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Sample records for nanocrystal conducting polymer

  1. Carrier Transport in PbS Nanocrystal Conducting Polymer Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H; Meredith, P; Watt, Andrew; Eichman, Troy; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meredith, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the first measurements of carrier mobilities in an inorganic nanocrystal: conducting polymer composite. The composite material in question (lead sulphide nanocrystals in the conducting polymer MEH-PPV was made using a new single-pot, surfactant-free synthesis. Mobilties were measured using time of flight (ToF) and steady-state techniques. We have found that the inclusion of PbS nanocrystals in MEH-PPV both balances and markedly increases the hole and electron mobilities - the hole mobility is increased by a factor of ~105 and the electron mobility increased by ~107 under an applied bias of 5kVcm-1. These results explain why dramatic improvements in electrical conductivity and photovoltaic performance are seen in devices fabricated from these composites.

  2. Non-volatile memory device using a polymer modified nanocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film planar structures using AgCl nanocrystals embedded in a polymer blend; exhibit reliable and reproducible switching between different non-volatile conductance states. It is shown that resistive switching in these systems cannot be related with migration diffusion or aggregation of metals to form metallic filaments. This is supported by temperature-dependent measurement showing that the current in the high conductance state is thermal activated (0.6 eV).

  3. Conducting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovi? Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent a very interesting group of polymer materials Investigation of the synthesis, structure and properties of these materials has been the subject of considerable research efforts in the last twenty years. A short presentating of newer results obtained by investigating of the synthesis, structure and properties of two basic groups of conducting polymers: a conducting polymers the conductivity of which is the result of their molecular structure, and b conducting polymer composites (EPC, is given in this paper. The applications and future development of this group of polymer materials is also discussed.

  4. Energy transfer dynamics of nanocrystal-polymer composites.

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Jh; Watt, Ar; Thomsen, E.; Heckenberg, N.; Meredith, P.; Rubinsztein-dunlop, H.

    2005-01-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy are used to examine the photoluminescent properties of nanocrystal-polymer composites consisting of colloidal PbS nanocrystals blended with poly(2-methoxy-5(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene). Quenching of the emission from the conjugated polymer due to the PbS nanocrystals is observed along with band edge emission from the ligand capped PbS nanocrystals. A decrease in the photoluminescence lifetime of MEH-PPV is also observed ...

  5. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (inventors)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  6. Ligand engineering in hybrid polymer:nanocrystal solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Greaney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of semiconducting polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are receiving renewed interest as a type of inexpensive, solution-processed third generation solar cell. In these hybrid bulk heterojunctions (BHJs, the interface between the disparate organic and inorganic phases is a dominating factor in the overall performance of the resulting devices. Paramount to this interface is the ligand landscape on the nanocrystal surface, which as a result of the inherently large surface area to volume ratio of the nanocrystals, has a significant spatial and electronic influence on the boundary between the donor polymer and acceptor nanocrystal. We have investigated the importance of this three-part polymer/ligand/nanocrystal interface by studying the ligand effects in hybrid BHJ solar cells. In this article, we highlight the major research advances and the state-of-the-art in hybrid BHJ solar cells with respect to ligand engineering, as well as outline future research avenues deemed necessary for continued technological advancement.

  7. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, BjØrn; Chen, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Steven Z. (Latham, NY); Davey, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  9. Carbon nanotube stabilized conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Wong, I.-Sing; Lai, Tao-Cheng; Chin, Wei; Hsu, Wen-Kuang

    2010-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes act as radical scavengers in UV-irradiated conductive polymer (poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate) and effect is verified by conductivity, electron paramagnetic resonance, and infrared absorption data.

  10. Multifunctional Composites Obtained by Incorporating Nanocrystals into Decorated PVK Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Yang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK was decorated with surfactant group to achieve amphiphilic polymer with luminescent property. The composition and properties of the polymers were systematically investigated using FTIR, EA, TGA, UV-Vis, and PL characterizations. Different CdTe nanocrystals (NCs prepared in aqueous medium were directly transferred to organic phase using the PVK-based polymers. The quantum yield of NCs in the composites had been improved by 50% compared with their parent aqueous solution due to the short distance from carbazole moieties to NCs, which facilitated the Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET between them. Moreover, efficient electron transfer at the interface of NCs and polymers had been confirmed which also indicated the application in photovoltaic cell for such composites.

  11. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  12. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  13. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  14. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  15. Electrospun porous conductive polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwen; Naguib, Hani E.; Bazylak, Aimy

    2012-04-01

    In this work, two methodologies were used in fabricating conductive electrospun polymer fibers with nano features. We first investigated the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as conductive fillers at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10% into a polystyrene (PS) matrix. Electrospinning conditions were tailored to produce fibers with minimal beads. Next, we investigated the effects of coating electrospun fibers with nano structured conductive polymer. Oxidant (FeCl3) fibers were electrospun in PS and then exposed to a pyrrole (Py) monomer in a vacuum chamber. As a result, polypyrrole (PPy) was coated on the fibers creating conductive pathways. In both methods, the electrospun conductive fibers were characterized in terms of their morphologies, thermal stability and electrical conductivity. Strong correlations were found among PPy coating nanostructures, oxidant concentration and polymerization time. Electrospun fibrous membranes with conductive polymer coating exhibit much higher electrical conductivities compare to fibers with conductive fillers. Highest conductivity achieved was 9.5E-4 S/cm with 40% FeCl3/PS fibers polymerized with Py for 140 min.

  16. Thermal conductivity of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nano-materials have been extensively used to improve the properties of a polymer matrix. Among them, carbon nanotube and graphene have superior thermal conductivity, which could greatly enhance the thermal behavior of polymers. The effects of carbon fillers, however, depend on factors such as filler concentration, and compatibility with polymer matrix. We used molecular dynamic simulations to study how these factors would affect the thermal behavior of carbon-polymer composites, with a focus on carbon nanotube based composites and graphene based composites. We validated our methods by testing thermal conductivity of water, which agreed well with published experiment values. By using our model, we explore how the filler concentration, and how the coupling energy between two phases could affect the thermal performance of polymer matrix. We also test the effects of filler orientation and compare the different performance of carbon nanotube and graphene in improving the thermal conductivity of composites. The results provide guidelines to design carbon-based polymer composites with better thermal properties.

  17. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.

    2012-01-01

    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter-particle transport is clearly observed. For the times immediately following carrier injection, we observe Drude-like long range transport that is rapidly replaced with a localized response on picosecond time scales. The localized response can be very well described by a phenomenological Drude-Smith model, verifying the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window.

  18. Unified Hamiltonian for conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two transferable physical parameters are incorporated into the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian to model conducting polymers beyond polyacetylene: the parameter ? scales the electron-phonon coupling strength in aromatic rings and the other parameter ? specifies the heterogeneous core charges. This generic Hamiltonian predicts the fundamental band gaps of polythiophene, polypyrrole, polyfuran, poly-(p-phenylene), poly-(p-phenylene vinylene), and polyacenes, and their oligomers of all lengths, with an accuracy exceeding time-dependent density functional theory. Its computational costs for moderate-length polymer chains are more than eight orders of magnitude lower than first-principles approaches. (paper)

  19. Hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells based on tetrapod-shaped CdSexTe1-x nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of ternary tetrapodal nanocrystals of CdSexTe1-x with x = 0 (CdTe), 0.23, 0.53, 0.78, 1 (CdSe) were synthesized and used to fabricate hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells. Herein, the nanocrystals acted as electron acceptors, and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) was used as an electron donor. It was found that the open circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc) and power conversion efficiency (?) of the devices all increased with increasing Se content in the CdSexTe1-x nanocrystals under identical experimental conditions. The solar cell based on the blend of tetrapodal CdSe nanocrystals and MEH-PPV (9:1 w/w) showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 1.13% under AM 1.5, 80 mW cm-2, and the maximum incident photon to converted current efficiency (IPCE) of the device reached 47% at 510 nm. The influence of nanocrystal composition on the photovoltaic properties of the hybrid solar cells was explained by the difference of the band level positions between MEH-PPV and the nanocrystals

  20. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  1. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  2. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  3. Alkyl Passivation and Amphiphilic Polymer Coating of Silicon Nanocrystals for Diagnostic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hessel, Colin M.; Rasch, Michael R.; Hueso, Jose L.; Goodfellow, Brian W.; Akhavan, Vahid A.; Puvanakrishnan, Priyaveena; Tunnell, James W.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We show a method to produce biocompatible polymer-coated silicon (Si) nanocrystals for medical imaging. Silica-embedded Si nanocrystals are formed by HSQ thermolysis. The nanocrystals are then liberated from the oxide and terminated with Si-H bonds by HF etching, followed by alkyl monolayer passivation by thermal hydrosilylation. The Si nanocrystals have an average diameter of 2.1 ± 0.6 nm and photoluminesce (PL) with a peak emission wavelength of 650 nm, which lies within the transmission w...

  4. Electrically conducting polymers for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Gaier, James R.; Good, Brian S.; Sharp, G. R.; Meador, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Current research on electrically conducting polymers from 1974 to the present is reviewed focusing on the development of materials for aeronautic and space applications. Problems discussed include extended pi-systems, pyrolytic polymers, charge-transfer systems, conductive matrix resins for composite materials, and prospects for the use of conducting polymers in space photovoltaics.

  5. Electrophysical Properties of Thermally Conductive Polymer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. M.; Gefle, O. S.; Dneprovskii, S. N.; Amitov, E. T.

    2015-02-01

    Results of studies on basic electrophysical properties of new thermally conductive polymer materials based on low-density polyethylene and the random copolymer of propylene and ethylene are presented. It has been shown that modifying the polymer matrix with carbon-containing fillers allows thermally conductive polymer materials with both low and high electrical conductivity to be developed.

  6. Radiation detector utilizing conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity of conducting polymers like polyacetylene (CH)sub(x) and polythiophene irradiated by an electron beam in SF6 gas increases by many orders of magnitude. This phenomenon can be explained by the radiation induced doping of SF6 itself or of its decomposed fragments. The absorption spectra of polythiophene irradiated under SF6 also changes remarkably. This can also be explained in terms of radiation-induced doping and the resultant insulator-metal transition. These phenomena can be used as a new type of detector of radiation dose. The characteristics of this device are discussed and indicated to have much wider dynamic range than the usually used CTA. (author)

  7. Rapid cytosolic delivery of luminescent nanocrystals in live cells with endosome-disrupting polymer colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Andrea R; Chahal, Harvind S; Chahal, Dev S; Goldbeck, Cheryl P; Cohen, Bruce E; Helms, Brett A

    2010-10-13

    Luminescent nanocrystals hold great potential for bioimaging because of their exceptional optical properties, but their use in live cells has been limited. When nanocrystals enter live cells, they are taken up in vesicles. This vesicular sequestration is persistent and precludes nanocrystals from reaching intracellular targets. Here, we describe a unique, cationic core-shell polymer colloid that translocates nanocrystals to the cytosol by disrupting endosomal membranes via a low-pH triggered mechanism. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry indicate that picomolar concentrations of quantum dots are sufficient for cytosolic labeling, with the process occurring within a few hours of incubation. We anticipate a host of advanced applications arising from efficient cytosolic delivery of nanocrystal imaging probes: from single particle tracking experiments to monitoring protein-protein interactions in live cells for extended periods. PMID:20831181

  8. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number

  9. Alkyl passivation and amphiphilic polymer coating of silicon nanocrystals for diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Colin M; Rasch, Michael R; Hueso, Jose L; Goodfellow, Brian W; Akhavan, Vahid A; Puvanakrishnan, Priyaveena; Tunnel, James W; Korgel, Brian A

    2010-09-20

    A method to produce biocompatible polymer-coated silicon nanocrystals for medical imaging is shown. Silica-embedded Si nanocrystals are formed by HSQ thermolysis. The nanocrystals are then liberated from the oxide and terminated with Si-H bonds by HF etching, followed by alkyl monolayer passivation by thermal hydrosilylation. The Si nanocrystals have an average diameter of 2.1 nm ± 0.6 nm and photoluminesce with a peak emission wavelength of 650 nm, which lies within the transmission window of 650-900 nm that is useful for biological imaging. The hydrophobic Si nanocrystals are then coated with an amphiphilic polymer for dispersion in aqueous media with the pH ranging between 7 and 10 and an ionic strength between 30 mM and 2 M, while maintaining a bright and stable photoluminescence and a hydrodynamic radius of only 20 nm. Fluorescence imaging of polymer-coated Si nanocrystals in biological tissue is demonstrated, showing the potential for in vivo imaging. PMID:20818646

  10. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  11. Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, Thomas J.

    To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in dynamics was observed implying the excited state has little charge-transfer character. Next, the conduction band density of states for copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals (CZTS NCs) was measured using pump-probe spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with theoretical results. The density of states shifted and dilated for smaller NCs indicative of quantum confinement. The excited state lifetime was found to be short (dynamics were modeled using second order kinetics as well as Forster and Dexter energy transfer. Dexter energy transfer provided the best fits and the most reasonable fitting parameters.

  12. A Platform for Functional Conductive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian

    Conductive polymers have been studied extensively during recent years. In order to broaden the application field of conductive polymers different methods have been tested and recently an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3) was developed(1, 2). The azide functional conductive polymer can be postpolymerization functionalized to introduce a large number of functionalities through click chemistry(3). Through selection of reaction conditions it is possible control the depth of the reaction into the polymer film to the upper surface or the entire film(4). Thus a conductive polymer can be prepared with a subsurface layer of highly conductive polymer where only the upper surface has been grafted with functional groups to ensure selectivity of the surface layer for e.g. interaction with specific biospecies. The conductive polymer can be patterned using selective etching, which enables preparation of e.g. interdigitated electrodes or other surface structures. The electrodes have been applied in controlled localized click reactions through ”electroclick” reactions(5). This enables preparation of both highly functional electrodes as well as gradient surfaces(6). The system is very versatile in all dimensions and structures and allows for preparation of conductive polymers with very specific properties. Recent results on a grafting from method to modify the surface properties will be presented.

  13. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMER-POLYMER COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Galvin, M.; Wnek, G.

    1983-01-01

    Conductive composites have been prepared by polymerization of acelene in polyethylene films followed by iodine doping. The attainment of high conductivity (5-10 S/cm) at low (CH)x concentrations (?3 wt%) is explained with a simple percolation model.

  14. Conductivity studies on solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thematic lecture addresses electrochemical conductivity techniques for the study of solid polymer electrolytes. Types of conductivity are discussed first, followed by an outline of the feature, applicability, and validity of DC and AC conductivity measurements. Techniques for the identification of the individual species responsible for conduction are then briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, J. J.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1985-08-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications has been developed. The technology, in conjunction with impressed current cathodic protection, can be used to prevent corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel in concrete girders, piers, columns, and beams. A formulation of an electrically conductive polymer concrete, which holds the conductive filler in suspension and can be sprayed in thin uniform coatings, was developed.

  16. Conductive polymer/superconductor bilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole-coated YBa2Cu3O7-? microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layer. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa2Cu3O7-? film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses Tc by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to modulate reversibly the magnitude of Jc, the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecular switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated. Electrochemical, resistance vs. temperature, conact resistance, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements are utilized to explore the polymer/superconductor interactions

  17. Electronically conducting polymers with silver grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Hodko, Dolibor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides electronically conducting polymer films formed from photosensitive formulations of pyrrole and an electron acceptor that have been selectively exposed to UV light, laser light, or electron beams. The formulations may include photoinitiators, flexibilizers, solvents and the like. These solutions can be used in applications including printed circuit boards and through-hole plating and enable direct metallization processes on non-conducting substrates. After forming the conductive polymer patterns, a printed wiring board can be formed by sensitizing the polymer with palladium and electrolytically depositing copper.

  18. Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch) nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modific...

  19. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  20. Gyroid nanoporous scaffold for conductive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanoporous polymers with interconnected large surface area have been prepared by depositing polypyrrole onto nanocavity walls of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene films with gyroid morphology. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole was used to generate ultrathin films and prevent pore blocking. The resulting nanoporous polymers exhibited a promising electroactivity.

  1. Chiral conductive polymers as spin filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Kantor-Uriel, Nirit; Mathew, Shinto P; Tassinari, Francesco; Fontanesi, Claudio; Naaman, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Chiral conducting polymer films are self-assembled on ferromagnetic materials and exhibit an efficient spin filtering at room temperature. In addition, the present system displays asymmetric magnetoresistance with respect to zero magnetic field. PMID:25619708

  2. CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS AS ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Armand, M.

    1983-01-01

    Polyacetylene and its related polymers are amphoteric insertion compounds accomodating both cations and anions. This property make them ideal candidates for electrochemical energy storage. However the electrochemistry of these compounds is not fully clarified and the main remaining problems are evoked here.

  3. Transient radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced conductivity of some polymers is investigated under pulse irradiation conditions in vacuum at room temperature. Two mechanisms of radiation-induced conductivity are shown to be operative in polymers. One due mainly to free charge carriers escaping geminate recombination and partly to electrons generated in short tracks and the other associated with geminate electrons localized at deep traps. It is noted that non-Gaussian dispersive transport of charge carriers accounts well for the major features of radiation-induced current transients in polymers. (author)

  4. Phonon dispersion and thermal conductivity of nanocrystal superlattices using three-dimensional atomistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanjani, Mehdi B.; Lukes, Jennifer R., E-mail: jrlukes@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    A computational study of thermal conductivity and phonon dispersion of gold nanocrystal superlattices is presented. Phonon dispersion curves, reported here for the first time from combined molecular dynamics and lattice dynamics calculations, show multiple phononic band gaps and consist of many more dispersion branches than simple atomic crystals. Fully atomistic three dimensional molecular dynamics calculations of thermal conductivity using the Green Kubo method are also performed for the first time on these materials. Thermal conductivity is observed to increase for increasing nanocrystal core size and decrease for increasing surface ligand density. Our calculations predict values in the range 0.1–1?W/m K that are consistent with reported experimental results.

  5. Phonon dispersion and thermal conductivity of nanocrystal superlattices using three-dimensional atomistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational study of thermal conductivity and phonon dispersion of gold nanocrystal superlattices is presented. Phonon dispersion curves, reported here for the first time from combined molecular dynamics and lattice dynamics calculations, show multiple phononic band gaps and consist of many more dispersion branches than simple atomic crystals. Fully atomistic three dimensional molecular dynamics calculations of thermal conductivity using the Green Kubo method are also performed for the first time on these materials. Thermal conductivity is observed to increase for increasing nanocrystal core size and decrease for increasing surface ligand density. Our calculations predict values in the range 0.1–1?W/m K that are consistent with reported experimental results

  6. Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail.

  7. Tactile Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Macicior, Haritz; Sikora, Tomasz; Ochoteco, Esti?balitz; Castellanos Ramos, Julia?n; Navas Gonza?lez, Rafael; Vidal Verdu?, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results from a selection of tactile sensors that have been designed and fabricated. These sensors are based on a common approach that consists in placing a sheet of piezoresistive material on the top of a set of electrodes. We use a thin film of conductive polymer as the piezoresistive mate¬rial. Specifically, a conductive water-based ink of this polymer is deposited by spin coating on a flexible plastic sheet, giving it a smooth, homogeneous and conducting thin film. The...

  8. Liquid crystal-templated conducting organic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Hulvat, James F.

    2004-01-20

    A method of preparing a conductive polymeric film, includes providing a liquid crystal phase comprising a plurality of hydrophobic cores, the phase on a substrate, introducing a hydrophobic component to the phase, the component a conductive polymer precursor, and applying an electric potential across the liquid crystal phase, the potential sufficient to polymerize the said precursor.

  9. Conductive polymers formed by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive materials are formed by implanting high energy ions (30 keV to 300 keV) into rigid backboned polymers, such as poly (p-phenylene sulfide); conductivities on the order of 10-3 (ohm-cm)-1 are demonstrated and the materials remain stable over periods as long as a year

  10. Thermal conductivity and multiferroics of electroactive polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiezhu

    Electronically conducting polymers and electromechanical polymers are the two important branches of the cutting-edge electroactive polymers. They have shown significant impact on many modern technologies such as flat panel display, energy transport, energy conversion, sensors and actuators. To utilize conducting polymers in microelectronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, it is necessary to have a comprehensive study of their thermal conductivity since thermal conductivity is a fundamental materials property that is particularly important and sometimes a determining factor of the device performance. For electromechanical polymers, larger piezoelectric effect will contribute to the improvement of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling efficiency in their multiferroic composites. This dissertation is devoted to characterizing electronically conducting polymers for their electrical and thermal conductivity, and developing new classes of electromechanical polymers and strain-mediated electromechanical polymer-based multiferroic ME composites. Conducting polymers opened up new possibilities for devices combining novel electrical and thermal properties, but there has been limited understanding of the length-scale effect of the electrical and thermal conductivity, and the mechanism underlying the electricity and heat transport behavior. In this dissertation, the analytical model and experimental technique are presented to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of polyaniline thin films. For camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline patterned on silicon oxide/silicon substrate using photolithography and reactive ion etching, the thermal conductivity of the film with thickness of 20 nm is measured to be 0.0406 W/m?K, which significantly deviates from their bulk (> 0.26 W/m?K). The size effect on thermal conductivity at this scale is attributed to the significant phonon boundary scattering. When the film goes up to 130 nm thick, the thermal conductivity increases to 0.166 W/m?K, greatly affected by the phonon-phonon scattering and phonon boundary scattering. When the films are thicker than 130 nm, heat capacity also plays an important role in thermal conduction in polyaniline. The same technique is extended to measure the electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline thin films doped with different levels of camphorsulfonic acid. Results indicate that the effect of the doping level (camphorsulfonic acid/polyaniline ratio) is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% doping level, polyaniline thin film exhibits the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized polaron structures. It is suggested that polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, while phonons play a dominant role in the heat conduction in doped polyaniline thin films. Multiferroic materials combine unusual elastic, magnetic and electric properties, and have promising applications in many areas, such as sensors, transducers and read/write memory devices. For strain-mediated multiferroic ME composites, their ME effect are generated as a product property of the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. In this dissertation, new multiferroic composites are developed and presented. One of them is based on chain-end cross-linked ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE). With a low dc bias magnetic field, the ME coefficient of this composite is 17.7 V/cm Oe at non-resonance and 383 V/cm Oe at resonance, well above the reported ME voltage coefficient of polymer based ME composite in current literature. ME composite based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP) are also developed in this dissertation. Crystalline beta phase structure in P(VDF-HFP) is produced by uniaxially stretching of pre-melted and quenched films. ME voltage coefficient as a function of dc magnetic field at different poling field

  11. Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld

    2006-01-01

    Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested, with particular focus on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on PMMA substrates. The structural, electrical and mechanical properties of this system has been characterised by atomic force microscopy, conductance measurements, and tribological tests. Furthermore, measurement ofconductivity and optical absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties of the substrate, resulting in a highly conducting surface with very good wear resistance.

  12. Hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells based on low band gap polymers and CdSe nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayneko, Sergey; Tameev, Alexey; Tedoradze, Marine; Martynov, Igor; Linkov, Pavel; Samokhvalov, Pavel; Nabiev, Igor; Chistyakov, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy converters based on organic semiconductors are inexpensive, can be layered onto flexible surfaces, and show great promise for photovoltaics. In bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells, charges are separated at the interface of two materials, an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Typically, only the donor effectively absorbs light. Therefore, the use of an acceptor with a wide absorption spectrum and high extinction coefficient and charge mobility should increase the efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. Semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots and rods) are good candidate acceptors for these solar cells. Recently, most progress in the development of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells was achieved using PCBM, a traditional fullerene acceptor, and two low band gap polymers, poly[N- 9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and poly4,8-bis[(2- ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b] thiophenediyl (PTB7). Therefore, the possibility of combining these polymers with semiconductor nanocrystals deserves consideration. Here, we present the first comparison of solar cells based on PCDTBT and PTB7 where CdSe quantum dots serve as acceptors. We have found that PTB7-based cells are more efficient than PCDTBT-based ones. The efficiency also strongly depends on the nanocrystal size. An increase in the QD diameter from 5 to 10 nm causes a more than fourfold increase in the cell efficiency. This is determined by the relationship between the nanoparticle size and energy spectrum, its pattern clearly demonstrating how the mutual positions of the donor and acceptor levels affect the solar cell efficiency. These results will help to develop novel, improved nanohybrid components of solar cells based on organic semiconductors and semiconductor nanocrystals.

  13. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Program has developed new methods for the synthesis of conducting polymers and evaluated new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1996 included two ongoing efforts on membranes for gas separation and on electrochemical capacitors and a third new application: electrochemical reactors (ECRs) based on polymeric electrolytes. As a gas separation membrane, conducting polymers offer high selectivity and the potential to chemically or electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, electronically conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electric energy in low cost materials. Potential energy savings estimated at 1 quad/yr would result from introduction of electrochemical capacitors as energy storage devices in power trains of electric and hybrid vehicles, once such vehicles reach 20% of the total transportation market in the US. In the chlor-alkali industry, electrochemical reactors based on polymer electrolyte membranes consume around 1 % of the total electric power in the US. A new activity, started in FY 1996, is devoted to energy efficient ECRs. In the case of the chlor-alkali industry, energy savings as high as 50% seem possible with the novel ECR technology demonstrated by the author in 1996.

  14. Influence of nanoparticle shape on charge transport and recombination in polymer/nanocrystal solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Weiyuan; Greenham, Neil C; McNeill, Christopher R

    2014-12-21

    A key consideration for the efficient operation of hybrid solar cells based upon conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals is charge transport in the nanocrystal phase. Here we report the results of a study into the charge transport kinetics of polymer/nanocrystal solar cells based on blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with either CdSe nano-dots or CdSe nano-tetrapods. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal significant differences in the charge transport kinetics of nano-dot and nano-tetrapod hybrid cells, with the charge collection of the P3HT/CdSe nano-dot device severely limited by charge trapping. In comparison the nano-tetrapod cell exhibits significantly reduced charge trapping compared to the nano-dot cell accounting for the improved fill-factor and overall device efficiency. Transient photovoltage measurements have also been employed that demonstrate slower recombination rates in the P3HT/CdSe tetrapod device compared to the P3HT/CdSe dot device. These observations directly identify nanoparticle shape as a critical factor influencing the charge transport and hence recombination in this benchmark hybrid system, confirming the hypothesis that the use of tetrapods improves device performance through an improvement in electron transport in the nanocrystal phase. PMID:24781139

  15. Thin functional conducting polymer films

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Shengjun

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, thin functional conducting polyaniline (PANI) films, either doped or undoped, patterned or unpatterned, were prepared by different approaches. The properties of the obtained PANI films were investigated in detail by a combination of electrochemistry with several other techniques, such as SPR, QCM, SPFS, diffraction, etc. The sensing applications (especially biosensing applications) of the prepared PANI films were explored. Firstly, the pure PANI films were prepar...

  16. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  17. Conductive polymer/high-Tc superconductor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of electronic devices from conductive polymer materials has attracted much attention recently. Schottky diodes, molecular transistors, metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes, MIS field effect transistors and light emitting diodies have all been prepared utilizing such substances. With the recent discovery of high temperature superconductivity, new opportunities now exist for the study of molecule/superconductor interactions as well as for the construction of novel hybrid molecule/superconductor devices. The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole coated YBa2Cu3O7-? microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layer. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa2Cu3O7-? film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses Tc by up to 15 K. Thus, a new type of molecular switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated

  18. The effectiveness of metal oxide nanocrystal-enhanced polymers as hardmasks for photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Mary Ann; Lin, Qin; Calderas, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Utilizing thin photoresist imaging layers for successful pattern transfer has gained acceptance as a lithography process of record, primarily due to the incorporation of silicon-containing hardmask (HM) layers for added etching resistance. Our work includes understanding the impact of incorporating metal oxide (HfO2, ZrO2, ZnO, and TiZrO2) nanocrystal additives supplied by Pixelligent Technologies into polymer-based spin-on HM coatings. The goal was to quantify etch selectivity and analyze lithography process latitudes with the addition of nanocrystals into polymers. Results indicate such additions provide substantial process window advantages with improvements in the depth of focus (DOF) and overall pattern collapse margins.

  19. Photon-induced formation of CdS nanocrystals in selected areas of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate light-induced formation of semiconductor quantum dots in TOPAS registered polymer matrix with very high control of their size and their spatial localization. Irradiation with UV laser pulses of polymer films embedding Cd thiolate precursors results in the formation of cadmium sulfide nanocrystals well confined in the irradiation area, through a macroscopically nondestructive procedure for the host matrix. With increasing number of laser pulses, we accomplish the formation of nanoparticles with gradually increasing dimensions, resulting in the dynamic change of the spectra emitted by the formed nanocomposite areas. The findings are supported by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements

  20. Multi-Scale Modeling of Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Pedro

    2008-03-01

    In spite of the tremendous impact of conductive polymers in a number of technological applications, molecular engineering of these materials has not been accomplished yet. One of the main reasons is the lack or limited understanding of the connection between changes occurring at the molecular level and the resulting polymer conductivity. Understanding the influence that local changes to the polymer's structure and chemical composition have on polymer properties, is the key to reach the stage where polymer-based materials and devices can be molecularly engineered with optimum properties. A multiscale model able to predict and accurately describe such a connection is thus a much needed tool to achieve this goal. The main aspect of this project is the bridging between scales in such a way that properties of the polymer at the molecular level are reflected in the observed and measured macroscopic properties. However, to achieve that integration, adapting and improving models at each of the involved scales must be done first. The progress towards improved models at the atomic and at the macroscopic level will be described. The atomic level is dealt with by using quantum mechanics calculations including semiempirical and ab initio methods. A semi-empirical/DFT study of oligomers will be described were extrapolation of electronic properties to an essentially infinite chain show excellent agreement with experimental results. The macroscopic level is addressed with probabilistic models, based on the Monte Carlo Technique, to study the charge transport process. The efforts toward the improvement and implementation of an existing transport algorithm, based on the hopping model, will be described. Existing models consider polymer and polymer devices as a cubic arrangement of sites and incorporate disorder as an ad-hoc parameter, in our model, the use of realistic configurations allows the distinction of intra- vs. inter-molecular conduction and the modeling of polymer devices. In addition, the model is reformulated to incorporate parameters calculated at the atomic level, thus the effect of on macroscopic properties produced by changes at the atomic level can be studies. Plans for the integration across scales, the final step to achieve multiscale modeling, will also be discussed.

  1. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity and strain sensitivity using two- and four-point measurement method. We have found that polyaniline has a negative gauge factor of K = -4.9, which makes it a candidate for piezoresistive read-out in polymer based MEMS-devices. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polarons and irradiation conductivity of polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical description of irradiation conductivity of polymer materials has for a long time lagged behind the requirements for practical applications and the theory has not developed to the point of explaining the accumulated experimental data. The only model deserving discussion is the Rose-Fowler-Waisberg model, formulated more than 30 years ago. One of the main initial assumptions of this model is that the material is uniform and isotropic. Real polymer materials, however, have a complicated heterogeneous structure, which should significantly influence their electrophysical characteristics. For example, it has been established that amorphous a tactic polystyrene contains uniform blocks (domains) up to 3 nm in size with close-range order and high density and the space between the blocks contains much more loosely packed intercallations in which the short-range order of the molecular packing is destroyed. Loosely packed intercallations are also present in crystalline polymer materials. Evidence for the existence of bipolarons in irradiated polymer material is provided mainly by the results of analysis of experimental data on the EPR and optical absorption spectra and the spectra of thermally stimulated currents in irradiated polystyrene. The analysis performed in this work still does not prove convincingly that irradiated polystyrene contains bipolarons and that bipolarons play a significant role in the formation of the irradiation conduction current. This is beirradiation conduction current. This is because the characteristic features of bipolaron formation in polymer materials have not been adequately studied. However, existing theoretical ideas and comparison of these ideas with experimental data on EPR and optical-absorption spectra as well as other effects in irradiated polystyrene are already sufficient grounds for concluding that bipolarons cannot be neglected in the construction of physical and mathematical models of irradiation conduction current

  3. Enhancing the performance of polymer solar cells using CuPc nanocrystals as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajie; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of different nanoparticles as additives in polymer solar cells for enhancing the light absorption of active layers as well as their power conversion efficiency (PCE). In this paper, we report a PCE enhancement by simply adding copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanocrystals into photovoltaic devices based on a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): fullerene system. Two kinds of device structure were studied: the first one is a CuPc nanocrystal suspension spin coated on the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate-coated substrate; the second one is the CuPc nanocrystal suspension added into the active layer solutions. It is proved that incorporating organic semiconductor nanocrystals into the active layer can help trap light and enhance the crystallinity of the active layers, thus improving the device performance. This strategy might be generally compatible with a broad range of organic photovoltaic materials and offers an effective approach to enhance the device performance.

  4. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set-up is simplicity and that the maximum force generated in the polymer can be transferred directly to the load. There is, however, an inherent problem in this design that will be examined in this paper. If the potential of the reduced state is below that for oxygen reduction, only a finite length of the free-standing film will be fully reduced. This is due to the reduction of oxygen at the surface of the polymer competing with the reduction of the polymer. For a long strip, the potential will therefore approach the reduction potential of oxygen. This will lower the efficiency of the artificial muscles and complicate measurements on free-standing films. A model of the potential profile in a free-standing strip is derived. It is found that the active length (the length with a given potential change) of the polymer will scale as square root (d sigma /i/sub d/). (d is the thickness, sigma the conductivity of the film, and i/sub d/ the diffusion limited current density for oxygen reduction). The active length is typically of the order of millimeters. The model is compared with measurements on a strip of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonate

  5. Conducting polymer-hydrogels for medical electrode applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rylie A Green, Sungchul Baek

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymers hold significant promise as electrode coatings; however, they are characterized by inherently poor mechanical properties. Blending or producing layered conducting polymers with other polymer forms, such as hydrogels, has been proposed as an approach to improving these properties. There are many challenges to producing hybrid polymers incorporating conducting polymers and hydrogels, including the fabrication of structures based on two such dissimilar materials and evaluatio...

  6. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  7. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  8. Functional composite coatings containing conducting polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarzadeh, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Organic coatings are widely used to lower the corrosion rate of metallic structures. However, penetration of water, oxygen and corrosive ions through pores present in the coating results in corrosion initiation and propagation once these species reach the metal substrate. Considering the need for systems that offer active protection with self-healing functionality, composite coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer are proposed in this study. In the first phase of my work, PA...

  9. Electrochromic window with lithium conductive polymer electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Paul; Aegerter, Michel A.; Deroo, Daniel; Valla, Bruno

    1991-01-01

    An electrochromic window was built using WO3 as the electrochromic material and V2O5 as the counter-electrode. Both were deposited onto ITO coated glass panes by vacuum evaporation and were amorphous to X-ray diffraction. The electrolyte was a lithium conducting polymer constituted by a Poly (ethylene oxide) - lithium salt complex. The electrochemical characterization of electrodes was realized by cyclic voltammetry, coulometric titration, and impedance spectroscopy, which allowd the determin...

  10. Conducting polymer electrodes for auditory brainstem implants

    OpenAIRE

    Guex, Ame?lie; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Hight, Ariel Edward; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.; Lacour, Ste?phanie

    2015-01-01

    The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) restores hearing in patients with damaged auditory nerves. One of the main ideas to improve the efficacy of ABIs is to increase spatial specificity of stimulation, in order to minimize extra-auditory side-effects and to maximize the tonotopy of stimulation. This study reports on the development of a microfabricated conformable electrode array with small (100 mm diameter) electrode sites. The latter are coated with a conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS, to offer ...

  11. Tandem and triple-junction polymer:nanocrystal hybrid solar cells consisting of identical subcells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haipeng; Bartynski, Andrew N; Greaney, Matthew J; Thompson, Mark E; Brutchey, Richard L

    2014-10-22

    Tandem and triple-junction polymer:nanocrystal hybrid solar cells with identical subcells based on P3HT:CdSe nanocrystal bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) are reported for the first time showing 2-fold and 3-fold increases of open-circuit voltage (VOC), respectively, relative to the single-junction cell. A combination of nanocrystalline ZnO and pH-neutral PEDOT:PSS is used as the interconnecting layer, and the thicknesses of subcells are optimized with the guidance of optical simulations. As a result, the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) exhibits a significant increase from 2.0% (VOC = 0.57 V) in single-junction devices to 2.7% (champion 3.1%, VOC = 1.28 V) in tandem devices and 2.3% (VOC = 1.98 V) in triple-junction devices. PMID:25233268

  12. Radiation-induced electric conductivity of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced electric conductivity of polystyrene, polyethylene and polypropylene, excited by pulses of accelerated (60 keV) electrons of 1 ms to 10 s duration with a change in electric field to prebreak down voltage (? 2x108 V/m) in vacuum at room temperature was studied. Specific features of recombination effects at increased dose rate were considered. General theoretic problems of radiation-induced electric conductivity of the polymers, especially of heminal mechanism realized in polypropylene, and for pulses of radiation shorter than 0.1 s in polyethylene, as well, are discussed

  13. Electrochemical Analysis of Conducting Polymer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte multilayers built via the layer-by-layer (LbL method has been one of the most promising systems in the field of materials science. Layered structures can be constructed by the adsorption of various polyelectrolyte species onto the surface of a solid or liquid material by means of electrostatic interaction. The thickness of the adsorbed layers can be tuned precisely in the nanometer range. Stable, semiconducting thin films are interesting research subjects. We use a conducting polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene (PPV, in the preparation of a stable thin film via the LbL method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the ionic conductivity of the PPV multilayer films. The ionic conductivity of the films has been found to be dependent on the polymerization temperature. The film conductivity can be fitted to a modified Randle’s circuit. The circuit equivalent calculations are performed to provide the diffusion coefficient values.

  14. Conducting polymer-hydrogels for medical electrode applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylie A Green, Sungchul Baek, Laura A Poole-Warren and Penny J Martens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers hold significant promise as electrode coatings; however, they are characterized by inherently poor mechanical properties. Blending or producing layered conducting polymers with other polymer forms, such as hydrogels, has been proposed as an approach to improving these properties. There are many challenges to producing hybrid polymers incorporating conducting polymers and hydrogels, including the fabrication of structures based on two such dissimilar materials and evaluation of the properties of the resulting structures. Although both fabrication and evaluation of structure–property relationships remain challenges, materials comprised of conducting polymers and hydrogels are promising for the next generation of bioactive electrode coatings.

  15. Conductive polymers: chiral conductive polymers as spin filters (adv. Mater. 11/2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Kantor-Uriel, Nirit; Mathew, Shinto P; Tassinari, Francesco; Fontanesi, Claudio; Naaman, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Conductive organic polymers are used in organic-based light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). It is expected that by controlling the spin of the electrons that are injected from and into these devices, their energy efficiency will increase significantly. The work by C. Fontanesi, R. Naaman, and co-workers on page 1924 shows that the polymers themselves can serve as a spin filter, and this may allow the operation of spin-OLEDs without any magnetic component. PMID:25765616

  16. Polymer composite material structures comprising carbon based conductive loads

    OpenAIRE

    Je?ro?me, Robert; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Detrembleur, Christophe; Thomassin, Jean-michel; Huynen, Isabelle; Bailly, Christian; Bednarz, Luikasz; Daussin, Raphae?l; Saib, Aimad; Baudouin, Anne-christine; Laloyaux, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a polymer composite material structure comprising at least one layer of a foamed polymer composite material comprising a foamed polymer matrix and 0.1 wt % to 6 wt % carbon based conductive loads, such as e.g. carbon nanotubes, dispersed in the foamed polymer matrix. The polymer composite material structure according to embodiments of the present invention shows good shielding and absorbing properties notwithstanding the low amount of carbon based conductive loa...

  17. Biomimetic electrochemistry from conducting polymers. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Composition and properties of conducting polymers change during reactions. ? These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices. ? The state of the art for artificial muscles sensing working conditions was reviewed. ? Smart membranes, drug delivery devices and nervous interfaces were also reviewed. - Abstract: Films of conducting polymers in the presence of electrolytes can be oxidized or reduced by the flow of anodic or cathodic currents. Ions and solvent are exchanged during a reaction for charge and osmotic pressure balance. A reactive conducting polymer contains ions and solvent. Such variation of composition during a reaction is reminiscent of the biological processes in cells. Along changes to the composition of the material during a reaction, there are also changes to other properties, including: volume (electrochemomechanical), colour (electrochromic), stored charge (electrical storage), porosity or permselectivity (electroporosity), stored chemicals, wettability and so on. Most of those properties mimic similar property changes in organs during their functioning. These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices: artificial muscles and polymeric actuators; supercapacitors and all organic batteries; smart membranes; electron-ion transducers; nervous interfaces and artificial synapses, or drug delivery devices. In this review we focus on the state of the art for artificiathe state of the art for artificial muscles, smart membranes and electron-ion transducers. The reactive nature of those devices provide them with a unique advantage related to the present days technologies: any changes in the surrounding physical or chemical variable acting on the electrochemical reaction rate will be sensed by the device while working. Working under constant current (driving signal), the evolution of the device potential or the evolution of the consumed electrical energy (sensing signals) senses and quantifies the variable increment. Driving and sensing signals are present, simultaneously, in the same two connecting wires. It is possible to prepare electrochemical devices based on conducting polymers in which there are several kinds of different sensors and one actuator embedded in one device. Examples of the tools and products, start-up companies, increasing evolution of scientific literature and patents are also presented. Scientific and technological challenges are also considered.

