-Hoon

2014-12-01

175

On the Electronic Transport Mechanism in Conducting Polymer Nanofibers  

CERN Document Server

Here, we present theoretical analysis of electron transport in polyaniline based (PANi) nanofibers assuming the metalic state of the material. To build up this theory we treat conducting polymers as a special kind of granular metals, and we apply the quantum theory of conduction in mesoscopic systems to describe the transport between metallic-like granules. Our results show that the concept of resonance electron tunneling as the predominating mechanism providing charge transport between the grains is supported with recent experiments on the electrical characterization of single PANi nanofibers. By contacting the proposed theory with the experimental data we estimate some important parameters characterizing the electron transport in these materials. Also, we discuss the origin of rectifying features observed in current-voltage characteristics of fibers with varying cross-sectional areas.

Zimbovskaya, N A; Pinto, N J; Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.; Johnson, Alan T.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

2005-01-01

176

Electrical Conductivity in Polymer Blends/ Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) based polymer composites have emerged as the future multifunctional materials in view of its exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. One of the major interests is to develop conductive polymer composites preferably at low concentration of CNT utilizing their high aspect ratio (L/D) for numerous applications, which include antistatic devices, capacitors and materials for EMI shielding. In this context, polymer blends have emerged as a potential candidate in lowering the percolation thresholds further by the utilization of 'double-percolation' which arises from the synergistic improvements in blend properties associated with the co-continuous morphology. Due to strong inter-tube van der Waals' forces, they often tend to aggregate and uniform dispersion remains a challenge. To overcome this challenge, we exploited sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (Na-AHA) which was able to assist in debundlling the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through 'cation-?' interactions during melt-mixing leading to percolative 'network-like' structure of MWNT within polyamide6 (PA6) phase in co-continuous PA6/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) blends. The composite exhibited low electrical percolation thresholds of 0.25 wt% of MWNT, the lowest reported value in this system so far. Retention of 'network-like structure' in the solid state with significant refinement was observed even at lower MWNT concentration in presence Na-AHA, which was assesstion in presence Na-AHA, which was assessed through AC electrical conductivity measurements. Reactive coupling was found to be a dominant factor besides 'cation-?' interactions in achieving low electrical percolation in PA6/ABS+MWNT composites.

177

All-Solid-State Conductive Polymer Miniaturized Reference Electrode  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel, stable, and all-solid-state miniaturized reference electrode (MRE) prepared by changing the properties of a conductive polymer for potentiometric applications is presented in this study. A monomer of a conductive polymer, pyrrole, was electrodeposited to form polypyrrole on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass at a DC power of 5 V. The difference of the solid-state MRE from the Ag/AgCl glass reference electrode is that the former requires no inner electrolyte and can be preserved without any storage solution (such as saturated KCl solution). In this study, the potentiometric characteristics of the solid-state MRE are investigated using the current-voltage (I-V) measurement system. The solid-state MRE exhibits sufficient stability and reproducibility in acid-base, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride solutions. Furthermore, the solid-state MRE can collocate successfully with H+-, Na+-, and K+-ion selective electrodes to measure H+, Na+, and K+ ion concentrations in acid-base, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride solutions, respectively.

Chen, Chien Cheng; Chou, Jung Chuan

2009-11-01

178

Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

Hudak, Nicholas S.

2013-12-01

179

A facile route to semiconductor nanocrystal-semiconducting polymer complex using amine-functionalized rod-coil triblock copolymer as multidentate ligand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A facile strategy affording an intimate nanocomplex of an amine-containing rod-coil triblock copolymer poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate)-poly(fluorene)-poly(2-(dimethyl amino) ethylmethacrylate) and CdSe nanocrystals is presented. Ligand exchange is observed by 31P NMR. TEM and UV-vis absorption results indicate the CdSe NCs have a good dispersion in the conjugated polymer. Also, the PL spectra show photoinduced charge transfer has been facilitated by the complex formation

180

Conductivity of microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites with CNT-loaded microfibrils or compatibilizer: A comparative study  

OpenAIRE

Conductive polymer composites have wide ranging applications, but when they are produced by conventional melt blending, high conductive filler loadings are normally required, hindering their processability and reducing mechanical properties. In this study, two types of polymer-polymer composites were studied: i) microfibrillar composites (MFC) of polypropylene (PP) and 5 wt% carbon nanotube (CNT) loaded poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) as reinforcement, and ii) maleic anhydride-grafted poly...

Fakirov, S.; Panamoottil, S. M.; Potschke, P.; Lin, R. J. T.; Bhattacharyya, D.

2013-01-01

181

Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

2009-01-01

182

Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer-CdSe/ZnS-nanocrystal DFB structures produced by the holographic method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is demonstrated in volume-distributed feedback (DFB) structures, formed by colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals and ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer matrix. Periodic redistribution of the NPs in an organic matrix was carried out by holographic photopolymerization in a specially developed light-sensitive nanocomposite. The composite consists of two acrylate monomers and two types of inorganic NPs. The NPs provide for the formation of two co-phased gratings-a refractive index grating and an optical gain (losses) grating. The core-shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals are used as a gain medium, while ZrO2 NPs create the refractive index grating and enhance the distributed feedback. The period of the volume structure provides the feedback for lasing at the wavelength ?las of about 575 nm in the second diffraction order. In contrast to known laser systems based on volume DFB cavities, in which the different components of the formulation provide optical gain and feedback, in our case the inorganic NPs serve as an emitting material and can provide simultaneously for feedback. By pumping of DFB structures by a titanium-sapphire laser (?pump = 400 nm, pulse duration of 120 fs) normal to the sample plane, the appearance of a sharp stimulated emission along the grating-vector direction is observed. Output intensity of ASE as a function of the pump energy shows a threshold behavior and full width at half-maxhold behavior and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the ASE spectral band decreases from 33 to 12 nm.

183

Abnormal temperature dependence of mobility in conjugated polymer / nanocrystal composite: experiment and theory  

OpenAIRE

Instead of normal non-Arrhenius relationship, the carrier mobility $ln({\\mu})$ v.s. $1/T^2$ showed abnormal dependence in an MEH-PPV / InP nanocrystal composite system that a critical temperature $(T_c)$ behavior is prominent in temperature range of 233 K to 333 K. Here, in the model of variable range hopping theory, an analytical model is developed within a Gaussian trap distribution, which is successfully implemented on that phenomenon. The results show that Tc becomes the...

Zhang, Yating; Yao, Jianquan; Kwok, Hoi Sing

2013-01-01

184

Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites: A review  

OpenAIRE

Thermally conductive polymer composites offer new possibilities for replacing metal parts in several applications, including power electronics, electric motors and generators, heat exchangers, etc., thanks to the polymer advantages such as light weight, corrosion resistance and ease of processing. Current interest to improve the thermal conductivity of polymers is focused on the selective addition of nanofillers with high thermal conductivity. Unusually high thermal conductivity makes carbon ...

Han, Zhidong; Fina, Alberto

2011-01-01

185

Conducting-polymer-based radar-absorbing materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The controllability of conductivity and the ease of manufacturing/coating of conducting polymers enable tailor- made dielectric loss components for radar absorbing materials (RAM). Different polypyrrole (PPy) based RAM, e.g. paint/rubber containing PPy powder and PPy coated structural phenolic foams with a gradient of impedance, have been examined. Reflection loss strongly depends on thickness and complex permittivity of the material. For a single layer material, the optimum values of the real part, (epsilon) ', and imaginary part, (epsilon) ", of the complex permittivity required to achieve a minimum reflectivity at a given sample thickness are found by theoretical calculations. The conductivity of the PPy powder is controlled to obtain RAM with lowest reflectivity according to the calculated optimum values of (epsilon) ' and (epsilon) ". A paint panel containing 2 wt% of the PPy powder with a thickness of 2.5 mm exhibits a reflectivity less than $minus 10 dB over 12 to 18 GHz. Blending and milling in the manufacturing process can destroy the original fibrous shape of PPy aggregates leading to low absorbing performances. PPy can be coated on rigid or flexible open cell foams to provide a lightweight broadband RAM. In particular, a coating technique on phenolic foams (12 - 15 mm thick) with a pore size of micrometer order has been developed to generate a gradient of conductivity across the foam thickness. The PPy coated foams are broadband RAM.

Truong, Vo-Van; Turner, Ben D.; Muscat, Richard F.; Russo, M. S.

1997-11-01

186

Conductive paper from lignocellulose wood microfibers coated with a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes and conductive polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composite nanocoating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) and aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNT-PSS) on lignocellulose wood microfibers has been developed to make conductive microfibers and paper sheets. To construct the multilayers on wood microfibers, cationic poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) has been used in alternate deposition with anionic conductive PEDOT-PSS and solubilized CNT-PSS. Using a Keithley microprobe measurement system, current-voltage measurements have been carried out on single composite microfibers after deposition of each layer to optimize the electrical properties of the coated microfibers. The conductivity of the resultant wood microfibers was in the range of 10-2-2 S cm-1 depending on the architecture of the coated layer. Further, the conductivity of the coated wood microfibers increased up to 20 S cm-1 by sandwiching multilayers of conductive co-polymer PEDOT-PSS with CNT-PSS through a polycation (PEI) interlayer. Moreover, paper hand sheets were manufactured from these coated wood microfibers with conductivity ranging from 1 to 20 S cm-1. A paper composite structure consisting of conductive/dielectric/conductive layers that acts as a capacitor has also been fabricated and is reported.

187

Studies on Effect of Doping Alumina Nanoparticles in ION Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the polymer composite specimen has been prepared by using polymer Polyvinyl- pyrrolidone (PVP a Potassium iodide (KI and alumina nanoparticles. The polymer composite specimens were developed by using solution cast techniques. The main objective of the project is to study microstructure, XRD, ionic conductivity, ionic transference number, glass transition temperature using DSC, microhardness and tensile properties of the polymer nanocomposite specimen. The results revealed conductivity as well as tensile strength increased of the polymer nanocomposite increased with concentration of alumina nanoparticles where as tensile strength reduced. The polymer electrolyte can be used in photovoltaic cell

Ritu Tomar

2013-09-01

188

Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals grafted with thermo-responsive polymer brushes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from ramie fibers are studied as stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. The phase behavior of heptane and water systems is studied, and emulsions stabilized by CNCs are analyzed by using drop sizing (light scattering) and optical, scanning, and freeze-fracture electron microscopies. Water-continuous Pickering emulsions are produced with cellulose nanocrystals (0.05-0.5 wt%) grafted with thermo-responsive poly(NIPAM) brushes (poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs). They are observed to be stable during the time of observation of 4 months. In contrast, unmodified CNCs are unable to stabilize heptane-in-water emulsions. After emulsification, poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs are observed to form aligned, layered structures at the oil-water interface. The emulsions stabilized by poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs break after heating at a temperature above the LCST of poly(NIPAM), which is taken as indication of the temperature responsiveness of the brushes installed on the particles and thus the responsiveness of the Pickering emulsions. This phenomenon is further elucidated via rheological measurements, in which viscosities of the Pickering emulsions increase on approach of the low critical solution temperature of poly(NIPAM). The effect of temperature can be counterbalanced with the addition of salt which is explained by the reduction of electrostatic and steric interactions of poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs at the oil-water interface. PMID:22204973

Zoppe, Justin O; Venditti, Richard A; Rojas, Orlando J

2012-03-01

189

A novel functional conducting polymer as an immobilization platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present the fabrication of conducting polymer based enzymatic and microbial biosensors. To obtain immobilization platforms for both pyranose oxidase (PyOx) and Gluconobacter oxydans, the graphite electrode surface was modified with the polymer of 4-amino-N-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzamide (HKCN) which has free amino groups on the surface for further bioconjugation reactions with the biomolecules. Initially, the electrode surface was covered with HKCN via electropolymerization. Then, either PyOx or G. oxydans cell was stabilized using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. After optimization of biosensors, analytical characterization and surface imaging studies were investigated. The change of current depends on glucose concentration between 0.05-1.0mM and 0.25-2.5mM with HKCN/PyOx and HKCN/G. oxydans biosensors in batch systems. Also, the calibration graphs were obtained for glucose in FIA mode, and in this case, linear ranges were found to be 0.01-1.0mM and 0.1-7.5mM for HKCN/PyOx and HKCN/G. oxydans, respectively. PMID:24857477

Guler, Emine; Soyleyici, Hakan Can; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Ak, Metin; Timur, Suna

2014-07-01

190

Amine-functionalized polypyrrole: Inherently cell adhesive conducting polymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) have been recognized as novel biomaterials that can electrically communicate with biological systems. For their tissue engineering applications, CPs have been modified to promote cell adhesion for improved interactions between biomaterials and cells/tissues. Conventional approaches to improve cell adhesion involve the surface modification of CPs with biomolecules, such as physical adsorption of cell adhesive proteins and polycationic polymers, or their chemical immobilization; however, these approaches require additional multiple modification steps with expensive biomolecules. In this study, as a simple and effective alternative to such additional biomolecule treatment, we synthesized amine-functionalized polypyrrole (APPy) that inherently presents cell adhesion-supporting positive charges under physiological conditions. The synthesized APPy provides electrical activity in a moderate range and a hydrophilic surface compared to regular polypyrrole (PPy) homopolymers. Under both serum and serum-free conditions, APPy exhibited superior attachment of human dermal fibroblasts and Schwann cells compared to PPy homopolymer controls. Moreover, Schwann cell adhesion onto the APPy copolymer was at least similar to that on poly-l-lysine treated PPy controls. Our results indicate that amine-functionalized CP substrates will be useful to achieve good cell adhesion and potentially electrically stimulate various cells. In addition, amine functionality present on CPs can further serve as a novel and flexible platform to chemically tether various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, antibodies, and chemical drugs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25294089

Lee, Jae Y; Schmidt, Christine E

2014-10-01

191

PEO-like polymer electrolytes with high room temperature conductivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymer electrolytes with room temperature conductivities of >10{sup {minus}4} S/cm were prepared by encapsulating solutions of LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} (or LiSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3} or LiPF{sub 6}) in oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers in a poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropene copolymer. The 100 to 200 {micro}m thick membranes prepared have good mechanical strength and are dry with practically no volatility at least up to 70 C. Because of these properties and the structural similarities between poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers (PEGDME) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) the authors call them PEO-like.

Abraham, K.M.; Jiang, Z. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

1997-06-01

192

Controlled synthesis of transition metal/conducting polymer nanocomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel displacement reaction has been observed to occur between conducting polymers (CP) and metal salts which can be used to fabricate nanostructured CP-metal composites in a one-pot manner. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2O5) nanofiber is used during the synthesis as the reactive seeds to induce the nanofibril CP-metal network formation. The CP-metal nanocomposites exhibit excellent sensory properties for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection, where both high sensitivity and a low detection limit can be obtained. The sensory performance of the CP-metal composite can be further enhanced by a facile microwave treatment. It is believed that the CP-metal nanofibril network can be converted to a carbon-metal network by a microwave-induced carbonization process and result in the sensory enhancement.

Liu, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Poyraz, Selcuk; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon; Smith, James; Wang, Xiaolong; Yu, Yajiao; Zhang, Xinyu

2012-08-01

193

Quantum soliton conductivity in polymers: a field theory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The discovery of a tremendous increase in the electrical conductivity of polyacetylene, the simplest linear conjugated polymer, when doped with either halogens or alkalis, was a breakthrough of far reaching consequences in physics and chemistry. The fact that the trans-isomer occurs in two degenerate species opens the possibility of occurrence of soliton defects interconnecting them. Indeed, quantum solitons or polarons are supposed to play a crucial role in the electric conductivity of polyacetylene, in the intermediate doping regime. In this work, we present an exact fully quantized calculation of the quantum soliton conductivity in polyacetylene and show that it vanishes exactly. This strongly suggests that dynamic solitons are not the charge carriers in polyacetylene. Rather, polarons, which are basically soliton-anti soliton bound states should be responsible for the transport of charge in the intermediate doping regime of polyacetylene. This result is obtained by applying a general method of soliton quantization, based on order-disorder duality, to a Z(2)-symmetric complex extension of the TLM (Takayama, Lin-Liu and Maki) dimerization effective field theory. We show that, in this theory, polyacetylene solitons are sine-Gordon solitons in the phase of the complex field. (author)

194

Quantum soliton conductivity in polymers: a field theory approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The discovery of a tremendous increase in the electrical conductivity of polyacetylene, the simplest linear conjugated polymer, when doped with either halogens or alkalis, was a breakthrough of far reaching consequences in physics and chemistry. The fact that the trans-isomer occurs in two degenerate species opens the possibility of occurrence of soliton defects interconnecting them. Indeed, quantum solitons or polarons are supposed to play a crucial role in the electric conductivity of polyacetylene, in the intermediate doping regime. In this work, we present an exact fully quantized calculation of the quantum soliton conductivity in polyacetylene and show that it vanishes exactly. This strongly suggests that dynamic solitons are not the charge carriers in polyacetylene. Rather, polarons, which are basically soliton-anti soliton bound states should be responsible for the transport of charge in the intermediate doping regime of polyacetylene. This result is obtained by applying a general method of soliton quantization, based on order-disorder duality, to a Z(2)-symmetric complex extension of the TLM (Takayama, Lin-Liu and Maki) dimerization effective field theory. We show that, in this theory, polyacetylene solitons are sine-Gordon solitons in the phase of the complex field. (author)

Mondaini, Leonardo [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Marino, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

2011-07-01

195

Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ?0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

2015-01-01

196

A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold  

OpenAIRE

Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape), intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinf...

Drzal, Lawrence T.; Hiroyuki Fukushima; Kyriaki Kalaitzidou

2010-01-01

197

Electronic transport through Si nanocrystal films: Spin-dependent conductivity studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated paramagnetic defects and their influence on the charge transport in thin films composed of Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs) by means of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) and conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR measurements show that the processing applied in the production of films of Si-ncs leads to a considerable generation of Si dangling bonds (Si-dbs). From EDMR spectra, we conclude that the Si-dbs influence the charge transport through Si-ncs networks at room temperature. The low temperature EDMR spectra of P-doped films exhibit, along with Si-dbs resonances, two additional signals: (i) the characteristic hyperfine signature of isolated substitutional P in crystalline Si and (ii) the g=1.998 line, due to exchange-coupled donor electrons. All these resonances give rise to a quenching of the photocurrent through the films, demonstrating that Si-dbs and P-related states are recombination centers of excess charge carriers. The pronounced differences observed between the EDMR and EPR spectra are also discussed

198

Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. PMID:22761026

Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun

2012-08-22

199

High performance organic photovoltaic cells using polymer-hybridized ZnO nanocrystals as a cathode interlayer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solution-processed zinc oxide nanocrystals (ZnO NCs) hybridized with insulating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are introduced as a cathode interlayer in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) blends. The performance of devices with ZnO-PEG interlayers exhibit an excellent maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.4% with a fill factor (FF) of 0.69 under optimized conditions. This enhanced device performance is attributed to decreased series resistance from the hole blocking properties of ZnO, as well as the facilitated electron transport due to the reduced area of ZnO domain boundaries upon addition of PEG. The addition of PEG also lowers the electron affinity of ZnO, which leads to a nearly Ohmic contact at the polymer/metal interface. Moreover, the ZnO-PEG interlayer serves as an optical spacer that enhances light absorption and thereby increases the photocurrent. The addition of PEG permits control over layer thickness and refractive indices. Improved photon energy absorption is supported by optical simulations. Devices with highly stable metals such as Ag and Au also show dramatically enhanced performance comparable to conventional devices with Al cathode. Due to its simplicity and excellent characteristics, this multifunctional interlayer is suitable for high performance printed photovoltaic cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Jo, Sae Byeok; Lee, Ji Hwang; Sim, Myungsun; Kim, Min; Park, Jong Hwan; Cho, Kilwon [Department of Chemical Engineering/School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yeong Suk; Kim, Yungi; Ihn, Soo-Ghang [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Yongin, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-15

200

Numerical modelling of radiation-induced conductivity of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays for describing and predicting of radiation-induced conductivity of polymers Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg (RFV) model is widely used. But now there is an insistent need for RFV-model modification for taking into account electron transport bipolarity and geminate character of radiation-induced conductivity process at it's early stage. Besides there is a need for taking into account the possibility of analysis the dose and annealing effects during arbitrary variation of dose rate and temperature that is very important for spacecraft outer polymeric coating electrization process calculation. For some applications the so called time-of-flight effects can be very important because they can significantly affect the transient current kinetics.The generalized Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg model for bipolar transport is presented. It is shown that taking into account the carrier transport bipolarity significantly affects transient current curves in comparison with the monopolar case. Besides the dose and annealing effects are rather sensitive to carrier transport bipolarity.Currently, the main approach to radiation-chemical reactions in the condensed phase is based on the ion-pair mechanism of radiolysis, according to which the action of ionizing radiation on a substance reduces to the generation of isolated ion pairs in substance volume, interaction between which can be ignored. The space-time evolution of such pairs called geminate has been studied using the Onsager model, which is in turn based on the diffusion-drift approximation for describing the motion of electrons as classical particles that obey the Smoluchowski equation. A program for numerically solving the Smoluchowski equation with a modified initial condition taking into account the drift shift of electrons that experience thermalization in an external electric field was developed. The probability of survival and the polarization current of isolated ion pairs were calculated. Shift effects were shown to be especially strong in the region of medium electric fields on the order of 107 V/m and noticeably weaker in both low and high fields. This was related to the proportional relation between the drift shift and electric field applied. The program was used to critically analyze the available experimental data on pulsed photoconductivity of polyacenes.Theoretical description of the time of flight effects in radiation-induced conductivity of polymers on the base of multiple trapping model is based on the solution of the initial-boundary problem for corresponding system of integral-differential equations. In this work numerical solution of this system is presented and precise description of transient current curves is achieved. (authors)

201

A New Conducting Polymer Electrode for Organic Electroluminescence Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conducting polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is studied for the high performance electrode of organic electroluminescence devices. A method to prepare the electrode consisting of a SiC thin film and PDMS is investigated. By using ultra thin SiC films with different thicknesses, the organic electroluminescence devices are obtained in an ultra vacuum system with the model device PDMS/SiC/PPV/Alq3, where PPV is poly para-phenylene vinylene and Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium. The capacitance-voltage (C - V), capacitance-frequency (C - F), current-voltage (I - V), radiation intensity-voltage (R - V) and luminance efficiency-voltage (E - V) measurements are systematically studied to investigate the conductivity, Fermi alignment and devices properties in organic semiconductors. Scanning Kelvin probe measurement shows that the work function ofPDMS/SiC anode with a 2.5-nm SiC over layer can be increased by as much as 0.28 eV, compared to the conventional ITO anode. The result is attributed to the charge transfer effect and ohmic contacts at the interface. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

202

Nucleation and growth of ZnO nanocrystals in polymer films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A facile layer-by-layer method was used to prepare ZnO nanoparticles embedded in multilayers polymer films. The polymer matrix was formed by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. By repetitive adsorption of zinc nitrate and subsequent precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated. UV-vis spectra indicate the regular growth of ZnO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy study shows that morphology of the nanoparticles is controlled by the precipitation cycles number. The formation process of the nanoparticles in the multilayers was also discussed

203

Potential of thermally conductive polymers for the cooling of mechatronic parts  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding thermally conductive fillers to polymers the thermal conductivity can be raised significantly. Thermal conductive polymers (TC-plastics) open up a vast range of options to set up novel concepts of polymer technological system solutions in the area of mechatronics. Heating experiment of cooling ribs show the potential in thermal management of mechatronic parts with TC-polymers in comparison with widely used reference materials copper and aluminum. The results demonstrate that especially for certain thermal boundary conditions comparable performance between these two material grades can be measured.

Heinle, C.; Drummer, D.

204

Electro- and photo- chromism of hybrid conducting polymers  

OpenAIRE

Polythiophenes are an important representative class of conjugated polymers that form some of the most environmentally and thermally stable materials that can be used as electrical conductors, nonlinear optical devices, polymer LEDs, electrochromic windows, sensors, solar cells, polymer electronic interconnects, nanoelectronic and optical devices.1 Gaining control over the structure, properties, and function in polythiophenes continues to make the synthesis of polythiophenes a critical subjec...

Zanoni, Michele; Byrne, Robert; Diamond, Dermot

2010-01-01

205

A conducting polymer/ferritin anode for biofuel cell applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enzyme anode for use in biofuel cells (BFCs) was constructed using an electrically connected bilayer based on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode immobilized with the conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) as electron transfer enhancer, and with horse spleen ferritin protein (Frt) as electron transfer mediator. The surface-coupled redox system of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) catalyzed with diaphorase (Di) was used for the regeneration of NAD{sup +} in the inner layer and the NAD{sup +}-dependent enzyme catalyst glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the outer layer. The outer layer of the GC-Ppy-Frt-Di-NADH-GDH electrode effectively catalyzes the oxidation of glucose biofuel continuously; using the NAD{sup +} generated at the inner layer of the Di-catalyzed NADH redox system mediated by Frt and Ppy provides electrical communication with enhancement in electron transport. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). This anode provides a current density of 1.2 mA cm{sup -2} in a 45 mM glucose solution and offers a good possibility for application in biofuel cells.

Inamuddin [Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kwang Min [Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun I. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); So, Insuk [Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-Mail: sjk@hanyang.ac.kr

2009-06-30

206

Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new structures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs. We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine (PPSA, a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS. The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

Ronaldo Giro

2003-12-01

207

Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units) has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new str [...] uctures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC) technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs). We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine) (PPSA), a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI) and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS). The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

Ronaldo, Giro; Márcio, Cyrillo; Douglas Soares, Galvão.

2003-12-01

208

Incorporation of Metallic Nanoparticles into Conducting Polymer Actuator Films  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanocomposites of conducting polymer films (CP) with metal nanoparticles have been prepared. Electropolymerization of pyrrole on stainless steel electrodes was undertaken galvanostatically until the thickness of the polypyrrole (PPy) film reached around 7.5 ?m, which is suitable for the future application of these films in micropumps and microvalves. Subsequently platinum nanoparticles were deposited from a solution of a platinum precursor (K2PtCl6) onto the PPy coated stainless steel electrodes by applying a potential of -0.1 V for between 3 and 15 s. The length of the deposition time led to significant differences in the morphology and size of the particles obtained. The actuation of the free standing films was studied by electrochemomechanical deformation measurements (ECMD) on strips of films cycled in NaPF6. Depending upon the test conditions, the strain rate and ultimate strain of films containing Pt nanoparticles could be increased by a factor of 2 or more compared to those of pristine PPy films.

Costa, Alexsandro Santos; Li, Kwong-Chi; Kilmartin, Paul A.; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

2009-07-01

209

Electrochemical study of charge transfer in conducting polymers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Aspectos cinético e termodinâmico da transferência de carga em polímeros condutores foram investigados. Um modelo de difusão restrita foi impregado para interpretar os dados obtidos por cronopotenciometria com pulso. Em filmes de poli 3-metiltiofeno, o coeficiente de difusão aparente diminuiu em fun [...] ção da espessura do filme mas ficou constante com a concentração eletrolítica. Em filmes finos, usando-se voltametria cíclica, caracterizou-se mudanças termodinâmicas, como em particular, a deconvolução das duas transferências eletrônicas envolvidas no processo. Usando-se um modelo nernstiano incluindo potenciais de interação, conseguiu-se descrever a reação para as duas etapas eletroquímicas. Finalmente, como esperado, uma correlação entre o raio iônico dos dopantes e o coeficiente de difusão aparente foi estabelecida em filmes de polipirrol. Abstract in english The kinetics and thermodynamic aspects of charge transfer in conducting polymers were investigated. A restricted diffusion model was used to analyze kinetic data obtained from pulse-chronopotentiometric experiments. In poly 3-methylthiophene, the apparent diffusion coefficient decreased with the fil [...] m thickness, whereas it remained constant with the electrolyte concentration. In thin films, thermodynamic changes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, specifically, the deconvolution of the two electronic transfers involved in the process. Using a Nernstian model including interaction potentials, the two electrochemical steps were well described. Finally, as expected, a correlation between the ionic radius of the dopants and the apparent diffusion coefficient was established in polypyrrole films.

J.M., Pernaut; L.C., Soares; J.C., Belchior.

210

Robust control of a trilayer conducting polymer actuator  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of the conducting polymer actuators (CPAs) are affected by material uncertainties, operating conditions and time of operation. The same size CPAs may have different actuation capabilities, which can also degrade over the course of operation. For accurate and repeatable position tracking, the uncertainties and variations in the actuator dynamics have to be carefully addressed to achieve a desirable control performance. This paper presents a systematic approach for the identification of parametric uncertainties and designing robust H? control to achieve a guaranteed performance when the CPA is used for position tracking. We identify the uncertainties in actuator dynamics by performing series of experiments using two geometrically equivalent CPAs. A set of system models is obtained to determine the average actuation capability. The variations in the actuator dynamics are modeled as a parametric uncertainty. H? controllers are designed and the robustness of the controllers is validated by experiments on two different but same sized CPAs. The performance of the H? controller is also compared with a proportional-integralderivative (PID) controller. We demonstrate that the robust H?control strategy performs repeated acceptable performances on both samples.

Itik, M.; Ulker, Fatma D.; Alici, G.

2014-03-01

211

Electronic control of platelet adhesion using conducting polymer microarrays.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hereby report a method to fabricate addressable micropatterns of e-surfaces based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the anion tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) to gain dynamic control over the spatial distribution of platelets in vitro. With thin film processing and microfabrication techniques, patterns down to 10 ?m were produced to enable active regulation of platelet adhesion at high spatial resolution. Upon electronic addressing, both reduced and oxidized surfaces were created within the same device. This surface modulation dictates the conformation and/or orientation, rather than the concentration, of surface proteins, thus indirectly regulating the adhesion of platelets. The reduced electrode supported platelet adhesion, whereas the oxidized counterpart inhibited adhesion. PEDOT:Tos electrode fabrication is compatible with most of the classical patterning techniques used in printing as well as in the electronics industry. The first types of tools promise ultra-low-cost production of low-resolution (>30 ?m) electrode patterns that may combine with traditional substrates and dishes used in a classical analysis setup. Platelets play a pronounced role in cardiovascular diseases and have become an important drug target in order to prevent thrombosis. This clinical path has in turn generated a need for platelet function tests to monitor and assess platelet drug efficacy. The spatial control of platelet adherence presented here could prove valuable for blood cell separation or biosensor microarrays, e.g. in diagnostic applications where platelet function is evaluated. PMID:24960122

Faxälv, Lars; Bolin, Maria H; Jager, Edwin W H; Lindahl, Tomas L; Berggren, Magnus

2014-08-21

212

Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

Md. Mahbubur Rahman

2015-02-01

213

TOPICAL REVIEW: One-dimensional conductive IrO2 nanocrystals  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the results of the synthesis of IrO2 nanocrystals (NCs) on different substrates via metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) using (MeCp)(COD)Ir as the source reagent. The surface morphology, structural and spectroscopic properties of the as-deposited NCs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffractometry (SAD), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The roles of different substrates for the formation of various textures of nanocrystalline IrO2 are studied. Several one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have evolved by decreasing the degree of interface instability. The morphological evolution occurs from triangular/wedged nanorods via incomplete/scrolled nanotubes to square nanotubes and square nanorods (NRs), with increasing morphological stability. The results show that the three-dimensional (3D) grains composing traditional film belong to the most stable form as compared to all the 1D NCs, and the sequential shape evolution has been found to be highly correlated to a morphological phase diagram based on the growth kinetics. In addition, area selective growth of IrO2 NRs has been demonstrated on sapphire(012) and sapphire(100) substrates which consist of patterned SiO2 as the nongrowth surface. The initial growth of IrO2 nuclei is studied. Selectivity, rod orientation, and other morphological features of the nanorod forest can find their origins in the nucleation behaviour during initial growth. XPS analyses show the coexistence of higher oxidation states of iridium in the as-grown IrO2 NCs. The usefulness of the experimental Raman scattering together with the modified spatial correlation (MSC) model analysis as a residual stress and structural characterization technique for 1D IrO2 NCs has been demonstrated. The field emission properties of the vertically aligned IrO2 NRs are studied and demonstrated as a high-performance and robust field emitter material owing to its low work function, low resistivity and excellent stability against oxygen.

Chen, Reui-San; Korotcov, Alexandru; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Tsai, Dah-Shyang

2006-05-01

214

Screen printable flexible conductive nanocomposite polymer with applications to wearable sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a conductive nanocomposite polymer that possesses both good conductivity and flexibility, and screen printed it onto fabric to realize wearable flexible electrodes and electronic routing. The conductive polymer consists of dispersed silver nanoparticles (90~210nm) in a screen printable plastisol polymer. The conductive polymer is conductive for weight-percentages above approximately 61 wt-% of Ag nanoparticles, and has a resistivity of 2.12×10-6 ohm·m at 70 wt-% of Ag nanoparticles. To test the screen printed conductive polymer's flexibility and its effect on conductivity, we measured the resistivity of the Ag-doped composite polymer at different bending angles (-90? ~ 90?) with a 10° step angle at different wt-% of silver particles, and compared the results. We also tested washability of the screen printed conductive polymer as applied to fabric for long-term use in wearable sensors systems. We also used the screen printed Ag composite polymer to realize an example wearable system. Flexible wearable dry electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes were developed and ECG signal was measured via the electrodes. The sensing ECG electrodes (3mm diameter circle) were chloridized to form Ag/AgCl electrodes. We measured an ECG signal using a simple right-leg driven ECG circuit and observed normal ECG signals even without application of electrolyte gel.

Chung, D.; Khosla, A.; Gray, B. L.

2014-04-01

215

Optical spectroscopy of conducting Schiff-base polymer films  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer samples of complexes of divalent copper with the H2msalpn-1,3 ligand have been studied by optical spectroscopy. The optical density spectra of metal-polymer films have been analyzed taking into account the influence of preliminary thermal treatment. The spectral dependences of the absorption coefficient and optical band gap are determined for different experimental conditions.

Avanesyan, V. T.; Vodkailo, E. G.

2012-04-01

216

Anhydrous proton conducting polymer electrolytes based on polymeric ionic liquids  

OpenAIRE

Imidazolium types of ionic liquids were immobilized by tethering it to acrylate backbone. These imidazolium salt containing acrylate monomers were polymerize at 70oC by free radical polymerization to give polymers poly(AcIm-n) with n being the side chain lenght. The chemical structure of the polymer electrolytes obtained by the described synthetic routes was investigated by NMR-spectroscopy. The polymers were doped with various amounts of H3PO4 and LiN(SO2CF3)2, to obtain poly(AcIm-n) x...

Erdemi, Hamit

2008-01-01

217

Towards p-type conductivity in SnO2 nanocrystals through Li doping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines electrical transport properties and Li doping in SnO2 synthesized by the sol-gel method. Solid-state 7Li-NMR lineshapes reveal that Li ions occupy two distinct sites with differing dynamic mobilities. The chemical exchange rate between the two sites is, however, too slow for detection on the NMR timescale. Compressed nanoparticulate films of this doped semiconductor exhibit a positive Seebeck coefficient implying a p-type conductivity. A variable-temperature direct current conductivity, over a 25-350 deg. C temperature range, follows an Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH) conduction mechanism (ln(?) versus T-1/2) at temperatures below 100 deg. C with a crossover to 2D Mott variable range hopping (M-VRH) (ln(?) versus T-1/3) conduction at temperatures above 250 deg. C. In a transition region between these two limiting behaviors, the dc resistivity exhibits an anomalous temperature-independent plateau. We suggest that its origin may lie in a carrier inversion phenomenon wherein the majority carriers switch from holes to electrons due to Li ion expulsion from the crystalline core and creation of oxygen vacancies generated by loss of oxygen at elevated temperatures.

218

Assembly of antimony doped tin oxide nanocrystals into conducting macroscopic aerogel monoliths.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the assembly of preformed antimony doped tin oxide nanobuilding blocks into centimeter sized aerogels with surface areas exceeding 340 m(2) g(-1). After calcination, the resistivity of the aerogels was decreased by 4 orders of magnitude to a few k? cm, with the primary conducting structures measuring only a few nanometers. PMID:25229075

Rechberger, Felix; Ilari, Gabriele; Niederberger, Markus

2014-11-01

219

Nanocrystal structures  

Science.gov (United States)

A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

Eisler, Hans J. (Stoneham, MA); Sundar, Vikram C. (Stoneham, MA); Walsh, Michael E. (Everett, MA); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Bawendi, Moungi G. (Cambridge, MA); Smith, Henry I. (Sudbury, MA)

2008-12-30

220

Electrochemical Switching of Conductance with Diarylethene-Based Redox-Active Polymers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reversible switching of conductance using redox triggered switching of a polymer-modified electrode is demonstrated. A bifunctional monomer comprising a central electroswitchable core and two bithiophene units enables formation of a film through anodic electropolymerization. The conductivity of the polymer can be switched electrochemically in a reversible manner by redox triggered opening and closing of the diarylethene unit. In the closed state, the conductivity of the modified electrode is higher than in the open state.

Logtenberg, Hella; van der Velde, Jasper H. M.

2012-01-01

221

Facile synthesis of SnO2 nanocrystals coated conducting polymer nanowires for enhanced lithium storage  

Science.gov (United States)

SnO2 nanoparticles uniformly decorated polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires are synthesized by a facile two-step electrochemical reaction method: electropolymerization and electrodeposition. The nanostructured SnO2-PPy hybrids show porous reticular morphology and homogenous distributions. The reticular SnO2-PPy nanowires can increase the electrode/electrolyte interface and accommodate the volume variation of SnO2. When applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the unique nanostructured hybrids deliver meaningfully improved Li+ storage performance with the first reversible capacity of 690 mAh g-1. This facile synthesis procedure can also be simply grafted to other inorganic-organic hybrid composites.

Du, Zhijia; Zhang, Shichao; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Lan; Fang, Hua

2012-12-01

222

Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes  

CERN Document Server

Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) sub 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) sub 1 sub 0 and LiClO sub 4.P(EO) sub 1 sub 0 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stabl...

Webster, M I

2002-01-01

223

A General Formula for Ion Concentration-Dependent Electrical Conductivities in Polymer Electrolytes  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The aim of this study is to develop a model for describing the effect of ion concentration on the electrical conductivity of polymer electrolytes by considering two mechanisms simultaneously: Enhancements of ion concentration and amorphous phase. Approach: The problems based on new observations in polymer electrolyte when ion concentration in the polymer electrolytes was increased, both the fraction of amorphous phase and the charge carriers increase simultane...

Aji, Mahardika P.; Masturi Last Name; Satria Bijaksana; Khairurrijal Last Name; Mikrajuddin Abdullah

2012-01-01

224

Electrical Conductivity Studies on Individual Conjugated Polymer Nanowires: Two-Probe and Four-Probe Results  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Two- and four-probe electrical measurements on individual conjugated polymer nanowires with different diameters ranging from 20 to 190 nm have been performed to study their conductivity and nanocontact resistance. The two-probe results reveal that all the measured polymer nanowires with different diameters are semiconducting. However, the four-probe results show that the measured polymer nanowires with diameters of 190, 95–100, 35–40 and 20–25 nm are lying...

Duvail JeanLuc; Liu Zongwen; Ringer Simon; Gu Changzhi; Long YunZe; Li MengMeng

2009-01-01

225

Hybrid solar cells of conjugated polymers metal-oxide nanocrystals blends; state of the art and future research challenges in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ever-increasing world energy demand, depleting non-renewable energy resources and disruptive climate change due to greenhouse gases has aroused much interest in alternative renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one of the best available alternatives, for it is both abundant and clean. Solar cell is an effective device for converting solar energy into electricity. Indonesia is located on the equator where the sunlight is always available in abundance throughout the year; therefore solar cell would become the main source of electrical energy in Indonesia. However, the high cost of inorganic solar cells in spite of their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been a major constrain for their mass utilization in Indonesia. The only way to reduce the cost of production and installation is to find other materials which offer low-cost and easy processing into solar cells. Polymer solar cells have been intensively investigated for high performance and low-cost solar cells. Today, 9-11% power conversion efficiency (PCE) of small area polymer solar cells and 2-4% PCE of large area or module solar cells are already achieved. However, for practical application and mass production, 10% or higher PCE of module solar cells is highly required. The main strategic issue for improving the PCE is to use blend of conjugated polymer-metal oxide nanocrystals as active materials for hybrid solar cells, due to the good combination of the versatile solution processability of conjugated polymers and high charge carrier mobility of metal-oxide nanocrystals. In this paper, current development of hybrid solar cells worldwide and future research challenges in Indonesia will be discussed.

Bahtiar, Ayi

2013-09-01

226

Tuning the thermal conductivity of solar cell polymers through side chain engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal transport is critical to the performance and reliability of polymer-based energy devices, ranging from solar cells to thermoelectrics. This work shows that the thermal conductivity of a low band gap conjugated polymer, poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(alkylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate)-2,6-diyl) (PBDTTT), for photovoltaic applications can be actively tuned through side chain engineering. Compared to the original polymer modified with short branched side chains, the engineered polymer using all linear and long side chains shows a 160% increase in thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the polymer exhibits a good correlation with the side chain lengths as well as the crystallinity of the polymer characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy are used to further probe the molecular level local order of different polymers. It is found that the linear side chain modified polymer can facilitate the formation of more ordered structures, as compared to the branched side chain modified ones. The effective medium theory modelling also reveals that the long linear side chain enables a larger heat carrier propagation length and the crystalline phase in the bulk polymer increases the overall thermal conductivity. It is concluded that both the length of the side chains and the induced polymer crystallization are important for thermal transport. These results offer important guidance for actively tuning the thermal conductivity of conjugated polymers through molecular level design. PMID:24643840

Guo, Zhi; Lee, Doyun; Liu, Yi; Sun, Fangyuan; Sliwinski, Anna; Gao, Haifeng; Burns, Peter C; Huang, Libai; Luo, Tengfei

2014-05-01

227

A General Formula for Ion Concentration-Dependent Electrical Conductivities in Polymer Electrolytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to develop a model for describing the effect of ion concentration on the electrical conductivity of polymer electrolytes by considering two mechanisms simultaneously: Enhancements of ion concentration and amorphous phase. Approach: The problems based on new observations in polymer electrolyte when ion concentration in the polymer electrolytes was increased, both the fraction of amorphous phase and the charge carriers increase simultaneously. The model was based on the assumption when ions were inserted into the polymer host, there was an optimum distance between ions at which the ions move easily throughout the polymer. The average distance between ions in the polymer depends on the ion concentration. And we also considered the effect of ion concentration on the amorphous phase in the polymer. Results: We inspected the validity of the model by comparing the model predictions with various experimental data. The new analytical expressions for the electrical conductivity dependent of ion concentration was developed by considering two mechanisms simultaneously in polymer electrolytes, i.e., enhancement of the carries concentration and amorphous phase fraction. Interestingly, most of fitting parameters were not arbitrarily selected, but were derived from the appropriate experimental data. Conclusion: The model can be used to explain the conductivity behavior of other polymer electrolyte systems by selecting appropriately less number of parameters. This model result is fully supported by available experimental data.

Mahardika P. Aji

2012-01-01

228

Terahertz phase contrast imaging of sorption kinetics in porous coordination polymer nanocrystals using differential optical resonator.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enhancement of light-matter coupling when light is confined to wavelength scale volumes is useful both for studying small sample volumes and increasing the overall sensing ability. At these length scales, nonradiative interactions are of key interest to which near-field optical techniques may reveal new phenomena facilitating next-generation material functionalities and applications. Efforts to develop novel chemical or biological sensors using metamaterials have yielded innovative ideas in the optical and terahertz frequency range whereby the spatially integrated response over a resonator structure is monitored via the re-radiated or leaked light. But although terahertz waves generally exhibit distinctive response in chemical molecules or biological tissue, there is little absorption for subwavelength size sample and therefore poor image contrast. Here, we introduce a method that spatially resolves the differential near-field phase response of the entire resonator as a spectral fingerprint. By simultaneously probing two metallic ring resonators, where one loaded with the sample of interest, the differential phase response is able to resolve the presence of guest molecules (e.g. methanol) as they are adsorbed or released within the pores of a prototypical porous coordination polymer. PMID:24921804

Blanchard, F; Sumida, K; Wolpert, C; Tsotsalas, M; Tanaka, T; Doi, A; Kitagawa, S; Cooke, D G; Furukawa, S; Tanaka, K

2014-05-01

229

A conducting polymer artificial muscle with 12% linear strain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efforts given to optimize the linear strain response of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) as these systems show particularly good chemical stability in aqueous systems and little toxicity are presented. The aims of the optimization is to obtain maximum length changes in a freely suspended polymer foil in response to a potential change and it includes attention to the composition of the polymer, to the synthesis conditions, and involves microstructuring of the polymer. As such, an analysis of the influence of the alkyl chain length on the properties of PPy doped with ABSs has shown that the obtainable strain decreases with increasing chain length for alkyl chains longer than C$-8$/.

Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

2003-01-01

230

Regiochemistry of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Synthesis and Investigation of a Conducting Polymer  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of experiments for undergraduate laboratory courses (e.g., organic, polymer, inorganic) have been developed. These experiments focus on understanding the regiochemistry of the conducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The substitution patterns in P3HTs control their conformational features, which, in turn, dictates the [pi]…

Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Kohl, Stuart G.; Melby, Jacob H.; Thoma, Laura M.; Carpenter, Nancy E.; Filho, Demetrio A. da Silva; Bredas, Jean-Luc

2010-01-01

231

An Integrated Laboratory Approach toward the Preparation of Conductive Poly(phenylene vinylene) Polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) represents an important class of conjugated, conducting polymers that have been readily exploited in the preparation of organic electronic materials. In this experiment, students prepare a PPV polymer via a facile multistep synthetic sequence with robust spectroscopic evaluation of synthetic intermediates and the…

Knoerzer, Timm A.; Balaich, Gary J.; Miller, Hannah A.; Iacono, Scott T.

2014-01-01

232

Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity of Methyl Cellulose-Based Polymer Electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influences of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) plasticizer on ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus formalism of methyl cellulose (MC)-based polymer electrolytes have been studied. The room temperature electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy shows that a methyl cellulose film has a conductivity of ?10-10 S cm-1. In this study, other than KOH ionic dopant, DMC plasticizer is also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer. The highest room temperature conductivity of the plasticised sample is ?10-5 S cm-1. The plot of log ? versus 103/ T for the highest conducting sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating that the conductivity occurs by thermally activated mechanism. (author)

233

Conductivity and thermal studies of solid polymer electrolytes prepared by blending polyvinylchloride, polymethylmethacrylate and lithium sulfate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Composite polymer electrolyte films consisting of polyvinylchloride, polymethymethacrylate, dibutylphthalate, Li2SO4 and also ZrO2 particles have been prepared by a casting procedure. The effect of an inorganic filler on the ionic conductivity of the blend polymer electrolytes was studied. The results indicated the incorporation of the ceramic filler at a low level decreases the ionic conductivity of the material, while at the higher concentrations there is an improvement of the conductivity. From the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity can be suggested that the ion conduction follows the Williams-Landel-Ferrry mechanism, which is confirmed by Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher plots

234

THE ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF ANTIBODY-MODIFIED CONDUCTING POLYMER ELECTRODES. (R825323)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The modification of conducting polymer electrodes with antibodies (i.e. proteins) by means of electrochemical polymerization is a simple step that can be used to develop an immunological sensor. However, the electrochemical processes involved leading to the ge...

235

Optimization of mechanical performance of oxidative nano-particle electrode nitrile butadiene rubber conducting polymer actuator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present work delivers a systematical evaluation of actuation efficiency of a nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator fabricated based on Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Attempts are made for maximizing mechanical functionality of the nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator that can be driven in the air. As the conducting polymer polypyrrole of the actuator is to be fabricated through a chemical oxidation polymerization process that may impose certain limitations on both electrical and mechanical functionality of the actuator, a coordinated study for optimization process of the actuator is necessary for maximizing its performance. In this article actuation behaviors of the nano-particle electrode polypyrrole conducting polymer is studied and an optimization process for the mechanical performance maximization is performed. PMID:19908773

Kim, Baek-Chul; Park, S J; Cho, M S; Lee, Y; Nam, J D; Choi, H R; Koo, J C

2009-12-01

236

Elucidating Interactions and Conductivity of Newly Synthesised Low Bandgap Polymer with Protic and Aprotic Ionic Liquids  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole) (PHVTT)). Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer an...

Attri, Pankaj; Lee, Seung-hyun; Hwang, Sun Woo; Kim, Joong I. L.; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Gi-chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

2013-01-01

237

Process modeling of conductivity in nanocomposites based on reticulated polymers and carbon nanotubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dependences of electric conductivities of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites based on epoxy polymer and polycyanurate filled by carbon nanotubes were investigated. Low values of percolation threshold at volume fraction of carbon nanotubes from 0.001 to 0.002 were observed for all samples.Absolute values of the percolation threshold are in good agreement with the results of mathematical modeling. It is established that electrical properties of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites can be characterized in the frame of the same theoretical model despite difference in polymers properties

238

Redox-exchange induced heterogeneous RuO2-conductive polymer nanowires.  