  18. FePt nanocrystals embedded in methylmethacrylate polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, controlled and reproducible procedure is reported to obtain polymerized methylmethacrylate by embedding monodisperse Fe6Pt4 nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of the composite material can be controlled by the magnetic properties and the concentration (up to 0.3 wt%) of the starting nanoparticle dispersions. SQUID magnetometry measurements of FePt-doped methylmethacrylate polymers show superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature confirming the homogeneous particle distribution and the non-occurrence of agglomerates inside the polymeric matrix also observed by transmission electron microscopy. Even at the highest concentration the average particle distances are so large that no particle interactions play a role

  19. Catalytic synthesis of metal crystals using conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A method of forming metal nanoparticles using a polymer colloid that includes at least one conductive polymer and at least one polyelectrolyte. Metal ions are reduced in water by the conductive polymer to produce the nanoparticles, which may be then incorporated in the colloidal structure to form a colloid composite. The method can also be used to separate selected metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  20. Multi-stimulus-responsive shape-memory polymer nanocomposite network cross-linked by cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zheng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Shaobing

    2015-02-25

    In this study, we developed a thermoresponsive and water-responsive shape-memory polymer nanocomposite network by chemically cross-linking cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The nanocomposite network was fully characterized, including the microstructure, cross-link density, water contact angle, water uptake, crystallinity, thermal properties, and static and dynamic mechanical properties. We found that the PEG[60]-PCL[40]-CNC[10] nanocomposite exhibited excellent thermo-induced and water-induced shape-memory effects in water at 37 °C (close to body temperature), and the introduction of CNC clearly improved the mechanical properties of the mixture of both PEG and PCL polymers with low molecular weights. In addition, Alamar blue assays based on osteoblasts indicated that the nanocomposites possessed good cytocompatibility. Therefore, this thermoresponsive and water-responsive shape-memory nanocomposite could be potentially developed into a new smart biomaterial. PMID:25647407

  1. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  2. Chemical synthesis of chiral conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-01-13

    An process of forming a chiral conducting polymer, e.g., polyaniline, is provided including reacting a monomer, e.g., an aniline monomer, in the presence of a chiral dopant acid to produce a first reaction mixture by addition of a solution including a first portion of an oxidizing agent, the first portion of oxidizing agent characterized as insufficient to allow complete reaction of the monomer, and further reacting the first reaction mixture in the presence of the chiral dopant acid by addition of a solution including a second portion of the oxidizing agent, the second portion of oxidizing agent characterized as insufficient to allow complete reaction of the monomer, and repeating the reaction by addition of further portions of the oxidizing agent until the monomer reaction is complete to produce a chiral conducting polymer, e.g., polyaniline. A preferred process includes addition of a catalyst during the reaction, the catalyst selected from among the group consisting of phenylene diamine, aniline oligomers and amino-capped aniline oligomers and metal salts.The processes of the present invention further provide a resultant polyaniline product having a chirality level defined by a molar ellipticity of from about 40.times.10.sup.3 degree-cm.sup.2/decimole to about 700.times.10.sup.3 degree-cm.sup.2/decimole. The processes of the present invention further provide a resultant polyaniline product having a nanofiber structure with a diameter of from about 30 nanometers to about 120 nanometers and from about 1 micron to about 5 microns in length.

  3. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO); Honda, Kenji (Wheatridge, CO)

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge-conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge-conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  4. Solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new system of solar cells. Colloidal nanocrystals possess many physical and chemical properties which can be manipulated by advanced control over structural features like the particle size. One application field is photovoltaics where colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are explored as components of photo-active layers which can be produced from liquid media, often in combination with conductive polymers. The further development of this interdisciplinary field of research requires a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of colloidal nanocrystals, conducting poly

  5. Cathaphoretically deposited conducting polymer - metal oxide composite layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vu, Q. T.; Hebestreit, N.; Plieth, W.; Pavlík, Martin; Pfleger, Ji?í

    Gliwice : Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, 2003. s. 34. [International Polymer Seminar /5./. 03.07.2003, Gliwice] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : electrophoretic deposition * core-shell particle * conducting polymer composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Conducting polymer supported bilayer lipid membrane reconstituted with alamethicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic electroactive polymers and bioderived materials have been independently demonstrated as actuators, sensors and energy harvesting devices. In an electroactive polymer, the applied electric field between the cathode and anode drives ion transport between the electrodes, impregnated electrolyte and the bulk of the polymer to generate force and displacement. Similarly, in a bioderived material an input stimulus (electrical, chemoelectrical or chemical) applied across the protein in a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) displaces ions across the membrane barrier and enables sensing and actuation functions. This paper presents a novel architecture for a device that integrates the ionic function of an electroactive polymer and a bioderived material into a thin-film laminated device combining their unique advantages. A conducting polymer (PPy(DBS)) is used as the electroactive polymer and alamethicin-bound bilayer lipid membrane is used as the bioderived material in the thin-film laminated device. Owing to the configuration of the laminated device, the protein regulates the ionic concentration in the conducting polymer and regulates the electrochemical doping/undoping process in the polymer. By electrically connecting the conducting polymer across its thickness, this arrangement provides a mechanism external to the polymer besides electrical field that can control the electrical, mechanical and/or optical properties of the conducting polymer. This paper also presents the fabriolymer. This paper also presents the fabrication and characterization of the integrated ionic device and presents a template for the development of a novel category of electroactive ionic devices

  7. Nobel Prize 2000: from conducting polymers to molecular electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the development of conducting organic polymers is reviewed. Poly(3-alkylthiophenes) with regioregularity exceeding 99% are especially interesting because if used as a thin semiconducting layer in the field effect transistor (FET) configuration they become superconducting at 2.35 K. This is the first example of the superconductivity of an organic polymer. Fields of use of conducting polymers are reviewed, too

  8. Polymer electric conductivity induced by millimicrosecond pulsed irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation electric conductivity of about 30 polymers is investigated at indoor temperature under the action of millimicrosecond pulses (8 and 40 ns) of 8 MeV fast electrons in vacuum of 2-10-2 Pa. Radiation electric conductivity delayed component is measured only in weakly-polar polymers and in non-polar PTFE and depend nonlinearly on electric intensty

  9. Radiation-induced electric conductivity of polymers under pulsed irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Films of technical polymers 10-30 ?m in thick have been investigated under the effect of 65 keV electron pulses from 5 ?m to 10 ms. It is shown that for all the polymers studied induced electric conductivity is proportional to the dose rate (3x105-109 rad/s). Mechanisms of radiational electric conductivity are considered

  10. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

  11. Electromagnetic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to study the electronic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in zeolite. We studied two kinds of polymers: intrinsic conducting polymers (poly-pyrrole) and pyrolyzed polymers (polyacrylonitrile and poly-furfuryl alcohol). These systems were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave conductivity measurements. In the first part, we present the preparation and the characterization of encapsulated poly-pyrrole. Conductivity measurements show that the encapsulated material is insulating, certainly because a strong interaction with the zeolite traps the charge carriers. In the second part, we focus on pyrolyzed encapsulated polyacrylonitrile. This system has a metal-like susceptibility at room temperature and a relatively high microwave conductivity. These results demonstrate the formation during the pyrolysis of extended aromatic clusters. Finally, we study pyrolyzed encapsulated poly-furfuryl alcohol. We show that the only effect of the pyrolysis is to fragment the polymers. We also discuss the spin relaxation and the EPR line broadening. (author)

  12. Electrically Conductive Metal Nanowire Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoxiong

    This thesis investigates electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites formulated with metal nanowires for electrostatic discharge and electromagnetic interference shielding. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of an average length of 1.98 mum and diameter of 25 +/- 4 nm were synthesized. The oxidation reaction of the CuNWs in air can be divided into two stages at weight of 111.2% on TGA curves. The isoconversional activation energies determined by Starink method were used to fit the different master plots. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation gave the best fit. The surface atoms of the CuNWs are the sites for the random nucleation and the crystallite strain in the CuNWs is the driving force for the growth of nuclei mechanism during the oxidation process. To improve the anti-oxidation properties of the CuNWs, silver was coated onto the surface of the CuNWs in Ag-amine solution. The prepared silver coated CuNWs (AgCuNWs) with silver content of 66.52 wt. %, diameter of 28--33 nm exhibited improved anti-oxidation behavior. The electrical resistivity of the AgCuNW/low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites is lower than that of the CuNW/LDPE nanocomposites with the same volume percentage of fillers. The nanocomposites formulated with CuNWs and polyethylenes (PEs) were compared to study the different interaction between the CuNWs and the different types of PE matrices. The electrical conductivity of the different PE matrices filled with the same concentrations of CuNWs correlated well with the level of the CuNW dispersion. The intermolecular force and entanglement resulting from the different macromolecular structures such as molecular weight and branching played an important role in the dispersion, electrical properties and rheological behaviour of the CuNW/PE nanocomposites. Ferromagnetic polycrystalline nickel nanowires (NiNWs) were synthesized with uniform diameter of ca. 38 nm and an average length of 2.68 mum. The NiNW linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) nanocomposites exhibited electrical percolation threshold at NiNW volume fraction of 0.005. The power law fitting results imply that the electrical conductivity of the NiNW/LLDPE nanocomposites mainly originated from the contact among individual nanowires.

  13. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  14. Doping effects in transient radiation-induced conductivity of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doping effects observed in the transient radiation-induced conductivity of some polymers are investigated. In polymers with predominating free charge carriers (PVK, PEPC, PET, and PS) the effect consists mainly in the reduction of the conductivity depending on the interrelation of ionization potential and electron affinity of the macromolecules and the dopant molecules. These results are in qualitative agreement with time of flight measurements. On the other hand, in polymers like PMMA and perchlorovinyl resin featuring extremely low geminate conductivity, doping enhances (though still selectively) their conductivity and its dependence on the dopant concentration is also discussed. (author)

  15. Surface interaction forces of cellulose nanocrystals grafted with thermoresponsive polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppe, Justin O; Osterberg, Monika; Venditti, Richard A; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2011-07-11

    The colloidal stability and thermoresponsive behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes grafted from cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) of varying graft densities and molecular weights was investigated. Indication of the grafted polymer brushes was obtained after AFM imaging of CNCs adsorbed on silica. Also, aggregation of the nanoparticles carrying grafts of high degree of polymerization was observed. The responsiveness of grafted CNCs in aqueous dispersions and as an ultrathin film was evaluated by using light scattering, viscosimetry, and colloidal probe microscopy (CPM). Light transmittance measurements showed temperature-dependent aggregation originating from the different graft densities and molecular weights. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of grafted poly(NiPAAm) brushes was found to decrease with the ionic strength, as is the case for free poly(NiPAAm) in aqueous solution. Thermal responsive behavior of grafted CNCs in aqueous dispersions was observed by a sharp increase in dispersion viscosity as the temperature approached the LCST. CPM in liquid media for asymmetric systems consisting of ultrathin films of CNCs and a colloidal silica probe showed the distinctive effects of the grafted polymer brushes on interaction and adhesive forces. The origin of such forces was found to be mainly electrostatic and steric in the case of bare and grafted CNCs, respectively. A decrease in the onset of attractive and adhesion forces of grafted CNCs films were observed with the ionic strength of the aqueous solution. The decreased mobility of polymer brushes upon partial collapse and decreased availability of hydrogen bonding sites with higher electrolyte concentration were hypothesized as the main reasons for the less prominent polymer bridging between interacting surfaces. PMID:21648448

  16. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (inventors)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  17. Conductive polymers: towards a smart biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Richard; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2014-06-01

    Developing stimulus-responsive biomaterials with easy-to-tailor properties is a highly desired goal of the tissue engineering community. A novel type of electroactive biomaterial, the conductive polymer, promises to become one such material. Conductive polymers are already used in fuel cells, computer displays and microsurgical tools, and are now finding applications in the field of biomaterials. These versatile polymers can be synthesised alone, as hydrogels, combined into composites or electrospun into microfibres. They can be created to be biocompatible and biodegradable. Their physical properties can easily be optimized for a specific application through binding biologically important molecules into the polymer using one of the many available methods for their functionalization. Their conductive nature allows cells or tissue cultured upon them to be stimulated, the polymers' own physical properties to be influenced post-synthesis and the drugs bound in them released, through the application of an electrical signal. It is thus little wonder that these polymers are becoming very important materials for biosensors, neural implants, drug delivery devices and tissue engineering scaffolds. Focusing mainly on polypyrrole, polyaniline and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), we review conductive polymers from the perspective of tissue engineering. The basic properties of conductive polymers, their chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the phenomena underlying their conductivity and the ways to tailor their properties (functionalization, composites, etc.) are discussed. PMID:24556448

  18. Characterization of metal nanoparticles/ conducting polymer prepared by radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Composites of conducting polymer-metal nanoparticles are of great interest in modern physical and chemical researchers due to their unique physical and chemical properties, which are distinct from those of the bulk metal and molecules .Conducting polymer-metal nanoparticles can be used in diverse fields such as electronics, electrocatalysts and optoelectronics. Conducting polymer and metal nanoparticles blended in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was synthesized by irradiating as films containing monomer and metal salt at different concentrations with gamma radiation technique. In the same time the conducting polymer and metal nanoparticles were formed due to oxidation of monomer and reduction of metal ion respectively by radiation. The structure analysis of conducting polymer-metal nanoparticles films were studied by X-Ray diffraction system which appears different diffraction peak angles respectively .The optical properties were investigated using UV -Vis spectrophotometer that show optical absorbance peak at ? = (780 , 430) nm of conducting polymer and metal nanoparticles respectively .From the UV-spectrum the band gap energy (Eg) was deduced and found to be decreases from (1.4, 2.8) eV at 10 kGy to (1.2,2.52) eV at 50 kGy for conducting polymer and metal nanoparticles respectively. (author)

  19. Transmitter function of synapse-structure system using conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting polymers with neuron-like pattern has been polymerized by controlling polymerization conditions. These conducting polymers have been connected each other to prepare network. If the synapse function can be added to the network, artificial neural network is prepared by conducting polymer. In this paper, we consider the transmitter function using synapse-structure conducting polymer. It consists of three parts: primary circuit as presynaptic terminal, space as synaptic cleft and secondary circuit as postsynaptic structure. Dopant in conducting polymer works as neurotransmitter. Migration as well as diffusion is also considered for dopant ion to transit the space/cleft. When signals from the primary circuit came at the end of the primary circuit in electrolyte solution, the current in the secondary circuit increased because the released dopant ion transited the cleft and entered another conducting polymer. When two primary circuits was used, the current in the secondary circuit increased higher than one primary circuit. This means the synapse-structured conducting polymer system can be use as logical circuit.

  20. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2014-10-21

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ?-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications. PMID:25171730

  1. White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs (?PL=580 nm) and blue polyfluorene (?PL=439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of Tc=6962 K and CRI of Ra=53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs (?PL=580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene (?PL=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), Tc=14395 K and Ra=65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs (?PL=580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene (?PL=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), Tc=4052 K and Ra= 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitterss

  2. "Green" composites based on conducting polymers and wood sawdust.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, I.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    Bratislava : Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2003 - (Omastová, M.). s. 76 ISBN 80-968433-2-X. [Bratislava International Conference on Modified Polymers ModPol /18./. 05.10.2003-08.10.2003, Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA4050313; GA MŠk ME 539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : composites * conducting polymers * sawdust Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Ionic liquids as conducting additives for polymer nanocomposites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schrekker, H. S.; Donato, Ricardo Keitel; Mat?jka, Libor

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2011. s. 87. ISBN 978-80-85009-69-9. [Prague Meeting on Macromolecules /75./ - Conducting Polymers - Formation, Structure, Properties, and Applications . 10.07.2011-14.07.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ionic liquids * polymer nanocomposites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  4. Colloidal infrared reflective and transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides a method of preparing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) injecting a precursor mixture of a zinc precursor, an aluminum precursor, an amine, and a fatty acid in a solution of a vicinal diol in a non-coordinating solvent, thereby resulting in a reaction mixture, (2) precipitating the nanocrystals from the reaction mixture, thereby resulting in a final precipitate, and (3) dissolving the final precipitate in an apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a dispersion. In an exemplary embodiment, the dispersion includes (1) nanocrystals that are well separated from each other, where the nanocrystals are coated with surfactants and (2) an apolar solvent where the nanocrystals are suspended in the apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a film. In an exemplary embodiment, the film includes (1) a substrate and (2) nanocrystals that are evenly distributed on the substrate.

  5. Thermal conductivity in nanostructured films: from single cellulose nanocrystals to bulk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jairo A; Ye, Zhijiang; Wu, Xiawa; Moore, Arden L; Moon, Robert J; Martini, Ashlie; Boday, Dylan J; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2014-11-10

    We achieved a multiscale description of the thermal conductivity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from single CNCs (?0.72-5.7 W m(-1) K(-1)) to their organized nanostructured films (?0.22-0.53 W m(-1) K(-1)) using experimental evidence and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The ratio of the approximate phonon mean free path (?1.7-5.3 nm) to the lateral dimension of a single CNC (?5-20 nm) suggested a contribution of crystal-crystal interfaces to polydisperse CNC film's heat transport. Based on this, we modeled the thermal conductivity of CNC films using MD-predicted single crystal and interface properties along with the degree of CNC alignment in the bulk films using Hermans order parameter. Film thermal conductivities were strongly correlated to the degree of CNC alignment and the direction of heat flow relative to the CNC chain axis. The low interfacial barrier to heat transport found for CNCs (?9.4 to 12.6 m(2) K GW(-1)), and their versatile alignment capabilities offer unique opportunities in thermal conductivity control. PMID:25286405

  6. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  7. Current Trends in Sensors Based on Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonseok Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent an important class of functional organic materials for next-generation electronic and optical devices. Advances in nanotechnology allow for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanomaterials through synthesis methods such as solid-phase template synthesis, molecular template synthesis, and template-free synthesis. Nanostructured conducting polymers featuring high surface area, small dimensions, and unique physical properties have been widely used to build various sensor devices. Many remarkable examples have been reported over the past decade. The enhanced sensitivity of conducting polymer nanomaterials toward various chemical/biological species and external stimuli has made them ideal candidates for incorporation into the design of sensors. However, the selectivity and stability still leave room for improvement.

  8. Some aspects of the radiation processing of conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, in our laboratory (IARC), complex studies have been made on conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene. Our research programme has been directed toward a better molecular understanding of the structural properties controlling electronic conductivity of polymers. The most important issue of our studies within conducting polymer family includes effect of ? and electron beam irradiation on their electrical conductivity. The irradiation was performed on the samples in the form of pellets onto which aluminium electrodes had been vacuum-deposited. The relative conductivities of irradiated pellets prepared from highly conducting polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene powders decreased with increase of irradiation dose under vacuum. On the other hand, in the case of irradiation under dopant atmosphere, conductivity of pellets was increased. The dramatic increase in conductivity was observed after irradiation of insulating polyaniline form (even under air atmosphere). The ESR studies suggest that the charge-transport in low doped conducting polymer can be explained by paramagnetic polaron migration along and between the polymer chains. At higher doping levels, in the case of polythiophene and polypyrrole the energetically favourable is a bipolaron state as charge carrier. (author)

  9. Hierarchical nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogel with high electrochemical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Lijia; Yu, Guihua; Zhai, Dongyuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Zhao, Wenting; Nian LIU; Wang, Huiliang; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Shi, Yi; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that synergizes the advantageous features of hydrogels and organic conductors and have been used in many applications such as bioelectronics and energy storage devices. They are often synthesized by polymerizing conductive polymer monomer within a nonconducting hydrogel matrix, resulting in deterioration of their electrical properties. Here, we report a scalable and versatile synthesis of multifunctional polyaniline (PAni) hyd...

  10. Recent developments in intrinsically conductive polymer coatings for corrosion protection

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Zahoor, M. K.; Hashim, S.; Ali Usman Chaudhry; Khan, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsically conductive polymers have achieved demanding interest in the field of corrosion control coatings owing to their conductive ability and also due to the strict environmental regulations on conventional heavy metals coatings. This multipurpose class of polymers has shown to be effective and proven themselves as a potential alternate for these hazardous heavy metal coatings in order to control the corrosion properties of metals or alloys. The basic purpose of this paper is only to hi...

  11. Conducting Polymers Functionalized with Phthalocyanine as Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Deshpande

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as methanol, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The results obtained showed that these polymers have moderate sensitivity towards the methanol as well as ammonia vapors whereas they show tremendous sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide vapors. The sensitivity factor of as high as 50,000 was obtained for PT-CuPc polymers in nitrogen dioxide. In comparison to this, the sensitivity factors of about 100 and 40 were obtained, when these polymers were exposed to ammonia and methanol vapors. The very high selectivity towards the nitrogen dioxide was explained on the basis of charge transfer complex formed between, the phthalocyanine donor and nitrogen dioxide acceptor molecules. On the other hand, ammonia becomes a competing electron donor in CuPc containing conducting polymers. The very low response towards the methanol may be explained on the basis very little charge transfer / interaction between CuPc containing polymers and methanol. Thus, CuPc incorporated conducting polymers have much higher selectivity than their original homopolymer.

  12. Radiation-induced electric conductivity of polymers under continuous irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rdaiation-induced electyric conductivity of 15 polymers under continuous irradiation by electrons (60 and 75 keV energy) and by protons (7.7 MeV) within 1-104 Gr/s dose rate range at room temperature is studied. Parameters of all studied polymers, that is, Am, ? and ? are determined. Both free-charge (in PETPh, PS, PENPh, PPMI) and heminal (in PP, PTFE, PMMA etc.) mechanism of radiation electric conductivity is shown to occur. Mixed type of conductivity is observed in HPPE. Rouse-Fouler-Weisberg theory is modified for heminal electric conductivity case

  13. Electrochemical characterization of ionically conductive polymer membranes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richau, K.; K?dela, Vlastimil; Schauer, Jan; Mohr, R.

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 188, - (2002), s. 73-89. ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium: Polymer Membranes /41./. Praha, 16.07.2001-19.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK4050111; GA MŠk ME 366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : fuel cell membrane * poly(phenylene oxide) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2002

  14. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel ...

  15. FTIR AND IONIC CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES ON BLEND POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on structural and conductivity properties of solid polymer complexes have attracted a high degree of attention. The main applications of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs are found in varioussecondary batteries and energy conversion units. In view of the abundant resources, low costs and relatively low reactivity of magnesium, solid-state batteries using magnesium metal are worthy of investigations. The polymer electrolytes were prepared using poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA, poly vinyl chloride (PVC and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 by solvent casting technique. The complex formation and ionic conductivity were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR and impedance spectroscopy respectively.The FTIR studies provide the evidence of interaction of cation Mg2+ with the polymers. The maximum conductivity found for PMMA-MgCl2 is 0.57 x 10-7 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  16. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R.; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2014-09-01

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ?-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications.Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ?-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CNC surface chain fraction and degree of substitution after BriBBr modification, NMR spectra of the SI-ATRP reaction mixture at 0 and 120 min, conversion of the DMAEMA monomer during SI-ATRP, DLS size distribution profiles of CNCs and CNC-g-P(QDMAEMA), TEM images of NoV-VLPs and their complexes with CNC-g-P(QDMAEMA) at 0 mM NaCl. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03584d

  17. Synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer matrix: optical and structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdS nanocrystals (NCs) were directly synthesized in P3HT matrix by decomposition of single-molecule precursor compound. In this process, a molecular precursor solution was mixed with the polymeric solution. On heating the solution to the decomposition temperature of the precursor compound, NCs were formed in situ at temperatures as low as 120 °C. The effects of the precursor concentration on the optical properties of the composite were studied. The results showed evidence of charge transfer and size variation depending on NCs concentration. CdS phase can be formed using this process at 120 °C temperature as was evident from the X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscope results confirm formation of monodispersed CdS nanoparticles of average size 4 nm. A possible mechanism of the CdS film formation was also investigated. UV–Vis measurements show that these CdS composites possess a direct band gap energy higher than 2.45 eV depending on the concentration of P3HT, indicating that the nano size can be controlled by the concentration of polymer additive in the composite. A higher concentration of P3HT showed more blue shift.

  18. Memory effect of an organic based trilayer structure with Au nanocrystals in an insulating polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The memory effects of gold (Au) nanocrystal (NC) non-volatile memory structures consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K-30 polymer tunneling and control layers are investigated. The trilayer structure (PV P/Au-NCs + PV P/PV P) on p-type Si substrate was fabricated by spin coating, and transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the average size of the Au-NCs formed is about 5 nm in diameter. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement on the memory structure shows a counter-clockwise hysteresis loop with a significant flat band voltage shift, revealing a memory effect of the Au-NCs with a charge density of up to 1 x 1012 cm-2 and a flat band voltage shift of 2.0 V. A unique feature of the double loop in the C-V curves suggests double barriers during electron tunneling. The I-V hysteresis is also characterized, and a switching mechanism of resistive change is discussed.

  19. Solution synthesis and electrochemical capacitance performance of Mn3O4 polyhedral nanocrystals via thermolysis of a hydrogen-bonded polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A hydrogen-bonded polymer was used to synthesize Mn3O4 polyhedral nanocrystals. ? Ligand plays an important role in the formation of Mn3O4 polyhedral nanocrystals. ? Mn3O4 polyhedral nanocrystals displayed electrochemical capacitance performance in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. - Abstract: Hausmannite Mn3O4 polyhedral nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized via a simple solution-based thermolysis route using a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymer as precursor. The as-obtained product was characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Possible formation mechanism of polyhedral nanocrystals was proposed based on the role of organic ligand dissociation from the polymer precursor at elevated temperature. The electrochemical capacitance performance of Mn3O4 electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. A maximum specific capacitance of 178 F g-1 was obtained for the nanocrystals in a potential range from -0.1 to 0.8 V vs. SCE in a 0.5 M sodium sulfate solution at a current density of 0.2 A g-1.

  20. Metal grid/conducting polymer hybrid transparent electrode for inverted polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jingyu; Yip, Hin-Lap; Hau, Steven K.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    A simple method was developed using metal grid/conducting polymer hybrid transparent electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) for the fabrication of inverted structure polymer solar cells. The performance of the devices could be tuned easily by varying the width and separation of the metal grids. By combining the appropriate metal grid geometry with a thin conductive polymer layer, substrates with comparable transparency and sheet resistance to those of ITO could be achieved. Polymer solar cells fabricated using this hybrid electrode show efficiencies as high as ˜3.2%. This method provides a feasible way for fabricating low-cost, large-area organic solar cells.

  1. Polymer Light-Emitting Diode Using Conductive Polymer as the Anode Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis based on series equivalent circuit indicates that the resistance of electrode layers is the major factor limiting the current density of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) at higher voltages. The conductivity of 790 S/cm for the PEDOT:PSS film is achieved by secondary doping. At a thickness of 240 nm, the sheet resistance of the polymer layer is 51 ?/sq, which is comparable to that of ITO films. The current density and luminance of the PLEDs with the polymer anode layer is higher than the ITO anode device, suggesting that it is feasible to replace ITO anode with a highly conductive polymer in PLEDs

  2. Method of forming electronically conducting polymers on conducting and nonconducting substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Clarke, Eric T. (Inventor); Miller, David L. (Inventor); Parker, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides electronically conducting polymer films formed from photosensitive formulations of pyrrole and an electron acceptor that have been selectively exposed to UV light, laser light, or electron beams. The formulations may include photoinitiators, flexibilizers, solvents and the like. These solutions can be used in applications including printed circuit boards and through-hole plating and enable direct metallization processes on non-conducting substrates. After forming the conductive polymer patterns, a printed wiring board can be formed by sensitizing the polymer with palladium and electrolytically depositing copper.

  3. Effect of crosslink formation on heat conduction in amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikugawa, Gota; Desai, Tapan G.; Keblinski, Pawel; Ohara, Taku

    2013-07-01

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on amorphous polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) in order to elucidate the effect of crosslinks between polymer chains on heat conduction. In each polymer system, thermal conductivities were measured for a range of crosslink concentration by using nonequilibrium MD techniques. PE comprised of 50 carbon atom long chains exhibited slightly higher conductivity than that of 250 carbon atom long chains at the standard state. In both cases for PE, crosslinking significantly increased conductivity and the increase was more or less proportional to the crosslink density. On the other hand, in the PS case, although the thermal conductivity increased with the crosslinking, the magnitude of change in thermal conductivity was relatively small. We attribute this difference to highly heterogeneous PS based network including phenyl side groups. In order to elucidate the mechanism for the increase of thermal conductivity with the crosslink concentration, we decomposed energy transfer into modes associated with various bonded and non-bonded interactions.

  4. Features of radiation electric conductivity of some polar polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductivity of certain polar polymers excited by low energy electrons (65 keV) at the effect duration from 5 ?s to 1 ms in vacuum is studied. Specific electric conductivity of the polymers studied which has been presented proved to be considerably lower the non-polar polytetrafluoroethylene and slightly polar polystyrene and polyethyleneterephthalate. In electric fields E0 5 V/cm Ohm law is obeyed for PMMA and polycarbonate but not for cellulose triacetate. Possible role of free charges in the induced electric conductivity is discussed

  5. Mediating conducting polymer growth within hydrogels by controlling nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Patton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the efficacy of primary and secondary nucleation for electrochemical polymerisation of conductive polymers within poly(vinyl alcohol methacrylate hydrogels. The two methods of nucleation investigated were a primary heterogeneous mechanism via introduction of conductive bulk metallic glass (Mg64Zn30Ca5Na1 particles and a secondary mechanism via introduction of “pre-polymerised” conducting polymer within the hydrogel (PEDOT:PSS. Evidence of nucleation was not seen in the bulk metallic glass loaded gels, however, the PEDOT:PSS loaded gels produced charge storage capacities over 15 mC/cm2 when sufficient polymer was loaded. These studies support the hypothesis that secondary nucleation is an efficient approach to producing stand-alone conducting hydrogels.

  6. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, C. O.; Sotiriou, G. A.; Pratsinis, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films with nanoparticle-specific properties are sought out in novel functional materials and miniaturized devices for electronic and biomedical applications. Sensors, capacitors, actuators, displays, circuit boards, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and medical electrodes rely on flexible, electrically conductive layers or films. Scalable synthesis of such nanocomposite films, however, remains a challenge. Here, flame aerosol deposition of metallic nanosliver onto bare or polymer-coated glass substrates followed by polymer spin-coating on them leads to rapid synthesis of flexible, free-standing, electrically conductive nanocomposite films. Their electrical conductivity is determined during their preparation and depends on substrate composition and nanosilver deposition duration. Accordingly, thin (flexible nanocomposite films are made having conductivity equivalent to metals (e.g. 5 × 104 S cm?1), even during repetitive bending.

  7. Mediating conducting polymer growth within hydrogels by controlling nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, A. J.; Green, R. A.; Poole-Warren, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of primary and secondary nucleation for electrochemical polymerisation of conductive polymers within poly(vinyl alcohol) methacrylate hydrogels. The two methods of nucleation investigated were a primary heterogeneous mechanism via introduction of conductive bulk metallic glass (Mg64Zn30Ca5Na1) particles and a secondary mechanism via introduction of "pre-polymerised" conducting polymer within the hydrogel (PEDOT:PSS). Evidence of nucleation was not seen in the bulk metallic glass loaded gels, however, the PEDOT:PSS loaded gels produced charge storage capacities over 15 mC/cm2 when sufficient polymer was loaded. These studies support the hypothesis that secondary nucleation is an efficient approach to producing stand-alone conducting hydrogels.

  8. Synthesis of novel metallocenes: Asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts to conductive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research was to synthesize conductive polymers based on repeating ferrocene units. During the course of this study, the design of the conductive polymers evolved from the initial model based on [open quotes]stacked[open quotes] ferrocenes where ethano bridged cyclophentadienyl rings are linked by iron(II), to the latest ferrocene-diene model where ferrocene units were linked by double bonds. In the pursuit of these elusive monomers, attempts at their synthesis led down dead-end routes, even though new molecules were synthesized. Some of these dead-end routes, even though new molecules were synthesized. All the work reported in this dissertation had the eventual goal of synthesizing potential monomers for ferrocene conductive polymers. This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Chapter one describes the attempted synthesis of thiophene derivatives where a cyclopentadienyl ring is fused to the [c]-face. Although the target molecule was never synthesized, a convenient and safe new synthesis of 3,4-dibromo=2,5-dimethyl thiophene was developed along with the synthesis and full characterization of 3-bromo-4-trimethylsilyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Chapter two describes the design of asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts and the convenient synthesis of chiral titanocene derivatives. Chapter three summarizes the history of the attempts to prepare ferrocene containing conductive polymers and describes the synthesis of ferrocenophenes and diethano bridged bis(cyclophentadienyl) compounds for use as monomeric precursors to conductive polymers based on repeating ferrocene units.

  9. Understanding correlation effects for ion conduction in polymer electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, Arijit; Heuer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes typically exhibit diminished ionic conductivity due to the presence of correlation effects between the cations and anions. Microscopically, transient ionic aggregates, e.g. {\\it ion-pairs}, {\\it ion-triplets} or higher order ionic clusters, engender ionic correlations. Employing {\\it all-atom} simulation of a model polymer electrolyte comprising of poly(ethylene oxide) and lithium iodide, the ionic correlations are explored through construction of elemen...

  10. Study of PEDOT conductive polymer films by admittance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Microwave technique to measure the conductivity of PEDOT films. ? PEDOT conductivity depends on its mesoscopic scale structure and oxidation level. ? Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis to study structure and morphology of PEDOT. ? Microwave measurements allow determination of the macroscopic scale conductivity. ? Microwave measurements overcome problems related to the local structural defects and inhomogeneities of PEDOT. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the use of a microwave technique to measure the conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films. The PEDOT layers were prepared by electropolymerization from aqueous solutions using both poly(sodium 4-styrene sulphonate) (NaPSS) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (NaDS) acting as monomer solubilizer and dopant for the polymer. The conductive properties of a series of samples produced under different synthesis conditions and characterized by different structures have been investigated by microwave measurements in the frequency range from 40 MHz to 40 GHz by using a Corbino disc geometry. Such technique allows to estimate the mean conductivity of the polymer samples overcoming the limitations of the measuring configurations typically imposed by the conventional d.c. measurements. The morphology of PEDOT films and the structure of polymer chains were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The correlated morphological, structural anted morphological, structural and microwave analysis enabled us to evidence several factors that affect the macroscopic scale conductivity of the polymer sample films and to identify the conditions for preparation of PEDOT films with functional properties relevant to technological applications.

  11. Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level. These demonstrations promote student interest in the electrochemical preparation of conducting polymers, where…

  12. Light harvesting by dye linked conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Troensegaard

    2006-01-01

    The fact that the fossil fuel is finite and that the detrimental long-term effects of letting CO2 into our atmosphere exist, have created an enormous interest in developing new, cheap, renewable and less polluting energy resources. One of the most obviousabundant sources of energy in the solar system is the sun. Unfortunately the well developed silicon solar cells are very costly to produce. In an attempt to produce cheap and flexible solar cells, plastic solar cells have received a lot of attention inthe last decades. There are still a lot of parameters to optimize if the plastic solar cell shall be able to compete with the silicon solar cells. One of the parameters is to ensure a high degree of charge carrier separation. Charge carrier separationcan only happen at heterojunctions, which cover for example the interfaces between the polymers and the electrodes or the interface between an nconductor and a pconductor. The facts that the charge carrier separation only happens at the heterojunctionslimits the thickness of the active layer in solar cells and thereby the effectiveness of the solar cells. In this project the charge carrier separation is attempted optimized by making plastic solar cells with a molecular heterojunction. The molecularheterojunction has been obtained by synthesizing a three domain super molecular assembly termed NPN. NPN consists of two poly[1-(2,5- dioctyltolanyl)ethynylene] chains (N-domains) coupled to the [10,20- bis(3,5-bistert-butylphenyl]-5,15-dibromoporphinato]zinc(II) (P-domain). It is shown that the N domains in NPN work as effective light harvesting antennas for the P domain and effectively transfer electrically generated excitons in the N domain to the P domain.Unfortunately the P domain does not separate the charge carriers but instead works as a charge carrier trap. This results in a performance of solar cells made of NPN that is much lower than the performance of solar cells made of pure poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl)- ethynylene], Nn. On the other hand light emitting diodes, LEDs, made of Nn and NPN works very well. The LEDs made of Nn emits greenish blue light while LEDs made of NPN emits light in the nearinfrared region. During the synthesis of Nnand NPN it was found that remnants of the palladium catalysts caused problems in the control of the polymers and further made the resistance in the solar cells and LEDs so low that they did not work. A large effort has been made during the project todevelop a method to remove remnants of metal catalysts from organic compounds and in particular polymers so that functional solar cells and LEDs could be made. It was succeeded to find a very effective method to remove remnants of metal catalysts fromorganic compounds by the discovery of the fact that azothioformamides are capable of dissolving metal nanoparticles by forming electron transfer complexes. Even metal wires of some metals can be dissolved by the azothioformamides within a reasonable timerange.

  13. Light harvesting by dye linked conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troensegaard Nielsen, K.

    2006-06-15

    The fact that the fossil fuel is finite and that the detrimental long-term effects of letting CO2 into our atmosphere exist, have created an enormous interest in developing new, cheap, renewable and less polluting energy resources. One of the most obvious abundant sources of energy in the solar system is the sun. Unfortunately the well developed silicon solar cells are very costly to produce. In an attempt to produce cheap and flexible solar cells, plastic solar cells have received a lot of attention in the last decades. There are still a lot of parameters to optimize if the plastic solar cell shall be able to compete with the silicon solar cells. One of the parameters is to ensure a high degree of charge carrier separation. Charge carrier separation can only happen at heterojunctions, which cover for example the interfaces between the polymers and the electrodes or the interface between an n-conductor and a p-conductor. The facts that the charge carrier separation only happens at the heterojunctions limits the thickness of the active layer in solar cells and thereby the effectiveness of the solar cells. In this project the charge carrier separation is attempted optimized by making plastic solar cells with a molecular heterojunction. The molecular heterojunction has been obtained by synthesizing a three domain super molecular assembly termed NPN. NPN consists of two poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl)ethynylene] chains (N-domains) coupled to the [10,20-bis(3,5-bistert-butylphenyl]-5,15-dibromoporphinato]zinc(II) (P-domain). It is shown that the N domains in NPN work as effective light harvesting antennas for the P domain and effectively transfer electrically generated excitons in the N domain to the P domain. Unfortunately the P domain does not separate the charge carriers but instead works as a charge carrier trap. This results in a performance of solar cells made of NPN that is much lower than the performance of solar cells made of pure poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl)- ethynylene], Nn. On the other hand light emitting diodes, LEDs, made of Nn and NPN works very well. The LEDs made of Nn emits greenish blue light while LEDs made of NPN emits light in the near-infrared region. During the synthesis of Nn and NPN it was found that remnants of the palladium catalysts caused problems in the control of the polymers and further made the resistance in the solar cells and LEDs so low that they did not work. A large effort has been made during the project to develop a method to remove remnants of metal catalysts from organic compounds and in particular polymers so that functional solar cells and LEDs could be made. It was succeeded to find a very effective method to remove remnants of metal catalysts from organic compounds by the discovery of the fact that azothioformamides are capable of dissolving metal nanoparticles by forming electron transfer complexes. Even metal wires of some metals can be dissolved by the azothioformamides within a reasonable time range. (au)

  14. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, C O; Sotiriou, G A; Pratsinis, S E

    2015-03-27

    Polymer nanocomposite films with nanoparticle-specific properties are sought out in novel functional materials and miniaturized devices for electronic and biomedical applications. Sensors, capacitors, actuators, displays, circuit boards, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and medical electrodes rely on flexible, electrically conductive layers or films. Scalable synthesis of such nanocomposite films, however, remains a challenge. Here, flame aerosol deposition of metallic nanosliver onto bare or polymer-coated glass substrates followed by polymer spin-coating on them leads to rapid synthesis of flexible, free-standing, electrically conductive nanocomposite films. Their electrical conductivity is determined during their preparation and depends on substrate composition and nanosilver deposition duration. Accordingly, thin (metals (e.g. 5  × 10(4) S cm(-1)), even during repetitive bending. PMID:25736387

  15. Recent developments in intrinsically conductive polymer coatings for corrosion protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Iqbal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically conductive polymers have achieved demanding interest in the field of corrosion control coatings owing to their conductive ability and also due to the strict environmental regulations on conventional heavy metals coatings. This multipurpose class of polymers has shown to be effective and proven themselves as a potential alternate for these hazardous heavy metal coatings in order to control the corrosion properties of metals or alloys. The basic purpose of this paper is only to highlight the past decade work relating to the efforts made on protection of metals from corrosion using conductive polymers. The categorization of the coatings is based on the techniques used to apply them. This paper will also discuss the synthesis and prospective applications of these coatings depending on their different formation techniques.

  16. Ion-Conducting Polymer Films as Chemical Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are widely used in batteries and fuel cells because of the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at room temperature. The ions are usually Li or protons, although other ions can be shown to conduct in these polymer films. There has been very little work on using these films as chemical sensors. We have found that thin films of polymers like polyethyleneoxide (PEO) are very sensitive to low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) like common solvents. We will present impedance spectroscopy of PEO films in the frequency range 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz for different concentrations of VOCS. We find that the measurement frequency is important for distinguishing ionic conductivity from the double layer capacitance and parasitic capacitances

  17. Electronic conductance of ion implanted and plasma modified polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and by using conductive atomic force microscope, the spatial distribution of ?10 nm size titanium nanoclusters embedded in PET matrices were observed. The I-V plots showed typical metal-semiconductor junction conductivity between the conductive tip and the surface. In addition, the authors also measured the temperature dependent conductivity and fitted it well to the Mott law, which implied that the conductance arose from electron hopping process. Such technique to create the surface structure of metal/polymer nanocomposites may open an alternative way for plastic nanoelectronics

  18. Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen Gebert; Bryan, Coleman J.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Wrobleski, Debra A.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint effort between NASA Kennedy and LANL, electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed as corrosion protective coatings for metal surfaces. At NASA Kennedy, the launch environment consist of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid and/or elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Intra-connects With Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Woo; Grebel, Haim; Sirenko, Andrei; Lopez, Daniel; Kornblit, Avi

    2009-03-01

    The electrical and optical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) channels, electroplated with conductive polymers were measured. Individual, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) channels were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique precisely between very sharp metal tips on a wafer. The conductive polymers, either polycarbazole (PCZ) or, polypyrrole (PPy) were then electroplated using the CNT as an electrode. Field effect transistors were fabricated and a gate-controlled, N-shaped negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed. A large photoconductance effect, which was associated with the NDR, was demonstrated, as well.