Science.gov (United States)

A redox exchange mechanism between potassium perruthenate (KRuO4) and the functional groups of selected polymers is used here to induce RuO2 into and onto conductive polymer nanowires by simply soaking the polymer nanowire arrays in KRuO4 solution. Conductive polymer nanowire arrays of polypyrrole (PPY) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were studied in this work. SEM and TEM results show that the RuO2 material was distributed differently in the PPY and PEDOT nanowire matrices. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to confirm the dispersion and formation of RuO2 materials in these polymer nanowires. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments were used to characterize their electrochemical performance. RuO2-polymer samples prepared with a 6 min soaking time in 10 mM KRuO4 solution show a high specific capacitance of 371 F g(-1) and 500 F g(-1) for PEDOT-based and PPY-based composite nanowires, respectively. This is attributed to the high exposure area of the conductive RuO2 and the good conductivity of the polymer matrix. This work demonstrates a simple method to synthesize heterogeneous polymer based-materials through the redox reaction between conductive polymers and high oxidation state transition metal oxide ions. Different heterogeneous nanocomposites were obtained depending on the polymer properties, and high energy storage performance of the metal oxides can be achieved within these heterogeneous nanostructures. PMID:24824847

Gui, Zhe; Duay, Jonathon; Hu, Junkai; Lee, Sang Bok

2014-06-28

239

Effect of polar polymers molecular mobility on transient radiation electric conductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made on temperature dependence of transient radiation electric conductivity (irradiation pulse duration 0.3 ms) of polymethyl methacrylate and chlorinated polyvinylchloride. It is shown that radiation electric conductivity is practically independent of temperature in 298-333 K range. Its activation energy above 333 K reaches activation energy of ?-relaxation transformations in these polymers. The explanation of obtained results is given in the framework of jump mechanism of charge carrier mobility with account of molecular motions in polymers

240

Design, synthesis, characterization and development of novel organic conducting polymers with technological applications  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, a series of novel organic conducting polymers have been synthesized using alternative methods based on electrochemical techniques, which have allowed to broaden the knowledge in the field of the characterization by means of topological, spectroscopic, electrochemical and structural techniques. Among the variety of synthesis techniques of conducting polymers, layer-by-layer (LbL) has been one of the most important to build multilayered systems. Thus, in this thesis ...

Aradilla Zapata, David

2013-01-01

241

A unified model for temperature dependent electrical conduction in polymer electrolytes  

OpenAIRE

The observed temperature dependence of electrical conduction in polymer electrolytes is usually fitted with two separated equations: an Arrhenius equation at low temperatures and Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) at high temperatures. We report here a derivation of a single equation to explain the variation of electrical conduction in polymer electrolytes at all temperature ranges. Our single equation is in agreement with the experimental data

Mikrajuddin; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo

2001-01-01

242

The synthesis of conducting polymers for corrosion prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of an electrically conducting form of polyaniline by the oxidative polymerization of aniline was studied. Optimum yield and conductivities were obtained by treating aniline in 2 molar hydrochloric acid at 0 to 5 C with ammonium persulfate in 1.15 mole ratio. The yield was 37.6 percent of theory and the conductivity of the product was 10.5 S/cm. This material was formulated into epoxy and acrylic coatings which were also electrically conductive.

Mattson, Guy C.

1988-01-01

243

Conductivity studies on poly(methyl methacrylate)-Li2SO4 polymer electrolyte systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin-film ion-conducting polymer electrolytes based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) complexed with Li2SO4 have been prepared using the solution casting technique. The complexation of salt with PMMA was confirmed by structural and thermal studies. The results of the electrical conductivity measurements in these electrolytes are reported. A Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher-like temperature dependence of ionic conductivity implies coupling of the ion movement with the segmental motion of the polymer chains in the cross-linked environment. Predominant formation of contact ion pairs of Li2SO4 has been consistently observed through conductivity, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation and thermal analysis studies

244

Synthesis and conductivity of PEGME branched poly(ethylene-alt-maleimide) based solid polymer electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermally stable comb-like polymer electrolyte, poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEGME) grafted poly(ethylene-alt-maleimide), has been synthesized and characterized. The copolymer was thermally stable up to 250.deg.C and had good film forming property. The copolymer was well mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether(PEGDME, Mw = 400). The activation energy of ionic conduction decreased and conductivity increased with the increase of PEGDME content in the polymer electrolyte. The maximum conductivity of the resulting polymer electrolyte containing 66 wt% of PEGDME was found to be 3 x 10-4 S/cm at 30.deg.C. The polymer electrolyte showed electrochemical stability window of greater than 4.7 V

245

Synthesis and conductivity of PEGME branched poly(ethylene-alt-maleimide) based solid polymer electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermally stable comb-like polymer electrolyte, poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEGME) grafted poly(ethylene-alt-maleimide), has been synthesized and characterized. The copolymer was thermally stable up to 250.deg.C and had good film forming property. The copolymer was well mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether(PEGDME, M{sub w} = 400). The activation energy of ionic conduction decreased and conductivity increased with the increase of PEGDME content in the polymer electrolyte. The maximum conductivity of the resulting polymer electrolyte containing 66 wt% of PEGDME was found to be 3 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at 30.deg.C. The polymer electrolyte showed electrochemical stability window of greater than 4.7 V.

Kang, Yong Ku; Seo, Yeon Ho; Lee, Chang Jin [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2000-02-01

246

A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape, intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment.

Lawrence T. Drzal

2010-02-01

247

Elucidating interactions and conductivity of newly synthesised low bandgap polymer with protic and aprotic ionic liquids.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole) (PHVTT)). Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer and investigated its interaction with the ILs to enhance its conductivity. ILs may undergo almost unlimited structural variations; these structural variations have attracted extensive attention in polymer studies. The aim of present work is to illustrate the state of art progress of implementing the interaction of ILs (protic and aprotic ILs) with newly synthesised low bandgap polymer. In addition to this, our UV-Vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results have revealed that all studied ILs (tributylmethylammonium methyl sulfate ([N1444][MeSO4] from ammonium family) and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl from imidazolium family) have potential to interact with polymer. Our semi empirical calculation with help of Hyperchem 7 shows that protic IL ([Mim]Cl) interacts strongly with the low bandgap polymer through the H-bonding. Further, protic ILs shows enhanced conductivity than aprotic ILs in association with low bandgap polymer. This study provides the combined effect of low bandgap polymer and ILs that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities. PMID:23874829

Attri, Pankaj; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, Sun Woo; Kim, Joong I L; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

2013-01-01

248

Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of a new conducting polymer: Polyrhodanine  

Science.gov (United States)

An antimicrobial drug, rhodanine (Rh), was electrochemically polymerized on a Pt electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The high quality and homogeneous polyrhodanine (pRh) films with a dark-purple color were obtained. The chemical structure characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. Further, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used to investigate thermal properties of the film. It is found that thermal stability of pRh films is relatively high. It is also observed that tetrahydrofurane (THF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) are good solvents for the polymer.

Karda?, Gülfeza; Solmaz, Ramazan

2007-01-01

249

Oxireductases in the Enzymatic Synthesis of Water-Soluble Conducting Polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter reviews recent advances in the field of biocatalytic synthesis of water-soluble conducting polymers. Biocatalysis is proposed as a versatile tool for synthesis of conducting polymers. First, the enzymatic synthesis of conducting polymers and its mechanism is discussed as well as the use of different type of enzymes. Next, we describe the use of a new bifunctional template (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate) in the synthesis of polyaniline as a strategy to improve the water solubility and electrical conductivity in the obtained polymer. The recent development of enzyme-catalyzed polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate is discussed. This method results in PEDOT materials that show an electrical conductivity of 2 × 1{0}^{-3} {S cm}^{-1} and posses excellent film formation ability, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy images. Finally, a simple method for immobilizing horseradish peroxidases in the biocatalytic synthesis of water-soluble conducting polymers is presented. This method is based on a biphasic catalytic system in which the enzyme is encapsulated inside the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while other components remain in the aqueous phase. The enzyme is easily recovered after reaction and can be reused several times.

Ochoteco, Estibalitz; Mecerreyes, David

250

Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

2009-12-30

251

One-step inkjet printing of conductive silver tracks on polymer substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A one-step process to fabricate conductive features on flexible polymer substrates by inkjet printing an organometallic silver ink directly onto a substrate that is heated to 130 deg. C is presented. This process led to the immediate sintering of the printed features. The samples were left for 5 min at elevated temperature, which resulted in conductive silver features with a resistivity of eight times the bulk silver value. The combination of this ink and the simultaneous printing/sintering process opens up routes for the direct fabrication of conductive features on common polymer substrates that could be applied, for example, in roll-to-roll production of flexible microelectronic systems.

252

Simulation of ultraviolet- and soft X-ray-pulse generation as a result of cooperative recombination of excitons in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using numerical simulation, it is shown that the recombination of free excitons photoexcited in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film can occur in the cooperative mode. It is found that this mode can be implemented despite the fact that diamond is an 'indirect' semiconductor. It is shown that the power of the generated radiation at the pulse peak during the cooperative recombination of free excitons can exceed that of the incoherent spontaneous emission of the same initial number of free excitons by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, it is shown that the process under consideration can be used to generate picosecond pulses of ultraviolet and soft X-ray electromagnetic field at a wavelength of 235 nm.

Kukushkin, V. A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15

253

Low polymer hydraulic fracturing applications in Reconcavo basin wells can reduce cost and improve conductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gels used for hydraulic-fracturing treatments generally contain high concentrations of polymer. The polymer helps the fracturing fluid achieve the level of viscosity necessary for transporting proppant through the rock matrix. However, high-polymer gels leave greater amounts of residue in the formation and can therefore cause formation damage. This paper describes how low polymer (L P) gels can be used for hydraulic-fracturing operations to reduce job costs and increase conductivity by reducing formation damage while maintaining the characteristics of a high-polymer gel. The L P fluid system has a low p H and contains an appropriate breaker concentration. Operators have achieved positive results with this system, which allows them to measure robust gel breaks and reduces the necessity for well cleaning. Consequently, formation damage can be significantly reduced. (author)

254

Functionalization of conducting polymer with novel Co(II) complex: Electroanalysis of ascorbic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report for the first time the functionalization of a conducting polymer with a metal complex in order to develop a new type of catalytic material exhibiting better electronic communication through their delocalized {pi} electrons. The Co(II) complex having hydroxyl group as functional moiety is chemically coupled with carboxyl group of polyanthranilic acid which itself is a self doped conducting polymer. The covalent linkage between Co(II) and -OH group is confirmed using UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The Co(II) complex functionalized polymer does exhibit excellent redox behavior and stability with mixed properties of Co(II) complex and {pi}-conjugated polymer. The material possesses potential benefits in sensors/biosensor applications and it is demonstrated for the electroanalysis of ascorbic acid at a level of nano molar concentration.

Mohan, Swati [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Prakash, Rajiv, E-mail: rajivprakash12@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

2010-06-15

255

Functionalization of conducting polymer with novel Co(II) complex: Electroanalysis of ascorbic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report for the first time the functionalization of a conducting polymer with a metal complex in order to develop a new type of catalytic material exhibiting better electronic communication through their delocalized ? electrons. The Co(II) complex having hydroxyl group as functional moiety is chemically coupled with carboxyl group of polyanthranilic acid which itself is a self doped conducting polymer. The covalent linkage between Co(II) and -OH group is confirmed using UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The Co(II) complex functionalized polymer does exhibit excellent redox behavior and stability with mixed properties of Co(II) complex and ?-conjugated polymer. The material possesses potential benefits in sensors/biosensor applications and it is demonstrated for the electroanalysis of ascorbic acid at a level of nano molar concentration.

256

Conductive polymer-modified boron-doped diamond for DNA hybridization analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we study the immobilization of DNA on boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films for DNA hybridization analysis. Taking advantage of the conducting nature of the BDD film, a thin layer of polyaniline/poly (acrylic acid) (PANI/PAA) composite polymer film could be readily electropolymerized onto the diamond surface. The carboxylic acid residues in the polymer film act as the binding sites for DNA attachment, whilst the conductive polymer matrix enhances the electron-transfer between DNA and the diamond surface. Fluorescence microscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that the polymer-modified BDD has minimal non-specific DNA adsorption, and provides a stable transduction platform for DNA sensing.

Gu, Huiru; Su, Xiaodi; Loh, Kian Ping

2004-04-01

257

Exploring novel silicon-containing polymers---From preceramic polymers to conducting polymers with nonlinear optical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several new types of silicon-containing preceramic polymers, i.e., poly(diorganosilacetylene) and poly(diorganosilvinylene) have been synthesized with molecular weights from 10,000 to 120,000. These polymers could be thermally converted to SiC with a moderate to high char yields. Ready solubility and good processability made these types of polymers attractive in their applications to ceramics. The thermal polymerization of diethynyldiphenyl-silane, which was reported in 1968 to afford poly(diphenylsilyldiacetylene) via dehydrogenation, was reinvestigated. Spectroscopic studies showed that the polymer had a structure of polyacetylene type not diacetylene. Diphenyldiethynylgermane and a series of diorganodiethynylsilances were synthesized. These could be polymerized in the presence of MoCl{sub 5} or WCl{sub 6} to afford a soluble, violet material with Mw as high as 108,000. 100 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.

Pang, Yi.

1991-10-07

258

Process for depositing strong adherend polymer coating onto an electrically conductive surface  

OpenAIRE

Process for depositing by electrografting a strong adherent polymer coating onto an electrically conductive surface comprising an electrochemical grafting at the surface of an active monomer for forming a primer coating P onto said surface and having as general formula: X0 (meth)acrylate wherein X is either part of a preformed polymer or is an intermediate agent for polyaddition reaction or is an anchoring group for attachment of a molecule having at least one complementary reactive group. Su...

Bertrand, Olivier; Je?ro?me, Robert; Gautier, Sandrine; Maquet, Ve?ronique; Detrembleur, Christophe; Je?ro?me, Christine; Voccia, Samuel; Claes, Michae?l; Lou, Xudong; Labaye, David-emmanuel

2002-01-01

259

Conducting polymers from aminobenzoic acids and aminobenzenesulphonic acids: influence of pH on electrochemical behaviour  

OpenAIRE

The influence of pH on the electrochemical behaviour of conducting polymer films electrosynthesised from aminobenzoic acids and aminobenzenesulphonic acids was investigated by voltammetric and electrochemical impedance studies in sulphuric acid solution, acetate buffer and neutral phosphate buffer. The change in electrochemical behaviour with increasing pH is significantly less for poly(aminobenzenesulphonic acid)s and poly(aminobenzoic acid)s than for polyaniline. Polymer films made by elect...

Brett, Christopher M. A.; Thiemann, Carolin

2002-01-01

260

Analysis of hysteresis phenomenon as observed from voltammetric data of conducting polymers: part I  

OpenAIRE

The hysteresis phenomenon inherent to redox processes of Electronic Conducting Polymers (ECP) has been studied. Hysteresis was divided into two classes: i) dynamic hysteresis, containing a kinetic and an ohmic component and ii) stationary or thermodynamic hysteresis. A mathematical analysis was performed on the dynamic hysteresis observed in cyclic voltammograms of two polymers: polyaniline (PANI) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT). It has been shown that in the case of P3MT, the hysteresis i...

Matencio Tulio; Pernaut Jean Michel; Vieil Eric

2003-01-01

261

Investigation of the electronic properties and morphology of conducting polymer electrodes for engineering applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We evaluate the performance of the conducting polymers, polyaniline (PAni) and poly-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-thiophene (PFPT), as the active material in electrochemical capacitors. Using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, the morphology and charge/discharge characteristics of the as-grown polymers were studied under different electrochemical conditions. When electropolymerized at high current densities in aqueous acid solution, PAni exhibits a morphology consisting of a network of interwoven fibrils. It was shown that layers of this PAni network can be electropolymerized onto a thin-planar metal substrate resulting in a decrease in cathodic and anodic peak separations, improving charge/discharge reversibility. A continuous PAni network will make possible a decreases in the total weight of the electrodes with respect to those electrodes grown onto a fibrous carbon substrate of high surface area and high porosity. The effect of different growth electrolytes on the charge/discharge process was also characterized. Hydrochloric acid electrolyte provided an optimum polymer deposition, with respect to morphology and capacitive performance. PFPT films were grown from a solution in a non-aqueous solution. High growth current densities affected the performance of PFPT polymer films in a positive manner. A growth rate of 20 mA/cm{sup 2} not only provided an increase in charge storage, but in the amount of polymer deposited when compared to equivalent amounts deposited at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. The morphology of the deposited conducting polymer is shown to be one of the most important characteristics in the attempt to achieve an ideal electrochemical capacitor electrode. The polymer morphology directly affects the charge/discharge process because of the strong interaction between ionic conductivity in the electrolyte and the electronic conductivity of the polymer. Cyclic-dependent degradation of the PFPT films was observed.

Landeros, J. Jr.; Pizzo, P.; Cantow, M. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Uribe, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-02-01

262

Sensing of environmental pollutant by conductive composite from prepared from hyperbranched polymer-grafted carbon black and crystalline polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The hyperbranched (HB) polymer-grafted (PG) carbon blacks (CB) have the possibility of utilizing as a support of catalyst and enzyme, and a curing agent of epoxy resin, because they have much terminal amino or hydroxyl groups. The postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB PG CB and the sensing of environmental pollutant by the conductive composite prepared from the polymer-postgrafted CB was discussed. The grafting of poly(amidoamide) onto CB surface was achieved by repeating either Michael addition of methyl acrylate to amino group on the surface or the amidation of the resulting terminal methyl ester group with ethylene diamine. HB polyester onto CB surface was grafted by stepwise growth of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) from surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on CB as a core in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The one-pot grafting of HB polyester onto CB as core was also achieved by the polycondensation of bis-MPA in the presence of p-TSA. Postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB polymer-grafted CB was achieved by the reaction of terminal amino or hydroxyl groups of grafted chain with COCl-terminated crystalline polymer. The electric resistance of the composite prepared from crystalline polymer-postgrafted CB was found to increase drastically in hexane, containing environmental pollutant, such as chloroform and trichloroethane, and returned immediately to the initial resistance when it was transferred into pure hexane. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the composite can be used as a novel sensor for environmental pollutant in solution

263

Effective Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites Using Local Fractal Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The model developed by Springer and Tsai is extended using non-linear volume fraction in place of physical porosity for the effective thermal conductivity of composite materials with the help of local fractal techniques. The expression for non-linear volume fraction is obtained using data available in the literature. Present model is constructed in terms of fiber volume fraction, the fiber-matrix thermal conductivity ratio and the local fractal dimensions. The effective thermal conductivity ratio is evaluated using the model with the approximation of the fractal dimensions. These fractal dimensions [PdandTd] are considered to be equal in the absence of information about the arrangement of fibers in the composites. The technique of local fractal dimensions is used to reduce the geometric complexity of the fiber arrangements. Better agreement of predicted effective thermal conductivity values with experimental results is obtained. A comparison with other models is also done and found that our model predict the values of effective thermal conductivity quite well.

Rajpal Singh Bhoopal,

2013-02-01

264

Effect of low energy oxygen ion beam irradiation on ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past three decades, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn significant attention of researchers due to their prospective commercial applications in high energy-density batteries, electrochemical sensors and super-capacitors. The optimum conductivity required for such applications is about 10-2 - 10-4 S/cm, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is known that the increase in the concentration of salt in the host polymer results in a continuous increase in the ionic conductivity. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity decreases due to formation of ion pairs with no net charge. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO: RbBr. We have attempted to modify microstructure of the host polymer matrix by low energy ion (Oxygen ion, O+1 with energy 100 keV) irradiation. Ionic conductivity measurements in these systems were carried out using Impedance Spectroscopy before and after irradiation to different fluencies of the oxygen ion. It is observed that the conductivity increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains. The study reveals the importance of ion irradiation as an effective tool to enhance conductivity in SPEs.

Manjunatha, H.; Kumaraswamy, G. N.; Damle, R.

2014-04-01

265

Effect of low energy oxygen ion beam irradiation on ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past three decades, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn significant attention of researchers due to their prospective commercial applications in high energy-density batteries, electrochemical sensors and super-capacitors. The optimum conductivity required for such applications is about 10{sup ?2} – 10{sup ?4} S/cm, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is known that the increase in the concentration of salt in the host polymer results in a continuous increase in the ionic conductivity. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity decreases due to formation of ion pairs with no net charge. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO: RbBr. We have attempted to modify microstructure of the host polymer matrix by low energy ion (Oxygen ion, O{sup +1} with energy 100 keV) irradiation. Ionic conductivity measurements in these systems were carried out using Impedance Spectroscopy before and after irradiation to different fluencies of the oxygen ion. It is observed that the conductivity increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains. The study reveals the importance of ion irradiation as an effective tool to enhance conductivity in SPEs.

Manjunatha, H., E-mail: gnk-swamy@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N., E-mail: gnk-swamy@blr.amrita.edu [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560056 (India)

2014-04-24

266

Insight into the conductivity mechanism of polymer electrolytes provided by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: DC conductivity measured from polymer electrolytes is typically non-Arrhenius and is most often described by free volume (FV) theory. To determine if polymer FV can be used exclusively to describe the solvated mobile ions, the pressure and temperature dependence of both the conductivity and FV of a polymer electrolyte have been measured and evaluated for the first time. FV theory was supported by the observation of: 1. a linear dependence of conductivity on hole volume (Vh) as measured by PALS; 2. zero Vh occurring at a temperature very close to the zero mobility temperature (T0) obtained from a VTF fit to the temperature dependence of the DC conductivity. Conductivity measured as a function of pressure allowed the calculation of VA, which can be considered as an increase in volume required for ionic motion to occur. Critical volumes calculated from two current FV models were found to be unrealistic. Combining VA with Vh at the same temperature resulted in a more realistic and 'model-free' figure for the critical volume. A comparison of the isothermal and isobaric dependence of conductivity on Vh-1 illustrates that FV cannot be considered the sole factor responsible for conductivity in polymer electrolytes. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

267

Modification of Conductive Polymer for Polymeric Anodes of Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract A conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), was modified with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in solution state, together with sub-sequential thermal treatment of its spin-coated film. The electrical conductivity increased by more than three orders of magnitude improvement was achieved. The mechanism for the conductivity improvement was studied at nanoscale by particle size analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESE...

Wang Guang-Feng; Tao Xiao-Ming; Xin John; Fei Bin

2009-01-01

268

Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics

269

Fabrication of chemiluminescence sensor based on conducting polymer@SiO2/Nafion composite film.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II) (Ru(bpy)2+) electrogerated chemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was fabricated by immobilization of Ru(bpy)2+ complex on conducting polymer@SiO2/Nafion composite film on surface of glassy carbon electrode. The conducting polymer@SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by coating polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh) on the surface of the SiO2 sphere. The conducting polymer@SiO2 nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The sensitivity and reproducibility of the prepared ECL sensor to tripropylamine (TPA) was evaluated. As a result, the PPy@SiO2 composite electrode exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility compared to that obtained with PANI@SiO2 and PTh@SiO2 composite electrodes because of the strong interaction between PPy@SiO2 and Ru(bpy)2+ complex. PMID:21137811

Jung, Da-Jung; Piao, Ming-Hua; Oh, Sang-Hyub; Woo, Jin-Chun; Choi, Seong-Ho

2010-10-01

270

Ultraviolet light responses in photovoltaic properties of TiO2/conducting polymer heterostructure devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photovoltaic properties of heterostructure devices of titanium oxide (TiO2) and conducting polymer thin films have been studied. Normal photovoltaic properties were stably observed upon the visible light irradiation of the wavelength range corresponding to the absorption of a conducting polymer, and unique photovoltaic properties were also observed upon the ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of the wavelength range corresponding to the absorption of TiO2. UV light irradiation caused marked increases in the short-circuit current at the visible-wavelength range and in the open-circuit voltage. These properties have been discussed by considering the enhancement of the built-in field which originates from the hole accumulation caused by the trap levels in the TiO2 layer or TiO2/conducting polymer interface

271

Electrochemical synthesis of electronic and ionic conductive polymer composite polyaniline/PEO network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bilayer composite of conducting polyaniline was prepared by electrochemical polymerization of anilinium salt (dissolved in appropriate solvent like DMF, methanol, or water) in poly(ethylene oxide) PEO network. When washed, dried and doped with LiClO4, the bilayer showed electro-chemical activity corresponding to doping and undoping reactions in the solid state. The bilayer was characterized by FT-IR (reflection), UV spectroscopy and microscopic examination while the electrochemical activity in the solid state was examined by cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry of the composite conductive polymer and polymer electrolyte in the solid state against Pt produced oxidation peaks at 0.26 and 0.78 V. Against Li, a broad oxidation peak appeared between 0.5 and 4.5; doping efficiency in the Li cell reached 95% between 2-4 V at a scan rate of 100 mV/s. The color of the conducting polymer as anode changed from transparent yellow to green and then to blue during the doping process. Cole-cole plots of the composite obtained by AC impedance measurements showed an arc at high frequency region (>2.82 MHx) due to polymer electrolyte impedance. Another arc due to impedance of the doping reaction, at lower frequency (>20 Hz) followed as doping of the conductive polymer preceeded; the arc is then joined by a Warburg line, which characterizes diffusion controlled kinetics at the low frequency region (<20 Hz). (auth.). 17 refs.; 14 figs. 2 tabsigs. 2 tabs

272

Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely.

Linde, Felix; Sekhar Yadavalli, Nataraja; Santer, Svetlana

2013-12-01

273

Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely

274

Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely.

Linde, Felix; Sekhar Yadavalli, Nataraja; Santer, Svetlana [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2013-12-16

275

Novel conducting polymer-heteropoly acid hybrid material for artificial photosynthetic membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial photosynthetic (AP) approaches to convert and store solar energy will require membranes capable of conducting both ions and electrons while remaining relatively transparent and chemically stable. A new approach is applied herein involving previously described in situ chemical polymerization of electronically conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in the presence of proton conducting heteropoly acid (HPA) phosphomolybdic acid (PMA). The electrochemical behaviour of the PEDOT/PMA hybrid material was investigated and it was found that the conducting polymer (CP) is susceptible to irreversible oxidative processes at potentials where water is oxidized. This will be problematic in AP devices should the process occur in very close proximity to a conducting polymer-based membrane. It was found that PEDOT grants the system good electrical performance in terms of conductivity and stability over a large pH window; however, the presence of PMA was not found to provide sufficient proton conductivity. This was addressed in an additional study by tuning the ionic (and in turn, electronic) conductivity in creating composites with the proton-permselective polymer Nafion. It was found that a material of this nature with near-equal conductivity for optimal chemical conversion efficiency will consist of roughly three parts Nafion and one part PEDOT/PMA. PMID:21384827

McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S

2011-04-01

276

Polyethylene oxide-polytetrahydrofurane-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks for high speed actuators  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, numerous studies on electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators have been reported. One promising technology is the elaboration of electronic conducting polymer-based actuators with interpenetrating polymer network (IPNs) architecture. In this study, the synthesis and characterisation of conducting IPNs for actuator applications is described. The IPNs are synthesised from polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks in which the conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated. In a first step, PEO/PTHF IPNs were prepared via an 'in situ' process using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxytelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The IPN mechanical properties were examined by DMA and tensile strength tests. N-ethylmethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) swollen PEO/PTHF IPNs show ionic conductivities up to 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. In a second step, the conducting IPN actuators were prepared by oxidative polymerisation of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidising agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. The frequency response performance of the bending conducting IPN actuator was then evaluated. The resulting actuator exhibits a mechanical resonance frequency of up to 125 Hz with 0.75% strain for an applied potential of ± 5 V.

Plesse, C.; Khaldi, A.; Wang, Q.; Cattan, E.; Teyssié, D.; Chevrot, C.; Vidal, F.

2011-12-01

277

Polyethylene oxide–polytetrahydrofurane–PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks for high speed actuators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, numerous studies on electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators have been reported. One promising technology is the elaboration of electronic conducting polymer-based actuators with interpenetrating polymer network (IPNs) architecture. In this study, the synthesis and characterisation of conducting IPNs for actuator applications is described. The IPNs are synthesised from polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks in which the conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated. In a first step, PEO/PTHF IPNs were prepared via an 'in situ' process using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxytelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The IPN mechanical properties were examined by DMA and tensile strength tests. N-ethylmethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) swollen PEO/PTHF IPNs show ionic conductivities up to 10?3 S cm?1 at 30?°C. In a second step, the conducting IPN actuators were prepared by oxidative polymerisation of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidising agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. The frequency response performance of the bending conducting IPN actuator was then evaluated. The resulting actuator exhibits a mechanical resonance frequency of up to 125 Hz with 0.75% strain for an applied potential of ± 5 V

278

Formation of Wigner crystals in conducting polymer nanowires  

CERN Document Server

The search for theoretically predicted Wigner crystal in one-dimensional (1D) wires of structurally disordered materials exhibiting properties of charge-density-waves have remained unsuccessful. Based on the results of a low temperature conductivity study we report here formation of such 1D Wigner crystal (1DWC) in polypyrrole nanowires having low electron densities. The current-voltage characteristics of all the nanowires show a 'gap' that decreases rapidly as the temperature is increased - confirming the existence of long-range electron-electron interaction in the nanowires. The measured current show power-law dependence on voltage and temperature as expected in 1DWC. A switching transition to highly conducting state has been observed above a threshold voltage, which can be tuned by changing the diameters of the nanowires and the temperature. Negative differential resistance and enhancement of noise has been observed above the threshold as expected.

Rahman, A; Rahman, Atikur; Sanyal, Milan K.

2007-01-01

279

Functional Conducting Polymers via Thiol-ene Chemistry  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate here that thiol-ene chemistry can be used to provide side-chain functionalized monomers based on 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) containing ionic, neutral, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic side chains. All reactions gave high yields and purification could generally be accomplished through precipitation. These monomers were polymerized either chemically or electro-chemically to give soluble materials or conductive films, respectively. This strategy provides for facile tuning of...

Martin, David C.; Feldman, Kathleen E.

2012-01-01

280

Evidence of ratchet effect in nanowires of a conducting polymer  

OpenAIRE

Ratchet effect, observed in many systems starting from living organism to artificially designed device, is a manifestation of motion in asymmetric potential. Here we report results of a conductivity study of Polypyrrole nanowires, which have been prepared by a simple method to generate a variation of doping concentration along the length. This variation gives rise to an asymmetric potential profile that hinders the symmetry of the hopping process of charges and hence the val...

Rahman, A.; Sanyal, M. K.; Gangopadhayy, R.; De, A.; Das, I.

2005-01-01

281

Structure-induced enhancement of thermal conductivities in electrospun polymer nanofibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymers that are thermally insulating in bulk forms have been found to exhibit higher thermal conductivities when stretched under tension. This enhanced heat transport performance is believed to arise from the orientational alignment of the polymer chains induced by tensile stretching. In this work, a novel high-sensitivity micro-device platform was employed to determine the axial thermal conductivity of individual Nylon-11 polymer nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning and post-stretching. Their thermal conductivity showed a correlation with the crystalline morphology measured by high-resolution wide-angle X-ray scattering. The relationship between the nanofiber internal structures and thermal conductivities could provide insights into the understanding of phonon transport mechanisms in polymeric systems and also guide future development of the fabrication and control of polymer nanofibers with extraordinary thermal performance and other desired properties.Polymers that are thermally insulating in bulk forms have been found to exhibit higher thermal conductivities when stretched under tension. This enhanced heat transport performance is believed to arise from the orientational alignment of the polymer chains induced by tensile stretching. In this work, a novel high-sensitivity micro-device platform was employed to determine the axial thermal conductivity of individual Nylon-11 polymer nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning and post-stretching. Their thermal conductivity showed a correlation with the crystalline morphology measured by high-resolution wide-angle X-ray scattering. The relationship between the nanofiber internal structures and thermal conductivities could provide insights into the understanding of phonon transport mechanisms in polymeric systems and also guide future development of the fabrication and control of polymer nanofibers with extraordinary thermal performance and other desired properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: E-beam platinum bonding induced damage, estimation of contact resistance between nanofibers and suspended pads, effects of heat loss from suspended devices, estimation of heat loss along nanofibers, diameter calculation for beaded fibers, schematics of the electrospinning and WAXS setup, orientation analysis of the inter-fiber alignment, WAXS patterns from bulk samples, the WAXS data analysis strategy, and estimation of the crystallinity. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00547c

Zhong, Zhenxin; Wingert, Matthew C.; Strzalka, Joseph; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Renkun; Jiang, Zhang

2014-06-01

282

Study of Swift Heavy Ion Modified Conducting Polymer Composites for Application as Gas Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A polyaniline-based conducting composite was prepared by oxidativepolymerisation of aniline in a polyvinylchloride (PVC matrix. The coherent free standingthin films of the composite were prepared by a solution casting method. The polyvinylchloride-polyaniline composites exposed to 120 MeV ions of silicon with total ion fluenceranging from 1011 to 1013 ions/cm2, were observed to be more sensitive towards ammoniagas than the unirradiated composite. The response time of the irradiated composites wasobserved to be comparably shorter. We report for the first time the application of swiftheavy ion modified insulating polymer conducting polymer (IPCP composites for sensingof ammonia gas.

Ulrich W. Scherer

2006-04-01

283

Development of a dry actuation conducting polymer actuator for micro-optical zoom lenses  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present work is to demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) based conducting polymer actuator that is fabricated into a micro zoon lens driver. Unlike the traditional conducting polymer that normally operates in a liquid, the proposed actuator successfully provides fairly effective driving performance for the zoom lens system in a dry environment. And this paper is including the experiment results for an efficiency improvement. The result suggested by an experiment was efficient in micro optical zoom lens system. In addition, the developed design method of actuator was given consideration to design the system.

Kim, Baek-Chul; Kim, Hyunseok; Nguyen, H. C.; Cho, M. S.; Lee, Y.; Nam, Jae-Do; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, J. C.; Jeong, H.-S.

2008-03-01

284

Investigations of conductive polymer coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-corrosion properties of a novel double strand conductive polymer coating on aluminum alloys in salt environments as a possible replacement for chromium conversion coatings was investigated. The conductive coating consisted of a double helix backbone structure of polyaniline wrapped with an esterified polyacrylic acid strand. This polymer complex offers advantages over other conductive polymer systems in material stability and processability. The polymer is soluble in single organic solvents and was sprayed onto square AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy samples. The coatings were investigated for corrosion protection properties using cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and long term exposure in aggressive salt environments. The polymer coated samples were tested against two commercial chromate conversion coatings and uncoated alloy samples. The cyclic polarization tests show a two order of magnitude lowering of the corrosion current over the uncoated samples, a one order of magnitude lowering of Isbcorr over the second type of chromate coating and a one order of magnitude higher Isbcorr over the first type of chromate coating. Impedance results show a two order of magnitude higher impedance at low frequencies over the uncoated and equivalent performance for both types of chromate coatings. EIS and cyclic polarization tests of the conductive state (green colored) versus a non-conductive state (blue colored) of the polymer coating shows that the electrically conductive state is more effective than the insulating state for corrosion protection. This data indicates that the electro-active nature of the polymer coating plays a role in the protection of the alloys. After two months exposure in a.5N NaCl solution, there is no evidence of pitting at the alloy surface for the polymer coated samples under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, indicating a change in the typical corrosion mechanism for aluminum alloys. The molecular structure of the polymer coating may offer the ability to chelate with the aluminum oxide layer, the metal layer or reaction products. Other researchers studying inhibitor effects have shown that this chelation is one possible way to prevent or slow the pitting process on aluminum alloy surfaces.

Racicot, Robert James

285

Optimizing Efficiency in Conducting Polymer/Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids for Organic Photovoltaics  

Science.gov (United States)

Several unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have motivated their investigation as potential replacements for fullerene derivatives as the acceptor phase of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Although replacement of the ubiquitous fullerene acceptors by SWCNTs in OPV devices has shown limited success thus far, better understanding of charge transfer between SWCNTs and conjugated polymers has promoted its viability. We provide experimental evidence that m-SWNTs limit the generation efficiency and lifetime of the charge-separated state in these composites. We also probe the photo-carrier generation and decay dynamics in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) paired with a broad diameter range of SWCNTs. We witness electron transfer from the polymer to SWCNT and selective hole transfer from the SWCNT to polymer by varying the nanotube HOMO via its diameter. We finally extend our investigation to additional semi-conducting polymers that have contributed to high OPV efficiencies, pBTTT and PCDTBT.

Holt, Josh; Prehn, Fritz; Heeney, Martin; Kopidakis, Nikos; Rumbles, Garry; Blackburn, Jeffrey

2012-02-01

286

Facile preparation of transparent and conductive polymer films based on silver nanowire/polycarbonate nanocomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver nanowires (AgNW) synthesized by a solvothermal method were incorporated into a polycarbonate matrix by a solution mixing procedure. Films with a thickness around 18 ?m were obtained, showing a good distribution of the wires within the polymer matrix. The thermal stability of the polymer matrix increased significantly, with the main decomposition peak shifting up to 74?° C for an AgNW loading of 4.35 wt%. The percolation threshold was obtained at very low AgNW content (0.04 wt%), and the composite electrical conductivity at the maximum loading (4.35 wt%) was 41.3 ? cm. Excellent transparency was obtained at the percolation threshold, with negligible reduction in the transmittance of the polymer matrix (from 88.2 to 87.6% at 0.04 wt% loading of AgNW). In addition, the polymer matrix protected the silver nanowires from oxidation, as demonstrated by the XPS analysis.

Moreno, Ivan; Navascues, Nuria; Arruebo, Manuel; Irusta, Silvia; Santamaria, Jesus

2013-07-01

287

Facile preparation of transparent and conductive polymer films based on silver nanowire/polycarbonate nanocomposites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silver nanowires (AgNW) synthesized by a solvothermal method were incorporated into a polycarbonate matrix by a solution mixing procedure. Films with a thickness around 18 ?m were obtained, showing a good distribution of the wires within the polymer matrix. The thermal stability of the polymer matrix increased significantly, with the main decomposition peak shifting up to 74?° C for an AgNW loading of 4.35 wt%. The percolation threshold was obtained at very low AgNW content (0.04 wt%), and the composite electrical conductivity at the maximum loading (4.35 wt%) was 41.3 ? cm. Excellent transparency was obtained at the percolation threshold, with negligible reduction in the transmittance of the polymer matrix (from 88.2 to 87.6% at 0.04 wt% loading of AgNW). In addition, the polymer matrix protected the silver nanowires from oxidation, as demonstrated by the XPS analysis. (paper)

288

Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: > The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. > The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. > The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

Alvi, Farah [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@mail.usf.edu [Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Basnayaka, Punya A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Stefanakos, Elias [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Goswami, Yogi [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States)

2011-10-30

289

Evidence of ratchet effect in nanowires of a conducting polymer  

CERN Document Server

Ratchet effect, observed in many systems starting from living organism to artificially designed device, is a manifestation of motion in asymmetric potential. Here we report results of a conductivity study of Polypyrrole nanowires, which have been prepared by a simple method to generate a variation of doping concentration along the length. This variation gives rise to an asymmetric potential profile that hinders the symmetry of the hopping process of charges and hence the value of measured resistance of these nanowires become sensitive to the direction of current flow. The asymmetry in resistance was found to increase with decreasing nanowire diameter and increasing temperature. The observed phenomena could be explained with the assumption that the spatial extension of localized state involved in hopping process reduces as the doping concentration reduces along the length of the nanowires.

Rahman, A; Gangopadhayy, R; De, A; Das, I

2006-01-01

290

Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: ? The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. ? The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. ? The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presed/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

291

Conductivity studies of LiCF3SO3 doped PVA: PVdF blend polymer electrolyte  

Science.gov (United States)

Different composition of lithium ion conducting PVA: PVdF: Lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) polymer electrolytes have been prepared by solution casting technique. Dielectric and conductivity studies have been carried out for the prepared samples. The addition of salt into the polymer matrix increases the ionic conductivity of blend polymer electrolytes. The conductivity analysis reveals 80PVA: 20PVdF: 15LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte exhibits the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.7×10-3 S cm-1 at 303 K. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity for all the composition of PVA: PVdF: LiCF3SO3 polymer films obey Arrhenius relation. Low activation energy has been obtained for highest conducting sample. The dielectric spectra show absolute ?-relaxation peak.

Tamilselvi, P.; Hema, M.

2014-03-01

292

Conductivity studies of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} doped PVA: PVdF blend polymer electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different composition of lithium ion conducting PVA: PVdF: Lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) polymer electrolytes have been prepared by solution casting technique. Dielectric and conductivity studies have been carried out for the prepared samples. The addition of salt into the polymer matrix increases the ionic conductivity of blend polymer electrolytes. The conductivity analysis reveals 80PVA: 20PVdF: 15LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} polymer electrolyte exhibits the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.7×10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 303 K. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity for all the composition of PVA: PVdF: LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} polymer films obey Arrhenius relation. Low activation energy has been obtained for highest conducting sample. The dielectric spectra show absolute ?-relaxation peak.

Tamilselvi, P.; Hema, M., E-mail: mhema2006@gmail.com

2014-03-15

293

Conductivity studies of LiCF3SO3 doped PVA: PVdF blend polymer electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different composition of lithium ion conducting PVA: PVdF: Lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) polymer electrolytes have been prepared by solution casting technique. Dielectric and conductivity studies have been carried out for the prepared samples. The addition of salt into the polymer matrix increases the ionic conductivity of blend polymer electrolytes. The conductivity analysis reveals 80PVA: 20PVdF: 15LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte exhibits the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.7×10?3 S cm?1 at 303 K. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity for all the composition of PVA: PVdF: LiCF3SO3 polymer films obey Arrhenius relation. Low activation energy has been obtained for highest conducting sample. The dielectric spectra show absolute ?-relaxation peak

294

Conducting polymer-doped polyprrrole as an effective cathode catalyst for Li-O2 batteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Doped polypyrrole as cathode catalysts for Li-O2 batteries. • Polypyrrole has an excellent redox capability to activate oxygen reduction. • Chloride doped polypyrrole demonstrated an improved catalytic performance in Li-O2 batteries. - Abstract: Polypyrrole conducting polymers with different dopants have been synthesized and applied as the cathode catalyst in Li-O2 batteries. Polypyrrole polymers exhibited an effective catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in lithium oxygen batteries. It was discovered that dopant significantly influenced the electrochemical performance of polypyrrole. The polypyrrole doped with Cl? demonstrated higher capacity and more stable cyclability than that doped with ClO4?. Polypyrrole conducting polymers also exhibited higher capacity and better cycling performance than that of carbon black catalysts

295

Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the conten [...] t of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride). The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

Cristiane M., Becker; Amanda B., Biagini; Maria M. C., Forte; Sandro C., Amico; José V. C., Vargas; Denise S., Azambuja.

296

Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

Cristiane M. Becker

2012-01-01

297

Electrochemical synthesis of a microporous conductive polymer based on a metal-organic framework thin film.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous polyaniline with well-defined uniform micropores of 0.84?nm exhibits a high BET surface area of 986?m(2) g(-1) and a high electric conductivity of 0.125?S?cm(-1) when doped with I2, which is superior to existing porous conducting materials of porous MOFs, CMPs, and COFs. PMID:24854086

Lu, Chunjing; Ben, Teng; Xu, Shixian; Qiu, Shilun

2014-06-16

298

Radiation chemistry as an alternative way for the synthesis of PEDOT conducting Polymers under “soft” Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of conducting PEDOT is achieved through an original soft alternative way: radiolysis of aerated aqueous solutions of EDOT in the absence of any external chemical initiators. The oxidation of EDOT monomers is shown to be initiated by HO. hydroxyl radicals produced by water radiolysis. A recurrent step-by-step oxidation process leads to self-assembled hydrophilic PEDOT polymers which are evidenced in solution by cryo-TEM and after centrifugation and deposition by AFM and ATR-FTIR techniques. Optical and conducting properties of radiosynthesized PEDOT-containing layers, which are respectively evaluated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and by cyclic voltammetry, are found to be close to those of usually electrosynthesized PEDOT layers. Highlights: ? ?-radiolysis is used as a “soft” alternative way for synthesizing conducting polymers. ? Starting from EDOT monomers, PEDOT polymers are produced. ? A mechanistic study of EDOT oxidation is considered. ? Chemical and structural characterizations of PEDOT are made. ? Their optical and conducting properties are compared to those of electrochemically synthesized PEDOT polymers.

299

Photomodulation spectroscopy of photocarrier dynamics, electronic defects and morphology of conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of techniques were used: CW photomodulation, photomodulation in femtosecond and picosecond time ranges, CW resonant Raman scattering, transient photoinduced Raman scattering, electro-absorption, degenerate four-wave mixing, spin dependent photomodulation, and absorption detected magnetic resonance. The following conducting polymers were studied: polyacetylene, polythiophene, polydiacetylene 4-BCMU, polydiethynylsilanes, polysilane embedded in a-Si:H matrix, and fullerenes

300

Ionic conductivity and transport number of lithium ion in polymer electrolytes containing PEG-borate ester  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the effects of PEG-borate ester on the ionic conductivity and transport number of lithium ions in polymer electrolytes with Li-salt, such as LiN(CF3SO2)2, LiClO4 or LiCF3SO3. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte with LiN(CF3SO2)2 was found to be higher than those of the electrolytes with LiClO4 or LiCF3SO3. This result is mainly concerned with mobility of ions, which is indicated by the comparison of glass transition temperatures of the polymer electrolytes. On the other hand, the transport numbers of lithium ions in the polymer electrolytes with LiClO4 or LiCF3SO3 were higher than those of the electrolyte with LiN(CF3SO3)2. Furthermore, the conductivities of lithium ions calculated by multiplying the ionic conductivity measured by ac impedance with transport number of lithium ions were also found to be higher than that of the electrolytes with LiN(CF3SO2). These results indicate that the PEG-borate ester acts as Lewis acid and interacts with CF3SO3- or ClO4- more effectively compared with N(CF3SO2)2-, leading to improved dissociation of Li-salts and transport number of lithium ions

301

Integration of microwave MEMS devices into rectangular waveguide with conductive polymer interposers  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates a novel method of integrating microwave microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) chips into millimeter-wave rectangular waveguides. The fundamental difficulties of merging micromachined with macromachined microwave components, in particular, surface topography, roughness, mechanical stress points and air gaps interrupting the surface currents, are overcome by a double-side adhesive conductive polymer interposer. This interposer provides a uniform electrical contact, stabl...

Baghchehsaraei, Zargham; Sterner, Mikael; A?berg, Jan; Oberhammer, Joachim

2013-01-01

302

Hybrid solar cells with conducting polymers and vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays: The effect of silicon conductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, based on vertically aligned n-type silicon nanowires (n-Si NWs) and p-type conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS), were investigated as a function of Si conductivity. The n-Si NWs were easily prepared from the n-Si wafer by employing a silver nanodot-mediated micro-electrochemical redox reaction. This investigation shows that the photocurrent-to-voltage characteristics of the n-Si NW/PEDOT:PSS cells clearly exhibit a stable rectifying diode behavior. The increase in current density and fill factor using high conductive silicon is attributed to an improved charge transport towards the electrodes achieved by lowering the device's series resistance. Our results also show that the surface area of the nanowire that can form heterojunction domains significantly influences the device performance.

303

Alumina/polymer-coated nanocrystals with extremely high stability used as a color conversion material in LEDs  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term stability of quantum dot (QD)-based devices under harsh environmental conditions has been a critical bottleneck to be resolved for commercial use. Here, we demonstrate an extremely stable QD/alumina/polymer hybrid structure by combining internal atomic layer deposition (ALD) infilling with polymer encapsulation. ALD infilling and polymer encapsulation of QDs synergistically prohibit the degradation of QDs in terms of optical, thermal and humid attacks. Our hybrid QD/alumina/polymer film structure showed no noticeable reduction in photoluminescence even in a commercial grade test (85% humidity at 85?° C) over 28 days. In addition, we successfully fabricated a QD-based light-emitting device with excellent long-term stability by incorporating hybrid QD/alumina/polymer film as a color conversion material on light-emitting diode chips.

Woo, Ju Yeon; Lee, Jongsoo; Han, Chang-Soo

2013-12-01

304

Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Proton Conducting Poly (Vinyl) Chloride (PVC) Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly (vinyl) chloride (PVC)-NH4I-EC films have been prepared by the solution cast technique. The sample containing 30 wt. % NH4I exhibited the highest room temperature conductivity of 4.60 x 10-7 S cm-1. The conductivity increased to 1.08 x 10-6 S cm-1 when 15 wt. % of ethylene carbonate (EC) was added to 70 wt. % PVC - 30 wt. % NH4I. The effects of ethylene carbonate (EC) addition on the frequency dependent dielectric properties of PVC based electrolytes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the temperature range of 300 K to 373 K. The dielectric properties and ac conductivity of the samples prepared have been analyzed. The values of dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing conductivity of the samples. Analysis of the ac conductivity data revealed the electrolytes to be of the non-Debye type with conduction mechanism of the overlapping-large-polaron-tunneling (OLPT) model. (author)

305

Ordered structures in proton conducting membranes from supramolecular liquid crystal polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly sulfonated forms of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) have been prepared in three different molecular configurations; sulfonated diamine form (S-PPTA), sulfonated terephthalic acid form (S-invert-PPTA), and the bi-sulfonated form (S2-PPTA). All three polymers are water soluble to a certain degree and films were cast from solution for S-PPTA and S-invert-PPTA. S-PPTA films absorb less water than S-invert-PPTA (under controlled humidity conditions) and consequently, the conductivity for this polymer is also slightly lower. Although the conductivities are comparable to Nafion (of the order of 10(-2) to 10(-1) Scm(-1)), proton mobility is more restricted. X-ray diffraction showed that the rigid molecules are aligned in opposite directions for the two polymer films, being homeotropic in S-PPTA films and planar for S-invert-PPTA. SEM analysis demonstrated layering in the same direction as the alignment of the polymer chains. The variation in the polymer alignment is most likely the result of the differences in the solution properties and the film forming process. It is possible, however, that this alignment could be exploited to enhance proton transport and thus these films are of interest for fuel cell membranes. PMID:17125333

Every, Hayley A; Mendes, Eduardo; Picken, Stephen J

2006-11-30

306

Transdutores potenciométricos a base de polímeros condutores: aplicações analíticas / Potentiometric transducers based in conducting polymers: analytical applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A review is given about the most relevant advances on the analytical applications of conducting polymers in potentiometric sensors. These organic polymers represent a new class of materials with conducting properties due to its doping by ions. Several polymers already were synthesized such as polypy [...] rrole, polyaniline, polythiophene, among others. Particular attention is devoted to the main advantages supplied by ion selective electrodes and gas sensors using conducting polymers, as well as the incorporation of bioactive elements in these polymers for the construction of biosensors. The correlation between structure, stability and ability to ion exchange of some conducting polymers applied as potentiometric transducers, is discussed.