  20. The effect of ion-polymer binding on ionic diffusion in dicarbazole-based conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical polymerization and characterization is reported on a series of eight dicarbazole-type conducting polymers with different attached functional groups. The influence of the electronic character of the subgroup on the ionic conductivity properties of the polymers was examined. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were used to set the ionic chemical diffusion coefficients, D, in the polymer matrix at a variety of doping levels, for each of the polydicarbazoles. We relate D dependency with potential to morphological and electronic processes in the polymer occurring during oxidation. By combination of cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy for part of the series we reveal that the diffusion of ions in the matrix is easier in polymers were the functional group is highly electron-attracting

  1. Electronic transport in carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Single-wall carbon nanotubes self-organize into bundles or 'ropes' of 100 or more parallel tubes, and typical bulk samples consist of nanotube ropes of different orientations. These samples have been found to show metallic-type conduction, as expected theoretically for some types of single-wall nanotube, but a crossover to nonmetallic behaviour occurs at low temperatures. We show that this behaviour can be accounted for by a heterogeneous conduction model involving hopping or tunnelling through small electrical barriers separating extended metallic regions. We used a similar model to explain an analogous crossover from nonmetallic to metallic sign in the conductivity of conducting polymers. The intrinsic conductivity of the polymers appears to reach very high values, probably due to the quasi-one-dimensional nature of conduction. However, disordered barrier regions due to imperfect crystallization reduce the measured conductivities. The linear thermoelectric power in highly conducting polymers indicates the absence of significant superconductivity arising from the usual electron-phonon mechanism. We discuss explanations for the thermopower of the nanotubes, which is larger and nonlinear

  2. Electrically conducting novel polymer films containing pi-stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Robert Gang

    1997-12-01

    The primary focus of this thesis is to expand our knowledge of ion radicals of ?-dimers and ?- stacks in solutions and apply these insights in the development and understanding of new electrically conducting polymers. Two types of the conducting polymers were investigated. The first is the conducting polymer composites embedded with ?-stacks of ion radicals. Flexible and air stable n-typed conducting thin films were prepared from imide/poly(vinyl alcohol) aqueous solutions. Conducting thin films of terthiophene/poly(methyl methacrylate) were cast from hexafluoro-2-propanol. Effects of casting conditions on the morphology and conductivity of the films were investigated. These films were fully characterized by UV- vis, NIR, IR, XRD, SEM and ESR. In the second type of conducting polymer system, PAMAM dendrimers generation 1 through 5 were peripherally modified with cationically substituted naphthalene diimide anion radicals. NMR, UV, IR, CV and Elemental Analysis were used to characterize modified dendrimers. Reduction with sodium dithionite in solution showed anion radicals were aggregated into ?-dimers and ?- stacks. Formamide was used to cast conducting dendrimer films. ESCA, SEM and optical microscope were used to study the composition and the morphology of the films. XRD showed complete amorphous nature of these films. NIR revealed that the ?-stack aggregation depend strongly on the casting temperature and the degree of reduction. Four- probe co-liner conductivity of the films is on the order of 10-2 to 10-1/ S/ cm-1. ESR and conductivity measurements also revealed the isotropic nature of the conductivity. Conductivity/humidity relationship was discovered by accidental breathing over the films. Using a home-made controlled humidity device and PACERTM hygrometer, the conductivity of the films can be varied quickly and reversibly within two orders of a magnitude. This phenomenon was probed with NIR, XRD and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. These studies suggest that the amorphous films absorb water from the air and at high humidity they are plasticized, allowing faster stack-to-stack electron hopping and increased conductivity. Films with conductivity as high as 18 S cm-1 can be achieved at 90% RH. These rare, n- type, air stable, free standing electric conducting films along with their fast and reversible nature of the conductivity/humidity response promises commercial applications.

  3. Nanostructure Titania Reinforced Conducting Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondawar, S. B.; Thakare, S. R.; Khati, V.; Bompilwar, S.

    Composites of polyaniline with synthesized nanostructured titania (TiO2) and polyaniline with commercial TiO2 have been in situ synthesized by oxidative chemical polymerization method. Sulfuric acid was used as dopant during the polymerization process. Sol-gel precipitates of nanostructured titania were synthesized by hydrolyzing the mixture of titanium chloride (TiCl3) and colloidal transparent solution of starch. Composite materials were subjected for comparison to spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis. Strong coupling/interaction of titania with the imine nitrogen in polyaniline confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. XRD shows the composite of synthesized titania with polyaniline have broaden peak as compared to that of commercial titania with polyaniline indicating particle size in the range of nanometer scale which is supported by 40 nm particle size of the synthesized titania from TEM picture. Increase in conductivity with increasing temperature was observed in both the composite materials.

  4. Radiation induced synthesis of conducting polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we prepared a series of Ag/PVA and Ag/PANI nano composites were prepared successfully using a modern and new method. Our synthetic route did not need complicated apparatus, expensive surfactants or additional reducing agents. The prepared nano composite developed optically functional material that does not exist for metal or polymer alone. The present work contains five chapters in addition to the list of figures, tables, abbreviations and references. The first two chapters are concerned with the introduction and reviews of previous studies. Chapter 3 describes the preparation methodology, experimental setup and techniques used in the Ag/PVA and Ag/PANI nano composites processing and analysis. Ag nanoparticles with different particle sizes were prepared via chemical method and gamma- irradiation method. Several techniques were used to detect the structural changes of the nano composites as UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Transmission Electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Chapter 4 includes the obtained results and their discussions: Part I: Synthesis of Ag/PVA nano composite via gamma irradiation From UV/VIS spectroscopy the surface plasmon bands appearing in the visible region (406-422 nm) for Ag/PVA nano composite films are characteristic of the noble metal nanoparticles. The obtained data regarding the change of the absorption intensity and wavelength at maximum absorption and the size of Ag nanoparticles as a function of either irradiation dose or Ag+ concentration pointed the following remark: The particle size of Ag nanoparticles in the as-prepared Ag/PVA nano composite films decreases with increasing either irradiation dose or Ag+ ion concentration. Transmission electron microscope images illustrated that the average diameter of the Ag nanoparticles is indicated as the peak position of the Gaussian curves of the histogram to be from 40-16 nm. The nano structured Ag/PVA films were found to be dispersed spherical nanoparticles with good structural homogeneity and polydispersity. The XRD pattern of irradiated Ag/PVA nano composite samples show four new diffraction peaks which reveal that the Ag nanoparticles are formed in the PVA matrix and their crystal structure is face center cubic (fcc) structure. Also, it can be seen that, with increasing irradiation dose, the particle size decreases, whereas the particle size increase gradually with increasing AgNO3 concentration. FTIR spectra illustrate that the formation of Ag/PVA nano composites leads to disappearance and/or weakening of some characteristic peaks followed by the change in peak position, peak shape and peak intensity due to incorporation of various content of Ag nanoparticles and irradiation doses. Decrease in the transmittance of some bands reveals that there is an interaction between Ag and PVA. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that, pure PVA sample proceed in three main weight loss stages. The appearance of the fourth stage with incorporation of Ag nanoparticles; confirm the coordination between AgNPs and OH groups. Finally, from the thermal parameters of Ag/PVA degradation reaction, thermal stability of Ag/PVA nano composites is higher than in pure PVA. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of AgNPs were tested against some of pathogenic clinical isolates and some of gram-positive S. aureus and some gram-negative E. coli, respectively. AgNPs exhibited a potent antifungal and antibacterial activity against some of fungal and bacterial strains tested. The antifungal and antibacterial activity increases (according to increase the high specific surface area) with either increasing irradiation dose or decreasing AgNO3 concentration. Part II: Synthesis of Ag/PANI nano composite via gamma irradiation UV/VIS absorption shows the formation and growth of Ag nanoparticles through absorption band at (398-406). For a given samples, as the irradiation dose is increased, a gradual red shift in was observed. This indicates formation of larger par

  5. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface. By use of an alkyne modified fluorescein derivative the reaction conditions have been optimized in a conventional MW oven, enabling the use of different sizes of substrates. The optimization resulted in a reduction of reaction times of approximately 20h to only 2min for bulk film functionalization. The method has been applied for anchoring of the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on the conductive polymer. The chelating linkage ability of NTA on the surface was investigated through a sandwich ELISA study confirming the selective bonding of a histidine tagged protein.

  6. Investigation of conduction mechanism in mixed anion solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Maranas, Janna

    2015-03-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes(SPEs) enable safer, lighter and more flexible batteries. One of the main challenge of SPEs is to maintain high conductivity and strong mechanical property at the same time. If there exists a decoupled conduction mechanism, both properties can be achieved without sacrificing each other. Previous MD simulation from our group on ionomer system (PEO600_100%) reveals a decoupled conduction mechanism which uses string-like aggregates to achieve conduction rather than PEO relaxation. We design a mixed anion system (NaClO4 +NaC6H5SO3) in PEO matrix which has the potential to form large aggregation promoting conduction. The conductivity results indicate the existence of decoupled conduction in the mixed anion system. Quasi elastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on these samples to reveal the relationship between relaxation time and conductivity.

  7. Conductivity study of a gelatin-based polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural polymers are particularly interesting due to their richness in nature, very low cost and principally biodegradation properties. For these reasons different solid polymeric electrolytes (SPE) have been obtained using cellulose derivatives, starch, chitosan and rubber. This work presents the results of gelatin-based protonic SPEs, which were characterized by impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ionic conductivity results obtained for these SPEs were 4.5 x 10-5 S/cm and 3.6 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature and 80 deg. C, respectively. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity measurements were taken to analyze the mechanism of ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes. Good conductivity results combined with transparency and good adhesion to the electrodes have shown that gelatin-based SPEs are very promising materials to be used as solid electrolyte in electrochromic devices

  8. Conducting polymer based materials for the fuel cell applications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, I. Yu.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kompan, M.

    Sankt Peterburg : Fiziko-techni?eskij Institut im. A. F. Ioffe, 2005. s. 39. [Meždunarodnyj Seminar: Rossijskie technologii dlja industrii /9./. 30.5.2005-1.6.2005, Sankt Peterburg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fuel cell * conducting polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Purification of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, for biomedical applications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Hajná, Milena; Kašpárková, V.; Humpolí?ek, P.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 195, September (2014), s. 286-293. ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biocompatibility * conducting polymer * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2014

  10. Electrical conductivity of semiconducting polymer/metal nanoparticles composites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharf, Ahmed; Podhájecká, Klára; Bouda, V.

    Ostrava : Tanger / Materials Research Society of Serbia, 2009. s. 107. ISBN 978-80-87294-12-3. [Nanocon 2009 / Conference with International Participation /1./. 20.10.2009-22.10.2009, Rožnov pod Radhošt?m] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electrical conductivity * semiconducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its crossection the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometres of fibers can be obtained from a si...

  12. Structure, morphology and ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional atomic force image of pure polyethylene oxide presents a crystallized network of regular spherulites developing spirals and branches of well distributed surface contours. Highlights: ? The incorporation of ceria significantly modifies the morphology of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-KI complex. ? The ionic conductivity increases by about two orders of magnitude by the addition of ceria nanoparticles. ? Ionic conductivity as a function of ceria concentration reveals two maxima. ? Grain boundary effect of nanofiller, strong Lewis acid-base interaction between PEO and nanosized ceria, change of conformation of PEO molecule and epitaxial effect of ceria nanoparticles control the ionic conductivity of composite polymer electrolyte. -- Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) complexed with potassium iodide (KI) is synthesized to investigate the ionic conductivity of alkaline based polymer electrolytes. The structural and morphological characterizations of the nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The ionic conductivity increases with the increase of KI concentration up to about 20 wt.%. The effect of nanosized ceria (CeO2 ? 10 nm) fillers on ionic conductivity in PEO-KI polymer electrolyte is also carried out, keeping PEO to KI wt.% ratio 80:20 and 85:15. The result reveals that the addition of ceria nanoparticles enhances the conductivity by two orders of magnitude. The presence of ceria at the highest concentration induces the same molecular environment within PEO chain as that of undoped PEO. Temperature dependence of ionic conductivity follows Arrhenius mechanism.

  13. Thiophene in Conducting Polymers: Synthesis of Poly(thiophene)s and Other Conjugated Polymers Containing Thiophenes, for Application in Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers based on thiophene are described. The polymers include poly(thiophene) with and without side-chains and other conjugated polymers in general, based on thiophene. The synthesis and characteristics of the polymers are described along with the application of these as light-absorbing materials in polymer solar cells.

  14. Fast electrochemistry of conductive polymer nanotubes: synthesis, mechanism, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Bok

    2008-06-01

    Conductive polymers exhibit several interesting and important properties, such as metallic conductivity and reversible convertibility between redox states. When the redox states have very different electrochemical and electronic properties, their interconversion gives rise to changes in the polymers' conformations, doping levels, conductivities, and colors, useful attributes if they are to be applied in displays, energy storage devices, actuators, and sensors. Unfortunately, the rate of interconversion is usually slow, at best on the order a few hundred milliseconds, because of the slow transport of counterions into the polymer layer to balance charge. This phenomenon is one of the greatest obstacles toward building rapidly responsive electrochemical devices featuring conductive polymers. One approach to enhancing the switching speed is decreasing the diffusion distance for the counterions in the polymer. We have found that nanotubular structures are good candidates for realizing rapid switching between redox states because the counterions can be readily doped throughout the thin nanotube walls. Although the synthesis of conductive polymer nanotubes can be performed using electrochemical template synthesis, the synthetic techniques and underlying mechanisms controlling the nanotube morphologies are currently not well established. We begin this Account by discussing the mechanisms for controlling the structures from hollow nanotubes to solid nanowires. The applied potential, monomer concentration, and base electrode shape all play important roles in determining the nanotubes' morphologies. A mechanism based on the rates of monomer diffusion and reaction allows the synthesis of nanotubes at high oxidation potentials; a mechanism dictated by the base-electrode shape dominates at very low oxidation potentials. The structures of the resulting conductive polymer nanotubes, such as those of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole, can be characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We also discuss these materials in terms of their prospective use in nanotube-based electrochemical devices. For example, we describe an electrochromic device incorporating PEDOT nanotubes that exhibits an ultrafast color switching rate (supercapacitor based on PEDOT nanotubes that can provide more than 80% of its own energy density, even at power demands as high as 25 kW/kg. PMID:18505276

  15. Time-resolved nanosecond radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosecond time-resolved RIC in some 30 polymers excited by a 40 ns, 8 MeV electron pulse has been studied. Irradiation was carried out in vacuum at room temperature. For some polymers comparative investigations in the microsecond time region are also reported. Data analysis is based on the concept of geminate electrons controlling pulsed conductivity. It is shown that the application of the dispersive transport formalism allows to gain valuable information concerning the initial effective mobility and the frequency factor directly from the experiment. (author)

  16. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to characterize the transport properties in electronically conductive polymers and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in lithium/polymer secondary batteries. During this research period, progress has been made in a literature survey of the historical background, methods of preparation, the physical and chemical properties, and potential technological applications of polythiophene. Progress has also been made in the characterization of polypyrrole flat films and fibrillar films. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronocoulometry were used to gain information on peak currents and potentials switching reaction rates, charge capacity, and charge retention. Battery charge/discharge studies were also performed.

  17. Investigations of proton conducting polymers and gas diffusion electrodes in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Gode, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) convert the chemically bound energy in a fuel, e.g. hydrogen, directly into electricity by an electrochemical process. Examples of future applications are energy conversion such as combined heat and power generation (CHP), zero emission vehicles (ZEV) and consumer electronics. One of the key components in the PEFC is the membrane / electrode assembly (MEA). Both the membrane and the electrodes consist of proton conducting polymers (ionomers). In the membr...

  18. Luminescence quenching of conductive Si nanocrystals via “Linkage emission”: Hopping-like propagation of infrared-excited Auger electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Masashi, E-mail: ISHII.Masashi@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Crowe, Iain F.; Halsall, Matthew P.; Hamilton, Bruce [Photon Science Institute and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Knights, Andrew P. [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gwilliam, Russell M. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-14

    Phosphorus (P) is an n-type dopant for conductive silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc's), the electrical activation of which may be monitored through a non-radiative Auger recombination process that quenches the Si-nc luminescence. We investigated this quenching mechanism through electrical measurements of Si-nc's. Infrared-excited Auger electron emission as the non-radiative process was directly probed and the dynamics of the process are determined from a frequency response analysis. To explain the dynamics, we propose a model in which Auger electrons with a low kinetic energy establish a local inter-nanocrystal conductance and the repetition of this local conductance results in a constant photocurrent (“linkage emission”). This emission becomes significant by electron filling in the Si-nc's owing to the electrical activation of P, which is consistent with observed luminescence quenching behavior. We found that the IR photo-excited emission is distinct from the thermally induced hopping conduction and show that confined, rather than trapped, charges are the source of the Auger electrons. Thus, the process consumes both confined charges and the recombination energy for Auger emission, which explains the luminescence quenching mechanism of Si-nc:P.

  19. Luminescence quenching of conductive Si nanocrystals via “Linkage emission”: Hopping-like propagation of infrared-excited Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus (P) is an n-type dopant for conductive silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc's), the electrical activation of which may be monitored through a non-radiative Auger recombination process that quenches the Si-nc luminescence. We investigated this quenching mechanism through electrical measurements of Si-nc's. Infrared-excited Auger electron emission as the non-radiative process was directly probed and the dynamics of the process are determined from a frequency response analysis. To explain the dynamics, we propose a model in which Auger electrons with a low kinetic energy establish a local inter-nanocrystal conductance and the repetition of this local conductance results in a constant photocurrent (“linkage emission”). This emission becomes significant by electron filling in the Si-nc's owing to the electrical activation of P, which is consistent with observed luminescence quenching behavior. We found that the IR photo-excited emission is distinct from the thermally induced hopping conduction and show that confined, rather than trapped, charges are the source of the Auger electrons. Thus, the process consumes both confined charges and the recombination energy for Auger emission, which explains the luminescence quenching mechanism of Si-nc:P

  20. Electrically conductive, optically transparent polymer/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into polymer matrices. The nanocomposites are prepared using polymer matrices and exhibit a unique combination of properties, most notably, high retention of optical transparency in the visible range (i.e., 400-800 nm), electrical conductivity, and high thermal stability. By appropriate selection of the matrix resin, additional properties such as vacuum ultraviolet radiation resistance, atomic oxygen resistance, high glass transition (T.sub.g) temperatures, and excellent toughness can be attained. The resulting nanocomposites can be used to fabricate or formulate a variety of articles such as coatings on a variety of substrates, films, foams, fibers, threads, adhesives and fiber coated prepreg. The properties of the nanocomposites can be adjusted by selection of the polymer matrix and CNT to fabricate articles that possess high optical transparency and antistatic behavior.

  1. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures with conductance switching properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kai; Nuraje, Nurxat; Zhang, Lingzhi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yang, Nan Loh

    2015-03-03

    The present invention is directed to crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles comprising a conductive organic polymer; wherein the crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles have a size of from 10 nm to 200 nm and exhibits two current-voltage states: (1) a high resistance current-voltage state, and (2) a low resistance current-voltage state, wherein when a first positive threshold voltage (V.sub.th1) or higher positive voltage, or a second negative threshold voltage (V.sub.th2) or higher negative voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the low-resistance current-voltage state, and when a voltage less positive than the first positive threshold voltage or a voltage less negative than the second negative threshold voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the high-resistance current-voltage state. The present invention is also directed methods of manufacturing the nanoparticles using novel interfacial oxidative polymerization techniques.

  2. Microwrinkled conducting polymer interface for anisotropic multicellular alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Francesco; Fujie, Toshinori; Ricotti, Leonardo; Taccola, Silvia; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-02-01

    Surfaces with controlled micro and nanoscale topographical cues are useful as smart scaffolds and biointerfaces for cell culture. Recently, use of thin-film and surface wrinkling is emerging as a rapid unconventional method for preparing topographically patterned surfaces, especially suited for the production of smart patterns over large area surfaces. On the other hand, there is an increasing interest in employing conducting polymers as soft, biocompatible, conductive biointerfaces or as parts of bioelectronic devices. A novel convenient and versatile method is presented for producing anisotropic topographical cues at the micro- and nanoscale on conducting polymer surfaces. Micro and nanowrinkles were formed during the heat-shrinking process of a thermo-retractable polystyrene substrate. Surface wrinkling was due to the mismatch between the mechanical properties of a conducting polymer ultrathin film and the substrate. Various geometries of wrinkled structures were prepared, demonstrating the tunability of topography depending on the thickness of the conductive film. A method for patterning the conductive properties of the wrinkled substrates was also presented. Such surfaces acted as smart scaffolds for the functional alignment of cells, envisioning their electrical stimulation. Cell adhesion and proliferation were evaluated, comparing different topographies, and a preferential anisotropic alignment of C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells along wrinkles was demonstrated. The observed trends were also confirmed concerning the formation of aligned myotubes in C2C12 differentiation stage. Furthermore, improved results in terms of aligned and mature myotube formation were obtained by co-culturing C2C12 cells with a fibroblasts feeder layer. The combination of living cells and tunable conductive nanowrinkles will represent a unique tool for the development of innovative biomedical devices. PMID:23273113

  3. Understanding and engineering ion transport in conducting polymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Stavrinidou, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    Many organic electronic and bioelectronics devices rely on mixed (electronic and ionic) transport within a single organic layer. Although electronic transport in these materials is relatively well understood, a fundamental understanding of ion transport is missing. I developed a simple analytical model that describes ion transport in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer film. The model leads to predictions of the temporal evolution of drift length of ions and curr...

  4. Critical Dependence of Polarization Phenomena on Conductivity in Ferroelectric Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Fedosov; H. von Seggern

    2013-01-01

    Experimentally obtained data on the polarization dynamics in polyvinylidene fluoride, a typical ferroe-lectric polymer, are analyzed during initial poling, short circuiting and polarization switching. Considering a two-component structure of the samples, namely, presence of ferroelectric and non-ferroelectric phases, it is shown that value and stability of the ferroelectric polarization significantly depend on conductivity and space charges. Application of a simple two-layer theoretical model...

  5. Ion conductivity and transport by porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horike, Satoshi; Umeyama, Daiki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2013-11-19

    Ion conduction and transport in solids are both interesting and useful and are found in widely distinct materials, from those in battery-related technologies to those in biological systems. Scientists have approached the synthesis of ion-conductive compounds in a variety of ways, in the areas of organic and inorganic chemistry. Recently, based on their ion-conducting behavior, porous coordination polymers (PCPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recognized for their easy design and the dynamic behavior of the ionic components in the structures. These PCP/MOFs consist of metal ions (or clusters) and organic ligands structured via coordination bonds. They could have highly concentrated mobile ions with dynamic behavior, and their characteristics have inspired the design of a new class of ion conductors and transporters. In this Account, we describe the state-of-the-art of studies of ion conductivity by PCP/MOFs and nonporous coordination polymers (CPs) and offer future perspectives. PCP/MOF structures tend to have high hydrophilicity and guest-accessible voids, and scientists have reported many water-mediated proton (H(+)) conductivities. Chemical modification of organic ligands can change the hydrated H(+) conductivity over a wide range. On the other hand, the designable structures also permit water-free (anhydrous) H(+) conductivity. The incorporation of protic guests such as imidazole and 1,2,4-triazole into the microchannels of PCP/MOFs promotes the dynamic motion of guest molecules, resulting in high H(+) conduction without water. Not only the host-guest systems, but the embedding of protic organic groups on CPs also results in inherent H(+) conductivity. We have observed high H(+) conductivities under anhydrous conditions and in the intermediate temperature region of organic and inorganic conductors. The keys to successful construction are highly mobile ionic species and appropriate intervals of ion-hopping sites in the structures. Lithium (Li(+)) and other ions can also be transported. If we can optimize the crystal structures, this could offer further improvements in terms of both conductivity and the working temperature range. Another useful characteristic of PCP/MOFs is their wide application to materials fabrication. We can easily prepare heterodomain crystal systems, such as core-shell or solid solution. Other anisotropic morphologies (thin film, nanocrystal, nanorod, etc.,) are also possible, with retention of the ion conductivity. The flexible nature also lets us design morphology-dependent ion-conduction behaviors that we cannot observe in the bulk state. We propose (1) multivalent ion and anion conductions with the aid of redox activity and defects in structures, (2) control of ion transport behavior by applying external stimuli, (3) anomalous conductivity at the hetero-solid-solid interface, and (4) unidirectional ion transport as in the ion channels in membrane proteins. In the future, scientists may use coordination polymers not only to achieve higher conductivity but also to control ion behavior, which will open new avenues in solid-state ionics. PMID:23730917

  6. Pedot and PPy Conducting Polymer Bilayer and Trilayer Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer Lebbe; Careem, Mohamed Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Actuators based on conducting polymers are attracting increasing interest due to their desirable features such as large mechanical stress generated, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility, good safety properties and the possibility of precise control using small voltages. Many attempts have been made to improve the actuator performance. We report electromechanical measurements on actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers. Both types of conducting polymer are pre-doped during synthesis with dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS). These multilayer films were prepared electrochemically so that the PEDOT layer is very thin compared to that of the PPy layer. In the trilayer film, the PEDOT layer is sandwiched between two PPy layers.The films were characterized electromechanically and the results compared with those of PPy single layer film. Bilayer films show a significant increase in the strain measured at higher scan rates (>100mVs?1). The force difference generated between the reduced and oxidized states is much higher for trilayer films and higher for bilayer films than that in a single layer of PPy. Trilayer films are both stronger and faster than a single layer PPy film of half the thickness.

  7. Feasibility and benefits of using interdigitated electrodes for conductivity measurements on conducting polymers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    Atlanta : Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics - Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012. s. 324. [International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals 2012 - ICSM 2012. 08.07.2012-13.07.2012, Atlanta ] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymers * interdigitated electrodes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  9. Ab-initio study of napthelene based conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have identified structural and electronic properties of conducting polymers by using DFT based ATK-VNL ab-initio tool. Naphthalene derivative structures were stabilized by varying the bond length between two atoms of the molecule C-N and C-C. We have also studied the molecular energy spectrum of naphthalene derivatives and found the HOMOLUMO for the same. A comparison of structural and electronic properties of naphthalene derivatives by attaching the functional group of amine, have been performed and found that they show good semi conducting properties

  10. Functional Conducting Polymers via Thiol-ene Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Martin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate here that thiol-ene chemistry can be used to provide side-chain functionalized monomers based on 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT containing ionic, neutral, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic side chains. All reactions gave high yields and purification could generally be accomplished through precipitation. These monomers were polymerized either chemically or electro-chemically to give soluble materials or conductive films, respectively. This strategy provides for facile tuning of the solubility, film surface chemistry, and film morphology of this class of conducting polymers.

  11. N-type conductivity of nanostructured thin film composed of antimony-doped Si nanocrystals in silicon nitride matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Y.-H.; Huang, S.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Highly conductive thin films composed of antimony-doped Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in the Si3N4 matrix were prepared by co-sputtering technique. The N-type electrical behavior in the doped films as observed from Hall measurements was attributed to free carriers generation resulting from the effective Sb doping. Quantitative analysis has demonstrated that effective Sb doping at a concentration of 0.54 at.% results in an improvement on the electrical conductivity (?) by more than six orders of magnitude, up to 2.8×10-2 S/cm. The charge transport mechanism can be explained well by the percolation-hopping model where the conductivity follows ?~exp[-(T0/T)]1/2 at temperature lower than 220 K.

  12. Self-assembly of CdTe nanocrystals at the water/oil interface by amphiphilic hyperbranched polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general strategy for realizing the self-assembly of aqueous CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) at the water/oil interface by means of an amphiphilic core-shell hyperbranched polymer has been proposed. Aqueous CdTe NCs were firstly transferred into the chloroform phase in the presence of palmityl chloride functionalized hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (HPAMAM-PC), and then self-assembled at the water/chloroform interface by decreasing the pH value of the aqueous phase or introducing ?-CDs to the aqueous phase. The resulting CdTe/HPAMAM-PC self-assembly film was characterized by fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis, PL, TEM, EDS, FT-IR, DSC and TGA.

  13. Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.

  14. Electroluminescence of a single active layer polymer-nanocrystal hybrid light-emitting diode with inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) device with a single active layer structure is simply fabricated by a spin coating. From a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study, each PVK polymer particle is observed to be capped with TPBi molecules and CdSe/ZnS NCs are mainly distributed along the circumference of PVK and TPBi surfaces, resulting in a core-shell polymer-NC hybrid of [CdSe/ZnS]/TPBi/[CdSe/ZnS]/PVK. An Al/[CdSe/ZnS]/TPBi/[CdSe/ZnS]/PVK/indium-tin oxide(ITO)/glass LED shows electroluminescence (EL) centered at around 585 nm at the forward bias of +10 V, which clearly reveals that CdSe/ZnS NCs existing at the interface between PVK and TPBi act as recombination centers for excitons. In particular, EL can be observed at both forward bias and reverse bias, and this means that this device with an isotropic distribution of NCs has an inversion symmetry.

  15. Radiation cross-linking of PTC conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical device comprising a PTC conductive polymer is irradiated so that it is very highly cross-linked. A dosage of at least 50 Mrads, preferably at least 80 Mrads, especially at least 120 Mrads is used except that where the device includes planar electrodes which are present during irradiation the minimum dose is 120 Mrads. In this way, for example, it is possible to make a circuit protection device which will continue to provide effective protection even after repeated exposure to a voltage of 200 volts. A PTC protection device may be produced by moulding carbon loaded polymer round three electrodes the centre one of which is then removed to leave an aperture between the other two electrodes. (author)

  16. Multifunctional and biomimicking electrochemical properties of conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Toribio

    2005-06-01

    Electrochemical oxidation and reduction taking place in films of a conducting polymer involve: generation and annihilation of positive charges on the polymeric chains, conformational changes along the polymeric chains, coulombic repulsions and generation of free volume with interchange of ions and water molecules between the polymer and the solution. So, electric pulses, conformational changes, ionic and aqueous interchanges are involved, as it occurs during most of the biological functions. Those changes induce, simultaneously, different electrochemical properties: electrochemomechanical by swelling and shrinking processes, electrochromic by change of the molecular orbitals, charge storage by accumulation of positive or negative charges, electron-ion transduction between an electronic conductor and an electrolyte. All those properties mimic biological functions: muscles, mimicking skins, electric organs or nervous pulses. Some of the developed devices as sensing actuators (muscles), or smart membranes are presented.

  17. Multidimensional conducting polymer nanotubes for ultrasensitive chemical nerve agent sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Lee, Jun Seop; Park, Eunyu; Kim, Taejoon; Park, Hyun-Woo; You, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-06-13

    Tailoring the morphology of materials in the nanometer regime is vital to realizing enhanced device performance. Here, we demonstrate flexible nerve agent sensors, based on hydroxylated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes (HPNTs) with surface substructures such as nanonodules (NNs) and nanorods (NRs). The surface substructures can be grown on a nanofiber surface by controlling critical synthetic conditions during vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) on the polymer nanotemplate, leading to the formation of multidimensional conducting polymer nanostructures. Hydroxyl groups are found to interact with the nerve agents. Representatively, the sensing response of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) as a simulant for sarin is highly sensitive and reversible from the aligned nanotubes. The minimum detection limit is as low as 10 ppt. Additionally, the sensor had excellent mechanical bendability and durability. PMID:22545863

  18. A general one-pot strategy for the synthesis of high-performance transparent-conducting-oxide nanocrystal inks for all-solution-processed devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhong; Kulinich, Sergei A; Li, Jianhai; Liu, Yanli; Zeng, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    For all-solution-processed (ASP) devices, transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanocrystal (NC) inks are anticipated as the next-generation electrodes to replace both those synthesized by sputtering techniques and those consisting of rare metals, but a universal and one-pot method to prepare these inks is still lacking. A universal one-pot strategy is now described; through simply heating a mixture of metal-organic precursors a wide range of TCO NC inks, which can be assembled into high-performance electrodes for use in ASP optoelectronics, were synthesized. This method can be used for various oxide NC inks with yields as high as 10?g. The formed NCs are of high crystallinity, uniform morphology, monodispersity, and high ink stability and feature effective doping. Therefore, the inks can be readily assembled into films with a surface roughness of 1.6?nm. Typically, a sheet resistance of 110???sq(-1) can be achieved with a transmittance of 88%, which is the best performance for TCO NC ink-based electrodes described to date. These electrodes can thus drive a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) with a luminance of 2200?cd?m(-2) at 100?mA?cm(-2). PMID:25403980

  19. Redox-active charge carriers of conducting polymers as a tuner of conductivity and its potential window

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Han-saem; Ko, Seo-jin; Park, Jeong-seok; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun-kon

    2013-01-01

    Electric conductivity of conducting polymers has been steadily enhanced towards a level worthy of being called its alias, “synthetic metal”. PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)), as a representative conducting polymer, recently reached around 3,000?S cm?1, the value to open the possibility to replace transparent conductive oxides. The leading strategy to drive the conductivity increase is solvent annealing in which aqueous solution of PEDOT:P...

  20. Ion beam effects on electrical characteristics of proton conductive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of MeV ion irradiation on the perfluorosulphonic polymer membrane was studied concerning with electrical characteristics. The DC electrical conductivity in dry condition increased of three orders of magnitude as a consequence of irradiation with MeV H and He ion beam at a fluence of 2 x 1013 ions/cm2. The ion induced improvement of the conductivity was independent of the penetrating depth of the ions. The electron and gamma-ray irradiation showed similar enhancement of the conductivity when the same energy was deposited in the membrane. The optical absorption in the ultra-violet region increased in the ion irradiated membrane due to the formation of fluorocarbon and peroxy radicals, while the up-take of the water molecules were not found by the absorption in the infrared region. The ion irradiation may promote the dissociation of the water molecules at the surface and also improve the transport property of protons in the membrane

  1. Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

    2011-05-16

    We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

  2. Application of Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes to Electrochromic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Ayhan

    2002-01-01

    Electrochromic display devices have been fabricated using Polydiallyldimethylammonium dihydrogenphosphate (PAMA+ H2PO4-) blended with H3PO4 as the electrolyte and WO3 as the electrochromic film. The WO3 deposited glass electrodes were doped with protons to form HxWO3 in which color depends on the charge density (CD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 C/cm2. Proton conducting films of PAMA+ H2PO4- 2 H3PO4 (2 moles of acid per polymer repeat unit) were sandwiched between two electrodes to obtai...

  3. Electrical conductivity of radiation-processed wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two species of wood, viz. Haldu (Adina Cordifolia) and Jamun (Syzygium Cumini) were vacuum-impregnated with two styrene-based monomer systems and polymerized in situ with gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The electrical conductivity of these specimens was determined at various polymer loadings under dry conditions, after wetting and after wet recovery as per ASTM standards. The water absorption characteristics are also presented. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of water. Potential applications are also discussed. 7 figures

  4. Na+ Ion Conducting Hot-pressed Nano Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angesh Chandra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis, characterization and polymeric battery studies of Na+ ion conducting Nano- Composite Polymer Electrolyte (NCPE membranes: (1-x [75PEO: 25NaPO3]: x SiO2, where x = 0 - 15 wt. (%, has been reported. NCPE membranes have been casted using a novel hot-press technique in place of the traditional solution cast method. The dispersal of SiO2 in SPE host: (75PEO: 25NaPO3, a conductivity enhancement of an order of magnitude achieved in NCPE film: [93 (75PEO: 25NaPO3: 7 SiO2]. This has been referred to as Optimum Conducting Composition (OCC. Material characterizations have been done with the help of XRD, SEM and DSC techniques. The ion transport behaviour in hot-pressed NCPEs has been discussed on the basis of experimental measurements on some basic ionic parameters viz. conductivity (?, ionic mobility (?, mobile ion concentration (n and ionic transference number (t ion. The temperature dependent conductivity studies have been done to compute the activation energy (Ea values from the 'log s - 1/T' Arrhenius plots. The ion conducting solid state polymeric battery was fabricated and cell-potential discharge characteristics have been studied at different load conditions.

  5. Na+ Ion Conducting Hot-pressed Nano Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angesh, Chandra; Archan, Chandra; Kiran, Thakurb.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis, characterization and polymeric battery studies of Na+ ion conducting Nano- Composite Polymer Electrolyte (NCPE) membranes: (1-x) [75PEO: 25NaPO3]: x SiO2, where x = 0 - 15 wt. (%), has been reported. NCPE membranes have been casted using a novel hot-press technique in place of the traditi [...] onal solution cast method. The dispersal of SiO2 in SPE host: (75PEO: 25NaPO3), a conductivity enhancement of an order of magnitude achieved in NCPE film: [93 (75PEO: 25NaPO3): 7 SiO2]. This has been referred to as Optimum Conducting Composition (OCC). Material characterizations have been done with the help of XRD, SEM and DSC techniques. The ion transport behaviour in hot-pressed NCPEs has been discussed on the basis of experimental measurements on some basic ionic parameters viz. conductivity (?), ionic mobility (?), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (t ion). The temperature dependent conductivity studies have been done to compute the activation energy (Ea) values from the 'log s - 1/T' Arrhenius plots. The ion conducting solid state polymeric battery was fabricated and cell-potential discharge characteristics have been studied at different load conditions.

  6. Utilization of novel bithiazole based conducting polymers in electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we disclose the synthesis of a novel monomer (2,2?-di-pyrrol-1-yl-[4,4?]bithiazolyl, PyDBTH) and the optoelectronic properties of the resultant conducting polymers. PyDBTH was synthesized via the Clauson-Kaas reaction of 2,2?-diamino-4,4?-bithiazole with 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran in acetic acid which was characterized by 1H, 13C-NMR, FTIR and MS analyses. Homopolymerization and copolymerization (in the presence of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) were achieved in a tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) dichloromethane system. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the homopolymer and copolymers were examined by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR, spectroelectrochemistry and kinetic studies. Depending on the synthesis conditions, the bithiazole based polymers exhibited optical band gaps ranging from 2.60 to 1.75 eV and the copolymers displayed multichromism within a wide span of the visible spectrum. The copolymers revealed short switching times and useful optical contrast of 0.6 s and 54%, respectively. Due to its favorable electrochromic properties, utilization of bithiazole based polymers in electrochromic devices was also investigated. These devices exhibited low switching voltages and switching times with reasonable stability under atmospheric conditions. (paper)

  7. Relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper suggests a relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in polymers. According to the model, the transfer of charges generated in the polymer volume by ionizing radiation takes place with the participation of molecular relaxation processes. The mechanism of electron transport consists in the transfer of the charge directly between traps when they draw close to one another due to the rotation of macromolecule segments. The numerical solutions of the corresponding kinetic equations for different distribution functions Q(?) of the times of molecular relaxation and for different functions of the probability P(?, ?') of charge transfer in the 'overlapping' regions of the diffusion spheres of the segments are analyzed. The relaxation model provides an explanation of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the RIC temperature dependence, the power dependence of RIC on the dose rate with a power index in the interval 0.5-1.0, the appearance of maxima in the curves of the RIC temporal dependence and their irreversible character in the region of large dose rates (more than 1 Gy/s). The model can be used for interpreting polymer RIC in conditions of kinetic mobility of macromolecules

  8. Synthesis, ionic conductivity, and thermal properties of proton conducting polymer electrolyte for high temperature fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Takahito; Hamaguchi, Yohei; Uno, Takahiro; Kubo, Masataka [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima Machiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Aihara, Yuichi; Sonai, Atsuo [Samsung Yokohama Research Institute, 2-7 Sugasawa-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0027 (Japan)

    2006-01-16

    Hyperbranched polymer (poly-1a) with sulfonic acid groups at the end of chains was successfully synthesized. Interpenetration reaction of poly-1a with a hyperbranched polymer with acryloyl groups at the end of chains (poly-1b) as a cross-linker afforded a tough electrolyte membrane. The poly-1a and the resulting electrolyte membrane showed the ionic conductivities of 7x10{sup -4} and 8x10{sup -5} S/cm, respectively, at 150C under dry condition. The ionic conductivities of the poly-1a and the electrolyte membrane exhibited the VTF type temperature dependence. And also, both poly-1a and the resulting electrolyte membrane were thermally stable up to 200C. (author)

  9. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between nanoparticles and amorphous and crystalline polymer matrices. Bulk thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites were then estimated using an established effective medium approach. To study functionalization, oligomeric ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers were chemically bonded to a single wall carbon nanotube. The results, in a poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix, are similar to those obtained previously for grafted linear hydrocarbon chains. To study the effect of noncovalent functionalization, two types of polyethylene matrices. -- aligned (extended-chain crystalline) vs. amorphous (random coils) were modeled. Both matrices produced the same interfacial thermal resistance values. Finally, functionalization of edges and faces of plate-like graphite nanoparticles was found to be only modestly effective in reducing the interfacial thermal resistance and improving the composite thermal conductivity

  11. Electrical Conductivity in Polymer Blends/ Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Bose, Suryasarathi; Bhattacharyya, Arup R.

    2008-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) based polymer composites have emerged as the future multifunctional materials in view of its exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. One of the major interests is to develop conductive polymer composites preferably at low concentration of CNT utilizing their high aspect ratio (L/D) for numerous applications, which include antistatic devices, capacitors and materials for EMI shielding. In this context, polymer blends have emerged as a potential candidate in lowering the percolation thresholds further by the utilization of `double-percolation' which arises from the synergistic improvements in blend properties associated with the co-continuous morphology. Due to strong inter-tube van der Waals' forces, they often tend to aggregate and uniform dispersion remains a challenge. To overcome this challenge, we exploited sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (Na-AHA) which was able to assist in debundlling the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through `cation-?' interactions during melt-mixing leading to percolative `network-like' structure of MWNT within polyamide6 (PA6) phase in co-continuous PA6/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) blends. The composite exhibited low electrical percolation thresholds of 0.25 wt% of MWNT, the lowest reported value in this system so far. Retention of `network-like structure' in the solid state with significant refinement was observed even at lower MWNT concentration in presence Na-AHA, which was assessed through AC electrical conductivity measurements. Reactive coupling was found to be a dominant factor besides `cation-?' interactions in achieving low electrical percolation in PA6/ABS+MWNT composites.

  12. Electrical Conductivity in Polymer Blends/ Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) based polymer composites have emerged as the future multifunctional materials in view of its exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. One of the major interests is to develop conductive polymer composites preferably at low concentration of CNT utilizing their high aspect ratio (L/D) for numerous applications, which include antistatic devices, capacitors and materials for EMI shielding. In this context, polymer blends have emerged as a potential candidate in lowering the percolation thresholds further by the utilization of 'double-percolation' which arises from the synergistic improvements in blend properties associated with the co-continuous morphology. Due to strong inter-tube van der Waals' forces, they often tend to aggregate and uniform dispersion remains a challenge. To overcome this challenge, we exploited sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (Na-AHA) which was able to assist in debundlling the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through 'cation-?' interactions during melt-mixing leading to percolative 'network-like' structure of MWNT within polyamide6 (PA6) phase in co-continuous PA6/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) blends. The composite exhibited low electrical percolation thresholds of 0.25 wt% of MWNT, the lowest reported value in this system so far. Retention of 'network-like structure' in the solid state with significant refinement was observed even at lower MWNT concentration in presence Na-AHA, which was assesstion in presence Na-AHA, which was assessed through AC electrical conductivity measurements. Reactive coupling was found to be a dominant factor besides 'cation-?' interactions in achieving low electrical percolation in PA6/ABS+MWNT composites.