Laércio, Rover Júnior; Graciliano de, Oliveira Neto; Lauro Tatsuo, Kubota.

1997-10-01

307

Surface excitation correction of the inelastic mean free path in selected conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In earlier works, the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons was determined by elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) using Ni and Ag reference standard samples, but fully neglecting surface excitation. Surface excitation that is characterized by the surface excitation parameter (SEP), and may affect considerably the elastic peak for the sample and the reference material. The SEP parameters of selected conducting polymers (polythiophenes, polyaniline and polyethylene) were determined by EPES using Si and Ge reference samples. Experiments were made with a hemispherical analyzer of energy resolution 100-200 meV in the E = 0.2-2.0 keV energy range. The composition of the sample surfaces was determined by in situ XPS, their surface roughness by AFM. The experimental SEP parameter data of eight polymer samples were determined by our new procedure, using the formulae of Chen and Werner et al. in the E = 0.2-2.0 keV energy range. The trial and error procedure is based on the best approach between the experimental and calculated IMFPs, corrected on surface excitation. The improvement in the SEP correction appears in the difference between the corrected and Monte Carlo calculated IMFPs, assuming Gries and Tanuma et al. IMFPs for polymers and standard, respectively. The term describing the improvement by SEP resulted in 50-72% (good correction for five polymers) 24% (poor correction for one polymer), 1-6% (no correction for two polymers). The 100% correction was not ac polymers). The 100% correction was not achieved, indicating that the difference between experimental and calculated IMFP cannot be entirely explained by surface excitation. Using the SEP data of Si and Ge reference samples based on Chen's and Werner's material parameter values resulted in similar SEP corrections for the polymer samples

308

Nanotechnology-the key to unlocking the intrinsic properties of inherently conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Currently the properties of inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines at the macroscopic level is limited by our ability to unlock the inherent electronic and electrochemical properties they possess at the nanodimension. It is known that the macroscopic structures consist of highly conducting nanodimensional islands separated by a sea of less conducting material. It is also known that incredibly fast and discrete electrochemical switching can be obtained if nanowire ICP electrodes are used instead of larger structures. In our recent work several approaches for the synthesis and fabrication of controlled nanodimensional structures based on inherently conducting polymers have been investigated. The simplest involves chemical oxidation of monomer in an inverse microemulsion to produce polyaniline nanoparticles. The second approach involves use of a flow-through electrolytic method which enables production of nanoparticles of tightly controlled dimensions. Conducting polymer nanostructures have also been produced in our laboratories using an inverse synthetic opal approach wherein ICPs are synthesized within the interstitial volume of ordered nanoparticles. In a different strategy we have utilized the unusual properties of carbon nanotubes (high strength and conductivity) to produce ICP nanostructures. This has been achieved by using water soluble conducting polymer as a dispersant prior to making CNT structures dispersant prior to making CNT structures or by individually coating arrays (forests) of aligned carbon nanotubes. The former approach has been used to produce CNT structures with high charge storage capabilities while the latter has presented a convenient route to ICP based biosensor surfaces with enhanced performance characteristics. Each of the above approaches to development of ICP nanocomponents and the properties of these unique structures will be discussed here

309

Colloidally templated two-dimensional conducting polymer arrays and SAMs: binary composition patterning and chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A facile approach and strategy toward binary-composition, two-dimensional (2D) patterned surfaces of conducting polymer periodic arrays, together with thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is described. The method involved a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)-like deposition of latex microsphere particles, electropolymerization via cyclic voltammetric (CV) techniques, and self-assembly of an amphiphile. The LB-like technique enabled the monolayer deposition of different sizes of polystyrene (PS) particles in hexagonal packing arrangement on planar substrates. Combining the LB-like method with CV electropolymerization is advantageous because it provides deposition control of a polymer interconnected network, controlled composition ratio of polymer and SAMs, and control of 2D size and spacing of the spherical void pattern. Electrochemical-quartz crystal microbalance (EC-QCM) in situ monitoring of the film deposition quantified a constant and linear growth rate, with varying viscoelastic behavior of the conducting polymer adsorption on planar and PS-templated substrates. The dual-patterned surface provided a good imaging contrast as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complementary analyses such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total internal reflection infrared (ATR IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and static contact angle measurements were used to characterize the formation of the patterned surface. The versatility of the method enables the potential for making various types of quantitative binary compositions and patterned surfaces using different combinations of conducting polymer or functional SAMs, which can be extended in the future to polymer brushes and layer-by-layer assembly of various materials. PMID:21355551

Pernites, Roderick B; Felipe, Mary Jane L; Foster, Edward L; Advincula, Rigoberto C

2011-03-01

310

Polymer Nanofibers with Outstanding Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stability: Fundamental Linkage between Molecular Characteristics and Macroscopic Thermal Properties  

OpenAIRE

Polymer nanofibers with high thermal conductivities and outstanding thermal stabilities are highly desirable in heat transfer-critical applications such as thermal management, heat exchangers and energy storage. In this work, we unlock the fundamental relations between the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of polymer nanofibers and their molecular characteristics by studying the temperature-induced phase transitions and thermal transport of a series of polymer nanof...

Zhang, Teng; Wu, Xufei; Luo, Tengfei

2014-01-01

311

Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

Beleze Fábio A.

2001-01-01

312

A PbS quantum-cube: conducting polymer composite for photovoltaic applications  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a new non-polar synthesis for lead sulfide (PbS) "quantum-cubes" in the conjugated polymer poly-2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy- p -phenylenevinylene) MEH-PPV. The conducting polymer acts to template and control the quantum-cube growth. Transmission electron microscopy of the composites has shown a bimodal distribution of cube sizes between 5 and 15 nm is produced with broad optical absorption from 300 to 650 nm. Photoluminescence suggests electronic coupling between the cube...

Watt, Aar; Meredith, P.; Riches, Jd; Atkinson, S.; Rubinsztein-dunlop, H.

2004-01-01

313

Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanotubes/conducting polymers structures  

OpenAIRE

This research work considers the realization of 3D hybrid materials TiO2 nanotubes/conducting polymer. In this thesis, it is proven that the background salt from the synthesis solution plays a decisive role during the polymer deposition through anodic polarization within TiO2 nanotube arrays. In fact, results show that the nature of the supporting electrolyte has an influence on the position of the flat band potential of the semiconductor, and on the presence of surface states, which both aff...

Ngaboyamahina, E.

2014-01-01

314

Microwave-plasma dry-etch for fabrication of conducting polymer microelectrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

An inexpensive dry etch technology based on a low-pressure microwave plasma generated in a countertop microwave oven is characterized for the patterning of a conductive polymer microelectrode. The etch process is described, and the microwave-generated plasma is characterized by emission spectroscopy. The plasma is generated with an atmospheric mixture of mostly nitrogen and oxygen. A 10 ?m wide band microelectrode composed of PEDOT:Tosylate, an optically transparent conductive polymer, is fabricated on a plastic substrate. Conductive polymer etch rates are approximately 280-300 nm/minute. A patterned microelectrode is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The horizontal distance of a 10-90% height of a plasma-etched 150 nm thick electrode was measured to be 360 ± 200 nm (n = 5). Electrodes are further characterized using steady-state cyclic voltammetry, and they have an electroactive area congruent with their geometric area. Finally, a complete device is assembled and used as a separation platform for biogenic amines. A microwave-etched 250 ?m PEDOT:PSS electrode is employed for end-channel electrochemical detection on this microchip, where an electrophoretic separation of dopamine and catechol and a micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation of dopamine and serotonin are performed. Both mass and concentration LODs are comparable to other electrochemical detectors in an end-channel configuration. With the added advantages of easy processing, robustness, optical transparency, and low cost, we expect microwave-etched polymer films to be a viable alternative to traditional electrodes. PMID:24417474

Vreeland, Richard F; Laude, Nicholas D; Lambert, Sean M; Heien, Michael L

2014-02-01

315

Electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in conducting polymer matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical and dielectric properties of conducting polypyrrole-wide band gap silica (PPY-SiO2) nanocomposites have been investigated as a function of temperature and frequency for different concentrations of polypyrrole. The average grain size of the nanocomposites is in the range of 40-80 nm. Impedance spectra reveal two distorted semicircles corresponding to grain and grain boundary effects. The magnitude of conductivity and its temperature variation are significantly different from polypyrrole and silica. A very large dielectric constant of about 4800 at 30 kHz and at room temperature has been observed for the highest concentration of silica. Inhomogeneous behavior of nanocomposites gives rise to high dielectric constant

316

Application of the Kelvin Probe method for screening the interfacial reactivity of conducting polymer based coatings for corrosion protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our recent studies we could show that intrinsically conducting polymers definitely possess promising potential for application in intelligent corrosion protection coatings. One prerequisite for this was shown to be that macroscopic networks of the conducting polymers have to be avoided in the coating in order to avoid predominant and disastrously fast cation incorporation during the corrosion induced reduction of the polymer. Only then anions serving as inhibitors and safely stored in the conducting polymer will be efficiently released during a corrosive attack. This mechanism is more or less independent of the metal that has to be protected, i.e. it is a property of the composite coating derived from dispersing micro-clusters of conducting polymer in a non-conducting matrix and unspecific for the metal onto which it is to be applied. In this paper we focus on specific electrochemical reactions at the interface between the conducting polymer and the metal that were found to define further criteria for successful application. The aim should be that the conducting polymer is in electronic contact with the passive metal surface. However, the formation of an insulating interface, i.e. loss of electronic contact and hence functional inactivity of the conducting polymer, and enhanced corrosion are also possible. We will show how by application of the Kelvin Probe method a fast and easy screening between these three cases can be achieved.chieved.

317

Study on power generation using electro-conductive polymer and its mixture with magnetic fluid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new power generation system using electro-conductive polymer and its mixture with magnetic fluid is introduced. The system using non-poison electro-conductive polymer and its mixture with magnetic fluid and operating at room temperature is proposed in the present paper. The system could be used as a micro-distributed energy supply system for domestic use in the future. An experimental set-up is designed and established to investigate the performance of the power generation with an aid of a theoretical analysis of the power generation. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the measured data. Based on the obtained results, the electric output increases with Reynolds number, size of the test channel, magnetic strength and electric conductivity. It is understood that in order to obtain a practical power generation, priority should be put on increasing fluid flow velocity and magnetic field strength.

Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-Tanabeshi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Zhang Xinrong [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-Tanabeshi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)], E-mail: xrzhang@coe.pku.edu.cn; Higashi, Shidei; Li, Mingjun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-Tanabeshi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

2008-04-15

318

Fabrication and Testing of a Bi-Conductive Polymer Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the fabrication process and testing of a bi-conductive polymer membrane (BCPM) fuel cell that integrates lateral current collectors on both sides with an ionic conductive path through the membrane. The new membrane shows major advantages over standard Nafion® membranes used in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). In addition to being mechanically stable when wet, the flexible BCPM integrates efficient thin film current collectors (ICCs) on an ionic conductive membrane with a high active area ratio. Also, ICCs leave all the surface of the electrode free to eventually integrate a more efficient water and gas management system than traditional gas diffusion layers. Moreover, the fabricated membrane has shown superior volumetric power density than standard PEMFC (0.76 vs 0.47 mW/cm2?m).

Hamel, S.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Fréchette, L. G.

2014-11-01

319

Modification of Conductive Polymer for Polymeric Anodes of Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, was modified with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO in solution state, together with sub-sequential thermal treatment of its spin-coated film. The electrical conductivity increased by more than three orders of magnitude improvement was achieved. The mechanism for the conductivity improvement was studied at nanoscale by particle size analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Smaller particle size was observed, resulting in larger contact area and better electrical conductive connections. Connection of conductive PEDOT increased on the surface of the PEDOT:PSS particles, which promoted high conductivity. Flexible anodes based on the modified PEDOT:PSS were fabricated. Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLED based the polymeric anodes have a comparable performance to those on indium–tin–oxide (ITO anodes.

Wang Guang-Feng

2009-01-01

320

Electronic conduction and microstructure in polymer composites filled with carbonaceous particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical and physico-chemical properties of polymer filled with carbon black (CB) particles, namely, the microstructure dependence of these properties, are not only interesting on their own but are particularly important for electronic applications as they can impose limits on the sensitivity of a device. With this purpose, we report on an experimental study of the structural and electrical properties of semi-crystalline ethylene-co-butyl acrylate polymer filled with conductive CB nano-particles. We found that the value of the direct current conductivity exhibits a jump of 12 orders of magnitude over a small change in CB concentration and is due to a percolation-like behavior. To assess the temperature evolution of supercolative samples, we present measurements of the conductivity as function of temperature. Above the glass transition temperature of the polymer, the CB network restricts the motions of the polymer chains. This behavior was ascribed to the change in CB mesostructure in the polymer matrix as probed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy as well as to the difference in the thermal expansion between the two phases. In addition to the observed conductivity increase, the effect of adding CB particles in the polymer matrix is to increase the thermal stability as is probed by thermogravimetric analysis tests. The room temperature alternating current conductivity, studied over the frequency range from 100 Hz to 15 MHz, is interpreted as arising mainly from inter-aggregate polarization effects. By considering carefully the CB content of the alternating current conductivity, we found that our experimental data agree well with the Sheng's model of fluctuation-induced tunnelling of charge carriers over nanometric gaps between adjacent CB aggregates. For studying the filler content dependence of the effective permittivity, several mixing laws and effective medium theories have been used. The observed discrepancies between our experimental data and these theoretical predictions may be occur partly because these analysis contain an inaccurate knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous phase, give a poor description of the interfaces in these complex heterostructures, or both. As part of the present investigation, present results are compared to transport properties of polystyrene-cobutyl acrylate latex and epoxy resin matrices filled with different loadings of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and over wide temperature and frequency ranges. It is remarkable that the MWCNT's anisotropy (length-to-diameter ratio close to 100) manifests itself in percolation-like behavior with lower threshold volume fraction and different mesostructure than that evidenced for CB filled samples.

Mdarhri, A.; Brosseau, C.; Zaghrioui, M.; El Aboudi, I.

2012-08-01

321

Surface excitation correction of the inelastic mean free path in selected conducting polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In earlier works, the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons was determined by elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) using Ni and Ag reference standard samples, but fully neglecting surface excitation. Surface excitation that is characterized by the surface excitation parameter (SEP), and may affect considerably the elastic peak for the sample and the reference material. The SEP parameters of selected conducting polymers (polythiophenes, polyaniline and polyethylene) were determined by EPES using Si and Ge reference samples. Experiments were made with a hemispherical analyzer of energy resolution 100-200 meV in the E = 0.2-2.0 keV energy range. The composition of the sample surfaces was determined by in situ XPS, their surface roughness by AFM. The experimental SEP parameter data of eight polymer samples were determined by our new procedure, using the formulae of Chen and Werner et al. in the E = 0.2-2.0 keV energy range. The trial and error procedure is based on the best approach between the experimental and calculated IMFPs, corrected on surface excitation. The improvement in the SEP correction appears in the difference between the corrected and Monte Carlo calculated IMFPs, assuming Gries and Tanuma et al. IMFPs for polymers and standard, respectively. The term describing the improvement by SEP resulted in 50-72% (good correction for five polymers) 24% (poor correction for one polymer), 1-6% (no correction for two polymers). The 100% correction was not achieved, indicating that the difference between experimental and calculated IMFP cannot be entirely explained by surface excitation. Using the SEP data of Si and Ge reference samples based on Chen's and Werner's material parameter values resulted in similar SEP corrections for the polymer samples.

Gergely, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)]. E-mail: gergely@mfa.kfki.hu; Menyhard, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Orosz, G.T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Lesiak, B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44/52 (Poland); Kosinski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44/52 (Poland); Jablonski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44/52 (Poland); Nowakowski, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44/52 (Poland); Toth, J. [Nuclear Research Institute ATOMKI, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Varga, D. [Nuclear Research Institute ATOMKI, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)

2006-05-15

322

Properties of grafted polymer metal complexes as ion exchangers and its electrical conductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polyelectrolyte has been prepared as a potential proton exchanger polymer by grafting of acrylic acid/acrylamide and acrylic acid/acrylonitrile comonomer onto low density polyethylene film via gamma radiation. The influence of grafting percent on the electrical conductivity was studied. The resulting polymers were then characterized by evaluating their physico-chemical properties such as ion exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity as a function of grafting yield. The grafted films at different compositions was characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the grafted film at grafting % (191) and monomer concentration ratio 50:50 for (LDPE-g-AAc/AAm) was found to be more than that for (LDPE-g-AAc/AN). The electrical conductivity was found to be greatly affected by the comonomer composition where it increased as the degree of grafting increased for all grafted films. After alkaline treatment with 3% KOH, the electrical conductivity of the grafted films found to be increased. The presence of potassium as counter ion maximized the electrical conductivity of the grafted films. The electrical conductivity of Cu-membrane complexes was higher than that of both Co and Ni complexes. The electrical conductivity increases by increasing both Cu ions content and temperature

323

Proton conducting polymer electrolytes based on KH2PO4 doped PVA  

Science.gov (United States)

Transparent and anhydrous proton conducting polymer electrolytes based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) with different concentrations of KDP (?KDP) were prepared by solution casting technique. Ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes, studied by the complex impedance method, increases with increasing temperature as well as phosphate doping-level and then decreases with increasing phosphate (?C>2.5wt%KDP). The maximum ionic conductivity (3.7 × 10-4 S/cm) and minimum activation energy (˜0.25eV) was obtained at 303K for this typical concentration ?C. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity of the prepared polymer electrolytes obeys Arrhenius law. Moreover, the PVA/KDP composite exhibiting high dielectric constante ?' ˜ 430 (80 times higher compared to pure PVA) near the percolation threshold (?C =2.5wt% KDP) with low dielectric losses (˜0.15) at 1 kHz and room temperature might be suitable for technological applications.

Uddin, Md Jamal; Sarkar, S. C.; Chaudhuri, B. K.

2012-06-01

324

TITANIUM DIOXIDE TRIADS FOR IMPROVED CHARGE-SEPARATION USING CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially one of the best solutions to solar energy conversion because of the low cost of required materials and production processes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticulate fi lms are the basis for one of these types of cells, providing large surface area for dye-sensitizer adsorption. Because TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms develop defects caused by oxygen defi ciency, deep reactive electron traps are formed. With the addition of an enediol ligand, these electron traps are deliberately removed, enhancing the conduction of electrons within the fi lm. In this project, TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms made by a layer-by-layer dip coating method were modifi ed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). DOPAC binds to the titanium atoms on the surface of the nanoparticles, restoring their octahedral geometry. This restructuring of the surface shifts the spectral properties of the TiO2 to the visible spectrum and improves the separation of charges which is observed using photoelectrochemistry. Furthermore, DOPAC enables the electronic attachment of other molecules to the surface of TiO2 fi lms, such as the conductive polymer polyaniline base. This conductive polymer provides an extended separation of charges which increases photocurrent production by forming a triad with the TiO2 semiconductor through the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid linker. The photocurrent increases due to the donor properties of the conductive polymer thereby decreasing charge pair recombination.

Cochran, T.M.; Gaylor, T.N.; de la Garza, L.; Rajh, T.

2009-01-01

325

Conductivity of microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites with CNT-loaded microfibrils or compatibilizer: A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conductive polymer composites have wide ranging applications, but when they are produced by conventional melt blending, high conductive filler loadings are normally required, hindering their processability and reducing mechanical properties. In this study, two types of polymer-polymer composites were studied: i microfibrillar composites (MFC of polypropylene (PP and 5 wt% carbon nanotube (CNT loaded poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT as reinforcement, and ii maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA compatibilizer, loaded with 5 wt% CNTs introduced into an MFC of PP and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET in concentrations of 5 and 10 wt%. For the compatibilized composite type, PP and PET were melt-blended, cold-drawn and pelletized, followed by dry-mixing with PP-g-MA/CNT, re-extrusion at 200°C, and cold-drawing. The drawn blends produced were compression moulded to produce sheets with MFC structure. Using scanning electron microscopy, CNTs coated with PP-g-MA could be observed at the interface between PP matrix and PET microfibrils in the compatibilized blends. The volume resistivities tested by four-point test method were: 2.87•108 and 9.93•107 ?•cm for the 66.5/28.5/5 and 63/27/10 (by wt% PP/PET/(PP-g-MA/CNT blends, corresponding to total CNT loadings (in the composites of 0.07 vol% (0.24 wt% and 0.14 vol% (0.46 wt%, respectively. For the non-compatibilized MFC types based on PP/(PBT/CNT with higher and lower melt flow grades of PP, the resistivities of 70/(95/5 blends were 1.9•106 and 1.5•107 ?•cm, respectively, corresponding to a total filler loading (in the composite of 0.44 vol% (1.5 wt% in both MFCs.

S. Fakirov

2013-07-01

326

Key role of the desolvation in the achievement of the quasi-metallic state of electronically conducting polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Redox transformation of electronically conducting polymers was studied by different in situ combined electrochemical techniques. Results obtained with polypyrrole/dodecyl sulfate film in aqueous solution and with polythiophene/hexafluorophosphate films in acetonitrile by in situ ac conductance and EQCM support the assumption of the key role of the desolvation in the achievement of the so-called quasi-metallic state of electronically conducting polymers. The desolvation considered as a phase transition is the chemical background of the capacitive behaviour, and it causes the structural changes, which lead to a film in which the interchain interactions may form the large-scale conducting polymer matrix

327

An all-polymer micropump based on the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and a polyurethane channel system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An all-polymer micropunlp was realized using the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) as the active cODlponent. The pUlnping effect originated fronl an ac potential applied to an aSylnlnetric array of interdigitat.ed electrodes. The PEDT electrodes were fabricated using optical lithography and reactive ion etching, and dimensions down to 2 jtD) could be successfully realize·d. The channel systeDl wasm.ade froln a flexible thennoplastic polyurethane. The chosen polyurethane exhibited good sealing without the possible contanlination issues of silicones, adequate wetting without plasma treatment, and has the potential for Dlass production, e.g., by injection lTIoulding. The assembled micropunlp showed a pUDlping speed of 150 /LID s-l at a frequency of 10 kHz and an alnplitude of 5 V. Higher potentials resulted in pennanent dalnage to the pUlnp electrodes. Encapsulation of t.he conducting polylner electrodes by an insulating polYlTIer layer prevented electrode break-down at the cost of puolping efficiency. Continuous punlping for 40 nlin at 20 fJ..,m s-l without detectable pump degradation was delTIOnstrated in this configuration.

Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld

2007-01-01

328

Correlated conformation and charge transport in multiwall carbon nanotube-conducting polymer nanocomposites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strikingly different charge transport behaviours in nanocomposites of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and conducting polymer polyethylenedioxythiophene-polystyrene-sulfonic-acid (PEDOT-PSS) at low temperatures are explained by probing their conformational properties using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS studies indicate the assembly of elongated PEDOT-PSS globules on the walls of nanotubes, coating them partially, thereby limiting the interaction between the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. This results in a charge transport governed mainly by small polarons in the conducting polymer despite the presence of metallic MWNTs. At T > 4 K, hopping of the charge carriers following one-dimensional variable range hopping is evident which also gives rise to a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with an enhanced localization length (?5 nm) due to the presence of MWNTs. However, at T < 4 K, the observation of an unconventional positive temperature coefficient of resistivity is attributed to small polaron tunnelling. The exceptionally large negative MR observed in this temperature regime is conjectured to be due to the presence of quasi-1D MWNTs that can aid in lowering the tunnelling barrier across the nanotube-polymer boundary resulting in large delocalization.

329

Smart Surface Chemistries of Conducting Polymers : for Guiding Cell Behavior in Polymeric Microsystems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this thesis we investigate post-polymerization covalent modifications of poly(3,4-dioxythiophene (PEDOT)-type conducting polymers. The aim of the modifications is to gain specific control of the interaction between the material and living mammalian cells. The use of “click-chemistry” to modify an azide-modified PEDOT, poly(3,4-(1-azidomethylethylene)-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3), is studied in detail, and found to be a valuable approach. This is concluded, as we are able to obtain delicate control of cellular adhesion, by covalently attaching appropriate bio-functional molecules onto PEDOT-N3 thin film substrates. Complementing these findings, we introduce a novel technique for fabricating surface chemical gradients on PEDOT-N3 substrates. The technique is based on applying “electro-click chemistry” to locally induce covalent modifications. Further supplementing these results, we develop a straightforward and in-expensive method for patterning conducting polymer thin films into microelectrodes, without losing control of the surface chemistry of the samples. On the contrary, the method provides direct control of the surface chemistry of both the fabricated micro-electrodes and the gaps between them. The method is based on locally removing PEDOTtype polymers to expose underlying non-conducting functional polymer substrates. Thereby, multifunctional substrates are obtained. By applying this method, we are able to fabricate allpolymer micro-systems with multiple types of localized functional (bio)-chemistries. In the course of our studies, we find that PEDOT-N3 thin films undergo a significant yet reversible swelling when exposed to dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). This swelling is found to be of practical use for controlling the reaction density and depth. This, for example, enables the fabrication of dense poly-ethylene-glycol-coatings of the conducting polymer substrates. These coatings render the substrates resistant to protein adsorption. Hence, the choice of solvent is found to be a key parameter for achieving functional post-polymerization modifications of PEDOT-N3. The methods developed in this thesis are highly generic, and can therefore be applied for fabricating a diversity of microsystems based on conducting polymers, with multiple types of localized and highly bio-specific surfaces chemistries.

Lind, Johan Ulrik

2012-01-01

330

Preparation of Composite Polymer Electrolytes by Electrons-Induced Grafting: Proton and Lithium Conducting Membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are a class of materials that is receiving an increasing attention due to their applicability to a wide number of solid state devices and chemical processes. Proton (H+) and lithium ion (Li+) conducting membranes are of particular interest as both on increasing demand to prompt the commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell and polymer electrolyte lithium battery. Radiation-induced grafting is a potential alternative method to prepare PEMs. During PEMs preparation, grafting reaction is often carried out using pre-irradiation method or simultaneous irradiation method (with ?-rays). However, reports on the use of simultaneous method with electron beam (EB) to prepare such membranes are very scarce. The objective of this work is to prepare and characterize two distinct polymer electrolyte membranes for possible use in fuel cell and lithium battery using single simultaneous radiation-induced grafting method with EB. Initially, styrene was impregnated into the porous structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films followed by simultaneous irradiation with EB using doses up to 50 kGy under N2 and at room temperature. Subsequently, the obtained polystyrene pore filled PVDF films (membrane precursor) were functionalized using two different chemical treatments. The first treatment includes sulfonation with chlorosulfonic acid/1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane mixture to obtain H+ conducting composite membranes. The second treatment involves activation of the polystyrene pore filled PVDF films with LiPF6/EC/DC liquid electrolyte under to obtain Li+ conducting composite membranes. The micro-structure of both composite membranes was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The content of polystyrene grafted in the pores, water uptake, electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity were measured. The obtained composite electrolyte membranes were found to achieve grafting yield up to 46% with superior Li+ conductivity values up to 1.9 10-3 S/cm when treated with LiPH6/EC/DC electrolyte solution and H+ conductivity of 5.95 x 10-2 S/cm when sulfonated with 10% chlorosulfonic acid. The results of this work suggests that simultaneous radiation-induced grafting with EB offers a single versatile root to prepare two high quality composite polymer electrolyte membranes conducting H+ and Li+ for possible use in fuel cell and lithium batteries, respectively

331

Investigations on the Mechanical Properties of Conducting Polymer Coating-Substrate Structures and Their Influencing Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review covers recent advances and work on the microstructure features, mechanical properties and cracking processes of conducting polymer film/coatingsubstrate structures under different testing conditions. An attempt is made to characterize and quantify the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure features. In addition, the film cracking mechanism on the micro scale and some influencing factors that play a significant role in the service of the film-substrate structure are presented. These investigations cover the conducting polymer film/coating nucleation process, microstructure-fracture characterization, translation of brittle-ductile fractures, and cracking processes near the largest inherent macromolecule defects under thermal-mechanical loadings, and were carried out using in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations, as a novel method for evaluation of interface strength and critical failure stress.

Xin Hua

2009-12-01

332

Electrosynthesis and absorbance spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the conductive polymer  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly ortho aminophenol (POAP)/nanocrystalline TiO2 composite were electrodeposited from through cyclic voltammetry scans to afford conductive polymer/TiO2 nanocomposite. Polymerization of ortho aminophenol (OAP) proceeded after ultrasonic irradiation of nanocrystalline TiO2. The aggregation of nano TiO2 can be reduced under ultrasonic irradiation, and the nanoparticles can be redispersed in the aqueous solution. The presence of nanocrystalline TiO2 strengthens the UV absorption of POAP and leads to a blue shift of the ?-polaron absorption of POAP. Experimental absorbance spectra of TiO2/conductive polymer nanocomposite compared with results that obtained from the Maxwell-Garnett theory (MGT).

Ehsani, Ali; Babaei, Ferydon; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

2013-10-01

333

Electrosynthesis and absorbance spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the conductive polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly ortho aminophenol (POAP)/nanocrystalline TiO2 composite were electrodeposited from through cyclic voltammetry scans to afford conductive polymer/TiO2 nanocomposite. Polymerization of ortho aminophenol (OAP) proceeded after ultrasonic irradiation of nanocrystalline TiO2. The aggregation of nano TiO2 can be reduced under ultrasonic irradiation, and the nanoparticles can be redispersed in the aqueous solution. The presence of nanocrystalline TiO2 strengthens the UV absorption of POAP and leads to a blue shift of the ?-polaron absorption of POAP. Experimental absorbance spectra of TiO2/conductive polymer nanocomposite compared with results that obtained from the Maxwell–Garnett theory (MGT).

334

Electrosynthesis and absorbance spectra of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in the conductive polymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poly ortho aminophenol (POAP)/nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} composite were electrodeposited from through cyclic voltammetry scans to afford conductive polymer/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. Polymerization of ortho aminophenol (OAP) proceeded after ultrasonic irradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}. The aggregation of nano TiO{sub 2} can be reduced under ultrasonic irradiation, and the nanoparticles can be redispersed in the aqueous solution. The presence of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} strengthens the UV absorption of POAP and leads to a blue shift of the ?-polaron absorption of POAP. Experimental absorbance spectra of TiO{sub 2}/conductive polymer nanocomposite compared with results that obtained from the Maxwell–Garnett theory (MGT).

Ehsani, Ali, E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Ferydon [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-10-15

335

Conducting polymers doped with a mineral phase: structural and electrical study  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the results obtained of a series of novel doped conducting polymers (CPs) of polyaniline/hematite (PANI/HEM), which were synthesized in acidic aqueous solution by the in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, using ammonium peroxydisulfate as oxidant reagent. The synthesis was carried out with 20, 40 y 60 % (weight percent) contents of hematite (HEM) at 8 and 14 h of polymerization times (tP). These composites were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An electrochemical analysis was made by Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results of this study allow to evaluate the influence of hematite on the improvement of the structural properties and in the increase of the electric conductivity (sac) of the doped polymers compared to CPs without dopant agents.

González, C. P.; Montaño, A. M.; Estrada, S.; Ortiz, C.

2013-11-01

336

A physical interpretation of impedance at conducting polymer/electrolyte junctions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We monitor the process of dedoping in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed during moving front measurements. The impedance spectra are consistent with an equivalent circuit of a time varying resistor in parallel with a capacitor. We show that the resistor corresponds to ion transport in the dedoped region of the film, and can be quantitatively described using ion density and drift mobility obtained from the moving front measurements. The capacitor, on the other hand, does not depend on time and is associated with charge separation at the moving front. This work offers a physical description of the impedance of conducting polymer/electrolyte interfaces based on materials parameters.

Stavrinidou, Eleni; Sessolo, Michele; Sanaur, Sébastien; Malliaras, George G., E-mail: malliaras@emse.fr [Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC 880 route de Mimet, 13541 Gardanne (France); Winther-Jensen, Bjorn [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

2014-01-15

337

Elucidation of charge storage characteristics of conducting polymer film using redox reaction  

CERN Document Server

A general technique to investigate charge storage characteristics of conducting polymer films has been developed. A redox reaction is conducted on a polymer film on a rotating disk electrode under potentiostatic condition so that the rate of charging of the film equals the rate of removal of the charge by the reaction. In an experiment on polyaniline film deposited on platinum substrate, using Fe2+/Fe3+ in HCl as the redox system, the voltammogram shows five distinct linear segments (bands) with discontinuity in the slope at specific transition potentials. These bands are the same as those indicated by ESR/Raman spectroscopy with comparable transition potentials. From the dependence of the slopes of the bands on concentration of ferrous and ferric ions, it was possible to estimate the energies of the charge carrier in different bands. It is shown that the charge storage in the film is capacitive.

Contractor, Asfiya Q

2013-01-01

338

Reactive template synthesis of polypyrrole nanotubes for fabricating metal/conducting polymer nanocomposites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unique nanocomposites of polypyrrole/Au and polypyrrole/Pt hybrid nanotubes are synthesized employing polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes as an advanced support by solution reduction. The conducting polymer PPy nanotubes are fabricated by using pre-prepared MnO2 nanowires as the reactive templates. MnO2 nanowires induce the 1D polymerization of pyrrole monomers and the simultaneous dissolution of the templates affords the hollow tube-like structure. The loading content of metal nanoparticles in the nanocomposites could be adjusted by simply changing the amount of metal precursors. This work provides an efficient approach to fabricate an important kind of metal/conducting polymer hybrid nanotubes that are potentially useful for electrocatalyst and sensor materials. PMID:23341240

Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xianghong; Zhang, Lixue; Cao, Bingqiang; Wu, Shihua

2013-03-25

339

Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P(13)TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P(13)TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more "conventional" rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G

2007-09-21

340

A physical interpretation of impedance at conducting polymer/electrolyte junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We monitor the process of dedoping in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed during moving front measurements. The impedance spectra are consistent with an equivalent circuit of a time varying resistor in parallel with a capacitor. We show that the resistor corresponds to ion transport in the dedoped region of the film, and can be quantitatively described using ion density and drift mobility obtained from the moving front measurements. The capacitor, on the other hand, does not depend on time and is associated with charge separation at the moving front. This work offers a physical description of the impedance of conducting polymer/electrolyte interfaces based on materials parameters

341

Integration of intrinsic proton conduction and guest-accessible nanospace into a coordination polymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the synthesis and characterization of a coordination polymer that exhibits both intrinsic proton conductivity and gas adsorption. The coordination polymer, consisting of zinc ions, benzimidazole, and orthophosphate, exhibits a degree of flexibility in that it adopts different structures before and after dehydration. The dehydrated form shows higher intrinsic proton conductivity than the original form, reaching as high as 1.3 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 120 °C. We found that the rearranged conduction path and liquid-like behavior of benzimidazole molecules in the channel of the framework afforded the high proton conductivity. Of the two forms of the framework, only the dehydrated form is porous to methanol and demonstrates guest-accessible space in the structure. The proton conductivity of the dehydrated form increases by 24 times as a result of the in situ adsorption of methanol molecules, demonstrating the dual functionality of the framework. NMR studies revealed a hydrogen-bond interaction between the framework and methanol, which enables the modulation of proton conductivity within the framework. PMID:23829398

Umeyama, Daiki; Horike, Satoshi; Inukai, Munehiro; Kitagawa, Susumu

2013-07-31

342

Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology  

OpenAIRE

The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0...

Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F.

2013-01-01

343

Characterization and Control of the Wettability of Conducting Polymer Thin Films  

OpenAIRE

The wettability of electrochemically deposited conducting polymer films is highly dependent on several parameters including the deposition conditions, the dopant, and the roughness of the working electrode. To produce superhydrophobic surfaces, one must be able to control the micro and nanostructure of the film. In this study, a template-free method of producing superhydrophobic (water contact angle of 154°) polypyrrole films was demonstrated. The polypyrrole was doped with th...

Hunter, Ian; Chang, Jean H.

2009-01-01

344

Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends  

OpenAIRE

Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li i...

Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

2007-01-01

345

Impedance study of tea with added taste compounds using conducting polymer and metal electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer sensing/working electrodes for tea liquor prepared by addition of different compounds using an impedance mode in frequency range 1 Hz-100 KHz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of six different tea liquor samples made by dissolving various compounds (black tea liquor + raw milk from milkman), (black tea liquor + sweetened clove syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened ginger syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened cardamom syrup), (black tea liquor + sweet chocolate syrup) and (black tea liquor + vanilla flavoured milk without sugar) using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup has been studied using impedance and further its PCA has been carried out. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Glassy Carbon (GC) and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI) and Polypyrrole (PPY) grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these tea liquor samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in compounds added to tea liquor/solution. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots it was possible to classify tea liquor in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tea liquors were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes. PMID:23035436

Dhiman, Mopsy; Kapur, Pawan; Ganguli, Abhijit; Singla, Madan Lal

2012-09-01

346

Impedance Study of Drinking Water and Tastants Using Conducting Polymer and Metal Electrodes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer electrodes for drinking water and dissolved tastants using an AC-impedance mode in frequency range 102 to 105 Hz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of seven different bottled and municipal drinking water samples along with various tastants dissolved in DI water(DI water for KCl (5mM (salty, HCl (5 mM (sour quinine (0.1 mM (bitter, sucrose (5 mM (sweet, black tea liquor, black tea liquor with sucrose (2% sugar solution, and a bottle of “packed” orange juice has been made using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup using PCA. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt, Gold (Au, Silver (Ag, Glassy Carbon (GC and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI and Polypyrrole (PPY grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these water samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in water/tastants. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From PCA plots it was possible to classify drinking water in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tastants were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

Pawan Kapur

2012-05-01

347

Flexible conductive polymer electrodes for applications in tissue Electrical Impedance Scanning (EIS)  

OpenAIRE

Electrical Impedance Scanning (EIS) is a potential alternative for breast cancer screening, and has been investigated as a breast cancer screening tool since the 1920s. However, it has not become a regular diagnostic tool due to limitations such as low spatial resolution, poor electrode design, and mechanical skin contact issues. In this thesis, we attempt to address these limitations through development and demonstration of a novel flexible conductive nanoparticle composite polymer (C-NCP) e...

Chung, Daehan

2012-01-01

348

Ultrafast spin-resolved spectroscopy reveals dominant exciton dynamics in conducting polymer polyaniline  

OpenAIRE

The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI) has a wide range of optoelectronic applications due to its unique electronic and optical characteristics. Although extensive works have been performed to understand the equilibrium properties, the nature of the charge type that governs its non-equilibrium optical response has been barely understood; a number of studies have debated the nature of photo-generated charge type in PANI, specifically whether it is polaron or exciton based....

Cha, Soonyoung; Hong, Yoochan; Yang, Jaemoon; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Jeong, Kiyoung; Suh, Jin-suck; Haam, Seungjoo; Huh, Yong-min; Choi, Hyunyong

2013-01-01

349

What conductive polymers have taught us about the meaning of education: education before innovation  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many scientists and engineers who made a great discovery or a breakthrough invention. What is common to them? It is that they had a chance to experience a deep impression of science and technology in their childhood. Science shows and experiment classes are extremely effective methods to help students learn the excitement of Chemistry. In this paper, I discuss the importance of education in chemistry by presenting an illustration about the development and implementation of experiment classes on conductive polymers.

Hiroki, Kazuaki

2014-03-01

350

Investigations on the Mechanical Properties of Conducting Polymer Coating-Substrate Structures and Their Influencing Factors  

OpenAIRE

This review covers recent advances and work on the microstructure features, mechanical properties and cracking processes of conducting polymer film/coating- substrate structures under different testing conditions. An attempt is made to characterize and quantify the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure features. In addition, the film cracking mechanism on the micro scale and some influencing factors that play a significant role in the service of the film-substrate str...

Xin Hua; Hua-Ping Tang; Xu-Dong Li; Xi-Shu Wang

2009-01-01

351

Zinc ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on oligomeric polyether/PVDF-HFP blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Here we report novel zinc ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on oligomeric polyether/PVDF-HFP blends with or without the incorporation of a small amount of organic carbonates. Their thermal properties, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties are characterized and the effect of different Zn salts and incorporation of a small amount of organic carbonates are investigated. These polymer electrolyte membranes exhibit essentially no or very low volatility, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical stability window, acceptable interfacial resistance with zinc, and the capability for reversible Zn plating/stripping. Particularly promising are electrolyte systems based on the combination of low lattice energy zinc imide salt and a special co-solvent of oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) mixed with a small amount of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimensionally stabilized with PVDF-HFP. Such novel polymer electrolyte membranes could lead to the development of new kinds of electrochemical energy storage devices based on zinc electrochemistry, including solid-state, thin-film rechargeable zinc/air cells envisaged. (author)

Ye, Hui; Xu, Jun John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2007-03-20

352

Experimental investigations of an ionic-liquid-based, magnesium ion conducting, polymer gel electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies on a novel magnesium ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte based on a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is reported. It comprises a Mg-salt, Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} [or magnesium triflate, Mg(Tf){sub 2}] solution in an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate (EMITf), immobilized with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), which is a freestanding, semitransparent and flexible film with excellent mechanical strength. Physical and electrochemical analyses demonstrate promising characteristics of these films, suitable as electrolytes in rechargeable magnesium batteries. The material offers a maximum electrical conductivity of {proportional_to}4.8 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature (20 C) with excellent thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Possible conformational changes in the polymer host PVdF-HFP due to ionic liquid solution entrapment and ion-polymer interaction are investigated by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) methods. The Mg{sup 2+} ion transport in the gel film is confirmed from cyclic voltammetry, impedance and transport number measurements. The Mg{sup 2+} ion transport number (t{sub +}) is {proportional_to}0.26, which indicates a substantial contribution of triflate anion transport along with ionic conduction due to the component ions of the ionic liquid. (author)

Pandey, G.P.; Hashmi, S.A. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

2009-02-15

353

Tubular array, dielectric, conductivity and electrochemical properties of biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A new finding of tubular array of 10–20 ?m in length and 1–2 ?m in thickness of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) having 2.2 × 10?3 S cm?1 conductivity is reported. • Thermal and electrochemical characterizations of GPEs show good interaction among the polymer, plasticizer and salt. • GPE based supercapacitor demonstrates high capacitance of 186 F g?1. • Low temperature studies did not influence much on capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. • Charge–discharge exhibits high capacity with excellent cyclic stability and energy density. -- Abstract: A supercapacitor based on a biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) has been fabricated using guar gum (GG) as the polymer matrix, LiClO4 as the doping salt and glycerol as the plasticizer. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the gel polymer showed an unusual tubular array type surface morphology. FTIR, DSC and TGA results of the GPE indicated good interaction between the components used. Highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy values were 2.2 × 10?3 S cm?1 and 0.18 eV, respectively. Dielectric studies revealed ionic behavior and good capacitance with varying frequency of the GPE system. The fabricated supercapacitor showed a maximum specific capacitance value of 186 F g?1 using cyclic voltammetry. Variation of temperature from 273 K to 293 K did not significantly influence the capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. Galvanostatic charge–discharge study of supercapacitor indicated that the device has good stability, high energy density and power density

354

Tubular array, dielectric, conductivity and electrochemical properties of biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • A new finding of tubular array of 10–20 ?m in length and 1–2 ?m in thickness of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) having 2.2 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} conductivity is reported. • Thermal and electrochemical characterizations of GPEs show good interaction among the polymer, plasticizer and salt. • GPE based supercapacitor demonstrates high capacitance of 186 F g{sup ?1}. • Low temperature studies did not influence much on capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. • Charge–discharge exhibits high capacity with excellent cyclic stability and energy density. -- Abstract: A supercapacitor based on a biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) has been fabricated using guar gum (GG) as the polymer matrix, LiClO{sub 4} as the doping salt and glycerol as the plasticizer. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the gel polymer showed an unusual tubular array type surface morphology. FTIR, DSC and TGA results of the GPE indicated good interaction between the components used. Highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy values were 2.2 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} and 0.18 eV, respectively. Dielectric studies revealed ionic behavior and good capacitance with varying frequency of the GPE system. The fabricated supercapacitor showed a maximum specific capacitance value of 186 F g{sup ?1} using cyclic voltammetry. Variation of temperature from 273 K to 293 K did not significantly influence the capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. Galvanostatic charge–discharge study of supercapacitor indicated that the device has good stability, high energy density and power density.

Sudhakar, Y.N. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Selvakumar, M., E-mail: chemselva78@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bhat, D. Krishna [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore (India)

2014-02-15

355

Applicability of heminal mechanism to description of radiation-induced conductivity of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical calculations of radiation-induced conductivity transitional process under homogeneous and Nable generation of separated ion pairs are carried out for a model dielectric simulating high-pressure polyethylene (HPPE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTPE) at the absence of pair overlapping (irradiation low dose). The obtained results are compared with the available experimental data. Additional factor explaining kinetic braking of the pair recombination and the ensuing discription of Langevia mechanism of charge carrier volume recombination is required to correlate the experimental results with the theory of heminal conductivity in HPPE, PTFE and polyprolyelene type polymers. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

356

Conformational modification of conducting polymer chains by solvents: Small-angle X-ray scattering study  

Science.gov (United States)

The present small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) investigations reveal solvent-assisted conformational modifications in the conducting polymer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). The dimensionality of PEDOT-PSS chains in water, glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions, obtained from SAXS profiles, are 2.68-2.3. Radius of gyration values from pair distribution functions analysis are used to identify the Guinier regime, and give evidence for chain expansion in glycerol and DMSO solutions, with improved assembly of chains. Conformational modifications are suggested to enhance the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS films in glycerol/DMSO solutions.

Bagchi, Debjani; Menon, Reghu

2006-07-01

357

Flexible carbon nanotube-polymer composite films with high conductivity and superhydrophobicity made by solution process.  

Science.gov (United States)

CNT/Nafion nanocomposite film made by solution process exhibits high conductivity and superhydrophobicity. The highest water contact angle reaches 165.3 +/- 1.9 degrees. The wettability of the film can be controlled by simply varying the filtering rate and the content ratio of Nafion to CNT. We also develop a novel optical method to directly observe the air-solid-liquid interface for the first time. The extraordinary mechanical strength provided by the polymer helps the film retain its conductivity and superhydrobicity after 1000 bending cycles. PMID:19367804

Luo, Chan; Zuo, Xiaolei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ergang; Song, Shiping; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jian; Fan, Chunhai; Cao, Yong

2008-12-01

358

Atomic force microscopy studies of conductive nanostructures in solid polymer electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Different size of conductive structure at LSC and SSC membranes. • Outer skin layer of Aquivion® membrane determined to 5 nm. • Different size of conductive areas for aromatic and Nafion-type membranes. • 2-Dimensional structure of conductive network of bulk Nafion. -- Abstract: The conductivity of three different sulfonated polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM), two perfluorinated membranes, Nafion® and Aquivion®, and JST, a non-perfluorinated aromatic block copolymer, were compared using advanced material-sensitive and conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM). All of the membranes required activation by a current flow to reach significant conductivity for the AFM analysis, indicating the existence of a highly resistive surface skin layer. The two perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes, a membrane with long side-chains (Nafion®) and a membrane with short side-chains (Aquivion®), exhibited similar properties. A lamellar surface structure, with polymer bundles or micelles in a parallel orientation, was also found for the Aquivion® membrane. AFM high-resolution current images, performed under a continuous current flow, were used to distinguish between the conducting network and the subsurface phase distribution at the membrane surface. The connected subnets of the JST membrane were approximately 100–200 nm in size, whereas those for the perfluorinated membrane surfaces were 200–300 nm in size. The conductive areas of the Aquivion® and JST membranes exhibited larger homogeneous conducting areas, corresponding to the smaller correlation lengths of ionic phase separation. Membrane cross sections were analyzed to elucidate the structure of the bulk ionic network of the Nafion® membrane, before and after operation. The existence of extended water layers in the bulk, even before operation, was confirmed

359

Influence of Inorganic Nano-powders on the Structure and Conductive Properties of the Network Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries  

OpenAIRE

The paper describes investigation on the network polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol diacrylates and polyester diacrylates PEDA with introduction the nanopowders TiO2, Li2TiO3 and SiO2, with different size and shape. Much attention is paid to effects of nanoparticles additives on the ionic conductivity of network polymer electrolytes. The work is aimed to explanation of the mechanism of additives action on Li+ - ion transport and structural changes of the polymer cha...

Yarmolenko O.V.; Yudina A.V.; Tulibaeva G.Z.; Cherniak A.V.; Volkov V.I.; Shestakov A.F.

2013-01-01

360

The change in dielectric constant, AC conductivity and optical band gaps of polymer electrolyte film: Gamma irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of gamma (?) irradiation on dielectric and optical properties of polymer electrolyte film were investigated. The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases with ? dose. Also optical band gap decreased from 4.23 to 3.78ev after irradiation. A large dependence of the polymer properties on the irradiation dose was noticed. This suggests that there is a possibility of improving polymer electrolyte properties on gamma irradiation.

Raghu, S., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com; Subramanya, K., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com; Sharanappa, C., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com; Mini, V., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com; Archana, K., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com; Sanjeev, Ganesh, E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com; Devendrappa, H., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India)

2014-04-24

361

An atomic level analysis of conductivity and strength in poly(ethylene oxide) sulfonic acid-based solid polymer electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure, ionic conductivity and strength of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sulfonic acid-based solid polymer electrolytes with various contents of the PEO polymer are analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. To quantify the electrolyte structure, comprehensive coordination and dimensional analyses are carried out. Ionic conductivity is determined by computing the Einstein-diffusion based conductivity for all ionic particles in the system. The strength of the electrolyte is quantified by carrying out a set of molecular simulations of the uniaxial deformation process under constant stress-rate conditions. The results obtained indicate that increased hydration improves the ionic conductivity, but degrades the strength in solid polymer electrolytes at hand. In addition, it appears that there is an optimal level of the PEO polymer content in these materials, which at the same hydration level, yields the best combination of ionic conductivity and strength

362

Pressure-induced amorphization of a dense coordination polymer and its impact on proton conductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3–7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP

363

Pressure-induced amorphization of a dense coordination polymer and its impact on proton conductivity  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3-7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP.