  13. Radiation induced synthesis of conducting polymer nanocompositeRadiation induced synthesis of conducting polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we prepared a series of Ag/PVA and Ag/PANI nano composites were prepared successfully using a modern and new method. Our synthetic route did not need complicated apparatus, expensive surfactants or additional reducing agents. The prepared nano composite developed optically functional material that does not exist for metal or polymer alone. The present work contains five chapters in addition to the list of figures, tables, abbreviations and references. The first two chapters are concerned with the introduction and reviews of previous studies. Chapter 3 describes the preparation methodology, experimental setup and techniques used in the Ag/PVA and Ag/PANI nano composites processing and analysis. Ag nanoparticles with different particle sizes were prepared via chemical method and gamma- irradiation method. Several techniques were used to detect the structural changes of the nano composites as UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Transmission Electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Chapter 4 includes the obtained results and their discussions: Part I: Synthesis of Ag/PVA nano composite via gamma irradiation From UV/VIS spectroscopy the surface plasmon bands appearing in the visible region (406-422 nm) for Ag/PVA nano composite films are characteristic of the noble metal nanoparticles. The obtained data regarding the change of the absorption intensity and wavelength at maximum absorption and the size of Ag nanoparticles as a function of either irradiation dose or Ag+ concentration pointed the following remark: The particle size of Ag nanoparticles in the as-prepared Ag/PVA nano composite films decreases with increasing either irradiation dose or Ag+ ion concentration. Transmission electron microscope images illustrated that the average diameter of the Ag nanoparticles is indicated as the peak position of the Gaussian curves of the histogram to be from 40-16 nm. The nano structured Ag/PVA films were found to be dispersed spherical nanoparticles with good structural homogeneity and polydispersity. The XRD pattern of irradiated Ag/PVA nano composite samples show four new diffraction peaks which reveal that the Ag nanoparticles are formed in the PVA matrix and their crystal structure is face center cubic (fcc) structure. Also, it can be seen that, with increasing irradiation dose, the particle size decreases, whereas the particle size increase gradually with increasing AgNO3 concentration. FTIR spectra illustrate that the formation of Ag/PVA nano composites leads to disappearance and/or weakening of some characteristic peaks followed by the change in peak position, peak shape and peak intensity due to incorporation of various content of Ag nanoparticles and irradiation doses. Decrease in the transmittance of some bands reveals that there is an interaction between Ag and PVA. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that, pure PVA sample proceed in three main weight loss stages. The appearance of the fourth stage with incorporation of Ag nanoparticles; confirm the coordination between AgNPs and OH groups. Finally, from the thermal parameters of Ag/PVA degradation reaction, thermal stability of Ag/PVA nano composites is higher than in pure PVA. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of AgNPs were tested against some of pathogenic clinical isolates and some of gram-positive S. aureus and some gram-negative E. coli, respectively. AgNPs exhibited a potent antifungal and antibacterial activity against some of fungal and bacterial strains tested. The antifungal and antibacterial activity increases (according to increase the high specific surface area) with either increasing irradiation dose or decreasing AgNO3 concentration. Part II: Synthesis of Ag/PANI nano composite via gamma irradiation UV/VIS absorption shows the formation and growth of Ag nanoparticles through absorption band at (398-406). For a given samples, as the irradiation dose is increased, a gradual red shift in was observed. This indicates formation of larger par

  14. Conductivity of microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites with CNT-loaded microfibrils or compatibilizer: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Fakirov, S.; Panamoottil, S. M.; Potschke, P.; Lin, R. J. T.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2013-01-01

    Conductive polymer composites have wide ranging applications, but when they are produced by conventional melt blending, high conductive filler loadings are normally required, hindering their processability and reducing mechanical properties. In this study, two types of polymer-polymer composites were studied: i) microfibrillar composites (MFC) of polypropylene (PP) and 5 wt% carbon nanotube (CNT) loaded poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) as reinforcement, and ii) maleic anhydride-grafted poly...

  15. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  16. Effect of ZnCdTe-Alloyed Nanocrystals on Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yan; Hou Yanbing; Tang Aiwei; Feng Zhihui; Feng Bin; Li Yan; Teng Feng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The photovoltaic properties of solar cell based on the blends of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), fullerene (C60), and ZnCdTe-alloyed nanocrystals were investigated. Comparing the spectral response of photocurrent of the MEH-PPV:C60(+ZnCdTe) nanocomposite device with that of the devices based on MEH-PPV:C60and pristine MEH-PPV, one can find that the nanocomposite device exhibits an enhanced photocurrent. In comparing the composite devices with differe...

  17. Abnormal temperature dependence of mobility in conjugated polymer / nanocrystal composite: experiment and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yating; Yao, Jianquan; Kwok, Hoi Sing

    2013-01-01

    Instead of normal non-Arrhenius relationship, the carrier mobility $ln({\\mu})$ v.s. $1/T^2$ showed abnormal dependence in an MEH-PPV / InP nanocrystal composite system that a critical temperature $(T_c)$ behavior is prominent in temperature range of 233 K to 333 K. Here, in the model of variable range hopping theory, an analytical model is developed within a Gaussian trap distribution, which is successfully implemented on that phenomenon. The results show that Tc becomes the...

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotubes and their Polymer Nanocomposites: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zhidong; Fina, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Thermally conductive polymer composites offer new possibilities for replacing metal parts in several applications, including power electronics, electric motors and generators, heat exchangers, etc., thanks to the polymer advantages such as light weight, corrosion resistance and ease of processing. Current interest to improve the thermal conductivity of polymers is focused on the selective addition of nanofillers with high thermal conductivity. Unusually high thermal conductivity makes carbon ...

  19. Study of the PTC effect in conducting epoxy polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, J.; Boiteux, G.; Seytre, G.; Marichy, G.

    1998-06-01

    The thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of conductive epoxy composites are studied and the large decrease of the conductivity as a function of the temperature is analysed in terms of Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) effect. Three classes of fillers are used for the materials preparation consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), carbon black and metallic fillers. The PTC mechanism was found to be dependent on the conducting filler, and a new approach was proposed leading to a better understanding of this phenomenon in amorphous filled polymers. The electrical non-linear properties of organic conducting composites as epoxy/Ppy have received a particular attention. Les propriétés thermomécaniques et électriques de plusieurs composites conducteurs à matrice époxyde ont été étudiées. L'importante diminution de la conductivité à partir d'une certaine température correspond au phénomène Coefficient Température Positif appelé effet CTP. Trois classes de charges ont été utilisées, comprenant du polypyrrole (PPy), du noir de carbone et des particules métalliques. Le rôle primordial de la nature des charges sur les mécanismes de l'effet CTP a été établi conduisant à une nouvelle interprétation de ce phénomène dans les composites conducteurs à matrice amorphe. L'étude de la non-linéarité électrique des composites conducteurs tout organiques époxyde/Ppy a fait l'objet d'une attention particulière.

  20. Effect of donor-acceptor additives on continuous radiation induced conductivity of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of donor-acceptor additives on continuous radiation-induced conductivity, excited in different polymers by pulses (0.3 ms) of electrons with 65 keV energy in vacuum is studied. Additive action mechanism both in polymers with predominant free charges (PVC, PS, PETP) and in polymers with heminal radiation-induced conductivity (PMMA and perchlorvinyl resin) is discussed. In the first polymer group the main charge-carrier type is determined independently by the time-of-flight method

  1. Studies on Effect of Doping Alumina Nanoparticles in ION Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Tomar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the polymer composite specimen has been prepared by using polymer Polyvinyl- pyrrolidone (PVP a Potassium iodide (KI and alumina nanoparticles. The polymer composite specimens were developed by using solution cast techniques. The main objective of the project is to study microstructure, XRD, ionic conductivity, ionic transference number, glass transition temperature using DSC, microhardness and tensile properties of the polymer nanocomposite specimen. The results revealed conductivity as well as tensile strength increased of the polymer nanocomposite increased with concentration of alumina nanoparticles where as tensile strength reduced. The polymer electrolyte can be used in photovoltaic cell

  2. Encapsulation of novel fluorescent nanocrystals (quantum dots) with a nanocomposite polymer and their assessment by in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Arthur M.

    Advance in nanotechnology has led to the development of novel fluorescent probes called quantum dots which are being exploited for potential new methods of early cancer detection spread and therapeutic management. Concerns regarding the release of potentially toxic inorganic core atoms into their surrounding environment and possession of hydrophobic surfaces are hindering the development of quantum dots. In order to abrogate their toxicity and solubilise the nanocrystals in aqueous solution a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (PCU), a silica nanocomposite (NC) polymer has been used to coat them. Physical and chemical analysis of the coated quantum dots with UV-Visible spectrometry, Photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and diffraction. Atomic force microscope and FTIR Spectrophotometry has enabled us ascertain the characteristics of these unique nanocrystals. The biocompatibility of the nanocomposite coated quantum dots (NCCQD) was assessed by using Alamar blue metabolic assay, Pico green assay and by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release on endothelial cell damage. Potential interference of NCCQD with a rat's normal physiology and systemic tissue distribution were assessed in an in-vivo animal model. Results demonstrated that the nanocrystals retained their unique optical properties, had a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 10.5 nm, excellent monodispersivity, large absorption spectrum with a narrow emission band at 790 nm and were highly photostable after polymer coating. NCCQD were compatible with endothelial cells as viable cells were demonstrated to be present after 14 days of growing cells in cell culture medium exposed to NCCQD at concentrations of 2.25 X 10"2 nM. There was no significant disturbance in the physiological parameters on injecting the NCCQD in an in-vivo rat model over a 2 hour period. NCCQD were seen to be deposited in the spleen and thymus as they are reticuloendothelial organs. In conclusion polymer encapsulated CdTe nanocrystals have tremendous potential to be exploited as a medical device in in-vivo imaging.

  3. A novel functional conducting polymer as an immobilization platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Emine; Soyleyici, Hakan Can; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Ak, Metin; Timur, Suna

    2014-07-01

    Here, we present the fabrication of conducting polymer based enzymatic and microbial biosensors. To obtain immobilization platforms for both pyranose oxidase (PyOx) and Gluconobacter oxydans, the graphite electrode surface was modified with the polymer of 4-amino-N-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzamide (HKCN) which has free amino groups on the surface for further bioconjugation reactions with the biomolecules. Initially, the electrode surface was covered with HKCN via electropolymerization. Then, either PyOx or G. oxydans cell was stabilized using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. After optimization of biosensors, analytical characterization and surface imaging studies were investigated. The change of current depends on glucose concentration between 0.05-1.0mM and 0.25-2.5mM with HKCN/PyOx and HKCN/G. oxydans biosensors in batch systems. Also, the calibration graphs were obtained for glucose in FIA mode, and in this case, linear ranges were found to be 0.01-1.0mM and 0.1-7.5mM for HKCN/PyOx and HKCN/G. oxydans, respectively. PMID:24857477

  4. Photochemical formation of electrically conductive silver nanowires on polymer scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Huitink, David; Wang, Ke; Liang, Hong

    2010-04-15

    A photochemical method has been exploited for the synthesis of electrically conductive silver (Ag) nanowires in a polymer solution in the presence of negatively charged Au seed particles. The synthesis was completed within 8 min of UV-photoirradiation in ambient conditions. The nanowires were fabricated on a PVA template having an average diameter of 135+/-20 nm and a length of 10-20 microm. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization showed that the PVA-Ag nanowires were continuous, having Ohmic behavior with low contact resistance. Results indicate that the PVA acted as a reducing agent, stabilizing agent, and a template for the nucleation and growth of Ag nanowires. The Ag deposition was highly selective and on the PVA only. Our research indicated that the PVA-Ag nanowires might be useful as interconnects in nanoscale integrated circuitry, functional nanodevices, and in optoelectronics. PMID:20138630

  5. Conductive Polymer Porous Film with Tunable Wettability and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Teng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged from 50 nm to 500 nm. The hydrophobic porous surface with a water contact angle (CA of 144.7° could be transferred into a hydrophilic surface with CA of 25° by applying a voltage. The water adhesive force on the porous film increased with the increase of the external voltage. The electro-controllable wettability and adhesion of the porous film have potential application in manipulating liquid collection and transportation.

  6. Quantum soliton conductivity in polymers: a field theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The discovery of a tremendous increase in the electrical conductivity of polyacetylene, the simplest linear conjugated polymer, when doped with either halogens or alkalis, was a breakthrough of far reaching consequences in physics and chemistry. The fact that the trans-isomer occurs in two degenerate species opens the possibility of occurrence of soliton defects interconnecting them. Indeed, quantum solitons or polarons are supposed to play a crucial role in the electric conductivity of polyacetylene, in the intermediate doping regime. In this work, we present an exact fully quantized calculation of the quantum soliton conductivity in polyacetylene and show that it vanishes exactly. This strongly suggests that dynamic solitons are not the charge carriers in polyacetylene. Rather, polarons, which are basically soliton-anti soliton bound states should be responsible for the transport of charge in the intermediate doping regime of polyacetylene. This result is obtained by applying a general method of soliton quantization, based on order-disorder duality, to a Z(2)-symmetric complex extension of the TLM (Takayama, Lin-Liu and Maki) dimerization effective field theory. We show that, in this theory, polyacetylene solitons are sine-Gordon solitons in the phase of the complex field. (author)

  7. Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-04-01

    Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ?0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

  8. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the structure - conductivity relationship is of paramount importance for the development of polymer electrolytes. The present studies present the techniques found useful in the elucidation of structure - conductivity relationship in PEOn:ZnBr2 (n = 8, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000) and PEOn:FeBrx (n= 8, 20 and 50; x = 2 and 3). Local structural studies have been undertaken using X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) which includes extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). EXAFS provides interatomic distance and coordination numbers of the nearest neighbours and results from the EXAFS studies showed that high conductivity is associated with stretched M - O interatomic distance. In the studies on ultra dilute Zn samples it was found that the cation is highly solvated by the heteroatom forming a tightly bound environment which inhibits local segmental motion thus impeding ion migration. XANES studies on the PEO and modified PEO complexes of NiBr2 revealed the sensitivity of XANES to the structural differences. XANES on Zn and Fe samples also revealed the sensitivity to changes in interatomic distances reflected in shifts of the white line. The complementary nature of EXAFS and XANES was reflected in the studies conducted. Morphological studies were undertaken employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature polarising mi (DSC), variable temperature polarising microscopy (VTPM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO8:FeBr2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle-spike plot but the Fe(lll) samples displayed an extra semicircle before the spike reflecting a surface effect. This is also manifested in the Arrhenius plots of the same samples where a dip was shown at 100 deg C. From the conductivity studies on the iron systems it was found that for the dry samples the optimum conductivity was observed in PEO8:FeBrx irrespective of the valence state of the cation. For the air-cast samples the optimum conductivity composition depends on the valence state and were shown to be at more dilute compositions. (author)

  9. Conductive polymers derived from iron, ruthenium, and osmium metalloporphyrins: The shish-kebab approach

    OpenAIRE

    Collman, James P.; Mcdevitt, John T.; Yee, Gordon T.; Leidner, Charles R.; Mccullough, Laughlin G.; Little, William A.; Torrance, Jerry B.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of pyrazine-bridged polymers of iron(II/III), ruthenium(II/III), and osmium(II/III) octaethylporphyrin (dubbed “shish-kebab” polymers) are presented. Optical and dc conductivity measurements reveal that the ruthenium and osmium polymers, when partially oxidized, are highly conductive. Electrochemical and ESR results are presented that indicate the existence of an interesting metal-centered conduction pathway. Unlike most of the previously reported porphy...

  10. Numerical modelling of radiation-induced conductivity of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays for describing and predicting of radiation-induced conductivity of polymers Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg (RFV) model is widely used. But now there is an insistent need for RFV-model modification for taking into account electron transport bipolarity and geminate character of radiation-induced conductivity process at it's early stage. Besides there is a need for taking into account the possibility of analysis the dose and annealing effects during arbitrary variation of dose rate and temperature that is very important for spacecraft outer polymeric coating electrization process calculation. For some applications the so called time-of-flight effects can be very important because they can significantly affect the transient current kinetics.The generalized Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg model for bipolar transport is presented. It is shown that taking into account the carrier transport bipolarity significantly affects transient current curves in comparison with the monopolar case. Besides the dose and annealing effects are rather sensitive to carrier transport bipolarity.Currently, the main approach to radiation-chemical reactions in the condensed phase is based on the ion-pair mechanism of radiolysis, according to which the action of ionizing radiation on a substance reduces to the generation of isolated ion pairs in substance volume, interaction between which can be ignored. The space-time evolution of such pairs called geminate has been studied using the Onsager model, which is in turn based on the diffusion-drift approximation for describing the motion of electrons as classical particles that obey the Smoluchowski equation. A program for numerically solving the Smoluchowski equation with a modified initial condition taking into account the drift shift of electrons that experience thermalization in an external electric field was developed. The probability of survival and the polarization current of isolated ion pairs were calculated. Shift effects were shown to be especially strong in the region of medium electric fields on the order of 107 V/m and noticeably weaker in both low and high fields. This was related to the proportional relation between the drift shift and electric field applied. The program was used to critically analyze the available experimental data on pulsed photoconductivity of polyacenes.Theoretical description of the time of flight effects in radiation-induced conductivity of polymers on the base of multiple trapping model is based on the solution of the initial-boundary problem for corresponding system of integral-differential equations. In this work numerical solution of this system is presented and precise description of transient current curves is achieved. (authors)

  11. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Jian Feng; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its crossection the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometres of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500um -1000um. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60-100 nF/m and it is independent of the fiber diameter. For comparison, a coaxial cable of the comparable dimensions would have only ~0.06nF/m capacitance. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kOhm/L, which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials...

  12. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its cross section the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using the fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometers of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500 and 1000 µm. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60–100 nF m?1 and it is independent of the fiber diameter. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 k? m L?1, which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials, the absence of liquid electrolyte in the fiber structure, ease of scalability to large production volumes and high capacitance of our fibers make them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage

  13. Highly Conductive, Stretchable, and Transparent Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruixuan; Echeverri, Mauricio; Kyu, Thein

    2014-03-01

    With the guidance of ternary phase diagrams, completely amorphous polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) were successfully prepared by melt processing for lithium-ion battery. The PEM under consideration consisted of poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEGDA), succinonitrile (SCN) and Lithium bis(trifluoro-methane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI). After UV-crosslinking, the PEM is transparent and light-weight. Addition of SCN plastic crystal affords not only dissociation of the lithium salt, but also plasticization to the crosslinked PEGDA network. Of particular importance is the achievement of room-temperature ionic conductivity of ~10-3 S/cm, which is comparable to that of commercial liquid electrolyte. Higher ionic conductivities were achieved at elevated temperatures or with use of a moderately higher molecular weight of PEGDA. In terms of electrochemical and chemical stability, the PEM exhibited oxidative stability up to 5 V against lithium reference electrode. Stable interface behavior between the PEM and lithium electrode is also seen with ageing time. In the tensile tests, samples containing low molecular weight PEGDA are stiffer, whereas the high molecular weight PEGDA is stretchable up to 80% elongation. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070.

  14. Synthesis of Conductive Nanofillers/Nanofibers and Electrical Properties of their Conductive Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvi, Ali

    Thanks to their corrosion resistance, light weight, low cost, and ease of processing, electrically conducting polymer composites (CPCs) have received significant attention for the replacement of metals and inorganic materials for sensors, actuators, supercapacitors, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shields. In this PhD thesis, high aspect ratio conductive nanofillers namely copper nanowires (CuNWs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were coated with polyaniline (PANi) using solution mixing and in-situ polymerization method, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a smooth polyaniline nano-coating between 5--18 nm in thickness on the nanofillers' surface. The coating thickness and; consequently, electrical conductivity was controlled and tuned by polyaniline/aniline concentration in solution. Composites with tunable conductivity may be used as chemisensors, electronic pressure sensors and switches. Coated nanofillers demonstrated better dispersion in polystyrene (PS) and provided lower electrical percolation threshold. Dispersion of nanofillers in PS was investigated using rheological measurements and confirmed with electron micrographs and nano-scale images of CPCs. Polyaniline (PANi), when used as a coating layer, was able to attenuate electromagnetic (EM) waves via absorption and store electrical charges though pseudocapacitance mechanism. The dielectric measurements of MWCNT-PANi/PS composites showed one order of magnitude increase in real electrical permittivity compared to that of MWCNT/PS composites making them suitable for charge storage purposes. Incorporation of PANi also brought a new insight into conductive network formation mechanism in electrospun mats where the orientation of conductive high aspect ratio nanofillers is a major problem. Conductive nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) filled with coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated using electrospinning. These highly oriented PVDF nanofibers exhibited high beta (beta) crystal content and enhanced piezoelectricity. Moreover, multilayer electrospun nanofibers, in which MWCNTs were located at the shell layer, were fabricated for further decrease in electrical percolation threshold. In addition the PANi coated nanofillers, immiscible polymer blends (poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) blends) were employed to deliver lower percolation threshold via double percolation phenomenon. Conductivity measurements revealed a significant decrease in electrical percolation threshold (0.4 wt%) for PMMA70/SAN30 blends compared with MWCNT-filled SAN and PMMA (ca 0.8 wt%).

  15. Development of multilayer conducting polymer actuator for power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Kimiya; Kudoh, Yuji; Hiraoka, Maki; Yokoyama, Kazuo; Nagamitsu, Sachio

    2009-03-01

    In late years many kinds of home-use robot have been developed to assist elderly care and housework. Most of these robots are designed with conventional electromagnetic motors. For safety it is desirable to replace these electromagnetic motors with artificial muscle. However, an actuator for such a robot is required to have simple structure, low driving voltage, high stress generation, high durability, and operability in the air. No polymer actuator satisfying all these requirements has been realized yet. To meet these we took following two approaches focusing on conducting polymer actuators which can output high power in the air. (Approach 1) We have newly developed an actuator by multiply laminating ionic liquid infiltrated separators and polypyrrole films. Compared with conventional actuator that is driven in a bath of ionic liquid, the new actuator can greatly increase generated stress since the total sectional area is tremendously small. In our experiment, the new actuator consists of minimum unit with thickness of 128um and has work/weight ratio of 0.92J/kg by laminating 9 units in 0.5Hz driving condition. In addition, the driving experiment has shown a stable driving characteristic even for 10,000 cycles durability test. Furthermore, from our design consideration, it has been found that the work/weight ratio can be improved up to 8J/kg (1/8 of mammalian muscle of 64J/kg) in 0.1Hz by reducing the thickness of each unit to 30um. (Approach 2) In order to realize a simplified actuator structure in the air without sealing, we propose the use of ionic liquid gel. The actuation characteristic of suggested multilayered actuator using ionic liquid gel is simulated by computer. The result shows that performance degradation due to the use of ionic liquid gel is negligible small when ionic liquid gel with the elasticity of 3kPa or less is used. From above two results it is concluded that the proposed multilayerd actuator is promising for the future robotic applications because it has advantages of high work/weight ratio and in-the-air operation, in addition to advantages of conventional polymer actuators.

  16. Studies on Effect of Doping Alumina Nanoparticles in ION Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Tomar; Sharma, Dr Chirag R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study the polymer composite specimen has been prepared by using polymer Polyvinyl- pyrrolidone (PVP) a Potassium iodide (KI) and alumina nanoparticles. The polymer composite specimens were developed by using solution cast techniques. The main objective of the project is to study microstructure, XRD, ionic conductivity, ionic transference number, glass transition temperature using DSC, microhardness and tensile properties of the polymer nanocomposite specimen. The results revealed cond...

  17. Photodegradation of CdSe/ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals in a polymer film in air and under vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied characteristic features of photoinduced processes occurring in CdSe/ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals on prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light in air and under vacuum. Accelerated photodegradation of the nanocrystals in air has been established, associated with photooxidation. (authors)

  18. Mechanical and thermal properties of Posidonia oceanica cellulose nanocrystal reinforced polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb, Fedia; Khiari, Ramzi; Dufresne, Alain; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were isolated from Posidonia oceanica balls and leaves. CNC was prepared from this marine biomass by sulfuric acid hydrolysis (H2SO4) treatment. The raw fibers were firstly isolated by a delignification-bleaching process then the acid hydrolysis treatment was performed at 55°C during 40min under mechanical stirring. The ensuing CNCs were characterized by their morphological and thermal properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Nanocomposite materials using the CNC extracted from marine biomass were obtained by casting and evaporating a mixture of this suspension with poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate). The effect of CNC loading on mechanical and thermal properties was studied. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a strong reinforcing effect of CNC that depends on their origin (balls or leaves). The difference was attributed not only to differences in the aspect ratio of CNC but also to the stiffness of the percolating network of nanoparticles. PMID:25843839

  19. Potential of thermally conductive polymers for the cooling of mechatronic parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, C.; Drummer, D.

    Adding thermally conductive fillers to polymers the thermal conductivity can be raised significantly. Thermal conductive polymers (TC-plastics) open up a vast range of options to set up novel concepts of polymer technological system solutions in the area of mechatronics. Heating experiment of cooling ribs show the potential in thermal management of mechatronic parts with TC-polymers in comparison with widely used reference materials copper and aluminum. The results demonstrate that especially for certain thermal boundary conditions comparable performance between these two material grades can be measured.

  20. Electrochemical characterisation of conducting polymer layers and their use as gas sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Mccormac, Timothy Paul

    1994-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to develop an SO2 sensor based upon a conducting polymer. The methodology and properties of a conducting polymer sensor along with the electrochemical characterisation of various polypyrrole layers is described. It was found that polypyrrole layers containing Copper (11) Phthalocyanine - 3,4',4", 4"'-tetrasulphonate anions (PPTSP), as the dopant, upon electrochemical switching exhibit cation movement in and out of the polymer matrix. A concentration, pH, temp...

  1. Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo, Giro; Márcio, Cyrillo; Douglas Soares, Galvão.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units) has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new str [...] uctures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC) technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs). We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine) (PPSA), a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI) and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS). The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

  2. Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Giro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new structures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs. We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine (PPSA, a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS. The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

  3. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  4. Electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  5. A conducting polymer/ferritin anode for biofuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme anode for use in biofuel cells (BFCs) was constructed using an electrically connected bilayer based on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode immobilized with the conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) as electron transfer enhancer, and with horse spleen ferritin protein (Frt) as electron transfer mediator. The surface-coupled redox system of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) catalyzed with diaphorase (Di) was used for the regeneration of NAD+ in the inner layer and the NAD+-dependent enzyme catalyst glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the outer layer. The outer layer of the GC-Ppy-Frt-Di-NADH-GDH electrode effectively catalyzes the oxidation of glucose biofuel continuously; using the NAD+ generated at the inner layer of the Di-catalyzed NADH redox system mediated by Frt and Ppy provides electrical communication with enhancement in electron transport. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). This anode provides a current density of 1.2 mA cm-2 in a 45 mM glucose solution and offers a good possibility for application in biofuel cells.

  6. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  7. New Secondary Batteries Using Electronically Conductive Polymer Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A Li/Polypyrrole secondary battery was designed and built, and the effect of controlling the morphology of the polymer on enhancement of counterion diffusion in the polymer phase was explored. The experimental work was done at Colorado State University, while the mathematical modeling of the battery was done at Texas A and M University. Manuscripts and publications resulting from the project are listed.

  8. Highly conductive, capacitive, flexible and soft electrodes based on a 3D graphene-nanotube-palladium hybrid and conducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2014-12-29

    Highly conductive, capacitive and flexible electrodes are fabricated by employing 3D graphene-nanotube-palladium nanostructures and a PEDOT:PSS conducting polymer. The fabricated flexible electrodes, without any additional metallic current collectors, exhibit increased charge mobility and good mechanical properties; they also allow greater access to the electrolyte ions and hence are suitable for flexible energy storage applications. PMID:25142299

  9. Towards P-Type Conductivity in SnO2 Nanocrystals through Li Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparadza, Allen; Rananavare, Shankar B.

    2010-01-22

    This paper examines electrical transport properties and Li doping in SnO2 synthesized by the sol–gel method. Solid-state 7Li-NMR lineshapes reveal that Li ions occupy two distinct sites with differing dynamic mobilities. The chemical exchange rate between the two sites is, however, too slow for detection on the NMR timescale. Compressed nanoparticulate films of this doped semiconductor exhibit a positive Seebeck coefficient implying a p-type conductivity. A variable-temperature direct current conductivity, over a 25–350 ?C temperature range, follows an Efros–Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH) conduction mechanism (ln(?) versus T ?1/2) at temperatures below 100 ?C with a crossover to 2D Mott variable range hopping (M-VRH) (ln(?) versus T ?1/3) conduction at temperatures above 250 ?C. In a transition region between these two limiting behaviors, the dc resistivity exhibits an anomalous temperature-independent plateau. We suggest that its origin may lie in a carrier inversion phenomenon wherein the majority carriers switch from holes to electrons due to Li ion expulsion from the crystalline core and creation of oxygen vacancies generated by loss of oxygen at elevated temperatures.

  10. Towards p-type conductivity in SnO2 nanocrystals through Li doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparadza, Allen; Rananavare, Shankar B

    2010-01-22

    This paper examines electrical transport properties and Li doping in SnO(2) synthesized by the sol-gel method. Solid-state (7)Li-NMR lineshapes reveal that Li ions occupy two distinct sites with differing dynamic mobilities. The chemical exchange rate between the two sites is, however, too slow for detection on the NMR timescale. Compressed nanoparticulate films of this doped semiconductor exhibit a positive Seebeck coefficient implying a p-type conductivity. A variable-temperature direct current conductivity, over a 25-350 degrees C temperature range, follows an Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH) conduction mechanism (ln(rho) versus T(-1/2)) at temperatures below 100 degrees C with a crossover to 2D Mott variable range hopping (M-VRH) (ln(rho) versus T(-1/3)) conduction at temperatures above 250 degrees C. In a transition region between these two limiting behaviors, the dc resistivity exhibits an anomalous temperature-independent plateau. We suggest that its origin may lie in a carrier inversion phenomenon wherein the majority carriers switch from holes to electrons due to Li ion expulsion from the crystalline core and creation of oxygen vacancies generated by loss of oxygen at elevated temperatures. PMID:19966386

  11. Assembly of antimony doped tin oxide nanocrystals into conducting macroscopic aerogel monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Felix; Ilari, Gabriele; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-11-01

    We present the assembly of preformed antimony doped tin oxide nanobuilding blocks into centimeter sized aerogels with surface areas exceeding 340 m(2) g(-1). After calcination, the resistivity of the aerogels was decreased by 4 orders of magnitude to a few k? cm, with the primary conducting structures measuring only a few nanometers. PMID:25229075

  12. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  13. Effects of ?-rays on electrical conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol-polypyrrole composite polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol/polypyrrole/chloral hydrate (PVA-PPy-CH) had been prepared. Effects of ?-rays on the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films had been investigated by using Inductance Resistance meter (LCR) meter at a frequency ranging from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. With the incorporation of choloral hydrate in the polymer sample, the conductivity increased indicates that it is capable to be used as dopant for polymerizing conjugated polymer. The electrical conductivity obtained increased as the dose increased, which is in the order of 10-5 Scm-1 indicates that ?-ray is capable to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films. The parameter of s is in the range of 0.31 ? S ? 0.49 and obeyed simple power law dispersion ?S. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal the formation of polypyrrole globules in polyvinyl alcohol matrix which increased as the irradiation dose was increased. (Author)

  14. Electrochemical deposition of conducting polymer coatings on magnesium surfaces in ionic liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xiliang; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2010-01-01

    A conducting polymer based smart coating for magnesium (Mg) implants that can both improve the corrosion resistance of Mg and release drug in a controllable way is reported. As the ionic liquid is a highly conductive and stable solvent with a very wide electrochemical window, the conducting polymer coatings can be directly electrodeposited on the active metal Mg in ionic liquid at mild conditions, and Mg is considerably stable during the electrodeposition. The electrodeposited Poly(3,4-ethyle...

  15. Electrochemical Switching of Conductance with Diarylethene-Based Redox-Active Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logtenberg, Hella; van der Velde, Jasper H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Reversible switching of conductance using redox triggered switching of a polymer-modified electrode is demonstrated. A bifunctional monomer comprising a central electroswitchable core and two bithiophene units enables formation of a film through anodic electropolymerization. The conductivity of the polymer can be switched electrochemically in a reversible manner by redox triggered opening and closing of the diarylethene unit. In the closed state, the conductivity of the modified electrode is higher than in the open state.

  16. Highly Electrically Conductive Nanocomposites Based on PolymerInfused Graphene Sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanqing Li; Yarjan Abdul Samad; Kyriaki Polychronopoulou; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Kin Liao

    2014-01-01

    Conductive polymer composites require a threedimensional 3D network to impart electrical conductivity. A general method that is applicable to most polymers for achieving a desirable graphene 3D network is still a challenge. We have developed a facile technique to fabricate highly electrical conductive composite using vacuumassisted infusion of epoxy into graphene sponge GS scaffold. Macroscopic GSs were synthesized from graphene oxide solution by a hydrothermal method combined ...

  17. Conducting polymer nanostructures for photocatalysis under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srabanti; Kouamé, Natalie A.; Ramos, Laurence; Remita, Samy; Dazzi, Alexandre; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Beaunier, Patricia; Goubard, Fabrice; Aubert, Pierre-Henri; Remita, Hynd

    2015-05-01

    Visible-light-responsive photocatalysts can directly harvest energy from solar light, offering a desirable way to solve energy and environment issues. Here, we show that one-dimensional poly(diphenylbutadiyne) nanostructures synthesized by photopolymerization using a soft templating approach have high photocatalytic activity under visible light without the assistance of sacrificial reagents or precious metal co-catalysts. These polymer nanostructures are very stable even after repeated cycling. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoscale infrared characterizations reveal that the morphology and structure of the polymer nanostructures remain unchanged after many photocatalytic cycles. These stable and cheap polymer nanofibres are easy to process and can be reused without appreciable loss of activity. Our findings may help the development of semiconducting-based polymers for applications in self-cleaning surfaces, hydrogen generation and photovoltaics.

  18. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, M I

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) sub 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) sub 1 sub 0 and LiClO sub 4.P(EO) sub 1 sub 0 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stabl...

  19. Dip-pen nanopatterning of photosensitive conducting polymer using a monomer ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled patterning of conducting polymers at a micro- or nanoscale is the first step towards the fabrication of miniaturized functional devices. Here, we introduce an approach for the nanopatterning of conducting polymers using an improved monomer 'ink' in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The nominal monomer 'ink' is converted, in situ, to its conducting solid-state polymeric form after patterned. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed with acid-promoted polymerization of pyrrole in a less reactive environment (tetrahydrofuran). The ratios of reactants are optimized to give an appropriate rate to match the operation of DPN. A similar synthesis process for the same polymer in its bulk form shows a high conductance and crystalline structure. The miniaturized conducting polymer sensors with light detection ability are fabricated by DPN using the improved ink formula, and exhibit excellent response, recovery, and sensitivity parameters

  20. Síntese de polímeros condutores em matrizes sólidas hospedeiras Conductive polymer synthesis in solid host matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Daltamir J.; Marco-A De Paoli; Alves, Oswaldo L.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G.; Silmara das Neves

    2000-01-01

    This review discusses the methods used to prepare conductive polymers in confined environments. This spatial restriction causes formation of defect-free polymer chains in the interlayer as porous cavities of inorganic hosts. The properties of the different composites obtained are a synergist combination of the characteristics of the inorganic host and the polymer. This opens new perspectives for the preparation of these materials and widens its potential applications.

  1. Síntese de polímeros condutores em matrizes sólidas hospedeiras / Conductive polymer synthesis in solid host matrices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daltamir J., Maia; Marco-A., De Paoli; Oswaldo L., Alves; Aldo J. G., Zarbin; Silmara das, Neves.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This review discusses the methods used to prepare conductive polymers in confined environments. This spatial restriction causes formation of defect-free polymer chains in the interlayer as porous cavities of inorganic hosts. The properties of the different composites obtained are a synergist combina [...] tion of the characteristics of the inorganic host and the polymer. This opens new perspectives for the preparation of these materials and widens its potential applications.

  2. Síntese de polímeros condutores em matrizes sólidas hospedeiras Conductive polymer synthesis in solid host matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daltamir J. Maia

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the methods used to prepare conductive polymers in confined environments. This spatial restriction causes formation of defect-free polymer chains in the interlayer as porous cavities of inorganic hosts. The properties of the different composites obtained are a synergist combination of the characteristics of the inorganic host and the polymer. This opens new perspectives for the preparation of these materials and widens its potential applications.

  3. Reversible post-breakdown conduction in aluminum oxide-polymer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Gomes, Henrique L.; Rocha, Paulo R. F.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum/Al2O3/polymer/metal capacitors submitted to a low-power constant current stress undergo dielectric breakdown. The post-breakdown conduction is metastable, and over time the capacitors recover their original insulating properties. The decay of the conduction with time follows a power law (1/t)?. The magnitude of the exponent ? can be raised by application of an electric field and lowered to practically zero by optical excitation of the polyspirofluorene polymer. The metastable conduction is attributed to formation of metastable pairs of oppositely charged defects across the oxide-polymer interface, and the self-healing is related to resistive switching.

  4. Tuning the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers in an electrochemical transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Olga; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2012-10-10

    While organic field-effect transistors allow the investigation of interfacial charge transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface, an electrochemical transistor truly modifies the oxidation level and conductivity throughout the bulk of an organic semiconductor. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of the bulk of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) were controlled electrically by varying the gate voltage. In light of the growing interest in conducting polymers as thermoelectric generators, this method provides an easy tool to study the physics behind the thermoelectric properties and to optimize polymer thermoelectrics. PMID:23016795

  5. High thermal conductivity in amorphous polymer blends by engineered interchain interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Ho; Lee, Dongwook; Shanker, Apoorv; Shao, Lei; Kwon, Min Sang; Gidley, David; Kim, Jinsang; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important property for polymers, as it often affects product reliability (for example, electronics packaging), functionality (for example, thermal interface materials) and/or manufacturing cost. However, polymer thermal conductivities primarily fall within a relatively narrow range (0.1–0.5 W m?1 K?1) and are largely unexplored. Here, we show that a blend of two polymers with high miscibility and appropriately chosen linker structure can yield a dense and homogeneously distributed thermal network. A sharp increase in cross-plane thermal conductivity is observed under these conditions, reaching over 1.5 W m?1 K?1 in typical spin-cast polymer blend films of nanoscale thickness, which is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of other amorphous polymers.

  6. Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity of Methyl Cellulose-Based Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influences of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) plasticizer on ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus formalism of methyl cellulose (MC)-based polymer electrolytes have been studied. The room temperature electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy shows that a methyl cellulose film has a conductivity of ?10-10 S cm-1. In this study, other than KOH ionic dopant, DMC plasticizer is also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer. The highest room temperature conductivity of the plasticised sample is ?10-5 S cm-1. The plot of log ? versus 103/ T for the highest conducting sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating that the conductivity occurs by thermally activated mechanism. (author)

  7. Regiochemistry of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Synthesis and Investigation of a Conducting Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Kohl, Stuart G.; Melby, Jacob H.; Thoma, Laura M.; Carpenter, Nancy E.; Filho, Demetrio A. da Silva; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments for undergraduate laboratory courses (e.g., organic, polymer, inorganic) have been developed. These experiments focus on understanding the regiochemistry of the conducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The substitution patterns in P3HTs control their conformational features, which, in turn, dictates the [pi]…

  8. An Integrated Laboratory Approach toward the Preparation of Conductive Poly(phenylene vinylene) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerzer, Timm A.; Balaich, Gary J.; Miller, Hannah A.; Iacono, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) represents an important class of conjugated, conducting polymers that have been readily exploited in the preparation of organic electronic materials. In this experiment, students prepare a PPV polymer via a facile multistep synthetic sequence with robust spectroscopic evaluation of synthetic intermediates and the…

  9. Conductivity studies of a chitosan-based polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic conductivity for the chitosan-NH4CF3SO3 system was conducted over a wide range of frequency and at temperatures between 298 and 313 K. Dielectric data were analyzed using complex permittivity ? * and complex electrical modulus M * for the sample with the highest ionic conductivity at various temperatures. The temperature-dependent conductivity data obeys Arrhenius relationship. Jonschers universal power law was used to analyze AC conductivity of the sample. Hopping frequency was determined and activation energy of hopping is almost equal to the activation energy of conduction. The AC conductivity master curve was obtained for the highest conducting sample when scaled vertically by ? DC and horizontally by ? P

  10. A conducting polymer artificial muscle with 12% linear strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The efforts given to optimize the linear strain response of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) as these systems show particularly good chemical stability in aqueous systems and little toxicity are presented. The aims of the optimization is to obtain maximum length changes in a freely suspended polymer foil in response to a potential change and it includes attention to the composition of the polymer, to the synthesis conditions, and involves microstructuring of the polymer. As such, an analysis of the influence of the alkyl chain length on the properties of PPy doped with ABSs has shown that the obtainable strain decreases with increasing chain length for alkyl chains longer than C$-8$/.

  11. Transdutores potenciométricos a base de polímeros condutores: aplicações analíticas Potentiometric transducers based in conducting polymers: analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Rover Júnior

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A review is given about the most relevant advances on the analytical applications of conducting polymers in potentiometric sensors. These organic polymers represent a new class of materials with conducting properties due to its doping by ions. Several polymers already were synthesized such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene, among others. Particular attention is devoted to the main advantages supplied by ion selective electrodes and gas sensors using conducting polymers, as well as the incorporation of bioactive elements in these polymers for the construction of biosensors. The correlation between structure, stability and ability to ion exchange of some conducting polymers applied as potentiometric transducers, is discussed.

  12. Transdutores potenciométricos a base de polímeros condutores: aplicações analíticas / Potentiometric transducers based in conducting polymers: analytical applications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laércio, Rover Júnior; Graciliano de, Oliveira Neto; Lauro Tatsuo, Kubota.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A review is given about the most relevant advances on the analytical applications of conducting polymers in potentiometric sensors. These organic polymers represent a new class of materials with conducting properties due to its doping by ions. Several polymers already were synthesized such as polypy [...] rrole, polyaniline, polythiophene, among others. Particular attention is devoted to the main advantages supplied by ion selective electrodes and gas sensors using conducting polymers, as well as the incorporation of bioactive elements in these polymers for the construction of biosensors. The correlation between structure, stability and ability to ion exchange of some conducting polymers applied as potentiometric transducers, is discussed.

  13. Towards fully optimized conducting polymer bending sensors: the effect of geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting polymer devices have been demonstrated to generate a current or voltage in response to a displacement or force, which facilitates their use as mechanical sensors. Trilayer bending sensors are laminated conducting polymer devices that can provide self-contained operation in air, while maintaining many of the desirable conducting polymer properties including low weight and biocompatibility. This paper extends our previous characterization work by identifying the frequency response of the sensor output as the device geometry is varied and at frequencies up to 300 Hz. Current output is found to increase with the volume of conducting polymer across the sensor spectrum, while the usable sensor bandwidth is bounded by low-pass behaviour and a peak at the low frequency end of the spectrum and by a mechanical resonance at high frequencies. On the basis of these findings, suggestions are presented which can be used to optimize the current output and bandwidth of trilayer bender sensors

  14. THE ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF ANTIBODY-MODIFIED CONDUCTING POLYMER ELECTRODES. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The modification of conducting polymer electrodes with antibodies (i.e. proteins) by means of electrochemical polymerization is a simple step that can be used to develop an immunological sensor. However, the electrochemical processes involved leading to the ge...

  15. BIOAFFINITY SENSORS BASED ON CONDUCTING POLYMERS: A SHORT REVIEW. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of new electrode materials has expanded the range and classes of detectable compounds using electroanalytical methods. Conducting electroactive polymers (CEPs) have been demonstrated to have remarkable sensing applications through their ability to be reversibly ox...

  16. ION AND MOLECULE SENSORS USING MOLECULAR RECOGNITION IN LUMINESCENT, CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This program integrates three individual, highly interactive projects that will use molecular recognition strategies to develop sensor technology based on luminescent, conductive polymers that contain sites for binding specific molecules or ions in the presence of related molecul...

  17. Anticorrosion efficiency of zinc-filled epoxy coatings containing conducting polymers and pigments.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Veselý, D.; Kohl, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 78, January (2015), s. 1-20. ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * zinc metal * organic coating Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2013

  18. Redox-exchange induced heterogeneous RuO2-conductive polymer nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhe; Duay, Jonathon; Hu, Junkai; Lee, Sang Bok

    2014-06-28

    A redox exchange mechanism between potassium perruthenate (KRuO4) and the functional groups of selected polymers is used here to induce RuO2 into and onto conductive polymer nanowires by simply soaking the polymer nanowire arrays in KRuO4 solution. Conductive polymer nanowire arrays of polypyrrole (PPY) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were studied in this work. SEM and TEM results show that the RuO2 material was distributed differently in the PPY and PEDOT nanowire matrices. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to confirm the dispersion and formation of RuO2 materials in these polymer nanowires. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments were used to characterize their electrochemical performance. RuO2-polymer samples prepared with a 6 min soaking time in 10 mM KRuO4 solution show a high specific capacitance of 371 F g(-1) and 500 F g(-1) for PEDOT-based and PPY-based composite nanowires, respectively. This is attributed to the high exposure area of the conductive RuO2 and the good conductivity of the polymer matrix. This work demonstrates a simple method to synthesize heterogeneous polymer based-materials through the redox reaction between conductive polymers and high oxidation state transition metal oxide ions. Different heterogeneous nanocomposites were obtained depending on the polymer properties, and high energy storage performance of the metal oxides can be achieved within these heterogeneous nanostructures. PMID:24824847

  19. Process modeling of conductivity in nanocomposites based on reticulated polymers and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependences of electric conductivities of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites based on epoxy polymer and polycyanurate filled by carbon nanotubes were investigated. Low values of percolation threshold at volume fraction of carbon nanotubes from 0.001 to 0.002 were observed for all samples.Absolute values of the percolation threshold are in good agreement with the results of mathematical modeling. It is established that electrical properties of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites can be characterized in the frame of the same theoretical model despite difference in polymers properties

  20. FINAL REPORT. SENSORS USING MOLECULAR RECOGNITION IN LUMINESCENT, CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this project is to develop sensor technology for detecting specific heavy metal ions, such as transition metals, lead, lanthanides, and actinides in waste streams. The sensing strategy uses molecular recognition of the metal ions by polymers that change their lumin...

  1. A unified model for temperature dependent electrical conduction in polymer electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikrajuddin; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2001-01-01

    The observed temperature dependence of electrical conduction in polymer electrolytes is usually fitted with two separated equations: an Arrhenius equation at low temperatures and Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) at high temperatures. We report here a derivation of a single equation to explain the variation of electrical conduction in polymer electrolytes at all temperature ranges. Our single equation is in agreement with the experimental data

  2. Properties and processing by extrusion of electrically conductive multilayer filaments comprising polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, R. S.; Gonc?alves, Renato Ferreira; Azevedo, Tiago; No?brega, J. M.; Carvalho, Helder; Lanceros-me?ndez, S.; Rocha, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the production and characterization of three-layer piezoelectric filaments using two different electrically conductive polymers. The filaments were produced in a filament extrusion line, equipped with a coextrusion die that enabled a coaxial arrangement for a three-layer filament. For the inner and outer layers two different electrically conductive compounds were used, and the middle layer was made of the electroactive polymer PVDF. The produced filament can be used as a p...

  3. DOPANT FLEXIBILITY AND PROCESSABILITY STUDIES WITH ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE, FACE-TO-FACE METALLOMACROCYCLIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Inabe, T.; Lyding, J.; Moguel, M.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    In doping experiments on the cofacially arrayed phthalocyanine polymer [Si(Pc)O]n using high potential quinone, halogen, or nitrosyl electron acceptors, the achievable degree of partial oxidation, the inhomogeneity of the doping process, and the conductivity mechanism remain remarkably constant. Using wet spinning techniques, it has proven possible to prepare electrically conductive fibers of [Si(Pc)O]n alone or blended with the high performance aramid polymer Kevlar.

  4. Hot-pressed Ag+ Ion Conducting Glass-Polymer Electrolytes: Synthesis and Battery Application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angesh, Chandra.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of new Ag+ ion conducting glass-polymer electrolytes (GPEs): (1-x) PEO: x [0.75(0.75AgI:0.25AgCl):0.25(Ag2O:P2O5)], where 0 [...] )], with conductivity (?) ? 6.0 × 10-6 S cm-1, was identified from the compositional dependent conductivity studies and this has been referred to as the Optimum Conducting Composition (OCC). Approximately three orders of conductivity enhancement have been achieved in GPE OCC from that of the pure polymer PEO. The glass-polymer complexation has been confirmed by SEM and DSC analysis. Ion transport parameters viz. ionic conductivity (?), ionic mobility (?), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (tion) have been characterized using different experimental techniques. Solid-state polymeric batteries were fabricated using GPE OCC as electrolyte and the cell-potential discharge characteristics were studied under different load conditions at room temperature.

  5. Highly electrically conductive nanocomposites based on polymer-infused graphene sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Samad, Yarjan Abdul; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Alhassan, Saeed M; Liao, Kin

    2014-01-01

    Conductive polymer composites require a three-dimensional 3D network to impart electrical conductivity. A general method that is applicable to most polymers for achieving a desirable graphene 3D network is still a challenge. We have developed a facile technique to fabricate highly electrical conductive composite using vacuum-assisted infusion of epoxy into graphene sponge GS scaffold. Macroscopic GSs were synthesized from graphene oxide solution by a hydrothermal method combined with freeze drying. The GS/epoxy composites prepared display consistent isotropic electrical conductivity around 1 S/m, and it is found to be close to that of the pristine GS. Compared with neat epoxy, GS/epoxy has a 12-orders-of-magnitude increase in electrical conductivity, attributed to the compactly interconnected graphene network constructed in the polymer matrix. This method can be extended to other materials to fabricate highly conductive composites for practical applications such as electronic devices, sensors, actuators, and electromagnetic shielding. PMID:24722145

  6. Transdutores potenciométricos a base de polímeros condutores: aplicações analíticas Potentiometric transducers based in conducting polymers: analytical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Laércio Rover Júnior; Graciliano de Oliveira Neto; Lauro Tatsuo Kubota

    1997-01-01

    A review is given about the most relevant advances on the analytical applications of conducting polymers in potentiometric sensors. These organic polymers represent a new class of materials with conducting properties due to its doping by ions. Several polymers already were synthesized such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene, among others. Particular attention is devoted to the main advantages supplied by ion selective electrodes and gas sensors using conducting polymers, as well as th...

  7. The synthesis of conducting polymers for corrosion prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Guy C.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of an electrically conducting form of polyaniline by the oxidative polymerization of aniline was studied. Optimum yield and conductivities were obtained by treating aniline in 2 molar hydrochloric acid at 0 to 5 C with ammonium persulfate in 1.15 mole ratio. The yield was 37.6 percent of theory and the conductivity of the product was 10.5 S/cm. This material was formulated into epoxy and acrylic coatings which were also electrically conductive.

  8. On the existence of photoexcited breathers in conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiak, S.; Piryatinski, A.; Saxena, A.; Martin, R. L.; Bishop, A. R.

    2004-12-01

    Formation and decay mechanisms of photoinduced nonlinear vibronic excitations (“breathers”) in several conjugated polymers are studied using a quantum-chemical excited state molecular dynamics approach. We identify specific coupled vibrational modes responsible for breather excitations and investigate their dependence on chain length. In addition to intermolecular relaxation mechanisms, our calculations show that intramolecular vibrational energy equilibration results in a decay of breathers on a timescale of hundreds of femtoseconds.

  9. Proton conductive polymer gel electrolytes based on methacrylates.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiter, Jakub; Velická, Jana; Míka, M.

    Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2007, s. 72-75. ISBN 978-80-214-3424-0. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /8./. Brno (CZ), 03.06.2007-07.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA ?R GA106/04/1279; GA ?R(CZ) GA104/06/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : polymer gel electrolytes * solid and polymeric conductors Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  10. Thermal conductivity at low temperatures in semicrystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some details of the models proposed to explain the results in the three temperature ranges outlined are presented. Namely, above 25K, between 2K and 25K, and at very low temperatures. New results are presented of ''universal'' behaviour and trends that only apply to a particular polymer. A summary is given concerning the crystallinity of the material as well as about the crystallite dimensions and the presence of intercrystalline bridges in the specimen

  11. Stiffness characterisation of microcantilevers based on conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Gursel; Higgins, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The object of this paper is to characterise the stiffness of microfabricated cantilevers consisting of two electroactive polymer (polypyrrole (PPy)) layers, and two gold layers with a negligible thickness and a layer of porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which serves as a backing layer and electrolyte storage tank. This composite cantilever structure is used as polymer actuators or famously known as artificial muscles when tailored appropriately. The polymer microactuators considered in this study, which were fabricated using a laser ablation technique, could operate both in aqueous and non-aqueous media. The stiffness characterization of the microactuators is critical to assess their suitability to numerous applications including the micromanipulation of living cells, bio-analytical nanosystems, datastorage, labon- chip, microvalve, microswitch, microshutter, cantilever light modulators, micro-optical instrumentation, artificial muscles for micro and macro robotic sytems and similar. The stiffness measurement method followed in this study is a static deflection measurement method, using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The stiffness constants of the microactuators while they were in passive (no electrochemical activation) and active (electrochemically activated) states were measured separately, and their statistical comparison was provided. The possible error sources for the stiffness measurement method are elaborated.

  12. A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. Drzal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape, intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

    2009-12-30

    Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

  14. Li-ion conduction in PVAc based polymer blend electrolytes for lithium battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? PVAc/PVdF-co-HFP based polymer blend electrolyte for various concentration of LiClO4 were prepared and characterized. ? It is found that all the prepared electrolyte systems exhibited a maximum ionic conductivity of the order of x10-4 Scm-1. ? Surface morphology of the polymer electrolyte membrane sample having maximum ionic conductivity is studied by atomic force microscopy. ? SEM and DSC studies were also carried in the present study. - Abstract: The present work describes the Li-ion conduction in Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) based polymer blend electrolytes have been synthesized by solvent casting technique for lithium battery applications. Characterization by XRD, SEM, AFM, FTIR, TG/DTA and photoluminescence was performed for synthesized polymer electrolytes. The thermal behaviour of the samples was ascertained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and TG/DTA. The temperature dependence of conductivity of the polymer electrolytes was measured and the maximum ionic conductivity of 0.5269 x 10-4 Scm-1 at 303 K for PVAc:PVdF-co-HFP ((25/75) wt%):LiClO4 (8 wt%) complex. Surface morphology was examined from various surface scanning techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Photoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the PVAc based polymer blend electrolyte shows minimum intensity and the results are detailed in this paper.ts are detailed in this paper.

  15. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-polyethylene glycol] (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles and then demonstrated scalable incorporation and controlled release. In a functional application, electronically-controlled release of minocycline nanoparticles was used to rescue primary spinal cord neurons from an excitotoxic environment in vitro. This approach offers a wide range of therapeutic possibilities, especially for treating traumatic lesions of the central nervous system. Finally, we explored use of conductive polymers for directed differentiation of progenitor cells. Retinal progenitors were seeded on custom polypyrrole cell culture devices and subjected to a biomimetic pattern of electrical stimulation. Stimulated cells showed phenotypic changes, increased neurite outgrowth, increased immunocytochemical expression of cone rod homeobox (CRX) and protein kinase C (PK-C), and decreased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Biomimetic stimulation thus led cells towards early photoreceptor and bipolar cell fates, and away from an astrocytic cell fate. Electrical stimulation via a conductive polymer offers a novel approach for directing differentiation of progenitor cells.

  16. Electron Transfer Between Colloidal ZnO Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M.; Gamelin, Daniel R.; Mayer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, capped with dodecylamine and dissolved in toluene, can be charged photochemically to give stable solutions in which electrons are present in the conduction bands of the nanocrystals. These conduction band electrons are readily monitored by EPR spectroscopy, with g* values that correlate with the nanocrystal sizes. Mixing a solution of charged small nanocrystals with a solution of uncharged large nanocrystals, e-CB:ZnO–S + ZnO–L, causes changes in the EPR spectr...

  17. Microcontact printing for patterning carbon nanotube/polymer composite films with electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Hitoshi; Kibayashi, Hiro; Saji, Tetsuo

    2012-09-26

    Patterned carbon nanotube (CNT)/acrylic resin composite films were prepared using microcontact printing (?CP). To prepare ink for ?CP, CNTs were dispersed into propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) solution in which acrylic resin and a commercially available dispersant (Disperbyk-2001) dissolved. The resulting ink were spin-coated onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps. By drying solvent components from the ink, CNT/polymer composite films were prepared over PDMS stamps. Contact between the stamps and glass substrates provided CNT/polymer composite patternings on the substrates. The transfer behavior of the CNT/polymer composite films depended on the thermal-treatment temperature during ?CP; thermal treatment at temperatures near the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the acrylic resin was effective to form uniform patternings on substrates. Moreover, contact area between polymer and substrates also affect the transfer behavior. The CNT/polymer composite films showed high electrical conductivity, despite the nonconductivity of polymer components, because CNTs in the films were interconnected. The electrical conductivity of the composite films increased as CNT content in the film became higher; as a result, the composite patternings showed almost as high electrical conductivity as previously reported CNT/polymer bulk composites. PMID:22900673

  18. Simulation of ultraviolet- and soft X-ray-pulse generation as a result of cooperative recombination of excitons in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using numerical simulation, it is shown that the recombination of free excitons photoexcited in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a polymer film can occur in the cooperative mode. It is found that this mode can be implemented despite the fact that diamond is an “indirect” semiconductor. It is shown that the power of the generated radiation at the pulse peak during the cooperative recombination of free excitons can exceed that of the incoherent spontaneous emission of the same initial number of free excitons by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, it is shown that the process under consideration can be used to generate picosecond pulses of ultraviolet and soft X-ray electromagnetic field at a wavelength of 235 nm

  19. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    Showing advancements in colloidal nanocrystals and quantum-confined nanostructures, this title focuses on the semiconductor nanocrystals known as nanocrystal quantum dots. This title includes chapters on carrier multiplication, doping of semiconductor nanocrystals, and applications of nanocrystals in biology.

  20. Direct current conductivity of carbon nanofiber-based conductive polymer composites: effects of temperature and electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin Xiang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2011-05-01

    Polymer composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) were fabricated by melt compounding. The dependences of electrical conductivity of HDPE-CNF composites on filler concentration, temperature, and applied electric field were investigated. The results showed that the conductivity of the HDPE-CNF composites follows the scaling law of percolation theory. Increasing temperature caused a sharp increase in the resistivity of HDPE-CNF composites near the melting temperature of HDPE, yielding a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect of resistance. The potential mechanisms involved in the PTC effect of such composites were analyzed. An investigation of the effect of electric field on the conductivity of HDPE-CNF composites revealed the presence of tunneling conduction. The tunneling conductivity increased with increasing filler content because of high tunneling frequency, and decreased with rising temperature as a result of gap widening between conducting CNF fillers. PMID:21780386

  1. Development, characterization and applications of electrodes modified with conductive polymers, ionic liquids and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijun

    My research involves both fundamental studies and applications of the electrodes whose surfaces are chemically modified. Conductive polymers are one of the major materials that are used to modify electrode surfaces. The thorough understanding of the behavior of conductive polymers in ionic liquids is interesting and important as the ionic liquids are becoming promising solvents. With poly(vinyl ferrocene) as the model conductive polymer, electrochemical studies were performed in various ionic liquid electrolytes. A theoretical square model and dynamic equilibrium were proposed to describe the interaction between conductive polymers and ionic liquids when the electrons transferred between the electrode and electrolyte. These findings were applied to enable and accelerate the structure relaxation of conductive polymers so that the conductive polymers were capable of delivering peptides efficiently. Incorporation of metallic nanoparticles to the conductive polymer matrix entitled new properties to the conductive polymer, increasing conductivity and providing catalytic abilities. This modification on electrode surface might bring potential uses in gas sensing, energy storage, energy conversion, etc. Conductive polymer coated electrodes produced unique double layer in ionic liquids and a fundamental study of quantum charging help to understand the double layer properties. I also studied the application of surface modified electrodes in chemo- and biosensing. A nonregeneration protocol was created to save the cost and the time in analyzing interfacial binding activities and to prevent the potential of deterioration caused to biological ligands by the conventional regeneration. In the study of carbohydrate/protein interactions, a "click" chemical reaction was first used in constructing a carbohydrate-based biosensor, which was capable of detecting and analyzing proteins specifically and accurately. In another biosensor design, the hydrogen bonding between the template and the ligand was used and enhanced the ability, sensitivity and accuracy of the studies of antibody-antigen binding. We successfully developed a lab course with a homemade SPR device at a very affordable price. The characterization showed the homemade SPR device is accurate and it is a good tool for preliminary studies and for the college education.

  2. Synthesis and dielectric studies of polyorthotoluidine-polyvinyl pyrrolidone conducting polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu, A. K.; Bahuguna, Rajni; Ray, D. K.; Bandyopadyayay, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2013-02-01

    The intrinsically conducting polymer, polyorthotoluidine (POT) has been synthesized by chemical polymerization process with the help of water-soluble support polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)). The dielectric measurement of POT-PVP was measured in the temperature range from 308-398 K at frequency 10 kHz. The temperature dependent data has been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, loss tangent and ac conductivity. Above the temperature 345 K, conductivity shows weak temperature dependence. This is an important feature with respect to technological applications of POT-PVP as an electro-inactive material at high temperature.

  3. Synthesis and dielectric studies of polyorthotoluidine—polyacrylamide conducting polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu, A. K.; Bandyopadhayay, S. K.; Bahuguna, Rajni; Ray, D. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2012-06-01

    The intrinsically conducting polymer, polyorthotoluidine (POT) has been synthesized by chemical polymerization process with the help of water-soluble support polymer acrylamide (AAm). The dielectric measurement of POT-PAAm was measured in the temperature range from 308-398 K at frequency 10 kHz. The temperature dependent data has been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, loss tangent and ac conductivity. Above the temperature 370 K, conductivity shows weak temperature dependence. This is an important feature with respect to technological applications of POT-PAAm as an electro-inactive material at high temperature.

  4. Electronic grade and flexible semiconductor film employing oriented attachment of colloidal ligand-free PbS and PbSe nanocrystals at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, G. Shiva; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Arindom; Chakraborty, S.; Phukan, Manabjyoti; Parveen, Naziya; Biswas, Kanishka; Nag, Angshuman

    2015-05-01

    Electronic grade semiconductor films have been obtained via the sintering of solution processed PbS and PbSe nanocrystals at room temperature. Prior attempts to achieve similar films required the sintering of nanocrystals at higher temperatures (>350 °C), which inhibits the processing of such films on a flexible polymer substrate, and it is also expensive. We reduced the sintering temperature by employing two important strategies: (i) use of ligand-free nanocrystals and (ii) oriented attachment of nanocrystals. Colloidal ligand-free PbS and PbSe nanocrystals were synthesized at 70 °C with high yield (~70%). However, these nanocrystals start to agglomerate with time in formamide, and upon the removal of the solvation energy, nanocrystals undergo oriented attachment, forming larger elongated crystals. PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films made on both glass and flexible substrates at room temperature exhibit Ohmic behavior with optimum DC conductivities of 0.03 S m-1 and 0.08 S m-1, respectively. Mild annealing of the films at 150 °C increases the conductivity values to 1.1 S m-1 and 137 S m-1 for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films, respectively. AC impedance was measured to distinguish the contributions from grain and grain boundaries to the charge transport mechanism. Charge transport properties remain similar after the repeated bending of the film on a flexible polymer substrate. Reasonably high thermoelectric Seebeck coefficients of 600 ?V K-1 and 335 ?V K-1 for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal pellets, respectively, were obtained at room temperature.Electronic grade semiconductor films have been obtained via the sintering of solution processed PbS and PbSe nanocrystals at room temperature. Prior attempts to achieve similar films required the sintering of nanocrystals at higher temperatures (>350 °C), which inhibits the processing of such films on a flexible polymer substrate, and it is also expensive. We reduced the sintering temperature by employing two important strategies: (i) use of ligand-free nanocrystals and (ii) oriented attachment of nanocrystals. Colloidal ligand-free PbS and PbSe nanocrystals were synthesized at 70 °C with high yield (~70%). However, these nanocrystals start to agglomerate with time in formamide, and upon the removal of the solvation energy, nanocrystals undergo oriented attachment, forming larger elongated crystals. PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films made on both glass and flexible substrates at room temperature exhibit Ohmic behavior with optimum DC conductivities of 0.03 S m-1 and 0.08 S m-1, respectively. Mild annealing of the films at 150 °C increases the conductivity values to 1.1 S m-1 and 137 S m-1 for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films, respectively. AC impedance was measured to distinguish the contributions from grain and grain boundaries to the charge transport mechanism. Charge transport properties remain similar after the repeated bending of the film on a flexible polymer substrate. Reasonably high thermoelectric Seebeck coefficients of 600 ?V K-1 and 335 ?V K-1 for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal pellets, respectively, were obtained at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Powder XRD, TEM, surface profilometry, infrared absorption, FESEM, I vs. V plot, ?-potential, and PL data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01016k

  5. The material combining conducting polymer and ionic liquid: hydrogen bonding interactions between polyaniline and imidazolium salt.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Dybal, Ji?í; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 197, November (2014), s. 168-174. ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * imidazolium salt Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.222, year: 2013

  6. Low polymer hydraulic fracturing applications in Reconcavo basin wells can reduce cost and improve conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gels used for hydraulic-fracturing treatments generally contain high concentrations of polymer. The polymer helps the fracturing fluid achieve the level of viscosity necessary for transporting proppant through the rock matrix. However, high-polymer gels leave greater amounts of residue in the formation and can therefore cause formation damage. This paper describes how low polymer (L P) gels can be used for hydraulic-fracturing operations to reduce job costs and increase conductivity by reducing formation damage while maintaining the characteristics of a high-polymer gel. The L P fluid system has a low p H and contains an appropriate breaker concentration. Operators have achieved positive results with this system, which allows them to measure robust gel breaks and reduces the necessity for well cleaning. Consequently, formation damage can be significantly reduced. (author)

  7. Single lithium-ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on poly[(4-styrenesulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide] anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Single lithium-ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on highly delocalized polyanions are prepared. ? Phase behavior and transport properties are measured. ? They show high lithium ion transference number approaching unity. ? They show high ionic conductivity at room temperature. - Abstract: New single lithium-ion conducting polymer electrolytes are prepared by a copolymerization of the two monomers, lithium (4-styrenesulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiSTFSI) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol acrylate (MPEGA, CH2=CHCO2-(CH2CH2O)n-CH3, n = 8) in various monomer ratios. The structures and compositions of the prepared lithium poly[(4-styrenesulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide-co-methoxy-polyethylene glycol acrylate] (Li[PSTFSI-co-MPEGA]) copolymers are characterized by 1H and 19F NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). For comparison, the corresponding blended polymer electrolytes comprising lithium poly[(4-styrenesulfonyl) (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide] (LiPSTFSI) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) are also prepared and characterized. The fundamental properties of these two types of lithium-ion conducting polymer electrolytes are comparatively studied, in terms of phase transitions, thermal stability, XRD, ionic conductivities, lithium-ion transference numbers (tLi+), and electrochemical stabilities. Both types of the polymer electrolytes are thermally stable up to 300 °C. While both types of polymer electrolytes exhibit single lithium-ion conducting behavior with tLi+ > 0.9, the solid-state ionic conductivities of the Li[PSTFSI-co-MPEGA] copolymer electrolytes are all higher by 1–3 orders in magnitude than those of the blended ones, irrespective of the concentration of lithium ions. The highest ionic conductivities for the copolymer electrolytes are 7.6 × 10?6 S cm?1 at 25 °C and reach 10?4 S cm?1 at 60 °C, which are obtained at the ethylene oxide (EO) unit/Li+ ratio of 20.5

  8. Functionalization of conducting polymer with novel Co(II) complex: Electroanalysis of ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report for the first time the functionalization of a conducting polymer with a metal complex in order to develop a new type of catalytic material exhibiting better electronic communication through their delocalized ? electrons. The Co(II) complex having hydroxyl group as functional moiety is chemically coupled with carboxyl group of polyanthranilic acid which itself is a self doped conducting polymer. The covalent linkage between Co(II) and -OH group is confirmed using UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The Co(II) complex functionalized polymer does exhibit excellent redox behavior and stability with mixed properties of Co(II) complex and ?-conjugated polymer. The material possesses potential benefits in sensors/biosensor applications and it is demonstrated for the electroanalysis of ascorbic acid at a level of nano molar concentration.

  9. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 210C +/- 10C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F+, Ar+, or As+ ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 1018 to 1 x 1020 ions/m2. The conductivity of films implanted with As+ was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar+, which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F+. The conductivity of the most conductive film ?1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 1020 ions/m2 with F+, Ar+, and As+ ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 1020 ions/m2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  10. Process for depositing strong adherend polymer coating onto an electrically conductive surface

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Olivier; Je?ro?me, Robert; Gautier, Sandrine; Maquet, Ve?ronique; Detrembleur, Christophe; Je?ro?me, Christine; Voccia, Samuel; Claes, Michae?l; Lou, Xudong; Labaye, David-emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    Process for depositing by electrografting a strong adherent polymer coating onto an electrically conductive surface comprising an electrochemical grafting at the surface of an active monomer for forming a primer coating P onto said surface and having as general formula: X0 (meth)acrylate wherein X is either part of a preformed polymer or is an intermediate agent for polyaddition reaction or is an anchoring group for attachment of a molecule having at least one complementary reactive group. Su...

  11. Microtexturing of the Conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for Superhydrophobic Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Gentile; Nicola Coppedè; Giuseppe Tarabella; Marco Villani; Davide Calestani; Patrizio Candeloro; Salvatore Iannotta; Enzo Di Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry an...

  12. Analysis of hysteresis phenomenon as observed from voltammetric data of conducting polymers: part I

    OpenAIRE

    Matencio Tulio; Pernaut Jean Michel; Vieil Eric

    2003-01-01

    The hysteresis phenomenon inherent to redox processes of Electronic Conducting Polymers (ECP) has been studied. Hysteresis was divided into two classes: i) dynamic hysteresis, containing a kinetic and an ohmic component and ii) stationary or thermodynamic hysteresis. A mathematical analysis was performed on the dynamic hysteresis observed in cyclic voltammograms of two polymers: polyaniline (PANI) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT). It has been shown that in the case of P3MT, the hysteresis i...

  13. Effect of low energy oxygen ion beam irradiation on ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past three decades, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn significant attention of researchers due to their prospective commercial applications in high energy-density batteries, electrochemical sensors and super-capacitors. The optimum conductivity required for such applications is about 10?2 – 10?4 S/cm, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is known that the increase in the concentration of salt in the host polymer results in a continuous increase in the ionic conductivity. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity decreases due to formation of ion pairs with no net charge. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO: RbBr. We have attempted to modify microstructure of the host polymer matrix by low energy ion (Oxygen ion, O+1 with energy 100 keV) irradiation. Ionic conductivity measurements in these systems were carried out using Impedance Spectroscopy before and after irradiation to different fluencies of the oxygen ion. It is observed that the conductivity increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains. The study reveals the importance of ion irradiation as an effective tool to enhance conductivity in SPEs

  14. Sensing of environmental pollutant by conductive composite from prepared from hyperbranched polymer-grafted carbon black and crystalline polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The hyperbranched (HB) polymer-grafted (PG) carbon blacks (CB) have the possibility of utilizing as a support of catalyst and enzyme, and a curing agent of epoxy resin, because they have much terminal amino or hydroxyl groups. The postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB PG CB and the sensing of environmental pollutant by the conductive composite prepared from the polymer-postgrafted CB was discussed. The grafting of poly(amidoamide) onto CB surface was achieved by repeating either Michael addition of methyl acrylate to amino group on the surface or the amidation of the resulting terminal methyl ester group with ethylene diamine. HB polyester onto CB surface was grafted by stepwise growth of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) from surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on CB as a core in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The one-pot grafting of HB polyester onto CB as core was also achieved by the polycondensation of bis-MPA in the presence of p-TSA. Postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB polymer-grafted CB was achieved by the reaction of terminal amino or hydroxyl groups of grafted chain with COCl-terminated crystalline polymer. The electric resistance of the composite prepared from crystalline polymer-postgrafted CB was found to increase drastically in hexane, containing environmental pollutant, such as chloroform and trichloroethane, and returned immediately to the initial resistance when it was transferred into pure hexane. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the composite can be used as a novel sensor for environmental pollutant in solution

  15. Electronic grade and flexible semiconductor film employing oriented attachment of colloidal ligand-free PbS and PbSe nanocrystals at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, G Shiva; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Arindom; Chakraborty, S; Phukan, Manabjyoti; Parveen, Naziya; Biswas, Kanishka; Nag, Angshuman

    2015-05-28

    Electronic grade semiconductor films have been obtained via the sintering of solution processed PbS and PbSe nanocrystals at room temperature. Prior attempts to achieve similar films required the sintering of nanocrystals at higher temperatures (>350 °C), which inhibits the processing of such films on a flexible polymer substrate, and it is also expensive. We reduced the sintering temperature by employing two important strategies: (i) use of ligand-free nanocrystals and (ii) oriented attachment of nanocrystals. Colloidal ligand-free PbS and PbSe nanocrystals were synthesized at 70 °C with high yield (?70%). However, these nanocrystals start to agglomerate with time in formamide, and upon the removal of the solvation energy, nanocrystals undergo oriented attachment, forming larger elongated crystals. PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films made on both glass and flexible substrates at room temperature exhibit Ohmic behavior with optimum DC conductivities of 0.03 S m(-1) and 0.08 S m(-1), respectively. Mild annealing of the films at 150 °C increases the conductivity values to 1.1 S m(-1) and 137 S m(-1) for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films, respectively. AC impedance was measured to distinguish the contributions from grain and grain boundaries to the charge transport mechanism. Charge transport properties remain similar after the repeated bending of the film on a flexible polymer substrate. Reasonably high thermoelectric Seebeck coefficients of 600 ?V K(-1) and 335 ?V K(-1) for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal pellets, respectively, were obtained at room temperature. PMID:25926291

  16. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites Using Local Fractal Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajpal Singh Bhoopal,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The model developed by Springer and Tsai is extended using non-linear volume fraction in place of physical porosity for the effective thermal conductivity of composite materials with the help of local fractal techniques. The expression for non-linear volume fraction is obtained using data available in the literature. Present model is constructed in terms of fiber volume fraction, the fiber-matrix thermal conductivity ratio and the local fractal dimensions. The effective thermal conductivity ratio is evaluated using the model with the approximation of the fractal dimensions. These fractal dimensions [PdandTd] are considered to be equal in the absence of information about the arrangement of fibers in the composites. The technique of local fractal dimensions is used to reduce the geometric complexity of the fiber arrangements. Better agreement of predicted effective thermal conductivity values with experimental results is obtained. A comparison with other models is also done and found that our model predict the values of effective thermal conductivity quite well.

  17. Computational modeling of the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hai M; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V; Mullen, Kieran J; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2008-02-13

    A computational model was developed to study the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composites. A random walk simulation was used to model the effect of interfacial resistance on the heat flow in different orientations of SWNTs dispersed in the polymers. The simulation is a modification of a previous model taking into account the numerically determined thermal equilibrium factor between the SWNTs and the composite matrix material. The simulation results agreed well with reported experimental data for epoxy and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites. The effects of the SWNT orientation, weight fraction and thermal boundary resistance on the effective conductivity of composites were quantified. The present model is a useful tool for the prediction of the thermal conductivity within a wide range of volume fractions of the SWNTs, so long as the SWNTs are not in contact with each other. The developed model can be applied to other polymers and solid materials, possibly even metals. PMID:21730709

  18. Computational modeling of the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hai M.; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.; Mullen, Kieran J.; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    A computational model was developed to study the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composites. A random walk simulation was used to model the effect of interfacial resistance on the heat flow in different orientations of SWNTs dispersed in the polymers. The simulation is a modification of a previous model taking into account the numerically determined thermal equilibrium factor between the SWNTs and the composite matrix material. The simulation results agreed well with reported experimental data for epoxy and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites. The effects of the SWNT orientation, weight fraction and thermal boundary resistance on the effective conductivity of composites were quantified. The present model is a useful tool for the prediction of the thermal conductivity within a wide range of volume fractions of the SWNTs, so long as the SWNTs are not in contact with each other. The developed model can be applied to other polymers and solid materials, possibly even metals.

  19. Computational modeling of the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational model was developed to study the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composites. A random walk simulation was used to model the effect of interfacial resistance on the heat flow in different orientations of SWNTs dispersed in the polymers. The simulation is a modification of a previous model taking into account the numerically determined thermal equilibrium factor between the SWNTs and the composite matrix material. The simulation results agreed well with reported experimental data for epoxy and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites. The effects of the SWNT orientation, weight fraction and thermal boundary resistance on the effective conductivity of composites were quantified. The present model is a useful tool for the prediction of the thermal conductivity within a wide range of volume fractions of the SWNTs, so long as the SWNTs are not in contact with each other. The developed model can be applied to other polymers and solid materials, possibly even metals

  20. Phase stability of Li-ion conductive, ternary solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical–physical properties of a ternary solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) and two salts, namely lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI), are reported in this work. The ternary phase diagram shows the composition limits of the thermodynamically stabilized amorphous phase where the polymer electrolyte achieved the maximum conductivity. The important conductivity threshold of 10?3 S cm?1 at 40 °C is exceeded for these compositions. Two reasons for the high conductivity are identified; the decreased overall coordination to the Li+-ion and a Tg as low as ?67 °C. Also presented is the thermal stability characterization of such polymer electrolytes. The amorphous phase seems to be thermodynamically unfavored; however, the recrystallization process is slow

  1. Kinetics of radiation-induced conductivity in some polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Build-up and decay of radiation-induced conductivity associated with the motion of free charge carriers in the presence of multiple trapping is treated theoretically for both, exponential and uniform trap distributions. Approximate analytical solutions describing its growth and decay are presented. These model considerations are shown to agree well with available experimental data. (author)

  2. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, M

    1996-01-01

    force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle-spike plot but the Fe(lll) samples displayed an extra semicircle before the spike reflecting a surface effect. This is also manifested in the Arrhenius plots of the same samples where a dip was shown at 100 deg C. From the conductivity studies on the iron systems it was found that for the dry samples the optimum conductivity was observed in PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub x irrespective of the valence state of the cation. For the air-cast samples the optimum conductivity composition depends on the...

  3. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics

  4. Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely

  5. Polymer dynamics and ion conduction in modified soluble starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungki; Runt, James

    2009-03-01

    The dynamics of neat and plasticized carboxylated starch is investigated using broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). The sodium single ion conductor is prepared by a 2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediated oxidation process, in which the primary hydroxyl groups in alpha-D-glucose units are replaced by carboxylic salts. DRS measurements show that the ionic conductivity increases with increasing degree of oxidation. For example, 78 percent carboxylated starch with 25 weight percent glycerol displays around 3 orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity than the comparable glycerol- plasticized 25 percent carboxylated material, principally due to the higher content of mobile cations. The role of salts and plasticizers including water on the relaxation behavior of amylose-rich starch is explored. Other complimentary techniques are used in the investigation, including FTIR, XRD and DSC.

  6. Formation of Wigner crystals in conducting polymer nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, A; Rahman, Atikur; Sanyal, Milan K.

    2007-01-01

    The search for theoretically predicted Wigner crystal in one-dimensional (1D) wires of structurally disordered materials exhibiting properties of charge-density-waves have remained unsuccessful. Based on the results of a low temperature conductivity study we report here formation of such 1D Wigner crystal (1DWC) in polypyrrole nanowires having low electron densities. The current-voltage characteristics of all the nanowires show a 'gap' that decreases rapidly as the temperature is increased - confirming the existence of long-range electron-electron interaction in the nanowires. The measured current show power-law dependence on voltage and temperature as expected in 1DWC. A switching transition to highly conducting state has been observed above a threshold voltage, which can be tuned by changing the diameters of the nanowires and the temperature. Negative differential resistance and enhancement of noise has been observed above the threshold as expected.

  7. Tattoo conductive polymer nanosheets for skin-contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Alessandra; Cipriani, Christian; Sudha; Tarantino, Sergio; Ricci, Davide; Mattoli, Virgilio; Greco, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    Conductive tattoo nanosheets are fabricated on top of decal transfer paper and transferred on target surfaces as temporary transfer tattoos. Circuits are patterned with ink-jet printing. Tattoo nanosheets are envisioned as unperceivable human-device interfaces because of conformal adhesion to complex surfaces including skin. They are tested as dry electrodes for surface electromyography (sEMG), which permits the control of a robotic hand. PMID:25702914

  8. Functional Conducting Polymers via Thiol-ene Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, David C.; Feldman, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate here that thiol-ene chemistry can be used to provide side-chain functionalized monomers based on 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) containing ionic, neutral, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic side chains. All reactions gave high yields and purification could generally be accomplished through precipitation. These monomers were polymerized either chemically or electro-chemically to give soluble materials or conductive films, respectively. This strategy provides for facile tuning of...

  9. Synthesis and Dielectric Studies of Polyaniline-Polyacrylamide Conducting Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu, A. K.; Bandyopadhayay, S. K.; Bahuguna, Rajni; Ray, D. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2011-07-01

    The intrinsically conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI) has been synthesized by chemical polymerization process with the help of water-soluble support polymer acrylamide (AAm). The dielectric measurement of PANI-PAAm was measured in the temperature range from 303-393 K at frequency 10 kHz. The temperature dependent data has been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, loss tangent and ac conductivity. The weak temperatures dependence of PANI-PAAm (below 340 K) is seen, which is an interesting property with respect to technological applications of PANI-PAAm as an electro-inactive material around room temperature.

  10. Study of Swift Heavy Ion Modified Conducting Polymer Composites for Application as Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich W. Scherer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A polyaniline-based conducting composite was prepared by oxidativepolymerisation of aniline in a polyvinylchloride (PVC matrix. The coherent free standingthin films of the composite were prepared by a solution casting method. The polyvinylchloride-polyaniline composites exposed to 120 MeV ions of silicon with total ion fluenceranging from 1011 to 1013 ions/cm2, were observed to be more sensitive towards ammoniagas than the unirradiated composite. The response time of the irradiated composites wasobserved to be comparably shorter. We report for the first time the application of swiftheavy ion modified insulating polymer conducting polymer (IPCP composites for sensingof ammonia gas.

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Nano-filler Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Sun, Y. P.; Lin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, Elvax 260 was compounded with three carbon based nano-fillers. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNF) and expanded graphite (EG) were investigated. In an attempt to improve compatibility between the Elvax and nanofillers, MWCNTs and EGs were modified through non covalent and covalent attachment of alkyl groups. Ribbons were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned, and samples were also fabricated by compression molding in which the nano-fillers were randomly oriented. The thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and TGA, and mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Thermal conductivity measurements were performed using a Nanoflash technique. The thermal conductivity of the samples was measured in both the direction of alignment as well as perpendicular to that direction. The results of this study will be presented.

  12. Silver-plated carbon nanotubes for silver/conducting polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have advantages as conductive fillers due to their large aspect ratio and excellent conductivity. In this study, a novel silver/conducting polymer composite was developed by the incorporation of silver-plated CNTs. It is important to achieve a homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes and to improve the interfacial bonding to utilize the excellent properties of reinforcements in the matrix material. The homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes was achieved by an acid treatment process, and the interfacial contact was improved by electroless silver plating around nanotubes. The resistivity of the silver/conducting polymer composite was decreased by 83% by the addition of silver-plated single-walled carbon nanotubes. Conductive bumps were also screen-printed to demonstrate the capability of the composite as electrical interconnects for multi-layer printed circuit boards.

  13. Selective sensing of volatile organic compounds using novel conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, fabricated by assembling metal nanoparticles on top of functionalized conducting polymer film surfaces using conjugated linker molecules, enable the selective sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In these conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, selectivity is achieved by assembling different metals on the same conducting polymer film. This eliminates the need to develop either different polymers chemistries or device configurations for each specific analyte. In the hybrids, chemisorption of the analyte vapor induces charge redistribution in the metal nanoparticles and changes their work function. The conjugated linker molecule causes this change in the work function of the tethered nanoparticles to affect the electronic states in the underlying conducting polymer film. The result is an easily measurable change in the resistance of the hybrid structure. The fabrication of these sensing elements involved the covalent assembly of nickel (Ni) and palladium (Pd) metal nanoparticles on top of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-thiophene-3-acetic acid), poly(EDOT-co-TAA), films using 4-aminothiophenol linker molecules. The change in resistance of hybrid Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) and Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) hybrid films to acetone and toluene, respectively, is observed to be in proportion to their concentrations. The projected detection limits are 2 and 10 ppm for toluene and acetone, respectively. A negligible response (one, respectively. A negligible response (resistance change) of the Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) films to toluene exposure confirmed its selectivity for detecting acetone. Similarly, lack of response to acetone confirmed the selectivity of the Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) stacks for detecting toluene. It is anticipated that the assembly of other metals such as Ag, Au and Cu on top of poly(EDOT-co-TAA) would provide selectivity for detecting and discriminating other VOCs.