Umeyama, Daiki; Horike, Satoshi; Tassel, Cedric; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Higo, Yuji; Hagi, Keisuke; Ogiwara, Naoki; Kitagawa, Susumu

2014-12-01

364

Thermal conductivity of micro- and nano- filled polymer blend composite for radiation shielding material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal conductivity of boron carbide filled thermoplastic natural rubber blend composite is studied experimentally as a function of filler loading and filler size. A polymer blend of 60/ 40 NR/ HDPE was used as matrix for incorporation of particulate nano- and micro- sized B4C as filler to form the composite. As the filler loading is increased from 2-10 % wt, a reduction and increment of thermal conductivity was observed. The results show at lower filler loading, HDPE crystallinity affects the thermal conductivity up to 4 and 6 % wt of filler for nano- and micro- composite respectively. Further increase the loading do not much alter the crystallinity as the filler is distributed in continues phase of NR. The increment of filler amount in the amorphous NR causes the thermal conductivity to gradually increase which indicates the formation of interconnecting filler network structures. (Author)

365

Pressure-induced amorphization of a dense coordination polymer and its impact on proton conductivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3–7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP.

Umeyama, Daiki; Hagi, Keisuke; Ogiwara, Naoki [Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Horike, Satoshi, E-mail: horike@sbchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kitagawa@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tassel, Cedric [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kageyama, Hiroshi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Higo, Yuji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kitagawa, Susumu, E-mail: horike@sbchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kitagawa@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2014-12-01

366

Precision patterning of conductive polymer nanocomposite using a laser-ablated thin film  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a simple, reliable and low-cost microfabrication technique utilizing laser ablation of a thin polymer film to pattern polymer nanocomposite at a high resolution. A conductive composite of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was selected due to their wide use in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and unique properties including flexibility and piezoresistivity. To pattern nanocomposite, an excimer laser ablated through a thin polyethylene terephthalate film creating mold patterns. PDMS-CNTs nanocomposite was then filled into the mold with excessive amount removed by a smooth-edged tool. Bulk PDMS was poured atop and cured. After debonding devices with relief patterns of polymer nanocomposite could be readily realized. Fabrication conditions were optimized which led to reliable patterning of various microstructures. Detailed surface profiling revealed excellent pattern authenticity and uniformity. Minimal feature size of patterns reached below 20 µm which indicated a significant improvement from prior reports. Moreover, the presented technique required only a software design to rapidly generate new patterns, thereby eliminating costly hardware such as lithography mask, stamp and clean room. Fabrication time and cost could be consequently reduced—ideal for lab prototyping purposes. Sensor examples are discussed to demonstrate versatile applications of polymer nanocomposite in MEMS.

Liu, Chao-Xuan; Choi, Jin-Woo

2012-04-01

367

Towards TiO2-conducting polymer hybrid materials for lithium ion batteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanocomposites of TiO2 (anatase) with polypyrrole (Ppy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were prepared via electrochemical routes. The deposition process of the conducting polymer films was performed in the presence of perchlorate, p-toluenesulphonate (TOS) or bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide (TFSI) anions in propylene carbonate (PC). The obtained electrode materials were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An improvement of lithium ion intercalation/de-intercalation properties of titanium(IV) oxide as a result of its interfacing with the polymers is evidenced. This effect was strongly dependent on the thickness of the polymer layer and closely related to the polymer facility for transporting of lithium ion. Polypyrrole properties, in contrast to the PEDOT case, are very sensitive to selection of the substrate material (Pt or Pt/TiO2) during electropolymerization. Polypyrrole deposited on a rough surface exhibits an improvement in its ion exchange abilities. The impact of underlying TiO2 layers on Ppy properties has an indirect (synergic) influence on the effectiveness of lithium ion intercalation into the oxide too. The properties of the composites were discussed also in view of the comparative electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) study focussing on ion transport properties of Ppy and PEDOT.of Ppy and PEDOT.

368

Towards TiO{sub 2}-conducting polymer hybrid materials for lithium ion batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanocomposites of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) with polypyrrole (Ppy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were prepared via electrochemical routes. The deposition process of the conducting polymer films was performed in the presence of perchlorate, p-toluenesulphonate (TOS) or bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide (TFSI) anions in propylene carbonate (PC). The obtained electrode materials were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An improvement of lithium ion intercalation/de-intercalation properties of titanium(IV) oxide as a result of its interfacing with the polymers is evidenced. This effect was strongly dependent on the thickness of the polymer layer and closely related to the polymer facility for transporting of lithium ion. Polypyrrole properties, in contrast to the PEDOT case, are very sensitive to selection of the substrate material (Pt or Pt/TiO{sub 2}) during electropolymerization. Polypyrrole deposited on a rough surface exhibits an improvement in its ion exchange abilities. The impact of underlying TiO{sub 2} layers on Ppy properties has an indirect (synergic) influence on the effectiveness of lithium ion intercalation into the oxide too. The properties of the composites were discussed also in view of the comparative electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) study focussing on ion transport properties of Ppy and PEDOT.

Dziewonski, Pawel Marek [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F.Joliot-Curie str., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Grzeszczuk, Maria, E-mail: maria@wchuwr.p [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F.Joliot-Curie str., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-03-30

369

Preparation and characterization of novel nanocomposites of WS{sub 2} nanotubes and polyfluorene conductive polymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) nanotubes are used to prepare polymer nanocomposites, similarly to other metal dichalcogenide materials, to improve lubricating and/or mechanical properties. In order to explore the possibility to extend these advantages to conductive polymers we realized new nanocomposites of WS{sub 2} nanotubes and polyfluorene conjugated polymer (WS{sub 2}/PFO). The nanocomposites were prepared from solution processing at several nanotubes concentrations. The morphological and structural analyses by SEM and XRD proved that the density of nanotubes within the polymer increased according to the preparation conditions. The successful incorporation of WS{sub 2} nanotubes was also evidenced by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The WS{sub 2}/PFO nanocomposites were tested in light emitting devices at relatively big load of nanotubes realizing a new class of devices with promising improved mechanical and thermal properties without affecting substantially the device optoelectronic performances. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Di Luccio, Tiziana; Borriello, Carmela; Bruno, Annalisa; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Minarini, Carla; Nenna, Giuseppe [ENEA UTTP NANO, Centro Ricerche Portici (Italy)

2013-11-15

370

X-ray evaluation of the boundary between polymer electrolyte and platinum and carbon functionalization to conduct protons in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Science.gov (United States)

In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is important to secure proximate diffusion paths of reactants and electrons. One approach is to optimize the boundary between polymer electrolyte and Pt nanoparticle surface. Based on synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure to monitor directly the status of catalysts in PEFCs, it was found that Pt sites were reduced to Pt0 by alcohols contained in polymer electrolyte dispersion solution during the preparation of cathode of PEFC. As in membrane electrolyte assembly, only the Pt sites not covered by polymer electrolyte re-oxidized to Pt2+/4+. Thus, the interface between Pt and polymer electrolyte was evaluated. The other approach is to functionalize carbon surface with sulfonate/sulfate group to conduct protons. Similar level of proton conductivity was observed in current-voltage dependence compared to using polymer electrolyte, but polymer electrolyte was advantageous to lose less voltage for activation. Based on this comparison, optimum catalyst on cathode is proposed comprising surface sulfonate/sulfate group on carbon mixed with polymer electrolyte. Further optimization of cathode catalyst is proposed to functionalize carbon with sulfonate group linked to fluorocarbon branch.

Oka, Kazuki; Ogura, Yuta; Izumi, Yasuo

2014-07-01

371

Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors  

KAUST Repository

Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10 -7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. 2014 Francesco Gentile et al.

Gentile, Francesco

2014-01-22

372

Integration of microwave MEMS devices into rectangular waveguide with conductive polymer interposers  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates a novel method of integrating microwave microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) chips into millimeter-wave rectangular waveguides. The fundamental difficulties of merging micromachined with macromachined microwave components, in particular, surface topography, roughness, mechanical stress points and air gaps interrupting the surface currents, are overcome by a double-side adhesive conductive polymer interposer. This interposer provides a uniform electrical contact, stable mechanical connection and a compliant stress distribution interlayer between the MEMS chip and a waveguide frame. The integration method is successfully implemented both for prototype devices of MEMS-tuneable reflective metamaterial surfaces and for MEMS reconfigurable transmissive surfaces. The measured insertion loss of the novel conductive polymer interface is less than 0.4 dB in the E-band (60-90 GHz), as compared to a conventional assembly with an air gap of 2.5 dB loss. Moreover, both dc biasing lines and mechanical feedthroughs to actuators outside the waveguide are demonstrated in this paper, which is achieved by structuring the polymer sheet xurographically. Finite element method simulations were carried out for analyzing the influence of different parameters on the radio frequency performance.

Baghchehsaraei, Zargham; Sterner, Mikael; Åberg, Jan; Oberhammer, Joachim

2013-12-01

373

Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013) covering a PEDOT layer. The sudden drop in electrical resistance between the metal drill and the PEDOT layer upon physical contact was employed as stop criterion for the drilling process. Arrays of 3×3 microelectrodes of diameter 30?m or 100?m, respectively, and having center-to-center electrode spacings of 130?m and 300?m, respectively, were fabricated. Their functionality was verified by chronoamperometry on potassium ferro-/ferricyanide. Comparison of the experimentally obtained results to finite element modeling of the respective electrode configurations shows that the conducting polymer electrodes approach the steady state currents predicted from modeling, but at a much slower rate than expected. This is shown to be caused by the use of electroactive PEDOT electrodes. Subtraction of the latter contribution gives approach to steady state currents within a few seconds, which is in very good agreement with the modeled response time.

Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver

2011-01-01

374

Conducting polymer nanocomposites loaded with nanotubes and fibers for electrical and thermal applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The design, fabrication and measurement of electrical and thermal properties of polymers loaded with nanotubes and fibers are the foci of the work presented in this dissertation. The resulting products of blending polymers with nanomaterials are called nanocomposites and are already finding applications in many areas of human endeavour. Among some of the most recent envisioned applications of nanocomposites is in electronic devices as thermal interface materials (TIMs). This potential application as TIMs, has been made more real by the realization that carbon nanotubes, could potentially transfer their high electrical, thermal and mechanical properties to polymers in the nanocomposites. In Chapter 1, the events leading to the discovery of carbon nanotubes are reviewed followed by an elaborate discussion of their structure and properties. The discussion of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes help in understanding the envisaged applications. Chapter 2 focuses on the fabrication of insulating polymer nanocomposites, their electrical and mechanical properties. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and a polyimide formed by reacting pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4, 4'-oxydianiline (ODA) (PMDA-ODA) nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes were prepared by in-situ polymerization. Poly (1-methyl-4-pentene) (TPX), Polycarbonate (PC), Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), Poly (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS), the alloys ABS-PC, ABS-PVC, and ABS-PC-PVC nanocomposites were prepared from the respective polymers and carbon nanotubes and their mechanical and electrical properties measured. Chapter 3 covers the nanocomposites that were prepared by the in-situ polymerization of the conducting polymers Polyaniline (PANi), Polypyrrole (PPy) and Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by in-situ polymerization. These are evaluated for electrical conductivity. The use of surfactants in facilitating carbon nanotube dispersion is discussed and applied in the preparation of conducting polymer nanocomposites. In Chapter 4 epoxy nanocomposites are prepared. MWCNTs, Graphite Fibers and Boron Nitride are used as filler materials. There thermal conductivity is determined by using the Flash Technique as well as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The thermal conductivity of graphite and BN loaded epoxy was found to be much higher than for the MWCNTs filled. Chapter 5 covers the synthesis and electrical conductivity of PANi nanotubes and nanorods without the use of templates. Also covered in this Chapter is the template free synthesis of Cu (II) hydroxide and Copper nanorods. In Chapter 6, Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSPs) are evaluated for integrity after thermal stress. The two types of OSPs that are evaluated in this chapter are a benzimidazole derivative known as WPF207 and an imidazole derivative called F2LX. The OSP WPF was found to be more robust. In Chapter 7, two encapsulants are evaluated after thermal stress. The encapsulants are Sumitomo type 6730B and type 6730B-LX. No significant differences were found after analysis.

Chiguma, Jasper

375

Gamma and electron dose response of the electrical conductivity of polyaniline based polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conducting polymers, also known as 'synthetic metals', have been the subject of wide-spread investigations over the past decade due to their very promising characteristics. It was published earlier that the electrical conductivity of polyaniline (PANI) based polymer composites increases to a significant extent when irradiated to gamma, electron or UV radiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose response of PANI samples blended with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and chlorinated poly(propylene) (PPCl) by measuring the high frequency conductance of these blends irradiated to different doses. In order to find the most suitable composition of these blends the concentration of both the PPCl and PVC, and the PANI base were changed, respectively. These samples were then gamma irradiated and the induced electrical conductivity was measured in the frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz in order to find the most sensitive evaluation conditions. After selecting both, the most suitable measuring conditions as well as the blend compositions, the dose response of the samples was determined in the dose range of 10-250 kGy. With respect to potential dosimetry application the effects of electron irradiation, irradiation temperature and the stability of the irradiated samples have also been investigated

376

Gamma and electron dose response of the electrical conductivity of polyaniline based polymer composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Conducting polymers, also known as "synthetic metals", have been the subject of wide-spread investigations over the past decade due to their very promising characteristics. It was published earlier that the electrical conductivity of polyaniline (PANI) based polymer composites increases to a significant extent when irradiated to gamma, electron or UV radiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose response of PANI samples blended with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and chlorinated poly(propylene) (PPCl) by measuring the high frequency conductance of these blends irradiated to different doses. In order to find the most suitable composition of these blends the concentration of both the PPCl and PVC, and the PANI base were changed, respectively. These samples were then gamma irradiated and the induced electrical conductivity was measured in the frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz in order to find the most sensitive evaluation conditions. After selecting both, the most suitable measuring conditions as well as the blend compositions, the dose response of the samples was determined in the dose range of 10-250 kGy. With respect to potential dosimetry application the effects of electron irradiation, irradiation temperature and the stability of the irradiated samples have also been investigated.

Sevil, U. A.; Güven, O.; Kovács, A.; Slezsák, I.

2003-06-01

377

Investigation of mechanical and conductive properties of shape memory polymer composite (SMPC)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned about an investigation of mechanical and electrical conductive properties of carbon fiber fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite (SMPC). The shape memory polymer (SMP) is a thermoset styrene-based resin. SMP is a promising smart material, which is under intensive investigation at present. Its primary advantages over other smart materials are the high strain capacity (200% reversible strain), low density and low cost etc.. But its major drawbacks are low strength, low modulus and low recovery stress. So the fiber reinforced SMPC was naturally considered to be investigated in this paper, which may overcome the disadvantages mentioned above. The investigation was conducted with experimental methods: Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA), static and mechanical cycle loading tests, microscope observation of microstructural deformation mechanism, conductivity and shape recovery tests. Results indicated that SMPC showed higher glass transition temperature (T g) than neat SMP and improved the storage modulus, bending modulus, strength and resistance against relaxation and creep. Both fiber microbuckling and fracture of SMPC were observed after the static 3-ponit bending test at the constant room temperature. SMPC showed favorable recovery performances during thermomechanical cycles of the bending recovery test and the fiber microbuckling was obvious. Moreover, the conductive SMPC of this study experienced low electrical resistivity and performed a good shape memory effect during numerous thermomechanical cycles.

Leng, Jinsong; Lan, Xin; Lv, Haibao; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

2007-04-01

378

A first approach to foot motion monitoring using conductive polymer sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted of socks fitted with thin flexible conductive polymer sensors for the potential use as a smart sock for monitoring foot motion. The thin flexible sensors consisted of a conductive polymer applied on an elastic textile substrate that exhibited a resistance change when strained. Quasi-static response tests of the basic sensor over a static load range of a few Newtons were conducted and showed a time varying response as observed by previous investigators. Dynamic testing through an electrodynamic shaker shows good dynamic response at a low frequency range, less than 4Hz. Strips of 12 cm x 1 cm of the sensor on fabric showed a reproducible basal resistance on the order of 10KOhms. Other geometries of the continuous sensors and correlation of strain to resistance variation were studied. Similar tests were performed on different textile substrates which vary in composition and microstructure, i.e. woven, knitted, nylon%, polyester%, etc... These sensors were integrated into socks and preliminary results indicate that distinct responses to different foot motion patterns are detected in sensors placed at different joint locations on the foot. Further processing of strain results from smart socks should provide information about the kinematics and dynamics of the human foot.

Castano, L. M.; Winkelmann, A. E.; Flatau, A. B.

2009-03-01

379

Contribution to the electromagnetic study of conducting polymers and chiral structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an electromagnetic characterisation of organic absorptive materials partially made of conductive polymer is presented. Poly-pyrrole-Teflon alloys containing from 0 to 20 pc (in volume) poly-pyrrole were prepared and characterised from dc to 6 GHz. The complex permittivity shows that these materials are absorptive; the dielectric properties strongly depend on the composition and are correctly modelled by a percolation law. A dielectric relaxation was observed for the conductive alloys and this phenomenon is interpreted as the result of an electronic conduction process insured by a charged carriers hopping. A model was developed; it is in good agreement with these results. The difference between the low and high frequency behaviour is also underlined. Microwave chiral structures were manufactured. A cholesteric arrangement of uniaxial slabs was measured in transmission between 4 and 6 GHz; the experimental results are correctly modelled by cascading quadrupolar scattering matrices. New chiral materials were prepared by mixing millimetric helices made of poly-pyrrole with an insulating matrix. These materials exhibit a rotatory power and a good absorption of electromagnetic waves which is connected to the poly-pyrrole concentration. The interest in using conductive polymers to design absorptive chiral materials in the microwave domain is put in evidence and the experimental results are in good agreement with a numerical model; nevertheless, the optimisation of these materials remains difficult. (author)

380

Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal paths can be orthogonal due to off-diagonal thermoelectricity (ODTE). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for device applications and describe a search for suitable thermoelectric properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find, at 300K for diagonal (ordinary) thermoelectricity (DTE), the general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity varies linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping, but with a proportionality in excess of a prediction from theory. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable in its consequences for applications in DTE and ODTE. A standard model suggests that conduction by carriers of both signs occurs in these polymers, which thus leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also discuss polyacetylene (which is not air-stable), where this ambipolar conduction does not occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

Mateeva, N.; Testardi, L. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Niculescu, H. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida A and M Univ./Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States) Coll. of Engineering; Schlenoff, J. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Chemistry Dept.

1998-12-01

381

Effect of casting solvent interactions on proton conductivity in sulfonated polymer (PEEK) proton exchange membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proton conductivity of solvent-cast proton exchange membranes (PEM) prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was found to be sensitive to the choice of casting solvent and the membrane drying conditions. Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, several factors were shown to affect proton conductivity in PEMs. NMR revealed the formation of strong interactions between SPEEK polymer and the casting solvents dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl cetamide (DMAc), commonly used in PEM preparation. DMF readily hydrogen-bonds with the polymers' sulfonic acid groups starting at temperatures as low as 60oC. However, DMAc is much less susceptible to hydrogen bonding, which occurs only above 100oC. Both DMF and DMAc solvent interactions with SPEEK during PEM preparation significantly affect the proton conductivity properties. In addition, both solvents are prone to thermal decomposition resulting in dimethylamine which also strongly hydrogen-bonds with SPEEK. The presence of residual sulfuric acid originating from SPEEK preparation has a catalytic effect on the thermal degradation of DMF and DMAc. Under high temperature treatment of films, residual sulfuric acid reacts with both DMF and DMAc, causing their degradation resulting in the formation of N,N-dimethylaminium hydrogensulfate which is also believed to have a negative effect on proton conductivity. (author)

382

Electrochemical Li insertion into conductive polymer/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocomposites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochemical insertion of Li into a series of nanocomposites comprised of alternating V{sub 2}O{sub 5} sheets and conductive polymer layers [polypyrrole (PPY) and polyaniline (PANI)] was examined and compared to the pristine V{sub 2}O{sub 5} material in terms of reversibility, Li site occupancy, and Li diffusion coefficients, and to the materials after oxidation treatment. The electrochemical characteristics are very sensitive to the nature of the polymer, its content, and location. The presence of surface polymer hinders Li insertion in these materials (by comparison to materials without surface polymer) and appears to result in the partial entrapment of Li ions. For modified [PANI]{sub 0.4}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, polymer incorporation results in better reversibility and increased Li capacity in the nanocomposite. [PPY]{sub 0.40}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} displays a greater first discharge capacity than the respective PANI material, but is not as cyclable as in O{sub 2}-[PANI]{sub 0.40}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. O{sub 2}-treatment results in the reformation of a high-potential Li site that is lost during the reductive intercalative polymerization. Li chemical diffusion coefficients are greater for the O{sub 2}-[PANI]V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocomposite than the xerogel by one order of magnitude, resulting in better performance at high current densities. Most important, the electrochemical response of these nanocomposites is greater than the sum of the two components (inorganic and organic), underlining the synergy of these hybrid materials.

Leroux, F.; Goward, G.; Power, W.P.; Nazar, L.F. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-11-01

383

Preparation of Conductive Gold Nanowires in Confined Environment of Gold-Filled Polymer Nanotubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous conductive gold nanofibers are prepared via the "tubes by fiber templates" process. First, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with over 60 wt% gold are synthesized and characterized, including gel permeation chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. Subsequent electrospinning of these AuNP with template PLLA results in composite nanofibers featuring a high gold content of 57 wt%. Highly homogeneous gold nanowires are obtained after chemical vapor deposition of 345 nm of poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) onto the composite fibers followed by pyrolysis of the polymers at 1050 °C. The corresponding heat-induced transition from continuous gold-loaded polymer tubes to smooth gold nanofibers is studied by transmission electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy using both secondary electrons and Rutherford backscattered ions. PMID:25487549

Mitschang, Fabian; Langner, Markus; Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Greiner, Andreas

2014-12-01

384

Analysis of hysteresis phenomenon as observed from voltammetric data of conducting polymers: part I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hysteresis phenomenon inherent to redox processes of Electronic Conducting Polymers (ECP has been studied. Hysteresis was divided into two classes: i dynamic hysteresis, containing a kinetic and an ohmic component and ii stationary or thermodynamic hysteresis. A mathematical analysis was performed on the dynamic hysteresis observed in cyclic voltammograms of two polymers: polyaniline (PANI and poly(3-methylthiophene (P3MT. It has been shown that in the case of P3MT, the hysteresis is mainly kinetic due to the rate of one of the steps of the redox process. However, an ohmic component related to the existence of an electrical impedance in series with the electrochemical system is also present. As for PANI, hysteresis is current independent, which is characteristic of thermodynamic hysteresis.

Matencio Tulio

2003-01-01

385

Patterning on Cyanine-Dye-Doped Conductive Polymer Films by Ink Jet Method  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), doped with a cyanine dye, 5-phenyl-2-(2-{[5-phenyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl)-2-(3H)-benzoxazolylidene]methyl}-l-butenyl)-3-(3-sulfopropyl) benzoxazolium hydroxide, inner salt, compound with triethylamine (NK-1952) was used to fabricate J-type aggregated thin films, using piezoelectric ink jets with desirable shape, size, and patterns on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The effects of the cyanine dye and polymer concentration, UV exposure time, and other fabrication parameters of the ink jet such as nozzle size, pulse voltage, pulse duration, and the second pulses on the J-aggregate formation, spot size, and morphology have been investigated and the related mechanisms have also been discussed.

Yang, Yu; Imaoka, Hajime; Yamashita, Kenichi; Kamogawa, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Oki, Yuji

2010-01-01

386

Chemical synthesis of water-soluble, chiral conducting-polymer complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

The template-guided synthesis of water-soluble, chiral conducting polymer complexes is described. Synthesis of water-soluble polyaniline complexes is achieved by carefully controlling the experimental parameters such as; acid concentration, ionic strength, monomer/template ratio, total reagent concentration, and order of reagent addition. Chiral (helical) polyaniline complexes can be synthesized by addition of a chiral inducing agent (chiral acid) prior to polymerization, and the polyaniline helix can be controlled by the addition of the (+) or (-) form of the chiral acid. Moreover the quantity of chiral acid and the salt content has a significant impact on the degree of chirality in the final polymer complexes. The polyaniline and the template have been found to be mixed at the molecular level which results in chiral complexes that are robust through repeated doping and dedoping cycles.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); McCarthy, Patrick A. (Oakland, CA); Yang, Sze Cheng (Wakefield, RI)

2003-01-01

387

Injection molded chips with integrated conducting polymer electrodes for electroporation of cells  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the design-concept for an all polymer injection molded single use microfluidic device. The fabricated devices comprise integrated conducting polymer electrodes and Luer fitting ports to allow for liquid and electrical access. A case study of low voltage electroporation of biological cells in suspension is presented. The working principle of the electroporation device is based on a focusing of the electric field by means of a constriction in the flow channel for the cells. We demonstrate the use of AC voltage for electroporation by applying a 1 kHz, ±50 V square pulse train to the electrodes and show delivery of polynucleotide fluorescent dye in 46% of human acute monocytic leukemia cells passing the constriction.