  14. Facile preparation of transparent and conductive polymer films based on silver nanowire/polycarbonate nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanowires (AgNW) synthesized by a solvothermal method were incorporated into a polycarbonate matrix by a solution mixing procedure. Films with a thickness around 18 ?m were obtained, showing a good distribution of the wires within the polymer matrix. The thermal stability of the polymer matrix increased significantly, with the main decomposition peak shifting up to 74?° C for an AgNW loading of 4.35 wt%. The percolation threshold was obtained at very low AgNW content (0.04 wt%), and the composite electrical conductivity at the maximum loading (4.35 wt%) was 41.3 ? cm. Excellent transparency was obtained at the percolation threshold, with negligible reduction in the transmittance of the polymer matrix (from 88.2 to 87.6% at 0.04 wt% loading of AgNW). In addition, the polymer matrix protected the silver nanowires from oxidation, as demonstrated by the XPS analysis. (paper)

  15. Optimizing Efficiency in Conducting Polymer/Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Josh; Prehn, Fritz; Heeney, Martin; Kopidakis, Nikos; Rumbles, Garry; Blackburn, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    Several unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have motivated their investigation as potential replacements for fullerene derivatives as the acceptor phase of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Although replacement of the ubiquitous fullerene acceptors by SWCNTs in OPV devices has shown limited success thus far, better understanding of charge transfer between SWCNTs and conjugated polymers has promoted its viability. We provide experimental evidence that m-SWNTs limit the generation efficiency and lifetime of the charge-separated state in these composites. We also probe the photo-carrier generation and decay dynamics in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) paired with a broad diameter range of SWCNTs. We witness electron transfer from the polymer to SWCNT and selective hole transfer from the SWCNT to polymer by varying the nanotube HOMO via its diameter. We finally extend our investigation to additional semi-conducting polymers that have contributed to high OPV efficiencies, pBTTT and PCDTBT.

  16. Preparation and characterization of novel nanocomposites of WS2 nanotubes and polyfluorene conductive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanotubes are used to prepare polymer nanocomposites, similarly to other metal dichalcogenide materials, to improve lubricating and/or mechanical properties. In order to explore the possibility to extend these advantages to conductive polymers we realized new nanocomposites of WS2 nanotubes and polyfluorene conjugated polymer (WS2/PFO). The nanocomposites were prepared from solution processing at several nanotubes concentrations. The morphological and structural analyses by SEM and XRD proved that the density of nanotubes within the polymer increased according to the preparation conditions. The successful incorporation of WS2 nanotubes was also evidenced by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The WS2/PFO nanocomposites were tested in light emitting devices at relatively big load of nanotubes realizing a new class of devices with promising improved mechanical and thermal properties without affecting substantially the device optoelectronic performances. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Effects of dopants on the biomechanical properties of conducting polymer films on platinum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sungchul; Green, Rylie A; Poole-Warren, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    Conducting polymers have often been described in literature as a coating for metal electrodes which will dampen the mechanical mismatch with neural tissue, encouraging intimate cell interactions. However, there is very limited quantitative analysis of conducting polymer mechanics and the relation to tissue interactions. This article systematically analyses the impact of coating platinum (Pt) electrodes with the conducting polymer poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with a series of common anions which have been explored for neural interfacing applications. Nanoindentation was used to determine the coating modulus and it was found that the polymer stiffness increased as the size of the dopant ion was increased, with PEDOT doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) having the highest modulus at 3.2 GPa. This was more than double that of the ClO4 doped PEDOT at 1.3 GPa. Similarly, the electrical properties of these materials were shown to have a size dependent behavior with the smaller anions producing PEDOT films with the highest charge transfer capacity and lowest impedance. Coating stiffness was found to have a negligible effect on in vitro neural cell survival and differentiation, but rather polymer surface morphology, dopant toxicity and mobility is found to have the greatest impact. PMID:24027227

  18. Observation of irreversible current path in polymer dielectric using conductive atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Do-Kyung; Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Lee, Hee Chul; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    During the measurement of the electrical properties of a metal-polymer-metal capacitor, it was found that the capacitor exhibited write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory behavior, even though it was made of the dielectric polymer, polystyrene. The initial low conductance state changed to a high conductance state when a threshold voltage was applied, but this final state never reverted to the initial state. This phenomenon only appeared in sub-100-nm-thick films. To understand this phenomenon, conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) was used. The current distribution measured with CAFM showed an irreversible current path had formed near particles in the polymer film. For reproducibility, particles were intentionally inserted into the polymer film during the fabrication of metal-polymer-metal capacitors, and the same current mechanism was found. From these results, it is concluded that the purification and cleaning process of organic devices severely affects the device characteristics. In addition, particle-insertion appears to be a promising method for fabrication low-cost and air-stable WORM type memory for various applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, Farah [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@mail.usf.edu [Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Basnayaka, Punya A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Stefanakos, Elias [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Goswami, Yogi [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: > The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. > The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. > The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  20. Conductivity studies of LiCF3SO3 doped PVA: PVdF blend polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different composition of lithium ion conducting PVA: PVdF: Lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) polymer electrolytes have been prepared by solution casting technique. Dielectric and conductivity studies have been carried out for the prepared samples. The addition of salt into the polymer matrix increases the ionic conductivity of blend polymer electrolytes. The conductivity analysis reveals 80PVA: 20PVdF: 15LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte exhibits the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.7×10?3 S cm?1 at 303 K. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity for all the composition of PVA: PVdF: LiCF3SO3 polymer films obey Arrhenius relation. Low activation energy has been obtained for highest conducting sample. The dielectric spectra show absolute ?-relaxation peak

  1. Conductivity studies of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} doped PVA: PVdF blend polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilselvi, P.; Hema, M., E-mail: mhema2006@gmail.com

    2014-03-15

    Different composition of lithium ion conducting PVA: PVdF: Lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) polymer electrolytes have been prepared by solution casting technique. Dielectric and conductivity studies have been carried out for the prepared samples. The addition of salt into the polymer matrix increases the ionic conductivity of blend polymer electrolytes. The conductivity analysis reveals 80PVA: 20PVdF: 15LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} polymer electrolyte exhibits the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.7×10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 303 K. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity for all the composition of PVA: PVdF: LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} polymer films obey Arrhenius relation. Low activation energy has been obtained for highest conducting sample. The dielectric spectra show absolute ?-relaxation peak.

  2. Evidence of ratchet effect in nanowires of a conducting polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, A; Gangopadhayy, R; De, A; Das, I

    2006-01-01

    Ratchet effect, observed in many systems starting from living organism to artificially designed device, is a manifestation of motion in asymmetric potential. Here we report results of a conductivity study of Polypyrrole nanowires, which have been prepared by a simple method to generate a variation of doping concentration along the length. This variation gives rise to an asymmetric potential profile that hinders the symmetry of the hopping process of charges and hence the value of measured resistance of these nanowires become sensitive to the direction of current flow. The asymmetry in resistance was found to increase with decreasing nanowire diameter and increasing temperature. The observed phenomena could be explained with the assumption that the spatial extension of localized state involved in hopping process reduces as the doping concentration reduces along the length of the nanowires.

  3. Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: ? The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. ? The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. ? The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presed/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  4. Conductivity enhancement via chemical modification of chitosan based green polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of carboxymethyl chitosan as a green polymer electrolyte has been explored. Chitosan produced from partial deacetylation of chitin was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to form carboxymethyl chitosan. A green polymer electrolyte based chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The powder and films were characterized by reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The shift of wavenumber that represents hydroxyl and amine stretching confirmed the polymer solvent complex formation. The XRD spectra results show that chemical modification of chitosan has improved amorphous properties of chitosan. The ionic conductivity was found to increase by two magnitudes higher with the chemical modification of chitosan. The highest conductivity achieved was 3.6 × 10?6 S cm?1 for carboxymethyl chitosan at room temperature and 3.7 × 10?4 S cm?1 at 60 °C

  5. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  6. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane M., Becker; Amanda B., Biagini; Maria M. C., Forte; Sandro C., Amico; José V. C., Vargas; Denise S., Azambuja.

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the conten [...] t of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride). The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  7. Large enhancement in neurite outgrowth on a cell membrane-mimicking conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Luo, Shyh-Chyang; Zhao, Haichao; Lin, Hsing-An; Sekine, Jun; Nakao, Aiko; Chen, Chi; Yamashita, Yoshiro; Yu, Hsiao-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Although electrically stimulated neurite outgrowth on bioelectronic devices is a promising means of nerve regeneration, immunogenic scar formation can insulate electrodes from targeted cells and tissues, thereby reducing the lifetime of the device. Ideally, an electrode material capable of electrically interfacing with neurons selectively and efficiently would be integrated without being recognized by the immune system and minimize its response. Here we develop a cell membrane-mimicking conducting polymer possessing several attractive features. This polymer displays high resistance towards nonspecific enzyme/cell binding and recognizes targeted cells specifically to allow intimate electrical communication over long periods of time. Its low electrical impedance relays electrical signals efficiently. This material is capable to integrate biochemical and electrical stimulation to promote neural cellular behaviour. Neurite outgrowth is enhanced greatly on this new conducting polymer; in addition, electrically stimulated secretion of proteins from primary Schwann cells can also occur on it.

  8. Morphological control of conductive polymers utilized electrolysis polymerization technique: trial of fabricating biocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Conductive polymers are a strong contender for making electronic circuits. The growth pattern in conductive polymer synthesis by the electrolysis polymerization method was examined. The growth pattern is deeply related to the coupling reaction of the radical cation and the deprotonation reaction following it and changes suddenly depending on the kind and concentration of the supporting electrolyte and the solvent used. That is, when the electrophilic substitution coupling reaction becomes predominant, the three-dimensional growth form is observed, and when the radical coupling reaction becomes predominant, the two-dimensional growth morphology is observed. In addition, the growth pattern can be comparatively easily controlled by changing the value of the polymerization constant current, and it is considered that the indicator and development for biocircuit research with neuron-type devices made of conjugated polymers was obtained. PMID:24916803

  9. Ion transport study in polymer-nanocomposite films by dielectric spectroscopy and conductivity scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Namrata; Thakur, Awalendra K.; Shukla, Archana; Marx, David T.

    2015-07-01

    The dielectric and conductivity response of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes (films of PMMA4LiClO4 dispersed with nano-CeO2 powder) have been investigated. The dielectric behavior was analyzed via the dielectric permittivity (??) and dissipation factor (tan ?) of the samples. The analysis has shown the presence of space charge polarization at lower frequencies. The real part of ac conductivity spectra of materials obeys the Jonscher power law. Parameters such as dc conductivity, hopping rate, activation energies and the concentration of charge carriers were determined from conductivity data using the Almond West formalism. It is observed that the higher ionic conductivity at higher temperature is due to increased thermally-activated hopping rates accompanied by a significant increase in carrier concentration. The contribution of carrier concentration to the total conductivity is also confirmed from activation energy of migration conduction and from Summerfield scaling. The ac conductivity results are also well correlated with TEM results.

  10. Novel electrical transport properties in conducting polymers such as polythiophene and Poly(3-Methylthiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric transport properties in most of the conducting organic polymers have provided a riddle that prevents a thorough physical understanding of the conduction mechanism. Major difficulties for approaching the most substantial aspect in the electrical transport properties underlie in complicated higher order structure inherent to polymeric materials consisting of crystalline regions entangled with disordered amorphous regions. In order to clearly understand the origin of the metallic nature of conducting polymers, we have to extract the proper transport properties characteristics of the ordered crystalline regions. We have made a series of experimental studies of the transport properties in conductive polythiophene and poly(3-methylthiophene) obtained with the electrochemical polymerization. For polythiophene, we have investigated both the as-grown samples and the ones that contain controlled amount of dopant species exchanged after the neutralization aiming to see the effect of dopant concentration on the transport properties. (author)

  11. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Nian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm2 V?1 s?1 with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10?3 ? cm and 75 ?/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of a microporous conductive polymer based on a metal-organic framework thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunjing; Ben, Teng; Xu, Shixian; Qiu, Shilun

    2014-06-16

    A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous polyaniline with well-defined uniform micropores of 0.84?nm exhibits a high BET surface area of 986?m(2) g(-1) and a high electric conductivity of 0.125?S?cm(-1) when doped with I2, which is superior to existing porous conducting materials of porous MOFs, CMPs, and COFs. PMID:24854086

  13. Conversion of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, to nitrogen-containing carbon.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Konyushenko, Elena; Rozlívková, Zuzana; Exnerová, Milena

    San Juan : Colegio de Químicos de Puerto Rico, 2011. 113/317. [43 IUPAC World Chemistry Congress. 30.07.2011-05.08.2011, San Juan ] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * carbon Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. Photomodulation spectroscopy of photocarrier dynamics, electronic defects and morphology of conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of techniques were used: CW photomodulation, photomodulation in femtosecond and picosecond time ranges, CW resonant Raman scattering, transient photoinduced Raman scattering, electro-absorption, degenerate four-wave mixing, spin dependent photomodulation, and absorption detected magnetic resonance. The following conducting polymers were studied: polyacetylene, polythiophene, polydiacetylene 4-BCMU, polydiethynylsilanes, polysilane embedded in a-Si:H matrix, and fullerenes

  15. Conducting polymer and ionic liquid: improved thermal stability of the material - a spectroscopic study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Šed?nková, Ivana; Morávková, Zuzana; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 109, November (2014), s. 27-32. ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP205/12/0911 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting polymer * ionic liquid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.163, year: 2014

  16. Hybrid solar cells with conducting polymers and vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays: The effect of silicon conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, based on vertically aligned n-type silicon nanowires (n-Si NWs) and p-type conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS), were investigated as a function of Si conductivity. The n-Si NWs were easily prepared from the n-Si wafer by employing a silver nanodot-mediated micro-electrochemical redox reaction. This investigation shows that the photocurrent-to-voltage characteristics of the n-Si NW/PEDOT:PSS cells clearly exhibit a stable rectifying diode behavior. The increase in current density and fill factor using high conductive silicon is attributed to an improved charge transport towards the electrodes achieved by lowering the device's series resistance. Our results also show that the surface area of the nanowire that can form heterojunction domains significantly influences the device performance.

  17. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of New Mg2+ - Ion Conducting Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R. C.; Sahu, Dinesh K.; Mahipal, Y. K.; Ashrafi, Rehana

    2013-07-01

    Investigations on ion transport behaviour and All-Solid-State battery performance of Mg2+-ion conducting Composite Polymer Electrolyte (CPE) films: [80PEO: 20 Mg (CF3SO3)2] + x MgO are reported. Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) composition: [80PEO: 20Mg (CF3SO3)2], identified earlier as the highest conducting composition with room temperature conductivity ? ˜ 2.77 × 10-6 S/cm, has been chosen as as Ist - phase host matrix and submicron (?m & nm) particles of active filler material MgO as IInd - phase dispersoid. SPE/CPE membranes have been casted by a completely dry/solution free hotpress technique. The ion transport behaviour in the Optimum Conducting CPE film has been characterized in terms of ionic conductivity (?), ionic transference number (tion) as well as cationic transport number (t+). The temperature dependent conductivity measurement has also been carried out and the activation energy (Ea) has been computed from the least square linear fitting of `log ? - 1/T' Arrhenius plot. All-Solid-State battery has been fabricated in the cell configuration: Anode (Mg) // NCPE film // Cathode (C + MnO2 + Electrolyte). Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) ˜ 1.82 Volt was obtained for both the nano/micro MgO dispersed composite polymer electrolyte films. The cell performance has been studied under different load conditions and some important cell parameters have been calculated from the cell-potential discharge profiles.

  18. Gamma- and electron dose response of the electrical conductivity of polyaniline based polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Conducting polymers, also known as 'synthetic metals' have been the subject of widespread investigations over the past decade due to their very promising characteristics. Polyaniline (PANI) holds a special position among conducting polymers in that its most highly conducting doped form can be reached by protonic acid doping or oxidative doping. It was published earlier, that the electrical conductivity of some polyaniline based polymer composites increases to a significant extent when irradiated to gamma, electron or UV radiation. The aim of the present study was to measure the high frequency conductivity of blended films of PANI with poly(vinylchloride), PVC, and chlorinated poly(propylene) irradiated in air to different doses. In order to find the most suitable composition od these composites the mass percentage of PANI within the PPCl and PVC matrix was changed between 5 - 30%. These samples were then gamma irradiated and the induced electrical conductivity was measured in the 1 kHz - 1 MHz frequency range to determine the most sensitive evaluation conditions. After selecting both the most suitable measuring conditions as well as the blend compositions the dose response of the chosen samples was determined in the dose range of 10 - 250 kGy. With respect to potential dosimetry application the effect of electron irradiation, the effect of irradiation temperature and the stability of the irradiated samples have also been investigated

  19. Application of conductive polymers in biocathode of microbial fuel cells and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Ding, Lili; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Libin; Xu, Ke; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-07-01

    Four kinds of conductive polymers, polyaniline (PANI) and its co-polymers poly (aniline-co-o-aminophenol) (PANOA), poly (aniline-co-2, 4-diaminophenol) (PANDAP) and poly (aniline-1, 8-diaminonaphthalene) (PANDAN) were applied to modify carbon felts as the aerobic abiotic cathodes and biocathodes in microbial fuel cells (MFC). Compare to unmodified, all the four polymers can significantly improve the power densities for both abiotic cathodes (increased by 300%) and biocathodes (increased by 180%). The co-polymers with different functional groups introduction had further special advantages in MFC performance: PANOA and PANDAP with -OH showed less sensitivity to DO and pH change in cathode; PANDAP and PANDAN with -NH(3) provided better attachment condition for biofilm which endowed them higher power output. With the help of conductive polymer coats, the cathode biofilm became thicker, and according to biodiversity analysis, the predominated phyla changed from ?-Proteobacteria (unmodified) to ?, ?-Proteobacteria (modified), which may be responsible for the superiority of the modified MFCs. PMID:22534369

  20. Microfabrication of a Polymer Based Bi-Conductive Membrane for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a novel fabrication process of a high active area ratio bi-conductive membrane for PEMFCs. The fabricated device is a 50?m thick flexible polyimide based membrane that integrates for the first time lateral electrical conductive layers on both sides with a through ionic conductive path. With the use of thermo-conductive rubber as a bonding agent allowing a quick-flip process, five configurations of double-sided multilayer metal sputtering on polyimide were tested. An approach for filling through pores in the membrane with the ionic conductor (Nafion) with a temporary reservoir was also developed. The development of these new processes allowed to fabricate a membrane with 50?m wide holes filled with ionic conductor with double-sided electrical conductive layers

  1. Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Proton Conducting Poly (Vinyl) Chloride (PVC) Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (vinyl) chloride (PVC)-NH4I-EC films have been prepared by the solution cast technique. The sample containing 30 wt. % NH4I exhibited the highest room temperature conductivity of 4.60 x 10-7 S cm-1. The conductivity increased to 1.08 x 10-6 S cm-1 when 15 wt. % of ethylene carbonate (EC) was added to 70 wt. % PVC - 30 wt. % NH4I. The effects of ethylene carbonate (EC) addition on the frequency dependent dielectric properties of PVC based electrolytes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the temperature range of 300 K to 373 K. The dielectric properties and ac conductivity of the samples prepared have been analyzed. The values of dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing conductivity of the samples. Analysis of the ac conductivity data revealed the electrolytes to be of the non-Debye type with conduction mechanism of the overlapping-large-polaron-tunneling (OLPT) model. (author)

  2. Polymer Nanofibers with Outstanding Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stability: Fundamental Linkage between Molecular Characteristics and Macroscopic Thermal Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Teng; Wu, Xufei; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers with high thermal conductivities and outstanding thermal stabilities are highly desirable in heat transfer-critical applications such as thermal management, heat exchangers and energy storage. In this work, we unlock the fundamental relations between the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of polymer nanofibers and their molecular characteristics by studying the temperature-induced phase transitions and thermal transport of a series of polymer nanof...

  3. Enhanced ionic conductivity and optical studies of plasticized (PEO-KCl) solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) doped with potassium chloride (KCl) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10-10 to 10-6 Scm-1 at 303K with dopant. Optical absorption study shows that the direct & indirect optical band gaps were found decreased from 5.45-4.46eV and 4.96-3.86eV respectively with increasing the KCl. The XRD patterns reveal increasing the amorphous with increasing the dopent. The obtained results suggest that, these polymer systems are suitable candidates for solid state battery, electro chromic devices & optoelectronics display etc.

  4. A PbS quantum-cube: conducting polymer composite for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, AAR; Meredith, P; Riches, JD; ATKINSON, S; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new non-polar synthesis for lead sulfide (PbS) "quantum-cubes" in the conjugated polymer poly-2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy- p -phenylenevinylene) MEH-PPV. The conducting polymer acts to template and control the quantum-cube growth. Transmission electron microscopy of the composites has shown a bimodal distribution of cube sizes between 5 and 15 nm is produced with broad optical absorption from 300 to 650 nm. Photoluminescence suggests electronic coupling between the cube...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  6. Criteria for differentiating electron and ion conductivity in high-ohmic polymer solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differentiation of electron and ion charge carriers is of principal importance for explaining the electrical properties of high polymer solids. Experimental methods allowing the differentiation between electron and ion charge carrier transport are summarized and estimated, particularly mass transport (mass spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, and tracer technique) as direct methods as well as 'internal' electrical effects (d.c. characteristics and dielectric measurements) and 'external' electrical effects (electrochemical cell, electrode conditions, pressure dependence of conductivity, photoelectric effects) as indirect methods. The results obtained with various high-ohmic polymer solids are summarized and discussed. (author)

  7. On effect of structure and chemical structure of polymers on their radiation-pulse electric conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a wide class of polymers the radiation-impulsive electroconductivity has been studied. It was shown that the decrease of crystallinity degree or the presence of the side polar groups in a monomeric unit (and as a result, the growth of its dipole moment) lead to the lowering of instantaneous conductivity component. It was assumed that the regularities are stipulated by the growing probability of capture of a charge carrier with the increase of amorphous phase content and of dipole moment of a monomeric unit. Some amplitude growth of retarded component and the decrease of its semi-decay time in slightly polar polymers comparatively with non polar ones, are noted

  8. Creating Opal Templated Continuous Conducting Polymer Films with Ultralow Percolation Thresholds Using Thermally Stable Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. J.; Kwon, T.; Kim, M. P.; Kim, B. J.; Jung, H.; Bang, J.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a novel and robust strategy for creating continuous conducting polymer films with ultralow percolation thresholds using polymer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as surfactant. Continuous poly(triphenylamine) (PTPA) films of high internal phase polymeric emulsions were fabricated using an assembly of crosslinked polystyrene (PS) colloidal particles as template. Polymer-coated Au NPs localize at the PS/PTPA interface and function as surfactant to efficiently produce a continuous conducting PTPA polymer film with very low percolation thresholds. The volume fraction threshold for percolation of the PTPA phase with insulating PS colloids was found to be 0.20. In contrast, with the addition of an extremely low volume fraction of surfactant Au NPs, the volume fraction threshold for percolation of the PTPA phase was dramatically reduced to 0.05. The SEM and TEM measurements clearly demonstrated the formation of a continuous PTPA phase within the polyhedral phase of PS colloids. To elucidate the influence of the nanoparticle surfactant on the blend films, the morphology and conductivity of the blends at different PS colloid/PTPA volume ratios were carefully characterized as a function of the Au NP concentration.

  9. New fabrication technique of conductive polymer/insulating polymer composite films and evaluation of biocompatibility in neuron cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, produces a flexible composite polymer film with electrical, optical and electrochemical properties very similar to those of polypyrrole (PPy). The rate of electrochemical polymerization depends on the diffusion rate of the electrolyte across the PVA film to the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, a solvent with a hydrophilic nature easily penetrates into the PVA film. By applying this new process, we demonstrate a unique method of forming an electrically conductive pattern in PVA film. It will be possible to develop electrodes for electrical stimulation of the nervous system using the conducting polymer, PPy. Then, by applying a similar technique, we fabricated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT/PVA, composite films and investigated their basic electrochemical properties. Moreover, in this study, in order to develop a novel cell-culture system which makes it possible to communicate with cultured cells, fibroblasts were cultured on PPy- and PEDOT-coated ITO conductive glass plates for 7 days. The result reveals that the PPy and PEDOT films support the secretory functions of the cells cultured on its surface. The PPy- and PEDOT-coated electrodes may be useful to culture the cells on.

  10. Electrical Conductivity and Current–Voltage Characteristics of Individual Conducting Polymer PEDOT Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and electrical conductivity of individual template-synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires (190 ± 6 nm in diameter and ort = 11.2 ± 2 ??1cm-1) over a wide temperature range from 300 to 10K. With lowering temperature, the I – V characteristics become nonlinear around 50K, and a clear Coulomb gap-like structure appears in the differential conductance (dl/dV) spectra. The temperature dependence of the resistance below 70K follows inR ? T-1/2, which can be interpreted as Efros–Shklovskii hopping conduction in the presence of a Coulomb gap. In addition, the influences of measurement methods such as the applied bias voltage magnitude, the two-probe and four-probe techniques used in the resistance measurements are also reported and discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Enhancing the electrical conductivity of a hybrid POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezakati, Toktam; Tan, Aaron; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    An electrically conductive polymer using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocage incorporated into a modified poly [caprolactone based urea-urethane] (PCL)/graphene hybrid nanocomposite is described. Multilayer graphene flakes (8nm) were homogeneously dispersed into POSS-PCL at 0.1, 2, 5, and 10wt.% concentrations. This dispersion process of the graphene flakes was achieved by the use of stable dimethylacetamide (DMAc), via solution intercalation with POSS-PCL nanocomposites. The impedance spectroscopy of 5.0wt.% and higher concentration of graphene in POSS-PCL represented major improvement in conductivity over pristine POSS-PCL. The percolation threshold occurred at 5.0wt.% graphene concentration, converting the insulator POSS-PCL into a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene hybrid nanocomposite. The structures of the obtained hybrid materials were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The conductivity of the resultant nanocomposite polymer was investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a facile method of synthesizing, and describe the electrical properties of a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer. PMID:25240216

  12. Study on power generation using electro-conductive polymer and its mixture with magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new power generation system using electro-conductive polymer and its mixture with magnetic fluid is introduced. The system using non-poison electro-conductive polymer and its mixture with magnetic fluid and operating at room temperature is proposed in the present paper. The system could be used as a micro-distributed energy supply system for domestic use in the future. An experimental set-up is designed and established to investigate the performance of the power generation with an aid of a theoretical analysis of the power generation. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the measured data. Based on the obtained results, the electric output increases with Reynolds number, size of the test channel, magnetic strength and electric conductivity. It is understood that in order to obtain a practical power generation, priority should be put on increasing fluid flow velocity and magnetic field strength

  13. Electrically Conductive, Optically Transparent Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Composites and Process for Preparation Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into polymer matrices. The nanocomposites are prepared using polymer matrices and exhibit a unique combination of properties, most notably, high retention of optical transparency in the visible range (i.e., 400-800 nm), electrical conductivity, and high thermal stability. By appropriate selection of the matrix resin, additional properties such as vacuum ultraviolet radiation resistance, atomic oxygen resistance, high glass transition (T.sub.g) temperatures, and excellent toughness can be attained. The resulting nanocomposites can be used to fabricate or formulate a variety of articles such as coatings on a variety of substrates, films, foams, fibers, threads, adhesives and fiber coated prepreg. The properties of the nanocomposites can be adjusted by selection of the polymer matrix and CNT to fabricate articles that possess high optical transparency and antistatic behavior.

  14. A silicon nanocrystal/polymer nanocomposite as a down-conversion layer in organic and hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrcek, V; Yamanari, T; Mariotti, D; Mitra, S; Velusamy, T; Matsubara, K

    2015-07-21

    Silicon nanocrystal (Si-nc) down-conversion is demonstrated to enhance organic and hybrid organic/inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PTB7:[70]PCBM bulk heterojunction devices. Surfactant free surface-engineered Si-ncs can be integrated into the device architecture to be optically active and provide a means of effective down-conversion of blue photons (high energy photons below ?450 nm) into red photons (above ?680 nm) leading to 24% enhancement of the photocurrent under concentrated sunlight. We also demonstrate that the down-conversion effect under 1-sun is enhanced in the case of hybrid solar cells where engineered Si-ncs are also included in the active layer. PMID:26084561

  15. Protection of Conductive and Non-conductive Advanced Polymer-based Paints from Highly Aggressive Oxidative Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimenko, Y.; Ng, R.; Iskanderova, Z.; Kleiman, J.; Grigorevsky, A.; Kiseleva, L.; Finckenor, M.; Edwards, D.

    2005-01-01

    Research has been continued to further improve the space durability of conductive and non-conductive polymer-based paints and of conductive thermal control paints for space applications. Efforts have been made to enhance the space durability and stability of functional Characteristics in ground-based space environment imitating conditions, using specially developed surface modification treatment. The results of surface modification of new conductive paints, including the ground-based testing in aggressive oxidative environments, such as atomic oxygen/UV and oxygen plasma, and performance evaluation are presented. Functional properties and performance characteristics, such as thermal optical properties (differential solar absorptance and thermal emittance representing the thermal optical performance of thermal control paints) and surface resistivity characteristics of pristine, surface modified, and tested materials were verified. Extensive surface analysis studies have been performed using complementary surface analyses including SEM/EDS and XPS. Test results revealed that the successfully treated materials exhibit reduced mass loss and no surface morphology change, thus indicating good protection from the severe oxidative environment. It was demonstrated that the developed surface modification treatment could be applied successfully to charge dissipative and conductive paints.

  16. Polymer Nanofibers with Outstanding Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stability: Fundamental Linkage between Molecular Characteristics and Macroscopic Thermal Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Teng; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers with high thermal conductivities and outstanding thermal stabilities are highly desirable in heat transfer-critical applications such as thermal management, heat exchangers and energy storage. In this work, we unlock the fundamental relations between the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of polymer nanofibers and their molecular characteristics by studying the temperature-induced phase transitions and thermal transport of a series of polymer nanofibers. Ten different polymer nanofibers with systematically chosen molecular structures are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We found that high thermal conductivity and good thermal stability can be achieved in polymers with rigid backbones, exemplified by {\\pi}-conjugated polymers, due to suppressed segmental rotations and large phonon group velocities. The low probability of segmental rotation does not only prevent temperature-induced phase transition but also enables long phonon mean free paths due to reduced di...

  17. Comparison of solar cell performance of conducting polymer dyes with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Dong-Min; Yoon, Sang-Su; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Conductive polymer precursors, including carboxylic acid, cyano groups, amino groups, 5,2?:5?,2?-terthiophene-3?-carboxylic acid (TTCA), 3?-cyano-5,2?:5?,2?-terthiophene (CTT), and 3?,4?-diamino-2,2?:5?,2?-terthiophene (DATT) are synthesized. Electrochemically polymerized films of the precursors on a nanocrystalline TiO2 layer are examined as photo sensitizers, and the cell performance is compared. The photovoltaic cells are assembled with a polymer-coated TiO2 layer treated with TiCl4 as an anode and a Pt layer as a cathode in a propionitrile solution containing an iodide ion-based redox electrolyte. The charge-transfer processes of polymer-dyed cells are studied using impedance spectroscopy. The polymer dyes on the TiO2 surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that the conducting polymer dye, bearing a carboxylic acid group, is more strongly bound to the TiO2 layer in comparison with other groups. Various experimental parameters affecting the cell efficiency are optimized, including the scan rate, number of potential cycles, and terthiophene monomer concentration. Of these polymers, the best cell efficiency is attained for poly-TTCA containing a carboxylic acid group. The optimized cell with the poly-TTCA dye shows a short-circuit current of 6.78 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.54 V, and a fill factor of 63.6. An energy conversion efficiency of 2.32% is obtained with a cell area of 0.24 cm2 under an air mass 1.5 solar simulated light irradiation of 100 mW cm-2.

  18. Electronic conduction and microstructure in polymer composites filled with carbonaceous particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdarhri, A.; Brosseau, C.; Zaghrioui, M.; El Aboudi, I.

    2012-08-01

    Physical and physico-chemical properties of polymer filled with carbon black (CB) particles, namely, the microstructure dependence of these properties, are not only interesting on their own but are particularly important for electronic applications as they can impose limits on the sensitivity of a device. With this purpose, we report on an experimental study of the structural and electrical properties of semi-crystalline ethylene-co-butyl acrylate polymer filled with conductive CB nano-particles. We found that the value of the direct current conductivity exhibits a jump of 12 orders of magnitude over a small change in CB concentration and is due to a percolation-like behavior. To assess the temperature evolution of supercolative samples, we present measurements of the conductivity as function of temperature. Above the glass transition temperature of the polymer, the CB network restricts the motions of the polymer chains. This behavior was ascribed to the change in CB mesostructure in the polymer matrix as probed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy as well as to the difference in the thermal expansion between the two phases. In addition to the observed conductivity increase, the effect of adding CB particles in the polymer matrix is to increase the thermal stability as is probed by thermogravimetric analysis tests. The room temperature alternating current conductivity, studied over the frequency range from 100 Hz to 15 MHz, is interpreted as arising mainly from inter-aggregate polarization effects. By considering carefully the CB content of the alternating current conductivity, we found that our experimental data agree well with the Sheng's model of fluctuation-induced tunnelling of charge carriers over nanometric gaps between adjacent CB aggregates. For studying the filler content dependence of the effective permittivity, several mixing laws and effective medium theories have been used. The observed discrepancies between our experimental data and these theoretical predictions may be occur partly because these analysis contain an inaccurate knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous phase, give a poor description of the interfaces in these complex heterostructures, or both. As part of the present investigation, present results are compared to transport properties of polystyrene-cobutyl acrylate latex and epoxy resin matrices filled with different loadings of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and over wide temperature and frequency ranges. It is remarkable that the MWCNT's anisotropy (length-to-diameter ratio close to 100) manifests itself in percolation-like behavior with lower threshold volume fraction and different mesostructure than that evidenced for CB filled samples.

  19. Investigation of uniaxial stretching effects on the electrical conductivity of CNT–polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is carried out to investigate the effects of uniaxial stretching on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube (CNT)–polymer composites using a mixed micromechanics model, which incorporates two conductivity mechanisms: electron hopping and conductive networks. The uniaxial stretching induces volume expansion of the composites, re-orientation of CNTs and a change in conductive networks, which are characterized by the variation of the CNT concentration, the CNT orientation distribution function and the percolation threshold, respectively. Modelling results demonstrate that stretching decreases the electrical conductivity of the composite in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. It is also observed that stretching has more significant effects on the electrical conductivity of the composites with a lower CNT volume fraction. Furthermore, the effects of Poisson's ratio on the electrical conductivity are also investigated. Possible reasons for the observed phenomena are interpreted. This work can be claimed to provide a theoretical prediction on the trend of the stretching effects on the electrical properties of CNT–polymer composites. (paper)

  20. TITANIUM DIOXIDE TRIADS FOR IMPROVED CHARGE-SEPARATION USING CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, T.M.; Gaylor, T.N.; de la Garza, L.; Rajh, T.

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially one of the best solutions to solar energy conversion because of the low cost of required materials and production processes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticulate fi lms are the basis for one of these types of cells, providing large surface area for dye-sensitizer adsorption. Because TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms develop defects caused by oxygen defi ciency, deep reactive electron traps are formed. With the addition of an enediol ligand, these electron traps are deliberately removed, enhancing the conduction of electrons within the fi lm. In this project, TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms made by a layer-by-layer dip coating method were modifi ed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). DOPAC binds to the titanium atoms on the surface of the nanoparticles, restoring their octahedral geometry. This restructuring of the surface shifts the spectral properties of the TiO2 to the visible spectrum and improves the separation of charges which is observed using photoelectrochemistry. Furthermore, DOPAC enables the electronic attachment of other molecules to the surface of TiO2 fi lms, such as the conductive polymer polyaniline base. This conductive polymer provides an extended separation of charges which increases photocurrent production by forming a triad with the TiO2 semiconductor through the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid linker. The photocurrent increases due to the donor properties of the conductive polymer thereby decreasing charge pair recombination.

  1. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole

    2007-01-01

    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The agarose stamping produced 50 ?m wide conducting lines with high spatial fidelity. The deactivation agent was found to cause some degradation of the remaining conducting lines, as revealed by a stronger increase in resistance upon straining compared to the pristine polymer material. Inkjet printing of the material was only possible if a short-chain polyurethane was used as elastomer to overcome strain hardening at the neck of the droplets produced for printing. Reproducible line widths down to 200 ?m could be achieved by inkjet printing. Both methods were used to fabricate test patterns that allowed the electrical resistance parallel and perpendicular to the elongation direction to be measured. Electrical resistance increased both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of strain, with a faster increase observed parallel to the straining.

  2. Conductivity of microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites with CNT-loaded microfibrils or compatibilizer: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fakirov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conductive polymer composites have wide ranging applications, but when they are produced by conventional melt blending, high conductive filler loadings are normally required, hindering their processability and reducing mechanical properties. In this study, two types of polymer-polymer composites were studied: i microfibrillar composites (MFC of polypropylene (PP and 5 wt% carbon nanotube (CNT loaded poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT as reinforcement, and ii maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA compatibilizer, loaded with 5 wt% CNTs introduced into an MFC of PP and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET in concentrations of 5 and 10 wt%. For the compatibilized composite type, PP and PET were melt-blended, cold-drawn and pelletized, followed by dry-mixing with PP-g-MA/CNT, re-extrusion at 200°C, and cold-drawing. The drawn blends produced were compression moulded to produce sheets with MFC structure. Using scanning electron microscopy, CNTs coated with PP-g-MA could be observed at the interface between PP matrix and PET microfibrils in the compatibilized blends. The volume resistivities tested by four-point test method were: 2.87•108 and 9.93•107 ?•cm for the 66.5/28.5/5 and 63/27/10 (by wt% PP/PET/(PP-g-MA/CNT blends, corresponding to total CNT loadings (in the composites of 0.07 vol% (0.24 wt% and 0.14 vol% (0.46 wt%, respectively. For the non-compatibilized MFC types based on PP/(PBT/CNT with higher and lower melt flow grades of PP, the resistivities of 70/(95/5 blends were 1.9•106 and 1.5•107 ?•cm, respectively, corresponding to a total filler loading (in the composite of 0.44 vol% (1.5 wt% in both MFCs.

  3. Investigation on Photovoltaic Performance based on Matchstick-Like Cu2S–In2S3Heterostructure Nanocrystals and Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Han Wei; Yi Luoxin; Gao Mingyuan; Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Wang Yan; Hou Yanbing

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we synthesized a novel type II cuprous sulfide (Cu2S)–indium sulfide (In2S3) heterostructure nanocrystals with matchstick-like morphology in pure dodecanethiol. The photovoltaic properties of the heterostructure nanocrystals were investigated based on the blends of the nanocrystals and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2?-ethylhexoxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV). In comparison with the photovoltaic properties of the blends of Cu2S or In2S3nanocrystals alone and MEH-PPV,...

  4. Correlated conformation and charge transport in multiwall carbon nanotube-conducting polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Paramita Kar; Ramaprabhu, S; Ramesh, K P; Menon, Reghu

    2011-07-01

    The strikingly different charge transport behaviours in nanocomposites of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and conducting polymer polyethylenedioxythiophene-polystyrene-sulfonic-acid (PEDOT-PSS) at low temperatures are explained by probing their conformational properties using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS studies indicate the assembly of elongated PEDOT-PSS globules on the walls of nanotubes, coating them partially, thereby limiting the interaction between the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. This results in a charge transport governed mainly by small polarons in the conducting polymer despite the presence of metallic MWNTs. At T > 4 K, hopping of the charge carriers following one-dimensional variable range hopping is evident which also gives rise to a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with an enhanced localization length (?5 nm) due to the presence of MWNTs. However, at T temperature coefficient of resistivity is attributed to small polaron tunnelling. The exceptionally large negative MR observed in this temperature regime is conjectured to be due to the presence of quasi-1D MWNTs that can aid in lowering the tunnelling barrier across the nanotube-polymer boundary resulting in large delocalization. PMID:21673397

  5. Low power, lightweight vapor sensing using arrays of conducting polymer composite chemically-sensitive resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Lewis, N. S.

    2001-01-01

    Arrays of broadly responsive vapor detectors can be used to detect, identify, and quantify vapors and vapor mixtures. One implementation of this strategy involves the use of arrays of chemically-sensitive resistors made from conducting polymer composites. Sorption of an analyte into the polymer composite detector leads to swelling of the film material. The swelling is in turn transduced into a change in electrical resistance because the detector films consist of polymers filled with conducting particles such as carbon black. The differential sorption, and thus differential swelling, of an analyte into each polymer composite in the array produces a unique pattern for each different analyte of interest, Pattern recognition algorithms are then used to analyze the multivariate data arising from the responses of such a detector array. Chiral detector films can provide differential detection of the presence of certain chiral organic vapor analytes. Aspects of the spaceflight qualification and deployment of such a detector array, along with its performance for certain analytes of interest in manned life support applications, are reviewed and summarized in this article.

  6. Correlated conformation and charge transport in multiwall carbon nanotube-conducting polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strikingly different charge transport behaviours in nanocomposites of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and conducting polymer polyethylenedioxythiophene-polystyrene-sulfonic-acid (PEDOT-PSS) at low temperatures are explained by probing their conformational properties using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS studies indicate the assembly of elongated PEDOT-PSS globules on the walls of nanotubes, coating them partially, thereby limiting the interaction between the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. This results in a charge transport governed mainly by small polarons in the conducting polymer despite the presence of metallic MWNTs. At T > 4 K, hopping of the charge carriers following one-dimensional variable range hopping is evident which also gives rise to a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with an enhanced localization length (?5 nm) due to the presence of MWNTs. However, at T < 4 K, the observation of an unconventional positive temperature coefficient of resistivity is attributed to small polaron tunnelling. The exceptionally large negative MR observed in this temperature regime is conjectured to be due to the presence of quasi-1D MWNTs that can aid in lowering the tunnelling barrier across the nanotube-polymer boundary resulting in large delocalization.

  7. An all-polymer micropump based on the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and a polyurethane channel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld

    2007-01-01

    An all-polymer micropunlp was realized using the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) as the active cODlponent. The pUlnping effect originated fronl an ac potential applied to an aSylnlnetric array of interdigitat.ed electrodes. The PEDT electrodes were fabricated using optical lithography and reactive ion etching, and dimensions down to 2 jtD) could be successfully realize·d. The channel systeDl wasm.ade froln a flexible thennoplastic polyurethane. The chosen polyurethane exhibited good sealing without the possible contanlination issues of silicones, adequate wetting without plasma treatment, and has the potential for Dlass production, e.g., by injection lTIoulding. The assembled micropunlp showed a pUDlping speed of 150 /LID s-l at a frequency of 10 kHz and an alnplitude of 5 V. Higher potentials resulted in pennanent dalnage to the pUlnp electrodes. Encapsulation of t.he conducting polylner electrodes by an insulating polYlTIer layer prevented electrode break-down at the cost of puolping efficiency. Continuous punlping for 40 nlin at 20 fJ..,m s-l without detectable pump degradation was delTIOnstrated in this configuration.

  8. Smart Surface Chemistries of Conducting Polymers : for Guiding Cell Behavior in Polymeric Microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate post-polymerization covalent modifications of poly(3,4-dioxythiophene (PEDOT)-type conducting polymers. The aim of the modifications is to gain specific control of the interaction between the material and living mammalian cells. The use of “click-chemistry” to modify an azide-modified PEDOT, poly(3,4-(1-azidomethylethylene)-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3), is studied in detail, and found to be a valuable approach. This is concluded, as we are able to obtain delicate control of cellular adhesion, by covalently attaching appropriate bio-functional molecules onto PEDOT-N3 thin film substrates. Complementing these findings, we introduce a novel technique for fabricating surface chemical gradients on PEDOT-N3 substrates. The technique is based on applying “electro-click chemistry” to locally induce covalent modifications. Further supplementing these results, we develop a straightforward and in-expensive method for patterning conducting polymer thin films into microelectrodes, without losing control of the surface chemistry of the samples. On the contrary, the method provides direct control of the surface chemistry of both the fabricated micro-electrodes and the gaps between them. The method is based on locally removing PEDOTtype polymers to expose underlying non-conducting functional polymer substrates. Thereby, multifunctional substrates are obtained. By applying this method, we are able to fabricate allpolymer micro-systems with multiple types of localized functional (bio)-chemistries. In the course of our studies, we find that PEDOT-N3 thin films undergo a significant yet reversible swelling when exposed to dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). This swelling is found to be of practical use for controlling the reaction density and depth. This, for example, enables the fabrication of dense poly-ethylene-glycol-coatings of the conducting polymer substrates. These coatings render the substrates resistant to protein adsorption. Hence, the choice of solvent is found to be a key parameter for achieving functional post-polymerization modifications of PEDOT-N3. The methods developed in this thesis are highly generic, and can therefore be applied for fabricating a diversity of microsystems based on conducting polymers, with multiple types of localized and highly bio-specific surfaces chemistries.

  9. Preparation of Composite Polymer Electrolytes by Electrons-Induced Grafting: Proton and Lithium Conducting Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are a class of materials that is receiving an increasing attention due to their applicability to a wide number of solid state devices and chemical processes. Proton (H+) and lithium ion (Li+) conducting membranes are of particular interest as both on increasing demand to prompt the commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell and polymer electrolyte lithium battery. Radiation-induced grafting is a potential alternative method to prepare PEMs. During PEMs preparation, grafting reaction is often carried out using pre-irradiation method or simultaneous irradiation method (with ?-rays). However, reports on the use of simultaneous method with electron beam (EB) to prepare such membranes are very scarce. The objective of this work is to prepare and characterize two distinct polymer electrolyte membranes for possible use in fuel cell and lithium battery using single simultaneous radiation-induced grafting method with EB. Initially, styrene was impregnated into the porous structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films followed by simultaneous irradiation with EB using doses up to 50 kGy under N2 and at room temperature. Subsequently, the obtained polystyrene pore filled PVDF films (membrane precursor) were functionalized using two different chemical treatments. The first treatment includes sulfonation with chlorosulfonic acid/1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane mixture to obtain H+ conducting composite membranes. The second treatment involves activation of the polystyrene pore filled PVDF films with LiPF6/EC/DC liquid electrolyte under to obtain Li+ conducting composite membranes. The micro-structure of both composite membranes was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The content of polystyrene grafted in the pores, water uptake, electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity were measured. The obtained composite electrolyte membranes were found to achieve grafting yield up to 46% with superior Li+ conductivity values up to 1.9 10-3 S/cm when treated with LiPH6/EC/DC electrolyte solution and H+ conductivity of 5.95 x 10-2 S/cm when sulfonated with 10% chlorosulfonic acid. The results of this work suggests that simultaneous radiation-induced grafting with EB offers a single versatile root to prepare two high quality composite polymer electrolyte membranes conducting H+ and Li+ for possible use in fuel cell and lithium batteries, respectively

  10. A physical interpretation of impedance at conducting polymer/electrolyte junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Stavrinidou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We monitor the process of dedoping in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed during moving front measurements. The impedance spectra are consistent with an equivalent circuit of a time varying resistor in parallel with a capacitor. We show that the resistor corresponds to ion transport in the dedoped region of the film, and can be quantitatively described using ion density and drift mobility obtained from the moving front measurements. The capacitor, on the other hand, does not depend on time and is associated with charge separation at the moving front. This work offers a physical description of the impedance of conducting polymer/electrolyte interfaces based on materials parameters.

  11. A physical interpretation of impedance at conducting polymer/electrolyte junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We monitor the process of dedoping in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed during moving front measurements. The impedance spectra are consistent with an equivalent circuit of a time varying resistor in parallel with a capacitor. We show that the resistor corresponds to ion transport in the dedoped region of the film, and can be quantitatively described using ion density and drift mobility obtained from the moving front measurements. The capacitor, on the other hand, does not depend on time and is associated with charge separation at the moving front. This work offers a physical description of the impedance of conducting polymer/electrolyte interfaces based on materials parameters

  12. Current-dependent anisotropic conductivity of locally assembled silver nanoparticles in hybrid polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Pooja; Vinokur, Rostislav; Weichold, Oliver

    2010-12-15

    The electrical behaviour of hybrid poly(ethylene terephthalate) films containing localised, percolating networks of silver nanoparticles separated by pure polymer is studied. The films resemble an array of parallel wires in the submicron range and, thus, exhibit anisotropic conductivity. In the high-conductivity direction at low amplitudes, the films show Ohmic behaviour, while at moderate voltage, non-linearity and a decreasing resistance is observed. The samples were found to heat up during the measurements and the deviation from Ohm's law coincides with the Tg of the polymer. Microstructural analysis of the samples revealed an irreversible agglomeration of the particles at moderate voltages leading to the formation of filaments with higher metallic character than the random particle network. PMID:20843521

  13. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-03-15

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  14. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P13TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more “conventional” rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

  15. Electrochemical and Optical Investigation of Conductive Polymer and MWCNT Nanocomposite Film

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali, Ehsani; Ferydon, Babaei; Hossein, Mostaanzadeh.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Composites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and conductive polymer with good uniformity were prepared by electropolymerization. Molecular modeling calculations were carried out for electroactive monomer (OAP) polymerization with density functional theory (DFT) level using 6-311G(d,p) basis s [...] et for all atoms and Gaussian 03 program package. The reflectance and transmittance amplitudes of the composite were obtained, using the continuity of the tangential components of electrical and magnetic fields at interfaces and solving the algebraic matrix equation. The calculated absorbance spectra as a function of wavelength for MWCNTs dispersed in the conductive polymer are depicted. Band gap of the p-type semiconducting film was obtained from the plot of (?hv)2 vs. photon energy.

  16. Electrosynthesis and absorbance spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the conductive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly ortho aminophenol (POAP)/nanocrystalline TiO2 composite were electrodeposited from through cyclic voltammetry scans to afford conductive polymer/TiO2 nanocomposite. Polymerization of ortho aminophenol (OAP) proceeded after ultrasonic irradiation of nanocrystalline TiO2. The aggregation of nano TiO2 can be reduced under ultrasonic irradiation, and the nanoparticles can be redispersed in the aqueous solution. The presence of nanocrystalline TiO2 strengthens the UV absorption of POAP and leads to a blue shift of the ?-polaron absorption of POAP. Experimental absorbance spectra of TiO2/conductive polymer nanocomposite compared with results that obtained from the Maxwell–Garnett theory (MGT).

  17. Elucidation of charge storage characteristics of conducting polymer film using redox reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Contractor, Asfiya Q

    2013-01-01

    A general technique to investigate charge storage characteristics of conducting polymer films has been developed. A redox reaction is conducted on a polymer film on a rotating disk electrode under potentiostatic condition so that the rate of charging of the film equals the rate of removal of the charge by the reaction. In an experiment on polyaniline film deposited on platinum substrate, using Fe2+/Fe3+ in HCl as the redox system, the voltammogram shows five distinct linear segments (bands) with discontinuity in the slope at specific transition potentials. These bands are the same as those indicated by ESR/Raman spectroscopy with comparable transition potentials. From the dependence of the slopes of the bands on concentration of ferrous and ferric ions, it was possible to estimate the energies of the charge carrier in different bands. It is shown that the charge storage in the film is capacitive.

  18. Electrosynthesis and absorbance spectra of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in the conductive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsani, Ali, E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Ferydon [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Poly ortho aminophenol (POAP)/nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} composite were electrodeposited from through cyclic voltammetry scans to afford conductive polymer/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. Polymerization of ortho aminophenol (OAP) proceeded after ultrasonic irradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}. The aggregation of nano TiO{sub 2} can be reduced under ultrasonic irradiation, and the nanoparticles can be redispersed in the aqueous solution. The presence of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} strengthens the UV absorption of POAP and leads to a blue shift of the ?-polaron absorption of POAP. Experimental absorbance spectra of TiO{sub 2}/conductive polymer nanocomposite compared with results that obtained from the Maxwell–Garnett theory (MGT).

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer-Based Composites with Magnetic Aligned Hexagonal Boron Nitride Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Duan, Bin; Li, Lan; Xie, Bin; Huang, Mengyu; Luo, Xiaobing

    2015-06-17

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) platelets are widely used as the reinforcing fillers for enhancing the thermal conductivity of polymer-based composites. Since hBN platelets have high aspect ratio and show a highly anisotropic thermal property, the thermal conductivity of the hBNs-filled composites should be strongly associated with the platelets' orientation. However, the orientation effect has been explored less frequently due to the technical difficulties in precontrol of the platelets' orientation in the polymer matrix. In this paper, we report the use of magnetic fields to assemble the platelets into various microstructures and to study the thermal conductivities of the designed composites. The experimental results showed that thermal conductivities are dramatically different among these composites. For instance, the thermal conductivities of the composites with platelets oriented parallel and perpendicular to the heat flux direction are respectively 44.5% higher and 37.9% lower than that of unaligned composites at the volume fraction of 9.14%. The results were also analyzed by a theoretical model. The model suggests that the orientation of the hBN platelets is the main reason for the variance in the thermal conductivity. PMID:25996341

  20. Nanocomposites based on conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes: from fancy materials to functional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibarac, Mihaela; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2006-02-01

    This review deals with recent progress on the development of nanocomposite materials formed by conducting organic polymers (COPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNs), both from a fundamental and applied point of view. The combination of the unique properties of CNs with COPs makes of these materials interesting multifunctional systems with great potential in many applications such as supercapacitors, sensors, photovoltaic cells and photodiodes, optical limiting devices, solar cells, high-resolution printable conductor, electromagnetic absorbers, and, last but not least, advanced transistors. PMID:16573025

  1. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li i...

  2. Application of conducting-polymer thin film for source mount in 4?? counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film (-2) electrically-conducting polypyrrole polymer is shown to be a practical backing material for radioactive sources intended for 4?? proportional counting. In all essential respects the poly-pyrrole behaves similarly to VYNS but needs no metallizing to yield counting results of the same accuracy as realized with conventional methods. There are some difficulties with shrinkage during drying and the resistance of the films increases with age but it remains sufficiently low for at least one year. (author)

  3. Frequency-dependent dielectric spectroscopy of conducting polymer/LiNi-ferrospinel nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting polymer/LiNi-ferrospinel organic-inorganic nanocomposite was prepared by a conventional in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The electrical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites were investigated by dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range of 106-109 Hz at room temperature. Both dielectric constant (?') and dielectric loss (?'') increased with the decrease of frequency. The values of ?' and ?'' were found to decrease for the nanocomposite. Electric modulus analysis was carried out to understand the electrical relaxation process as well.

  4. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators.

  5. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Charisse S. Oberle; Daniel F. Oberle

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0...

  6. A physical interpretation of impedance at conducting polymer/electrolyte junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Stavrinidou; Michele Sessolo; Bjorn Winther-Jensen; Sébastien Sanaur; Malliaras, George G.

    2014-01-01

    We monitor the process of dedoping in a planar junction between an electrolyte and a conducting polymer using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed during moving front measurements. The impedance spectra are consistent with an equivalent circuit of a time varying resistor in parallel with a capacitor. We show that the resistor corresponds to ion transport in the dedoped region of the film, and can be quantitatively described using ion density and drift mobility obtained from the mo...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Beleze Fábio A.; Zarbin Aldo J. G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA) and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V) present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic...

  8. Change in electrical conductivity of polymers with conjugated bonds by means of H2+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in electrical conductivity of polymers with conjugated bonds such as transpolyacetylene, polyparaphenylene, polypyrole, polyaniline, and structures with conjugated bonds obtained by chemical modification of polyvinylchloride and polytetrafluoroethylene was investigated during and after H2+ ion implantation (300 keV at RT). The resistance (R) of implanted samples with conjugated bonds decreases as the fluence increases and a sharp decrease in R appears at a fluence of about 5 x 1016 protons/cm2

  9. Influence of conductive polymer doping on the viability of cardiac progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gelmi, Amy; Kozak Ljunggren, Monika; Rafat, Mehrdad; Jager, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering via the use of stem cells is the future for repairing impaired heart function that results from a myocardial infarction. Developing an optimised platform to support the stem cells is vital to realising this, and through utilising new smart materials such as conductive polymers we can provide a multi-pronged approach to supporting and stimulating the stem cells via engineered surface properties, electrical, and electromechanical stimulation. Here we present a fundame...

  10. Numerical modeling of the heterocycle intercalated proton-conducting polymers at various mole ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Mas?owski, T.; Drzewin?ski, A.; ?awniczak, P.; Ulner, J.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are employed to study the proton conductivity for anhydrous heterocyclic based polymers. The proton transport is based on a two-step process called the Grotthuss mechanism. In the referring system the proton concentration depends on the relative molar ratio, $x$, of the benzimidazole and the polystyrene sulfonic acid. Available experimental data with contrasting behavior are fitted and interpreted in terms of our microscopic model. Moreove...

  11. Impedance Study of Drinking Water and Tastants Using Conducting Polymer and Metal Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kapur

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer electrodes for drinking water and dissolved tastants using an AC-impedance mode in frequency range 102 to 105 Hz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of seven different bottled and municipal drinking water samples along with various tastants dissolved in DI water(DI water for KCl (5mM (salty, HCl (5 mM (sour quinine (0.1 mM (bitter, sucrose (5 mM (sweet, black tea liquor, black tea liquor with sucrose (2% sugar solution, and a bottle of “packed” orange juice has been made using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup using PCA. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt, Gold (Au, Silver (Ag, Glassy Carbon (GC and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI and Polypyrrole (PPY grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these water samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in water/tastants. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From PCA plots it was possible to classify drinking water in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tastants were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

  12. Measuring Hydraulic Conductivity to Wilting Point Using Polymer Tensiometers in an Evaporation Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    A. DURIGON; Gooren, H.P.A.; Lier, Q.D., van; Metselaar, K.

    2011-01-01

    The polymer tensiometer is a novel instrument to measure soil water pressure heads from saturation to permanent wilting conditions. We used tensiometers of this type in an experiment to determine the hydraulic properties of evaporating soil samples in the laboratory. Relative errors in the hydraulic conductivity function in the wet part were high due to the relatively low accuracy of the pressure transducers, resulting in a large uncertainty in the hydraulic gradient and therefore in the calc...

  13. AC magnetic field-assisted method to develop porous carbon nanotube/conducting polymer composites for application in thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Yu; Yang, Shu-Chian; Chang, Su-Hua; Yang, Ta-I.

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric materials are very effective in converting waste heat sources into useful electricity. Researchers are continuing to develop new polymeric thermoelectric materials. The segregated-network carbon nanotube (CNT)- polymer composites are most promising. Thus, the goal of this study is to develop novel porous CNT -polymer composites with improved thermoelectric properties. The research efforts focused on modifying the surface of the CNT with magnetic nanoparticles so that heat was released when subjecting to an AC magnetic field. Subsequently, polymers covered on the surface of the CNT were crosslinked. The porous CNT -polymer composites can be obtained by removing the un-crosslinked polymers. Polydimethylsiloxane polymer was utilized to investigate the effect of porosity and electrical conductivity on the thermoelectric properties of the composites. This AC magnetic field-assisted method to develop porous carbon nanotube/polymer composites for application in thermoelectric materials is introduced for the first time. The advantage of this method is that the electrical conductivity of the composites was high since we can easily to manipulate the CNT to form a conducting path. Another advantage is that the high porosity significantly reduced the thermal conductivity of the composites. These two advantages enable us to realize the polymer composites for thermoelectric applications. We are confident that this research will open a new avenue for developing polymer thermoelectric materials.

  14. Transparent conductive-polymer strain sensors for touch input sheets of flexible displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array, designed especially for touch input sheets of flexible displays, was developed. A transparent conductive polymer, namely poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), was utilized owing to its strength under repeated mechanical bending. PEDOT:PSS strain sensors with a thickness of 130 nm exhibited light transmittance of 92%, which is the same as the transmittance of ITO electrodes widely used in flat panel displays. We demonstrated that the sensor array on a flexible sheet was able to sustain mechanical bending 300 times at a bending radius of 5 mm. The strain sensor shows a gauge factor of 5.2. The touch point on a flexible sheet could be detected from histograms of the outputs of the strain sensors when the sheet was pushed with an input force of 5 N. The touch input could be detected on the flexible sheet with a curved surface (radius of curvature of 20 mm). These results show that the developed transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array is applicable to touch input sheets of mechanically bendable displays.

  15. Atomic force microscopy study of conducting polymer films near electrode's edge or grown on microband electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films of different thicknesses (within the range from 200 nm to 2.5 ?m) were electrodeposited on two types of inhomogeneous substrates, single band and double-band Pt electrodes. Topographic images of the polymer layers were obtained by means of ex situ large-scale AFM technique to demonstrate how the propagation rates of the film growth above the electrode (in the normal direction to the electrode surface) and along the insulating surface surrounding the single- or double-band electrodes (in the horizontal direction) change with the deposition charge. It is proved that variations in the film thickness over the double band electrodes and progressive changes of the PPy morphology from compact thin film to rough thick layers represents an obstacle for reliable determination of the specific conductivity of the deposited polymer film from conductance/resistance data for such coated microband electrodes. Advantages and shortcomings of other methods of specific conductivity measurements of the polymer films are also discussed

  16. Polymer Surface Engineering for Efficient Printing of Highly Conductive Metal Nanoparticle Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agina, Elena V; Sizov, Alexey S; Yablokov, Mikhail Yu; Borshchev, Oleg V; Bessonov, Alexander A; Kirikova, Marina N; Bailey, Marc J A; Ponomarenko, Sergei A

    2015-06-10

    An approach to polymer surface modification using self-assembled layers (SALs) of functional alkoxysilanes has been developed in order to improve the printability of silver nanoparticle inks and enhance adhesion between the metal conducting layer and the flexible polymer substrate. The SALs have been fully characterized by AFM, XPS, and WCA, and the resulting printability, adhesion, and electrical conductivity of the screen-printed metal contacts have been estimated by cross-cut tape test and 4-point probe measurements. It was shown that (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane SALs enable significant adhesion improvements for both aqueous- and organic-based silver inks, approaching nearly 100% for PEN and PDMS substrates while exhibiting relatively low sheet resistance up to 0.1 ?/sq. It was demonstrated that SALs containing functional -SH or -NH2 end groups offer the opportunity to increase the affinity of the polymer substrates to silver inks and thus to achieve efficient patterning of highly conductive structures on flexible and stretchable substrates. PMID:25984650

  17. The Correlation Between Conductivity And Free Volume In Polymer Electrolytes Probing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of fuel cells constituting the hydrogen energy cycle, research and development into polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell made of ionic conducting materials has become increasingly quite active. To obtain high effectiveness for the fuel cells, polymeric membranes should have some properties such as high conductivity of proton. Recently, ion transmission mechanism in polymer electrolytes has been interpreted by the free volume model. In this work, due to high conductivity of PVdF-co-HFP based on polymer matrix, we have studied the nanoscopic free volume and hole fraction with different molar ratios of LiClO4 and LiPF6 as a function of temperature using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. As observed, the hole fraction has an inflection point about 0.03 molar ratio of lithium-salt. Because of the formation of amorphous phases as the molar ratio of lithium-salt is less or greater than 0.03, it causes increase and decrease in the free volume, respectively.

  18. Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ayaskanta

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are a promising technological material because their size-dependent optical and electronic properties can be exploited for a diverse range of applications such as light-emitting diodes, bio-labels, transistors, and solar cells. For many of these applications, electrical current needs to be transported through the devices. However, while their solution processability makes these colloidal nanocrystals attractive candidates for device applications, the bulky surfactants that render these nanocrystals dispersible in common solvents block electrical current. Thus, in order to realize the full potential of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in the next-generation of solid-state devices, methods must be devised to make conductive films from these nanocrystals. One way to achieve this would be to add minute amounts of foreign impurity atoms (dopants) to increase their conductivity. Electronic doping in nanocrystals is still very much in its infancy with limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern the doping process. This thesis introduces an innovative synthesis of doped nanocrystals and aims at expanding the fundamental understanding of charge transport in these doped nanocrystal films. The list of semiconductor nanocrystals that can be doped is large, and if one combines that with available dopants, an even larger set of materials with interesting properties and applications can be generated. In addition to doping, another promising route to increase conductivity in nanocrystal films is to use nanocrystals with high ionic conductivities. This thesis also examines this possibility by studying new phases of mixed ionic and electronic conductors at the nanoscale. Such a versatile approach may open new pathways for interesting fundamental research, and also lay the foundation for the creation of novel materials with important applications. In addition to their size-dependence, the intentional incorporation of impurities (or doping) allows further control over the electrical and optical properties of nanocrystals. However, while impurity doping in bulk semiconductors is now routine, doping of nanocrystals remains challenging. In particular, evidence for electronic doping, in which additional electrical carriers are introduced into the nanocrystals, has been very limited. Here, we adopt a new approach to electronic doping of nanocrystals. We utilize a partial cation exchange to introduce silver impurities into cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals. Results indicate that the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals show a significant increase in fluorescence intensity, as compared to pure CdSe nanocrystals. We also observe a switching from n- to p-type doping in the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals with increased silver amounts. Moreover, the silver-doping results in a change in the conductance of both PbSe and CdSe nanocrystals and the magnitude of this change depends on the amount of silver incorporated into the nanocrystals. In the bulk, silver chalcogenides (Ag2E, E=S, Se, and Te) possess a wide array of intriguing properties, including superionic conductivity. In addition, they undergo a reversible temperature-dependent phase transition which induces significant changes in their electronic and ionic properties. While most of these properties have been examined extensively in bulk, very few studies have been conducted at the nanoscale. We have recently developed a versatile synthesis that yields colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystals. Here, we study the size dependence of their phase-transition temperatures. We utilize differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction analyses to observe the phase transition in nanocrystal assemblies. We observe a significant deviation from the bulk alpha (low-temperature) to beta (high-temperature) phase-transition temperature when we reduce their size to a few nanometers. Hence, these nanocrystals provide great potential for devices to utilize the properties of both phases at a significantly lower temperatu

  19. Tubular array, dielectric, conductivity and electrochemical properties of biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Y.N. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Selvakumar, M., E-mail: chemselva78@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bhat, D. Krishna [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new finding of tubular array of 10–20 ?m in length and 1–2 ?m in thickness of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) having 2.2 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} conductivity is reported. • Thermal and electrochemical characterizations of GPEs show good interaction among the polymer, plasticizer and salt. • GPE based supercapacitor demonstrates high capacitance of 186 F g{sup ?1}. • Low temperature studies did not influence much on capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. • Charge–discharge exhibits high capacity with excellent cyclic stability and energy density. -- Abstract: A supercapacitor based on a biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) has been fabricated using guar gum (GG) as the polymer matrix, LiClO{sub 4} as the doping salt and glycerol as the plasticizer. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the gel polymer showed an unusual tubular array type surface morphology. FTIR, DSC and TGA results of the GPE indicated good interaction between the components used. Highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy values were 2.2 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} and 0.18 eV, respectively. Dielectric studies revealed ionic behavior and good capacitance with varying frequency of the GPE system. The fabricated supercapacitor showed a maximum specific capacitance value of 186 F g{sup ?1} using cyclic voltammetry. Variation of temperature from 273 K to 293 K did not significantly influence the capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. Galvanostatic charge–discharge study of supercapacitor indicated that the device has good stability, high energy density and power density.

  20. Tubular array, dielectric, conductivity and electrochemical properties of biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new finding of tubular array of 10–20 ?m in length and 1–2 ?m in thickness of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) having 2.2 × 10?3 S cm?1 conductivity is reported. • Thermal and electrochemical characterizations of GPEs show good interaction among the polymer, plasticizer and salt. • GPE based supercapacitor demonstrates high capacitance of 186 F g?1. • Low temperature studies did not influence much on capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. • Charge–discharge exhibits high capacity with excellent cyclic stability and energy density. -- Abstract: A supercapacitor based on a biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) has been fabricated using guar gum (GG) as the polymer matrix, LiClO4 as the doping salt and glycerol as the plasticizer. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the gel polymer showed an unusual tubular array type surface morphology. FTIR, DSC and TGA results of the GPE indicated good interaction between the components used. Highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy values were 2.2 × 10?3 S cm?1 and 0.18 eV, respectively. Dielectric studies revealed ionic behavior and good capacitance with varying frequency of the GPE system. The fabricated supercapacitor showed a maximum specific capacitance value of 186 F g?1 using cyclic voltammetry. Variation of temperature from 273 K to 293 K did not significantly influence the capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. Galvanostatic charge–discharge study of supercapacitor indicated that the device has good stability, high energy density and power density

  1. Conformational modification of conducting polymer chains by solvents: Small-angle X-ray scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Debjani; Menon, Reghu

    2006-07-01

    The present small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) investigations reveal solvent-assisted conformational modifications in the conducting polymer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). The dimensionality of PEDOT-PSS chains in water, glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions, obtained from SAXS profiles, are 2.68-2.3. Radius of gyration values from pair distribution functions analysis are used to identify the Guinier regime, and give evidence for chain expansion in glycerol and DMSO solutions, with improved assembly of chains. Conformational modifications are suggested to enhance the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS films in glycerol/DMSO solutions.

  2. Photo induced memory devices using conducting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photo induced memory devices have been fabricated utilizing conducting polymer, head-to-tail coupled poly(3-hexylthiophene), PHT. The PHT film with Au electrodes at the bottom was coated with ultra thin Al by the thickness of 1 nm on the top. A large increase of conductivity was observed upon light illumination. The increased photoconductivity lasted for several hours after turn off of illumination, indicating photo induced memory effect. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of the persistent photoconduction, which resulted from the electron trapping at Al donor sites in the depletion layer formed near the top of film

  3. Atomic force microscopy studies of conductive nanostructures in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different size of conductive structure at LSC and SSC membranes. • Outer skin layer of Aquivion® membrane determined to 5 nm. • Different size of conductive areas for aromatic and Nafion-type membranes. • 2-Dimensional structure of conductive network of bulk Nafion. -- Abstract: The conductivity of three different sulfonated polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM), two perfluorinated membranes, Nafion® and Aquivion®, and JST, a non-perfluorinated aromatic block copolymer, were compared using advanced material-sensitive and conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM). All of the membranes required activation by a current flow to reach significant conductivity for the AFM analysis, indicating the existence of a highly resistive surface skin layer. The two perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes, a membrane with long side-chains (Nafion®) and a membrane with short side-chains (Aquivion®), exhibited similar properties. A lamellar surface structure, with polymer bundles or micelles in a parallel orientation, was also found for the Aquivion® membrane. AFM high-resolution current images, performed under a continuous current flow, were used to distinguish between the conducting network and the subsurface phase distribution at the membrane surface. The connected subnets of the JST membrane were approximately 100–200 nm in size, whereas those for the perfluorinated membrane surfaces were 200–300 nm in size. The conductive areas of the Aquivion® and JST membranes exhibited larger homogeneous conducting areas, corresponding to the smaller correlation lengths of ionic phase separation. Membrane cross sections were analyzed to elucidate the structure of the bulk ionic network of the Nafion® membrane, before and after operation. The existence of extended water layers in the bulk, even before operation, was confirmed

  4. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Chawla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern–Volmer quenching constant (KSV and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor–acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe. Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  5. An atomic level analysis of conductivity and strength in poly(ethylene oxide) sulfonic acid-based solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure, ionic conductivity and strength of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sulfonic acid-based solid polymer electrolytes with various contents of the PEO polymer are analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. To quantify the electrolyte structure, comprehensive coordination and dimensional analyses are carried out. Ionic conductivity is determined by computing the Einstein-diffusion based conductivity for all ionic particles in the system. The strength of the electrolyte is quantified by carrying out a set of molecular simulations of the uniaxial deformation process under constant stress-rate conditions. The results obtained indicate that increased hydration improves the ionic conductivity, but degrades the strength in solid polymer electrolytes at hand. In addition, it appears that there is an optimal level of the PEO polymer content in these materials, which at the same hydration level, yields the best combination of ionic conductivity and strength

  6. The change in dielectric constant, AC conductivity and optical band gaps of polymer electrolyte film: Gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma (?) irradiation on dielectric and optical properties of polymer electrolyte film were investigated. The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases with ? dose. Also optical band gap decreased from 4.23 to 3.78ev after irradiation. A large dependence of the polymer properties on the irradiation dose was noticed. This suggests that there is a possibility of improving polymer electrolyte properties on gamma irradiation

  7. Pressure-induced amorphization of a dense coordination polymer and its impact on proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeyama, Daiki; Hagi, Keisuke; Ogiwara, Naoki [Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Horike, Satoshi, E-mail: horike@sbchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kitagawa@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tassel, Cedric [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kageyama, Hiroshi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Higo, Yuji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kitagawa, Susumu, E-mail: horike@sbchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kitagawa@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3–7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP.

  8. Dielectric and Ac conduction properties of A Chloro-opianic Polymer Modified by ions Beam Bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric behavior and ac conduction of a chloro-organic material, non- plasticised poly vinyle chloride with poly vinyle alcohol (U PVC/PVA copolymer), irradiated with ions beam have been investigated. The dielectric measurements were performed in the frequency range 100 Hz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range 293-373 K. The variations of the dielectric constant ?, dielectric loss ? and ac conductivity were studied at different frequencies as a function of both temperature and proton dose up to 10''1''5 proton/cm''2. Decreases in ?' and ? and an increase in ac conductivity with dose were observed. The irradiation of the samples results in the formation of charge transfer complexes in the polymer which cause the shift of ?max value towards higher frequency as the dose increases. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity as functions of dose were discussed. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent factor S was obtained

  9. Pressure-induced amorphization of a dense coordination polymer and its impact on proton conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3–7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP

  10. Thermal conductivity of micro- and nano- filled polymer blend composite for radiation shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivity of boron carbide filled thermoplastic natural rubber blend composite is studied experimentally as a function of filler loading and filler size. A polymer blend of 60/ 40 NR/ HDPE was used as matrix for incorporation of particulate nano- and micro- sized B4C as filler to form the composite. As the filler loading is increased from 2-10 % wt, a reduction and increment of thermal conductivity was observed. The results show at lower filler loading, HDPE crystallinity affects the thermal conductivity up to 4 and 6 % wt of filler for nano- and micro- composite respectively. Further increase the loading do not much alter the crystallinity as the filler is distributed in continues phase of NR. The increment of filler amount in the amorphous NR causes the thermal conductivity to gradually increase which indicates the formation of interconnecting filler network structures. (Author)

  11. Investigation on Photovoltaic Performance based on Matchstick-Like Cu2S–In2S3Heterostructure Nanocrystals and Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a novel type II cuprous sulfide (Cu2S)–indium sulfide (In2S3) heterostructure nanocrystals with matchstick-like morphology in pure dodecanethiol. The photovoltaic properties of the heterostructure nanocrystals were investigated based on the blends of the nanocrystals and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2?-ethylhexoxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV). In comparison with the photovoltaic properties of the blends of Cu2S or In2S3nanocrystals alone and MEH-PPV, the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid device based on blend of Cu2S–In2S3and MEH-PPV is enhanced by ~3–5 times. This improvement is consistent with the improved exciton dissociation or separation and better charge transport abilities in type II heterostructure nanocrystals. PMID:20596339

  12. Preparation and characterization of novel nanocomposites of WS{sub 2} nanotubes and polyfluorene conductive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana; Borriello, Carmela; Bruno, Annalisa; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Minarini, Carla; Nenna, Giuseppe [ENEA UTTP NANO, Centro Ricerche Portici (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) nanotubes are used to prepare polymer nanocomposites, similarly to other metal dichalcogenide materials, to improve lubricating and/or mechanical properties. In order to explore the possibility to extend these advantages to conductive polymers we realized new nanocomposites of WS{sub 2} nanotubes and polyfluorene conjugated polymer (WS{sub 2}/PFO). The nanocomposites were prepared from solution processing at several nanotubes concentrations. The morphological and structural analyses by SEM and XRD proved that the density of nanotubes within the polymer increased according to the preparation conditions. The successful incorporation of WS{sub 2} nanotubes was also evidenced by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The WS{sub 2}/PFO nanocomposites were tested in light emitting devices at relatively big load of nanotubes realizing a new class of devices with promising improved mechanical and thermal properties without affecting substantially the device optoelectronic performances. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Bionanocompósitos preparados por incorporação de nanocristais de celulose em polímeros biodegradáveis por meio de evaporação de solvente, automontagem ou eletrofiação / Bio-based nanocomposites obtained by incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals into biodegradable polymers through casting, layer-by-layer or electrospinning methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiano Vargas, Pereira; Everton Luiz de, Paula; João Paulo de, Mesquita; Alessandra de Almeida, Lucas; Valdir, Mano.

    1209-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This review reports the preparation and characterization of bionanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) described in the literature. The outstanding potential of cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcement fillers of biodegradable polymers is presented [...] with an emphasis on the solution casting process, which is an appropriate method to investigate the physico-chemical effects of the incorporation of CNC into the polymeric matrices. Besides solution casting, other small scale methods such as electrospinning and layer-by-layer are also covered.

  14. 3D networked graphene-ferromagnetic hybrids for fast shape memory polymers with enhanced mechanical stiffness and thermal conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Jung, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2014-10-15

    A novel 3D networked graphene-ferromagnetic hybrid can be easily fabricated using one-step microwave irradiation. By incorporating this hybrid material into shape memory polymers, the synergistic effects of fast speed and the enhancement of thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness can be achieved. This can be broadly applicable to designing magneto-responsive shape memory polymers for multifunction applications. PMID:24912455

  15. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 m(sup.2)/g to 2600 m(sup.2)/g, and a method of making the same.

  16. Long-term cycle stability at a high current for nanocrystalline LiFePO4 coated with a conductive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly uniform hierarchical-microstructured LiFePO4 particles with dumbbell- and donut-shape and individual LiFePO4 nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal method utilizing citric acid or a triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) as a surfactant. The cathode composed of the individual nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles exhibited higher specific capacity than the cathodes composed of the hierarchically assembled microparticles. Coating a conductive polymer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), on the surface of LiFePO4 particles improved the battery performances such as large specific capacities, high rate capability and an improved cycle stability. The nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles coated with PEDOT (20 wt%) exhibited the highest discharge capacities of 175 and 136 mAh g?1 for the first battery cycle and 163 and 128 mAh g?1 after 500 battery cycles, with a degradation rate of 6–7%, at the rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively. (paper)

  17. Using in-situ polymerization of conductive polymers to enhance the electrical properties of solution-processed carbon nanotube films and fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ranulfo; Pan, Lijia; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites typically have limited conductivity due to a low concentration of nanotubes and the insulating nature of the polymers used. Here we combined a method to align carbon nanotubes with in-situ polymerization of conductive polymer to form composite films and fibers. Use of the conducting polymer raised the conductivity of the films by 2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, CNT fiber formation was made possible with in-situ polymerization to provide more mechanical support to the CNTs from the formed conducting polymer. The carbon nanotube/conductive polymer composite films and fibers had conductivities of 3300 and 170 S/cm, respectively. The relatively high conductivities were attributed to the polymerization process, which doped both the SWNTs and the polymer. In-situ polymerization can be a promising solution-processable method to enhance the conductivity of carbon nanotube films and fibers. PMID:24914703

  18. Dielectric properties and conductivity of carbon nanofiber/semi-crystalline polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of semi-crystalline polymer nanocomposites are affected by the nanofillers directly and indirectly, as two phases, i.e., crystalline and amorphous, exist in the polymer. The effects of nanofillers on the two phases could be competitive. The dielectric properties and conductivity of carbon nanofibers (CNF)/semi-crystalline polymer nanocomposites are studied in this paper. CNF/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites are prepared in experiment by melt blending. The resulting morphology and crystalline structure are characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The PP nanocomposite containing 5 wt.% CNF exhibits a surprisingly high dielectric constant under wide sweep frequencies attended by low dielectric loss. Its dielectric constant is >600 under lower frequency, and remains >200 at a frequency of 4000 Hz. The electrical and thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites are studied, and enhancements are seen with increased CNF content. Theoretical analyses on the physical properties are carried out by applying the existing models. Research results indicate that a common commercial plastic with good comprehensive performance, which exhibited the potential for applications in advanced electronics, was obtained by a simple industry benign technique

  19. Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013) covering a PEDOT layer. The sudden drop in electrical resistance between the metal drill and the PEDOT layer upon physical contact was employed as stop criterion for the drilling process. Arrays of 3×3 microelectrodes of diameter 30?m or 100?m, respectively, and having center-to-center electrode spacings of 130?m and 300?m, respectively, were fabricated. Their functionality was verified by chronoamperometry on potassium ferro-/ferricyanide. Comparison of the experimentally obtained results to finite element modeling of the respective electrode configurations shows that the conducting polymer electrodes approach the steady state currents predicted from modeling, but at a much slower rate than expected. This is shown to be caused by the use of electroactive PEDOT electrodes. Subtraction of the latter contribution gives approach to steady state currents within a few seconds, which is in very good agreement with the modeled response time.

  20. Light-triggered conducting properties of a random carbon nanotubes network in a photochromic polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, R.; Sciascia, C.; Srimath Kandada, A. R.; Meneghetti, M.; Lanzani, G.; Bertarelli, C.

    2011-10-01

    Photochromic materials reversibly change their colour due to a photochemical reaction that takes place when the material is irradiated with photons of suitable energy. This peculiar feature has been extensively exploited to develop smart sunglasses, filters and inks. With a proper molecular design it is possible to enable modulation not only of colour but also of other properties such as refractive index, dipole moment, nonlinear optical properties or conductivity by a photoswitching of the molecular structure. The approach herein developed consists in modifying, upon irradiation, the properties of a molecular component coupled with the photochromic molecule. In particular, the switching features of photochromic systems are matched with the intriguing peculiar properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A photochromic polyester has been properly synthesised to be used as switching polymer matrix coupled with a network of CNTs. Irradiation of the polymer/CNTs blend results into a light-triggered conductance switching. The reversible electrocyclization of the polymer under UV-vis illumination results into a modification of the inter-tube charge mobility, and accordingly, of the overall resistance of the blend. Solution techniques allow us to obtain blended films with sheet resistance modulation larger than 150%, good thermal stability and fatigue resistance at room conditions, in an easier, faster and scalable way as respect to the single-molecule approach.ÿ

  1. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-01-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10 -7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. 2014 Francesco Gentile et al.