Ødegaard Andresen, Kristian; Hansen, Morten; Matschuk, Maria; Terpager Jepsen, Søren; Schiøtt Sørensen, Henrik; Utko, Pawel; Selmeczi, Dávid; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels B.; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Taboryski, Rafael

2010-05-01

388

Injection molded chips with integrated conducting polymer electrodes for electroporation of cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present the design-concept for an all polymer injection molded single use microfluidic device. The fabricated devices comprise integrated conducting polymer electrodes and Luer fitting ports to allow for liquid and electrical access. A case study of low voltage electroporation of biological cells in suspension is presented. The working principle of the electroporation device is based on a focusing of the electric field by means of a constriction in the flow channel for the cells. We demonstrate the use of AC voltage for electroporation by applying a 1 kHz, +/- 50 V square pulse train to the electrodes and show delivery of polynucleotide fluorescent dye in 46% of human acute monocytic leukemia cells passing the constriction.

Andresen, Kristian; Hansen, Morten

2010-01-01

389

Long-term cycle stability at a high current for nanocrystalline LiFePO4 coated with a conductive polymer  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly uniform hierarchical-microstructured LiFePO4 particles with dumbbell- and donut-shape and individual LiFePO4 nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal method utilizing citric acid or a triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) as a surfactant. The cathode composed of the individual nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles exhibited higher specific capacity than the cathodes composed of the hierarchically assembled microparticles. Coating a conductive polymer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), on the surface of LiFePO4 particles improved the battery performances such as large specific capacities, high rate capability and an improved cycle stability. The nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles coated with PEDOT (20 wt%) exhibited the highest discharge capacities of 175 and 136 mAh g?1 for the first battery cycle and 163 and 128 mAh g?1 after 500 battery cycles, with a degradation rate of 6–7%, at the rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively.

Dinh, Hung-Cuong; Lim, Hanjo; Park, Ki Dong; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Kang, Yongku; Mho, Sun-il

2013-03-01

390

Long-term cycle stability at a high current for nanocrystalline LiFePO4 coated with a conductive polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highly uniform hierarchical-microstructured LiFePO4 particles with dumbbell- and donut-shape and individual LiFePO4 nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal method utilizing citric acid or a triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) as a surfactant. The cathode composed of the individual nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles exhibited higher specific capacity than the cathodes composed of the hierarchically assembled microparticles. Coating a conductive polymer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), on the surface of LiFePO4 particles improved the battery performances such as large specific capacities, high rate capability and an improved cycle stability. The nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles coated with PEDOT (20 wt%) exhibited the highest discharge capacities of 175 and 136 mAh g?1 for the first battery cycle and 163 and 128 mAh g?1 after 500 battery cycles, with a degradation rate of 6–7%, at the rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively. (paper)

391

Effects of 160 MeV Ni12+ ion irradiation on polypyrrole conducting polymer electrode materials for all polymer redox supercapacitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronically conducting polymers are suitable electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors, for their high specific capacitance and high dc conductivity in the charged state. Supercapacitors and batteries are energy storage and conversion systems which satisfies the requirements of high specific power and energy in a complementary way. Ion beam {energy > 1 MeV} irradiation on the polymer is a novel technique to enhance or alter the properties like conductivity, density, chain length and solubility. Conducting polymer polypyrrole thin films doped with LiClO4 are synthesized electrochemically on ITO coated glass substrate and are irradiated with 160 MeV Ni12+ ions at different fluence 5 x 101, 5 x 1011 and 3 x 1012 ions cm-2. Dc conductivity measurement of the irradiated films showed 50-60% increase in conductivity which is may be due to increase of carrier concentration in the polymer film as observed in UV-Vis spectroscopy and other effects like cross-linking of polymer chain, bond breaking and creation of defects sites. X-ray diffractogram study shows that the degree of crystallinity of polypyrrole increases in SHI irradiation and is proportionate to ion fluence. The capacitance of the irradiated films is lowered but the capacitance of the supercapacitors with irradiated films showed enhanced stability compared to the devices with unirradiated films while characterized for cycle life up tms while characterized for cycle life up to 10,000 cycles

392

Ultrafast photo-conductivity in BAMH-PPV polymer thin-films  

Science.gov (United States)

The carrier life time in poly(2,5-bis[ N-methyl- N-hexylamino]phenylene vinylene (BAMH-PPV) is measured by photo-conductive sampling. A systematic study of the influence of both external bias electric field and illumination intensity on the photo-conductance of the polymer is carried out. The photo-conductance remained roughly constant with the applied electric field up to 6 × 10 5 V/cm. Electric pulsewidths of 2 ps were measured. The transient carrier mobility is calculated. For 93 nm thick film the lower limit is estimated to be 0.24 (cm 2/V s) when assuming unity quantum efficiency. This transient mobility value could be 480 (cm 2/V s) when taking quantum efficiency to be 0.05% according to Hendry et al. [E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L.D.A. Siebbeles and M. Bonn, Phys. Rev. B. 70 (2004) 033202].

Liang, H. Y.; Cao, W. L.; Du, M.; Kim, Y.; Herman, W. N.; Lee, C. H.

2006-02-01

393

Assembly of three coordination polymers based on a sulfonic-carboxylic ligand showing high proton conductivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new coordination polymers (CPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different structures have been synthesized using 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H4L) and metal ions, Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Cd(2+). The Cu compound features a one-dimensional chain structure, further extending into a 2D layer network through H-bond interactions. Both the Ca and Cd compounds show 3D frameworks with (4,4)-connected PtS-type topology and (3,6)-connected bct-type topology, respectively. These CPs/MOFs all exhibit proton conduction behavior, especially for the Cu compound with a proton conductivity of 3.46 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 368 K and 95% relative humidity (RH). Additionally, the activation energy (Ea) has also been investigated to deeply understand the proton-conduction mechanism. PMID:25406590

Zhao, Shu-Na; Song, Xue-Zhi; Zhu, Min; Meng, Xing; Wu, Lan-Lan; Song, Shu-Yan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Jie

2015-01-21

394

Photodegradation of 2?ethoxy? and 2?butoxyethanol in the presence of semiconductor particles or organic conducting polymer  

OpenAIRE

The degradation of 2?ethoxy? and 2?butoxyethanol by simulated sunlight has been investigated in the presence of aqueous suspensions of TiO2 as well as organic conducting polymer (polyphenylacetylene doped with iodine). Degradation in the presence of TiO2 particles is very rapid and effective, leading to a quantitative formation of CO2. Proper conditions also permit a very efficient degradation with the conducting polymer. The potential utility of the process and of the supported photoca...

Pelizzetti, Ezio; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio

1989-01-01

395

Increasing ionic conductivity and mechanical strength of a plastic electrolyte by inclusion of a polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this contribution we present a soft matter solid electrolyte which was obtained by inclusion of a polymer (polyacrylonitrile, PAN) in LiClO4/LiTFSI-succinonitrile (SN), a semi-solid organic plastic electrolyte. Addition of the polymer resulted in considerable enhancement in ionic conductivity as well as mechanical strength of LiX-SN (X = ClO4, TFSI) plastic electrolyte. Ionic conductivity of 92.5%-[1 M LiClO4-SN]:7.5%-PAN (PAN amount as per SN weight) composite at 25 deg. C recorded a remarkably high value of 7 x 10-3 ?-1 cm-1, higher by few tens of order in magnitude compared to 1 M LiClO4-SN. Composite conductivity at sub-ambient temperature is also quite high. At -20 deg. C, the ionic conductivity of (100 - x)%-[1 M LiClO4-SN]:x%-PAN composites are in the range 3 x 10-5-4.5 x 10-4 ?-1 cm-1, approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher with respect to 1 M LiClO4-SN electrolyte conductivity. Addition of PAN resulted in an increase of the Young's modulus (Y) from Y ? 0 for LiClO4-SN to a maximum of 0.4 MPa for the composites. Microstructural studies based on X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggest that enhancement in composite ionic conductivity is a combined effect of decrease in crystallinity and enhanced trans conformer concentrationanced trans conformer concentration

396

Increasing ionic conductivity and mechanical strength of a plastic electrolyte by inclusion of a polymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this contribution we present a soft matter solid electrolyte which was obtained by inclusion of a polymer (polyacrylonitrile, PAN) in LiClO{sub 4}/LiTFSI-succinonitrile (SN), a semi-solid organic plastic electrolyte. Addition of the polymer resulted in considerable enhancement in ionic conductivity as well as mechanical strength of LiX-SN (X = ClO{sub 4}, TFSI) plastic electrolyte. Ionic conductivity of 92.5%-[1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN]:7.5%-PAN (PAN amount as per SN weight) composite at 25 deg. C recorded a remarkably high value of 7 x 10{sup -3} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, higher by few tens of order in magnitude compared to 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN. Composite conductivity at sub-ambient temperature is also quite high. At -20 deg. C, the ionic conductivity of (100 - x)%-[1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN]:x%-PAN composites are in the range 3 x 10{sup -5}-4.5 x 10{sup -4} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher with respect to 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN electrolyte conductivity. Addition of PAN resulted in an increase of the Young's modulus (Y) from Y {yields} 0 for LiClO{sub 4}-SN to a maximum of 0.4 MPa for the composites. Microstructural studies based on X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggest that enhancement in composite ionic conductivity is a combined effect of decrease in crystallinity and enhanced trans conformer concentration.

Patel, Monalisa; Chandrappa, Kodihalli G. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bhattacharyya, Aninda J. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)], E-mail: aninda_jb@sscu.iisc.ernet.in

2008-12-30

397

Ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of cross-linked solid polymer electrolyte using star-shaped siloxane acrylate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A star-shaped siloxane acrylate with a different number of repeating units of oligo(ethylene oxide) (EO) was synthesized as a cross-linker of solid polymer electrolytes. The cross-linked solid polymer electrolytes blended with the ionic conducting plasticizers, such as low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide)dimethyl ether (PEGDME) were prepared by the in situ thermal curing of the star-shaped siloxane acrylate. Different morphologies of the cross-linked polymer electrolytes were observed according to the number of repeating units of EO (n) in the cross-linker. A micro-phase separated solid polymer electrolyte was obtained when the n of cross-linker was 1. When the n of cross-linker was larger than 1, homogeneously blended solid polymer electrolytes were prepared. The ionic conductivity was measured to be 6.3 to 7.8 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} with 80 wt.% PEGDME at 30 C. The ionic conductivity of the micro-phase separated solid polymer electrolyte was slightly higher than that of the homogeneously blended solid polymer electrolyte. The electrochemical stability window of the resulting solid polymer electrolyte could be extended to up to 4.8 V versus Li/Li{sup +} reference electrode. (author)

Kang, Yongku; Lee, Junkyoung; Lee, Joung-in; Lee, Changjin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 107 Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea)

2007-02-25

398

Biosensors by use of enzyme-incorporated conducting polymer ultra-thin films; Dodensei polymer wo mochiiru biosensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biosensor using conducting polymer was developed with an intention of application to medical, food, industrial and environmental measurements. The biosensor is a measuring device that utilizes or imitates the high-level substance recognizing function possessed by biological substances. The sensor consists of a substrate recognizing section to recognize a substrate (substance subjected to measurement) and cause chemical change, and a signal converting section that converts the chemical change into electric signals ultimately. Used currently as the mainstream is the enzyme electrode that uses enzyme for the substrate recognizing section, and uses electrode in the signal converting section. An enzyme electrode is available that uses conducting polypyrrole film which contains enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) on a platinum electrode. This electrode uses an electrode potential of +0.7V, and measures glucose concentration by oxidizing on the electrode hydrogen peroxide that is generated by reduction of oxygen that occurs during reaction between the GOD and the glucose. Improvements, prototype product fabrication and experiments were carried out on this sensor, which indicate that the decline in storage stability due to dissociation of the enzyme from the film is an impediment to the practical application. 44 refs., 12 figs.

Suzuki, K.; Yoshida, S.; Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

1996-03-01

399

Investigation of the Ionic conductivity and dielectric measurements of poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-sulfamic acid polymer complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer electrolyte complexes of poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)-sulfamic acid (NH2SO3H) were prepared by a familiar solution casting method with different molar concentrations of PVP and sulfamic acid. The interaction between PVP and NH2SO3H was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Laser microscopy analysis was used to study the surface morphology of the polymer complexes. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm) of polymer complexes were computed from Differential scanning calorimetric studies. AC impedance spectroscopic measurements revealed that the polymer complex, 97 mol% PVP-3 mol% NH2SO3H shows higher ionic conductivity with two different activation energies above and below the glass transition temperature (Tg). Dielectric studies confirmed that the dc conduction mechanism has dominated in the polymer complexes. The value of power law exponent (n) confirmed the translational motion of ions from one site to another vacant site in these complexes.

Daries Bella, R. S.; Karthickprabhu, S.; Maheswaran, A.; Amibika, C.; Hirankumar, G.; Devaraj, Premanand

2015-02-01

400

The controlled growth of single metallic and conducting polymer nanowires via gate-assisted electrochemical deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

The fabrication of nanowires with well-controlled lengths and diameters is the basis of the application of one-dimensional nanostructures in more sophisticated electronic and biomolecular device systems. A wide variety of materials, including metals and conducting polymers, have been utilized in nanowire arrays as building blocks for chemical or biomolecular sensors. Thus far, the cheapest and most effective way of nanowire synthesis is electrochemical deposition. In this work, we investigate a new method of electrochemical deposition using two-dimensional electric fields instead of the conventional one-directional electric field between working electrodes. Reproducible fabrication of metallic (palladium) and conducting polymer (polypyrrole) single nanowires with diameters down to 30-50 nm is achieved by application of a vertical gate electric field in addition to the lateral one between the two working electrodes. Diameters and lengths of the nanowires can be easily controlled by varying the dimensions of the nanochannels in which the nanowires are grown. A good ohmic contact between the nanowire and gold electrodes is also obtained, indicating the feasibility of electronic devices based on the single nanowires synthesized via this method. In conjunction with experimental findings of nanowire growth mechanism under two-dimensional electric field, molecular dynamic simulations are employed to further understand the deposition process. This improved electrochemical deposition is applicable for controlled and simple fabrication of a wide range of metallic and conducting polymeric nanowires with small diameters.

Hu, Y.; To, A. C.; Yun, M.

2009-07-01

401

Controlled synthesis and energy applications of one-dimensional conducting polymer nanostructures: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The past decade has witnessed increasing attention in the synthesis, properties, and applications of one-dimensional (1D) conducting polymer nanostructures. This overview first summarizes the synthetic strategies for various 1D nanostructures of conjugated polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANI), polythiophene (PTh), poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and derivatives thereof. By using template-directed or template-free methods, nanoscale rods, wires/fibers, belts/ribbons, tubes, arrays, or composites have been successfully synthesized. With their unique structures and advantageous characteristics (e.g., high conductivity, high carrier mobility, good electrochemical activity, large specific surface area, short and direct path for charge/ion transportation, good mechanical properties), 1D conducting polymer nanostructures are demonstrated to be very useful for energy applications. Next, their applications in solar cells, fuel cells, rechargeable lithium batteries, and electrochemical supercapacitors are highlighted, with a strong emphasis on recent literature examples. Finally, this review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Yin, Zhigang; Zheng, Qingdong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

2012-02-15

402

Polymer-based multi-layer conductive electrode film for plastic LCD applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin films of polymer-based multi-layer conductive electrode to be used as a substrate for a plastic liquid crystal display (LCD) have been prepared by a DC magnetron roll-to-roll sputtering method. The conductive layer is composed of three layers, ITO/Ag/ITO or ITO/APC/ITO, where APC is Ag-Pd-Cu alloy, on the polymer substrate (Arton®), which has been treated with hard-coat and gas-barrier layers. The properties of the conductive electrode for the plastic LCD were the following: (1) sheet resistance is 6 ?/square (2) transparency is 88% at 550 nm (3) H2O gas permeation through the plastics is 0.35 g/m2 in 24 h (4) durability against solvents is good for 5% NaOH solution, IPA, methanol, NMP, acetone, etc.; (5) the irreversible shrinkage and the compaction rate are both less than 3 ppm/h after annealing for 100 h at 150 °C.

Kim, J.-Y.; Sohn, D.; Kim, E.-R.

403

Effect of silver nanoparticles on the DC conductivity in chitosan-silver triflate polymer electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solid polymer electrolyte composed of chitosan and silver triflate (AgCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) has been prepared by the solution cast technique. The formation of polymer-salt complex has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The DC electrical conductivity of chitosan-silver triflate electrolyte has been investigated between 303 and 423 K, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1000 kHz. The conductivity was found to increase with increase in AgCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} concentration at room temperature. The DC conductivity obeys Arrhenius relationship up to a particular temperature and decreases at higher temperatures due to decrease in silver ions as a result of the formation of silver nanoparticles. The presence of an additional semicircular arc in the Cole-Cole plot obtained above 328 K indicates the existence of grain boundaries, which can be attributed to the silver particles. The presence of silver particles also have been proven by XRD after heating at 333, 363, and 393 K where the (1 1 1) peak of Ag is observed to increase with temperature. The silver particles were shown to be of nanosize using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Abidin, Z.H.Z. [Center for Ionics University Malaya, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A.K., E-mail: akarof@um.edu.m [Center for Ionics University Malaya, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2010-11-01

404

Effect of silver nanoparticles on the DC conductivity in chitosan-silver triflate polymer electrolyte  

Science.gov (United States)

A solid polymer electrolyte composed of chitosan and silver triflate (AgCF 3SO 3) has been prepared by the solution cast technique. The formation of polymer-salt complex has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The DC electrical conductivity of chitosan-silver triflate electrolyte has been investigated between 303 and 423 K, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1000 kHz. The conductivity was found to increase with increase in AgCF 3SO 3 concentration at room temperature. The DC conductivity obeys Arrhenius relationship up to a particular temperature and decreases at higher temperatures due to decrease in silver ions as a result of the formation of silver nanoparticles. The presence of an additional semicircular arc in the Cole-Cole plot obtained above 328 K indicates the existence of grain boundaries, which can be attributed to the silver particles. The presence of silver particles also have been proven by XRD after heating at 333, 363, and 393 K where the (1 1 1) peak of Ag is observed to increase with temperature. The silver particles were shown to be of nanosize using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Abidin, Z. H. Z.; Arof, A. K.

2010-11-01

405

Effect of silver nanoparticles on the DC conductivity in chitosan-silver triflate polymer electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid polymer electrolyte composed of chitosan and silver triflate (AgCF3SO3) has been prepared by the solution cast technique. The formation of polymer-salt complex has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The DC electrical conductivity of chitosan-silver triflate electrolyte has been investigated between 303 and 423 K, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1000 kHz. The conductivity was found to increase with increase in AgCF3SO3 concentration at room temperature. The DC conductivity obeys Arrhenius relationship up to a particular temperature and decreases at higher temperatures due to decrease in silver ions as a result of the formation of silver nanoparticles. The presence of an additional semicircular arc in the Cole-Cole plot obtained above 328 K indicates the existence of grain boundaries, which can be attributed to the silver particles. The presence of silver particles also have been proven by XRD after heating at 333, 363, and 393 K where the (1 1 1) peak of Ag is observed to increase with temperature. The silver particles were shown to be of nanosize using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

406

Carbide-derived carbon (CDC) linear actuator properties in combination with conducting polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbide-derived Carbon (CDC) material is applied for super capacitors due to their nanoporous structure and their high charging/discharging capability. In this work we report for the first time CDC linear actuators and CDC combined with polypyrrole (CDC-PPy) in ECMD (Electrochemomechanical deformation) under isotonic (constant force) and isometric (constant length) measurements in aqueous electrolyte. CDC-PPy actuators showing nearly double strain under cyclic voltammetric and square wave potential measurements in comparison to CDC linear actuators. The new material is investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray analysis) to reveal how the conducting polymer layer and the CDC layer interfere together.

Kiefer, Rudolf; Aydemir, Nihan; Torop, Janno; Kilmartin, Paul A.; Tamm, Tarmo; Kaasik, Friedrich; Kesküla, Arko; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Aabloo, Alvo

2014-03-01

407

Friendly conditions-synthesis of platinum nanoparticles supported on conducting polymer: methanol electrooxidation  

OpenAIRE

An easy method to synthesize Pt nanoparticles supported on conductive polymers has been explored. The synthesis was carried out under “soft” conditions, i.e., at low temperatures and without using strong reducing agent. The optimal synthesis conditions have been established. Thus, the particles had almost monodisperse size distribution, around 2.4 nm, when the synthesis was carried out at 100 °C, and around 1.4 nm when it was done at 75 °C. Also, it has been demonstrated that the platin...

Salavagione, Horacio Javier; Sanchis Bermu?dez, Carlos; Morallo?n Nu?n?ez, Emilia

2007-01-01

408

Electrical conductivity of radiation-processed wood polymer composites. [Gamma rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two species of wood, viz. Haldu (Adina Cordifolia) and Jamun (Syzygium Cumini) were vacuum-impregnated with two styrene-based monomer systems and polymerized in situ with gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The electrical conductivity of these specimens was determined at various polymer loadings under dry conditions, after wetting and after wet recovery as per ASTM standards. The water absorption characteristics are also presented. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of water. Potential applications are also discussed. 7 figures.

Adur, A.M.; Nigam, S.K.

1978-01-01

409

Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present techniques to trap a group of neuronal cells (PC 12) close to band microelectrodes and quantitatively measure cellular transmitter release. Different trapping approaches were investigated including coating of electrodes by layers enhancing cell attachment and by pressure driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration of released transmitter molecules could be estimated.

Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco

2012-01-01

410

Electrical conductivity and Raman imaging of double wall carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix  

OpenAIRE

Raman spectroscopy is used to access the dispersion state of DWNTs in a PEEK polymer matrix. The interaction of the outer tube with the matrix can be determined from the line shape of the Raman G band. This allows us to distinguish regions where the nanotubes are well dispersed and regions where the nanotubes are agglomerated. The percolation threshold of the electrical conductivity of the double wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)/PEEK nanocomposites is found to be at 0.2–0.3 wt.%. We find a max...

Tishkova, Victoria; Raynal, Pierre Ivan; Puech, Pascal; Lonjon, Antoine; Le Fournier, Marion; Demont, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bacsa, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

411

Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Nanocomposites Filled with Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental results and theoretical studies of thermophysical characteristics crystalline polyethylene nanocomposites containing from 0.3 to 2.5 wt. % carbon black and nanocomposites containing from 0.2 to 1.5 wt. % carbon nanotubes is done in the article. The fundamentals of the effective medium theory and percolation theory and how they correlate with the experimental data is shown. The features of the structure’s influence of polymer composites on their thermal properties is studied. A comparative analysis of the thermal conductivity of the compositions according to the geometry of the filler is done.

R.V. Dinzhos

2014-04-01

412

Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate using quadripolar electrode configuration and transparent conductive polymer layers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the realization of an electrically tunable wave plate, which uses a nematic liquid-crystal (LC) phase retarder that allows fast and continuous control of the polarization state. This device is built using a quadripolar electrode design and transparent conductive polymer layers in order to obtain a uniform electric field distribution in the interelectrode area. With this realization, we obtain a high degree of control of the orientation of the electric field and, consequently, of the LC director. Indeed, this modulator outperforms classical bipolar LC cells in both optical path variation (>4 microm) and LC rotation speed (0.4 degrees/micros). PMID:19798369

Fraval, Nicolas; Joffre, Pascal; Formont, Stéphane; Chazelas, Jean

2009-10-01

413

Electrically conducting polymers as templating interfaces for fabrication of copper nanotubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Submicrometer tubes have been fabricated by a polymer-based template approach using electroless deposition. The copper was deposited on polystyrene fibers functionalized with an interfacial electrically conducting polyaniline thin film layer. Thermal degradation of the functionalized fiber templates resulted in copper tubes of diameter 1600 ± 50 nm with wall thicknesses ranging between 100 and 200 nm. The morphology and elemental analysis of copper coaxial fibers was analyzed using SEM and EDS. Electrical properties were analyzed using FTIR and PXRD was used to study crystal structure of copper nanotubes. PMID:22455497

Mushibe, Eliud K; Andala, Dickson; Murphy, Steven C; Raiti-Palazzolo, Kate; Duffy-Matzner, Jetty L; Jones, Wayne E

2012-04-24

414

Conductivity and Activation Energy in Polymers Synthesized by Plasmas of Thiophene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudia la síntesis por plasmas resistivos a radiofrecuencia de poli