  2. Electrical conductivity and electrostatic properties of radiationally modified polymer composites with carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electro-physical surface properties of polymer composites of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene containing 5, 10 and 15 vol% carbon black filler were investigated before and after irradiation by gamma-rays of a 60Co source. Measurements of the specific surface conductivity ?s, surface dissipation factor tan?s, volume dissipation factor tan?v, and the maximum surface potential Umax after charging with positive or negative ions by dc corona discharge, were carried out at room temperature in air of 65% humidity. Umax was found to have a strong dependence on irradiation dose especially at doses ranging up to 1 Mrad. Also, ?s exhibits a substantial decrease of up to seven orders of magnitude at doses from 100 krad to 1 Mrad. These effects are supposedly linked with the radiationally stimulated destruction of carbon chains on the polymer composite surface. On the other hand, at doses higher than 1-2 Mrad there is an extraordinary high rise of the specific surface conductivity of the samples containing 5 vol% filler which reaches nine orders of magnitude and more. This is attributed to the formation of chains of carbon nanoclusters in the near-to-surface layer of the polymer composite. (author)

  3. Nerve growth factor-immobilized polypyrrole: bioactive electrically conducting polymer for enhanced neurite extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalia; Schmidt, Christine E

    2007-04-01

    Biomaterials that present multiple stimuli are attractive for a number of biomedical applications. In particular, electrical and biological cues are important factors to include in interfaces with neurons for applications such as nerve conduits and neural probes. Here, we report the combination of these two stimuli, by immobilizing nerve growth factor (NGF) on the surface of the electrically conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy). NGF was immobilized using an intermediate linker provided by a layer of polyallylamine conjugated to an arylazido functional group. Upon exposure to UV light and activation of the azido groups, NGF was fixed to the substrate. Three different surface concentrations were obtained (0.21-0.98 ng/mm(2)) and similar levels of neurite extension were observed on immobilized NGF as with soluble NGF. Additionally, electrical stimulation experiments were conducted with the modified polymer and revealed a 50% increase in neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells compared to experiments without electrical stimulation. This novel modification of PPy provides both electrical and biological stimulation, by presenting tethered growth factors and only producing a small decrease in the material's properties (conductivity approximately 10 S cm(-1)) when compared to other modification techniques (conductivity approximately 10(-3)-10(-6) S cm(-1)). PMID:17111407

  4. Effect of casting solvent interactions on proton conductivity in sulfonated polymer (PEEK) proton exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton conductivity of solvent-cast proton exchange membranes (PEM) prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was found to be sensitive to the choice of casting solvent and the membrane drying conditions. Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, several factors were shown to affect proton conductivity in PEMs. NMR revealed the formation of strong interactions between SPEEK polymer and the casting solvents dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl cetamide (DMAc), commonly used in PEM preparation. DMF readily hydrogen-bonds with the polymers' sulfonic acid groups starting at temperatures as low as 60oC. However, DMAc is much less susceptible to hydrogen bonding, which occurs only above 100oC. Both DMF and DMAc solvent interactions with SPEEK during PEM preparation significantly affect the proton conductivity properties. In addition, both solvents are prone to thermal decomposition resulting in dimethylamine which also strongly hydrogen-bonds with SPEEK. The presence of residual sulfuric acid originating from SPEEK preparation has a catalytic effect on the thermal degradation of DMF and DMAc. Under high temperature treatment of films, residual sulfuric acid reacts with both DMF and DMAc, causing their degradation resulting in the formation of N,N-dimethylaminium hydrogensulfate which is also believed to have a negative effect on proton conductivity. (author)

  5. Investigation of mechanical and conductive properties of shape memory polymer composite (SMPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jinsong; Lan, Xin; Lv, Haibao; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2007-04-01

    This paper is concerned about an investigation of mechanical and electrical conductive properties of carbon fiber fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite (SMPC). The shape memory polymer (SMP) is a thermoset styrene-based resin. SMP is a promising smart material, which is under intensive investigation at present. Its primary advantages over other smart materials are the high strain capacity (200% reversible strain), low density and low cost etc.. But its major drawbacks are low strength, low modulus and low recovery stress. So the fiber reinforced SMPC was naturally considered to be investigated in this paper, which may overcome the disadvantages mentioned above. The investigation was conducted with experimental methods: Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA), static and mechanical cycle loading tests, microscope observation of microstructural deformation mechanism, conductivity and shape recovery tests. Results indicated that SMPC showed higher glass transition temperature (T g) than neat SMP and improved the storage modulus, bending modulus, strength and resistance against relaxation and creep. Both fiber microbuckling and fracture of SMPC were observed after the static 3-ponit bending test at the constant room temperature. SMPC showed favorable recovery performances during thermomechanical cycles of the bending recovery test and the fiber microbuckling was obvious. Moreover, the conductive SMPC of this study experienced low electrical resistivity and performed a good shape memory effect during numerous thermomechanical cycles.

  6. Contribution to the electromagnetic study of conducting polymers and chiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an electromagnetic characterisation of organic absorptive materials partially made of conductive polymer is presented. Poly-pyrrole-Teflon alloys containing from 0 to 20 pc (in volume) poly-pyrrole were prepared and characterised from dc to 6 GHz. The complex permittivity shows that these materials are absorptive; the dielectric properties strongly depend on the composition and are correctly modelled by a percolation law. A dielectric relaxation was observed for the conductive alloys and this phenomenon is interpreted as the result of an electronic conduction process insured by a charged carriers hopping. A model was developed; it is in good agreement with these results. The difference between the low and high frequency behaviour is also underlined. Microwave chiral structures were manufactured. A cholesteric arrangement of uniaxial slabs was measured in transmission between 4 and 6 GHz; the experimental results are correctly modelled by cascading quadrupolar scattering matrices. New chiral materials were prepared by mixing millimetric helices made of poly-pyrrole with an insulating matrix. These materials exhibit a rotatory power and a good absorption of electromagnetic waves which is connected to the poly-pyrrole concentration. The interest in using conductive polymers to design absorptive chiral materials in the microwave domain is put in evidence and the experimental results are in good agreement with a numerical model; nevertheless, the optimisation of these materials remains difficult. (author)

  7. Conducting polymer nanocomposites loaded with nanotubes and fibers for electrical and thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiguma, Jasper

    The design, fabrication and measurement of electrical and thermal properties of polymers loaded with nanotubes and fibers are the foci of the work presented in this dissertation. The resulting products of blending polymers with nanomaterials are called nanocomposites and are already finding applications in many areas of human endeavour. Among some of the most recent envisioned applications of nanocomposites is in electronic devices as thermal interface materials (TIMs). This potential application as TIMs, has been made more real by the realization that carbon nanotubes, could potentially transfer their high electrical, thermal and mechanical properties to polymers in the nanocomposites. In Chapter 1, the events leading to the discovery of carbon nanotubes are reviewed followed by an elaborate discussion of their structure and properties. The discussion of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes help in understanding the envisaged applications. Chapter 2 focuses on the fabrication of insulating polymer nanocomposites, their electrical and mechanical properties. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and a polyimide formed by reacting pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4, 4'-oxydianiline (ODA) (PMDA-ODA) nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes were prepared by in-situ polymerization. Poly (1-methyl-4-pentene) (TPX), Polycarbonate (PC), Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), Poly (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS), the alloys ABS-PC, ABS-PVC, and ABS-PC-PVC nanocomposites were prepared from the respective polymers and carbon nanotubes and their mechanical and electrical properties measured. Chapter 3 covers the nanocomposites that were prepared by the in-situ polymerization of the conducting polymers Polyaniline (PANi), Polypyrrole (PPy) and Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by in-situ polymerization. These are evaluated for electrical conductivity. The use of surfactants in facilitating carbon nanotube dispersion is discussed and applied in the preparation of conducting polymer nanocomposites. In Chapter 4 epoxy nanocomposites are prepared. MWCNTs, Graphite Fibers and Boron Nitride are used as filler materials. There thermal conductivity is determined by using the Flash Technique as well as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The thermal conductivity of graphite and BN loaded epoxy was found to be much higher than for the MWCNTs filled. Chapter 5 covers the synthesis and electrical conductivity of PANi nanotubes and nanorods without the use of templates. Also covered in this Chapter is the template free synthesis of Cu (II) hydroxide and Copper nanorods. In Chapter 6, Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSPs) are evaluated for integrity after thermal stress. The two types of OSPs that are evaluated in this chapter are a benzimidazole derivative known as WPF207 and an imidazole derivative called F2LX. The OSP WPF was found to be more robust. In Chapter 7, two encapsulants are evaluated after thermal stress. The encapsulants are Sumitomo type 6730B and type 6730B-LX. No significant differences were found after analysis.

  8. Injection molded chips with integrated conducting polymer electrodes for electroporation of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design-concept for an all polymer injection molded single use microfluidic device. The fabricated devices comprise integrated conducting polymer electrodes and Luer fitting ports to allow for liquid and electrical access. A case study of low voltage electroporation of biological cells in suspension is presented. The working principle of the electroporation device is based on a focusing of the electric field by means of a constriction in the flow channel for the cells. We demonstrate the use of AC voltage for electroporation by applying a 1 kHz, ±50 V square pulse train to the electrodes and show delivery of polynucleotide fluorescent dye in 46% of human acute monocytic leukemia cells passing the constriction.

  9. Photomodulation spectroscopy of photocarrier dynamics, electronic defects and morphology of conducting polymers. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardeny, Z.V.

    1991-10-08

    This is a progress report on the second period of activities associated with the DOE grant to the Physics Department of the University of Utah, starting on April 1st, 1991, on photocarrier dynamics, electronic defects and morphology of conducting polymers using the photomodulation spectroscopy. During the second period of this grant we have achieved impressive results and have started new studies, to be completed during the grant continuation period of the third year. We will describe our progress according to the material studied, since this is the best method to summarize our accomplishments. We have used a variety of techniques in our studies such as: CW photomodulation, photomodulation in the femtosecond and picosecond time ranges, CW resonant Raman scattering, transient photoinduced Raman scattering, electro-absorption, degenerate four-wave mixing and the newly technique of spin dependent photomodulation. These techniques have been used to obtain the transient electronic response of the studied conducing polymers.

  10. Photomodulation spectroscopy of photocarrier dynamics, electronic defects and morphology of conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardeny, Z.V.

    1991-10-08

    This is a progress report on the second period of activities associated with the DOE grant to the Physics Department of the University of Utah, starting on April 1st, 1991, on photocarrier dynamics, electronic defects and morphology of conducting polymers using the photomodulation spectroscopy. During the second period of this grant we have achieved impressive results and have started new studies, to be completed during the grant continuation period of the third year. We will describe our progress according to the material studied, since this is the best method to summarize our accomplishments. We have used a variety of techniques in our studies such as: CW photomodulation, photomodulation in the femtosecond and picosecond time ranges, CW resonant Raman scattering, transient photoinduced Raman scattering, electro-absorption, degenerate four-wave mixing and the newly technique of spin dependent photomodulation. These techniques have been used to obtain the transient electronic response of the studied conducing polymers.

  11. Kinetics of photoexcitation of conducting polymer films inside photonic band gap crystal: results of computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical Monte-Carlo model has been suggested to investigate kinetics of photoexcitations of conducting polymer films inside PBG crystal. Polymeric sample inside PBG crystal has a complicated pattern (rather fractal). But as the first approximation the polymeric film is modelled as a two-dimensional lattice of sites. Five kinds of random processes are involved in the model: photogeneration of exciton-polarons (ExP), ExP recombination, ExP dissociation, ExP random walk and random walk of polarons. Decreasing the probability of ExP recombination about ten times results in considerable increasing the positive and negative polaron concentrations in conjugated polymer films inside PBG crystal, and this fact will have to results in increasing the photocurrent in such systems. (author)

  12. Preparation of conductive gold nanowires in confined environment of gold-filled polymer nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, Fabian; Langner, Markus; Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Greiner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Continuous conductive gold nanofibers are prepared via the "tubes by fiber templates" process. First, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with over 60 wt% gold are synthesized and characterized, including gel permeation chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. Subsequent electrospinning of these AuNP with template PLLA results in composite nanofibers featuring a high gold content of 57 wt%. Highly homogeneous gold nanowires are obtained after chemical vapor deposition of 345 nm of poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) onto the composite fibers followed by pyrolysis of the polymers at 1050 °C. The corresponding heat-induced transition from continuous gold-loaded polymer tubes to smooth gold nanofibers is studied by transmission electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy using both secondary electrons and Rutherford backscattered ions. PMID:25487549

  13. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of nanoreinforced polymer composites deposited with conductive metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of using conductive metallic thin films deposited on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and styrene butadiene copolymer (SBC) in conjunction with carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforcement of HDPE and SBC was investigated in order to improve the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of the structures. Thin films of copper, silver and aluminum were deposited by thermal evaporation onto the polymeric matrices and its composites (0–20 wt.% of CNFs). Results show a synergistic effect of the two approaches (metallic coating and CNF reinforcement) toward improving the EMI SE. The chemical composition, surface morphology, carbon nanofiber distribution, thickness and microstructure of metallic coated polymers are examined using X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. - Highlights: ? Metallic thin films were evaporated on carbon nanofiber reinforced polymers. ? The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of the structures was evaluated. ? Thin films and carbon nanofibers synergistically improved the shielding effectiveness.

  14. Highly processable method for the construction of miniature conducting polymer moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Scott T.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2005-02-01

    A polymer blend incorporating polyaniline (PAn) was used as a sensing medium in the construction of a resistance based humidity sensor. Aniline monomer was polymerised to PAn emeraldine salt (ES) in the presence of poly (butyl acrylate-co-vinyl acetate) and the processable blend was developed by redissolving 1-2 w/w% of the resulting sensing polymer residue in dichloromethane (DCM). Some of this residue was washed in ammonia solution to de-dope the PAn to emeraldine base (EB) to act as a protective layer on the surface of the sensing polymer. This residue was then washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was realised with the waste water, dried and redissolved in DCM at 1-2 w/w% to create a processable blend barrier polymer solution. The final sensor design utilised 125?m polyester insulated platinum wire as conducting electrodes that were dip coated in the PAn ES blend solution and dried in a desiccator. A protective coating was then applied by dip coating in the EB blend solution. The sensors had an overall final thickness of less than 200?m and showed high sensitivity to humidity, low resistance, and good reversibility without hysteresis. The EB protective layer was shown to give more stable and predictable responses to the sensors when placed inside curing epoxies. Polymer based thin film humidity sensors have the advantage that the high processability of the material allows for simple fabrication of a range of geometries including smaller sensor designs. Such sensors may find uses in detecting water content in a number of areas including composite materials, electronic textiles, food/electronics packaging and corrosion detection.

  15. Composites materials of graphene derivatives and electrically conducting polymers and their application in solid-state ion-selective electrodes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindfors, T.; Österholm, A.; Boeva, Z.; Kauppila, J.; Bober, Patrycja; Milakin, K.; Gyurcsányi, R. E.

    Toulouse : Phantoms Foundation, 2014. s. 166-167. [International Conference & Exhibition Graphene 2014. 06.05.2014-09.05.2014, Toulouse] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymers * graphene materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  17. Photodegradation of 2?ethoxy? and 2?butoxyethanol in the presence of semiconductor particles or organic conducting polymer

    OpenAIRE

    PELIZZETTI, Ezio; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio

    1989-01-01

    The degradation of 2?ethoxy? and 2?butoxyethanol by simulated sunlight has been investigated in the presence of aqueous suspensions of TiO2 as well as organic conducting polymer (polyphenylacetylene doped with iodine). Degradation in the presence of TiO2 particles is very rapid and effective, leading to a quantitative formation of CO2. Proper conditions also permit a very efficient degradation with the conducting polymer. The potential utility of the process and of the supported photoca...

  18. Discontinuous anchoring transition and photothermal switching in composites of liquid crystals and conducting polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasna, M. V.; Zuhail, K. P.; Manda, R.; Paik, P.; Haase, W.; Dhara, Surajit

    2014-05-01

    We prepared nanocomposites of a nematic liquid crystal and nanofibers of a conducting polymer (polyaniline). All the nanocomposites exhibit a discontinuous surface anchoring transition from planar to homeotropic in the nematic phase on a perfluoropolymer coated surface with a thermal hysteresis (?5.3?C). We observe a relatively large bistable conductivity and demonstrate a light driven switching of conductivity and dielectric constant in dye doped nanocomposites in the thermal hysteresis (bistable) region. The experimental results have been explained based on the reorientation of the nanofibers driven by the anchoring transition of the nematic liquid crystal. We show a significant enhancement of the bistable temperature range (?13?C) by an appropriate choice of compound in the binary system.

  19. Assembly of three coordination polymers based on a sulfonic-carboxylic ligand showing high proton conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Na; Song, Xue-Zhi; Zhu, Min; Meng, Xing; Wu, Lan-Lan; Song, Shu-Yan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2015-01-21

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different structures have been synthesized using 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H4L) and metal ions, Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Cd(2+). The Cu compound features a one-dimensional chain structure, further extending into a 2D layer network through H-bond interactions. Both the Ca and Cd compounds show 3D frameworks with (4,4)-connected PtS-type topology and (3,6)-connected bct-type topology, respectively. These CPs/MOFs all exhibit proton conduction behavior, especially for the Cu compound with a proton conductivity of 3.46 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 368 K and 95% relative humidity (RH). Additionally, the activation energy (Ea) has also been investigated to deeply understand the proton-conduction mechanism. PMID:25406590

  20. Computational screening of structural and compositional factors for electrically conductive coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiana, Davide; Hendon, Christopher H; Walsh, Aron; Vaid, Thomas P

    2014-07-28

    The combination of organic and inorganic chemical building blocks to form metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offers opportunities for producing functional materials suitable for energy generation, storage and conversion. However, such applications rely on robust electron transport and the design of conductive hybrid materials is still in its infancy. Here we apply density functional theory to assess the important structural and compositional factors for forming conducting MOFs. We focus on 1D metal-organic polymers as a model system and assess the choice of organic, inorganic and linking units. The results demonstrate that electronic communication is sensitive to the energy and symmetry of the frontier orbitals associated with the organic and inorganic building blocks and offers guidance on how to optimise electrical conduction in hybrid materials. PMID:24569694

  1. Carbon Nanotube/Conductive Additive/Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Connell, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Thin film membranes of space environmentally stable polymeric materials possessing low color/solar absorptivity (alpha) are of interest for potential applications on Gossamer spacecraft. In addition to these properties, sufficient electrical conductivity is required in order to dissipate electrostatic charge (ESC) build-up brought about by the charged orbital environment. One approach to achieve sufficient electrical conductivity for ESC mitigation is the incorporation of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, when the SWNTs are dispersed throughout the polymer matrix, the nanocomposite films tend to be significantly darker than the pristine material resulting in a higher alpha. The incorporation of conductive additives in combination with a decreased loading level of SWNTs is one approach for improving alpha while retaining conductivity. Taken individually, the low loading level of conductive additives and SWNTs is insufficient in achieving the percolation level necessary for electrical conductivity. When added simultaneously to the film, conductivity is achieved through a synergistic effect. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films will be presented.

  2. Investigation of the Ionic conductivity and dielectric measurements of poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-sulfamic acid polymer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daries Bella, R. S.; Karthickprabhu, S.; Maheswaran, A.; Amibika, C.; Hirankumar, G.; Devaraj, Premanand

    2015-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte complexes of poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)-sulfamic acid (NH2SO3H) were prepared by a familiar solution casting method with different molar concentrations of PVP and sulfamic acid. The interaction between PVP and NH2SO3H was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Laser microscopy analysis was used to study the surface morphology of the polymer complexes. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm) of polymer complexes were computed from Differential scanning calorimetric studies. AC impedance spectroscopic measurements revealed that the polymer complex, 97 mol% PVP-3 mol% NH2SO3H shows higher ionic conductivity with two different activation energies above and below the glass transition temperature (Tg). Dielectric studies confirmed that the dc conduction mechanism has dominated in the polymer complexes. The value of power law exponent (n) confirmed the translational motion of ions from one site to another vacant site in these complexes.

  3. A versatile 'click chemistry' route to size-restricted, robust, and functionalizable hydrophilic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tong; Wang, Chao; Lu, Zhenda; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Qing-Zheng; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Liu, Zhuang; Yin, Yadong; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-04-01

    A versatile addition-crosslinking route is developed to transfer various hydrophobic nanocrystals into water. By assembling amphiphilic ligands and then crosslinking through 'click chemistry', a monolayer of polymer forms on the nanocrystal surface, leading to excellent stability and limited increase in hydrodynamic diameter. These nanocrystals can also be further functionalized easily for various applications such as catalysis, bioimaging, and medical therapy. PMID:25504669

  4. Proton Conduction Mechanisms at Low Degrees of Hydration in Sulfonic Acid-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddison, S. J.

    2003-08-01

    The need to operate polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells at temperatures above 100oC, where the amount of water in the membrane is restricted, has provided much of the motivation for understanding the mechanisms of proton conduction at low degrees of hydration. Although experiments have not provided any direct information, numerous theoretical investigations have begun to provide the basis for understanding the mechanisms of proton conduction in these nano-phase-separated materials. Both the hydrated morphology and the nature of the confined water in the hydrophilic domains influence proton dissociation from the acidic sites (i.e., -SO3H), transfer to the water environment, and transport through the membrane. The following molecular processes are discussed in connection to their role in the conduction of protons in sulfonic acid-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs): (a) local chemistry of the hydrophilic side chains; its effect on the dissociation of the proton and eventual stabilization (separation) of the proton in the water; (b) the presence of neighboring sulfonic acid groups on proton transfer; and (c) the effect of the distribution of the sulfonate groups on the transport of protons in the channels/pores of the membrane.

  5. The influence of carbon nanotubes in inkjet printing of conductive polymer suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, inkjet printing inks were formulated by combining the processability of the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to the high conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conductive patterns were deposited on polymer films by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Several settings of printing were explored and analyzed by morphological observations and sheet resistance measurements. Performances of several CNTs were evaluated (single-walled, multi-walled and functionalized CNTs). Patterns can have sheet resistances from 10 537 to 225 ?/sq between two families of CNTs. Functionalized CNTs with polyethylene glycol functions appeared to be the best candidates for printed electronics. This best combination allows us to obtain sheet resistances as low as 225 ?/sq which is up to now one of the lowest resistances obtained by inkjet printing. This work also discusses the CNT network performances and emphasizes the degradation of electrical properties linked to the use of surfactants. This study represents an important step for the integration of CNTs in printed electronics applications and offers new opportunities to produce cost-effective electronics.

  6. The influence of carbon nanotubes in inkjet printing of conductive polymer suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneulin, Aurore; Bras, Julien; Blayo, Anne; Khelifi, Bertine; Roussel-Dherbey, Francine; Neuman, Charles

    2009-09-01

    In this study, inkjet printing inks were formulated by combining the processability of the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to the high conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conductive patterns were deposited on polymer films by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Several settings of printing were explored and analyzed by morphological observations and sheet resistance measurements. Performances of several CNTs were evaluated (single-walled, multi-walled and functionalized CNTs). Patterns can have sheet resistances from 10 537 to 225 ?/sq between two families of CNTs. Functionalized CNTs with polyethylene glycol functions appeared to be the best candidates for printed electronics. This best combination allows us to obtain sheet resistances as low as 225 ?/sq which is up to now one of the lowest resistances obtained by inkjet printing. This work also discusses the CNT network performances and emphasizes the degradation of electrical properties linked to the use of surfactants. This study represents an important step for the integration of CNTs in printed electronics applications and offers new opportunities to produce cost-effective electronics.

  7. Conducting polymer/polyimide-clay nanocomposite coatings for corrosion protection of AA-2024 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kunal G.

    Corrosion of metals is a major problem in the aerospace and automobile industry. The current methods of corrosion protection such as chromate conversion coatings are under increased scrutiny from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) due to their carcinogenic nature. Intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) like polyaniline and polypyrrole have been considered as a potential replacement for chromate conversion coatings and have been under investigation since past decade. The goal of this study is to replace the chromate conversion coating by an environmentally friendly organic coating. Poly (N-ethyl aniline) coating was electrodeposited as the primer layer and polyimide-clay nanocomposite was solution cast as the barrier layer on AA-2024 alloy. This study will provide a better understanding of the corrosion protection mechanism of the conducting polymer coating. Various characterization techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the formation, chemical structure and morphology of the coatings. Electrodeposition parameters like monomer concentration, applied current density and the reaction time were varied in order to optimize the properties of the conducting polymer coating. The corrosion performance of the primer coating was evaluated by DC polarization studies. It was found that poly (N-ethyl aniline) reduces from emeraldine to leucoemeraldine form; reducing the rate of cathodic reaction, which reduces the rate of corrosion of AA-2024 alloy. Polyimide-clay nanocomposite coating was solution cast on the conducting polymer primer layer for enhancing the barrier and corrosion properties of the coating system. The concentration of polyimide (10--25 vol%) and clay (0.1 and 1 wt%) were varied in the coating formulation to optimize the barrier properties of topcoat. X-ray diffraction showed that the intergallery clay distance decreased from 17.2 A to 11.79 A after immidization of polyimide-clay nanocomposite coating and infrared spectroscopy suggested that there was hydrogen bonding interaction between clay and polyimide chains. DC polarization study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique were used to evaluate the corrosion property and model the coating degradation in corrosive medium. It was found that the corrosion property were dependent on the thickness of the barrier coat and concentration of clay in the polyimide coating. The results obtained from the above mentioned test suggest that poly (N-ethyl aniline)/polyimide-clay nanocomposite coatings system is a potential candidate to replace the traditionally used and environmentally unfriendly chromate conversion coating.

  8. Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Nanocomposites Filled with Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Dinzhos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results and theoretical studies of thermophysical characteristics crystalline polyethylene nanocomposites containing from 0.3 to 2.5 wt. % carbon black and nanocomposites containing from 0.2 to 1.5 wt. % carbon nanotubes is done in the article. The fundamentals of the effective medium theory and percolation theory and how they correlate with the experimental data is shown. The features of the structure’s influence of polymer composites on their thermal properties is studied. A comparative analysis of the thermal conductivity of the compositions according to the geometry of the filler is done.

  9. Electron-electron interaction effects in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers and related systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Baeriswyl, D.; Mazumdar, S.

    1986-01-01

    We review recent results on the role of electron-electron (e-e) interactions in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers and related systems. Within the Peierls-Hubbard model, the effects of both short-range (on-site U and nearest neighbor V/sub 1/) and long-range (V/sub j/, jgreater than or equal to 2) are examined, the former using quantum Monte Carlo and the latter with exact diagonalization of finite size systems and analytic arguments. We also discuss optical absorption properties in the presence of electronic correlation, focusing on the weak and strong coupling limits.

  10. Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present techniques to trap a group of neuronal cells (PC 12) close to band microelectrodes and quantitatively measure cellular transmitter release. Different trapping approaches were investigated including coating of electrodes by layers enhancing cell attachment and by pressure driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration of released transmitter molecules could be estimated.

  11. Conductivity and Activation Energy in Polymers Synthesized by Plasmas of Thiophene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ma. Guadalupe, Olayo; Guillermo J., Cruz; Salvador, López; Juan, Morales; Roberto, Olayo.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la síntesis por plasmas resistivos a radiofrecuencia de politiofeno, su conductividad eléctrica, energía de activación y morfología. Las continuas colisiones de partículas en el plasma inducen la polimerización del tiofeno pero también rompen algunos anillos del monómero p [...] roduciendo polímeros complejos con anillos de tiofeno y segmentos de hidrocarburos alifáticos. Estas reacciones químicas multidireccionales son más marcadas en tiempos de reacción largos donde la morfología de las películas evoluciona de superficies lisas, a bajos tiempos de reacción, hasta la formación de partículas esféricas con diámetros de 300 a 1000 nm. Entre ambas morfologías, algunas burbujas se forman sobre la superficie. La conductividad intrínseca de los politiofenos sintetizados de esta manera varía en el intervalo de 10-10 a 10-8 S/m, con conductividad sensible a la humedad de los polímeros, la cual produce variaciones de hasta 5 órdenes de magnitud. La energía de activación relacionada con la conductividad intrínseca se calculó entre 0.56 y 1.41 eV, incrementándose con el tiempo de reacción. Abstract in english The electric conductivity, activation energy and morphology of polythiophene synthesized by radiofrequency resistive plasmas are studied in this work. The continuous collisions of particles in the plasma induce the polymerization of thiophene but also break some of the monomer molecules producing co [...] mplex polymers with thiophene rings and aliphatic hydrocarbon segments. These multidirectional chemical reactions are more marked at longer reaction times in which the morphology of the polymers evolved from smooth surfaces, at low exposure time, to spherical particles with diameter in the 300-1000 nm interval. Between both morphologies, some bubbles are formed on the surface. The intrinsic conductivity of plasma polymers of thiophene synthesized in this way varied in the range of 10-10 to 10-8 S/m; however, the conductivity resulted very sensitive to the water content in the polymers, which produced variations of up to 5 magnitude orders. The activation energy of the intrinsic conductivity was between 0.56 and 1.41 eV, increasing with the reaction time.

  12. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels on the electrochemical performance of the biosensor was exploited to improve the detection system. The developed model allowed us to predict the performance of the electrochemical system, and thus to optimize the geometry for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Finally, the optimized electrode design was validated by the detection of a clinically relevant target (ampicillin) at picomolar concentrations.

  13. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  14. Electrical conductivity and Raman imaging of double wall carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkova, Victoria; Raynal, Pierre Ivan; Puech, Pascal; Lonjon, Antoine; Le Fournier, Marion; Demont, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bacsa, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to access the dispersion state of DWNTs in a PEEK polymer matrix. The interaction of the outer tube with the matrix can be determined from the line shape of the Raman G band. This allows us to distinguish regions where the nanotubes are well dispersed and regions where the nanotubes are agglomerated. The percolation threshold of the electrical conductivity of the double wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)/PEEK nanocomposites is found to be at 0.2-0.3 wt.%. We find a maxim...

  15. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  16. Nanocrystals: a versatile 'click chemistry' route to size-restricted, robust, and functionalizable hydrophilic nanocrystals (small 14/2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tong; Wang, Chao; Lu, Zhenda; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Qing-Zheng; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Liu, Zhuang; Yin, Yadong; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-04-01

    A size-restricted and robust hydrophilic nanocrystal obtained via a facile and versatile addition-crosslinking route is described on page 1644 by T. Zhang and co-workers. Due to the monolayer of cross-linked polymer on the surface, these hydrophilic nanocrystals show excellent stability without a significant increase in the hydrodynamic sizes after modification. The nanocrystals can also be further functionalized for various applications. PMID:25846678

  17. High proton conductivity in the molecular interlayer of a polymer nanosheet multilayer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuma; Hayasaka, Yuta; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji; Nagano, Shusaku; Matsui, Jun

    2015-05-12

    High proton conductivity was achieved in a polymer multilayer film with a well-defined two-dimensional lamella structure. The multilayer film was prepared by deposition of poly(N-dodecylacryamide-co-acrylic acid) (p(DDA/AA)) monolayers onto a solid substrate using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Grazing-angle incidence X-ray diffraction measurement of a 30-layer film of p(DDA/AA) showed strong diffraction peaks in the out-of-plane direction at 2? = 2.26° and 4.50°, revealing that the multilayer film had a highly uniform layered structure with a monolayer thickness of 2.0 nm. The proton conductivity of the p(DDA/AA) multilayer film parallel to the layer plane direction was 0.051 S/cm at 60 °C and 98% relative humidity with a low activation energy of 0.35 eV, which is comparable to perfluorosulfonic acid membranes. The high conductivity and low activation energy resulted from the formation of uniform two-dimensional proton-conductive nanochannels in the hydrophilic regions of the multilayer film. The proton conductivity of the multilayer film perpendicular to the layer plane was determined to be 2.1 × 10(-13) S/cm. Therefore, the multilayer film showed large anisotropic conductivity with an anisotropic ratio of 2.4 × 10(11). PMID:25879398

  18. A comprehensive study of sulfonated carbon materials as conductive composites for polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ting; Tan, Licheng; Hu, Xiaotian; Dai, Yanfeng; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-02-14

    Sulfonated carbon nanotubes (S-CNTs) and sulfonated graphene (S-Gra) with superior dispersibility were successfully prepared to modify poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) for applications in polymer solar cells (PSCs). The synergetic effect between S-CNTs/S-Gra and PEDOT:PSS could remove excess insulating PSS chains leading to an obvious phase separation between the PEDOT and PSS chains, which allows the formation of more conductive PEDOT channels. The PEDOT:PSS (Clevios PH 4083):S-CNTs with well-matched work function, favorable morphology, optimized hydrophobicity and superior hole mobility is demonstrated to be an excellent hole transport layer (HTL) for PSCs. However, the PEDOT:PSS (Clevios PH 4083) modified by sulfonated graphene with stacked and wrinkled lamellae as an HTL renders a rough morphology and has a negative impact on the morphology of the active layer, consequently resulting in a poor device performance. Excitingly, PEDOT:PSS (Clevios PH 1000) modified with S-Gra shows high conductivity, because the sulfonated graphene lamellae contribute to the connection between the insulator and conductive PEDOT islands and improves the charge conduction. The PH1000:S-Gra with multiple layers presents excellent electrical conductive properties and a high transmittance (sheet resistance of ?45 ? sq(-1) and transmittance of ?85.5% at 550 nm), which possess great potential for its application as a transparent conductive and flexible electrode in organic electronics. PMID:25563771

  19. Evaluation of proton conductive polymers as electrolyte for H2/air fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of polymer electrolytes membrane (PEM) materials, based on sulphonated ladder pyridine polymers and TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles that enhance water retention and allow high temperature (>120 deg. C) applications is evaluated. Nanoparticles are used to keep water uptake at reasonable level of 20-38%. The evaluation of these PEMs resulted in a wide variation of proton conductivity in the range 100-215 mS/cm and 60-85% relative humidity, have an ion exchange coefficient of 1.2-2 meq/g. Finally, a test on fuel cells of 25 cm2 active areas with Pt catalyst shown a current density of 125-180 mA/cm2 at the temperature value of 110 deg. C. The experiments beyond this temperature value encountered other difficulties such as a continuous drying of the membranes and brittleness when the nanoparticle concentration is higher than the percolation threshold. Limits and performances of these polymers with different levels of sulphonation are evaluated and related to the efficiency reported for other membranes such as Nafion-H. (authors)

  20. Electrical Conductivity Studies on Individual Conjugated Polymer Nanowires: Two-Probe and Four-Probe Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvail JeanLuc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two- and four-probe electrical measurements on individual conjugated polymer nanowires with different diameters ranging from 20 to 190 nm have been performed to study their conductivity and nanocontact resistance. The two-probe results reveal that all the measured polymer nanowires with different diameters are semiconducting. However, the four-probe results show that the measured polymer nanowires with diameters of 190, 95–100, 35–40 and 20–25 nm are lying in the insulating, critical, metallic and insulting regimes of metal–insulator transition, respectively. The 35–40 nm nanowire displays a metal–insulator transition at around 35 K. In addition, it was found that the nanocontact resistance is in the magnitude of 104? at room temperature, which is comparable to the intrinsic resistance of the nanowires. These results demonstrate that four-probe electrical measurement is necessary to explore the intrinsic electronic transport properties of isolated nanowires, especially in the case of metallic nanowires, because the metallic nature of the measured nanowires may be coved by the nanocontact resistance that cannot be excluded by a two-probe technique.

  1. Design of molecularly imprinted conducting polymer protein-sensing films via substrate-dopant binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Elena; Aldissi, Matt; Bogomolova, Anastasia

    2015-02-21

    Addressing the challenge of protein biosensing using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), we have developed and tested a novel approach to creating sensing conducive polymer films imprinted with a protein substrate, ricin toxin chain A (RTA). Our approach for creating MIP protein sensing films is based on a concept of substrate-guided dopant immobilization with subsequent conducting polymer film formation. In this proof-of-concept work we have tested three macromolecular dopants with strong protein affinity, Ponceau S, Coomassie BB R250 and ?-Carrageenan. The films were formed using sequential interactions of the substrate, dopant and pyrrole, followed by electrochemical polymerization. The films were formed on gold array electrodes allowing for extensive data acquisition. The thickness of the films was optimized to allow for efficient substrate extraction, which was removed by a combination of protease and detergent treatment. The MIP films were tested for substrate rebinding using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of macromolecular dopants was essential for MIP film specificity. Out of three dopants tested, RTA-imprinted polypyrrole films doped with Coomassie BB performed with highest specificity towards detection of RTA with a level of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng ml(-1). PMID:25574520

  2. Superhydrophobic SAM Modified Electrodes for Enhanced Current Limiting Properties in Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Surge Protection Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabarullah, Noor H; Verrelli, Emanuele; Mauldin, Clayton; Navarro, Luis A; Golden, Josh H; Madianos, Leonidas M; Kemp, Neil T

    2015-06-01

    Surface interface engineering using superhydrophobic gold electrodes made with 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been used to enhance the current limiting properties of novel surge protection devices based on the intrinsic conducting polymer, polyaniline doped with methanesulfonic acid. The resulting devices show significantly enhanced current limiting characteristics, including current saturation, foldback, and negative differential effects. We show how SAM modification changes the morphology of the polymer film directly adjacent to the electrodes, leading to the formation of an interfacial compact thin film that lowers the contact resistance at the Au-polymer interface. We attribute the enhanced current limiting properties of the devices to a combination of lower contact resistance and increased Joule heating within this interface region which during a current surge produces a current blocking resistive barrier due to a thermally induced dedoping effect caused by the rapid diffusion of moisture away from this region. The effect is exacerbated at higher applied voltages as the higher temperature leads to stronger depletion of charge carriers in this region, resulting in a negative differential resistance effect. PMID:25996202

  3. Manipulating meso-structure and electrical conductivity in polymer-acid doped polyaniline by exploiting redox chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Jacob; Fan, Joline; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Template synthesis of polyaniline on poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) yields electrostatically stabilized particles that can be aqueously dispersed and cast into thin films; electrical conductivity in these films scales with inter-particle connectivity. Solvent annealing with dichloroacetic acid induces structural relaxation of the polymer acid, thereby eliminating the particulate nature of thin films and consequently increasing their conductivity by up to two orders of magnitude (from 0.4 to 40 S/cm). Alternatively, the electrostatic interactions between polyaniline and its template can be neutralized through chemical reduction with hydrazine monohydrate, after which the polymer acid can be plasticized by water vapor to encourage structural relaxation. Exposure to nitric oxide leads to oxidation of polyaniline and concurrent reassociation with its polymer acid dopant. Enhanced conductivity is observed following this redox process, and is attributed to extensive polymer chain relaxation and the simultaneous elimination of the particulate nature of template-synthesized polyaniline.

  4. Carbon nanotubes filled polymer composites: A comprehensive study on improving dispersion, network formation and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Divya Kannan

    In this dissertation, we determine how the dispersion, network formation and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polymer nanocomposites affect the electrical properties of two different polymer composite systems: high temperature bismaleimide (BMI) and polyethylene. The knowledge gained from this study will facilitate optimization of the above mentioned parameters, which would further enhance the electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites. BMI carbon fiber composites filled with nickel-coated single walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-SWNTs) were processed using high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) to study the effect of lightning strike mitigation. Coating the SWNTs with nickel resulted in enhanced dispersions confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). An improved interface between the carbon fiber and Ni-SWNTs resulted in better surface coverage on the carbon plies. These hybrid composites were tested for Zone 2A lightning strike mitigation. The electrical resistivity of the composite system was reduced by ten orders of magnitude with the addition of 4 weight percent Ni-SWNTs (calculated with respect to the weight of a single carbon ply). The Ni-SWNTs - filled composites showed a reduced amount of damage to simulated lightning strike compared to their unfilled counterparts indicated by the minimal carbon fiber pull out. Methods to reduce the electrical resistivity of 10 weight percent SWNTs --- medium density polyethylene (MDPE) composites were studied. The composites processed by hot coagulation method were subjected to low DC electric fields (10 V) at polymer melt temperatures to study the effect of viscosity, nanotube welding, dispersion and, resultant changes in electrical resistivity. The electrical resistivity of the composites was reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to 10 wt% CNT-MDPE baseline. For effective alignment of SWNTs, a new process called Electric field Vacuum Spray was devised to overcome viscosity within the dispersed nanotube polymer system, and produce conductive MDPE-SWNT thin films. Polarized Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis on the samples showed an improvement in SWNT --- SWNT contacts and alignment in the polymer matrix. The resistivity of the samples processed by this new method was two order magnitudes lower than the samples processed by hot coagulation method subjected to electric field.

  5. Electrochemomechanical Behaviour of Bilayer and Trilayer Films with PEDOT and PPY Conducting Polymers.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer L.; Careem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study on bilayer and trilayer films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers is reported. Both polymers are doped with dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) anions. These multi layer films were prepared electrochemically so that the PEDOT layer is very thin compared to that of the PPy layer, and characterized using cyclic voltammetry, optical absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques. Actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films were characterized electromechanically under a constant load of 1.5 g. The cyclic voltammograms as well as the UV-visible spectra of PEDOT and PPy are very different, pointing towards the possibility of being able to separate the two layers experimentally – even when combined in a single film. Bilayer results show combined characteristics of each individual polymer. In trilayer films, the reduction of inner and outer PPy layers takes place at two different potentials. The oxidation occurs at one potential only. The separation between the two reduction peaks depends on the thickness of PEDOT layer, the scan rate and the concentration of cycling electrolyte. This separation becomes smaller with the number of cycles, indicating the enhancement of ion diffusion through the PEDOT layer. Electrochemomechanical measurements show that the strain generated in the polymer significantly decreases with increasing scan rate. Rapid increment in strain and cycling charge is observed during the first few cycles. Bilayer film shows a significant increase in the strain measured at higher scan rate (> 100 mV s-1). The force generation between reduced and oxidized states is much higher for trilayer films and higher for bilayer films than that in a single layer of PPy. These differences are not linked to the Young’s modulus of these films. The addition of a thin PEDOT does not change the Young’s modulus, but changes the force generation significantly.

  6. Conducting polymers, buckminsterfullerenes, and carbon nanotubes: optoelectronic materials based on architectural diversity of the ?-conjugated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent discovery of superconductivity in self assembled poly(3-hexylthiophene) two-dimensional conjugated sheets indicates the possible applications of plastics even in superconducting optoelectronic devices. Just as the discovery of C60 has created an entirely new branch of carbon chemistry, the subsequent discovery of carbon nanotubes by lijima in 1991 opened up a new era in material science and nanotechnology. These elongated nanotubes consist of carbon hexagons arranged in a concentric manner with both ends normally capped by fullerene-like structures containing pentagons. Having a conjugated all-carbon structure with unusual molecular symmetries, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes also show interesting electronic, photonic, magnetic and mechanical properties, attractive for various applications, including optical limiters, photovoltaic cells and field emitting displays. For most of the above applications, it is highly desirable to prepare ordered/micropatterned conducting polymers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes. Although the microfabrication of conducting polymers has been an active research area for some years, it is a very recent development for fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Recently, we doped polyaniline (PANI) with a hydrogensulfated fullerenol derivative containing multiple -OSO3H groups (i.e. C60(OH)6(OSO3H)6) to produce three-dimensional PANI conductors with a room-temperature conductivituctors with a room-temperature conductivity of up to 100 S cm-1. This value of conductivity is about six orders of magnitude higher than the typical value for C60 doped conducting polymers. Later, in collaboration with Wan's group at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, we have also synthesized PANI nanotubes via a self assembled C60(OH)6(OSO3H)6 supramolecular template using (NH4)2S2O8 as an oxidant. These results, together with the more recent discovery of a hollow sphere, self assembled by the potassium salt of pentaphenyl fullerene (Ph5C60K) in water, clearly indicate that supramolecular chemistry has broadened the scope for preparing new optoelectronic materials from the ?-conjugated entities. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  7. Polyoxometalate-conductive polymer composites for energy conversion, energy storage and nanostructured sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Sven; Ritchie, Chris; Streb, Carsten

    2015-04-28

    The exchange of electric charges between a chemical reaction centre and an external electrical circuit is critical for many real-life technologies. This perspective explores the "wiring" of highly redox-active molecular metal oxide anions, so-called polyoxometalates (POMs) to conductive organic polymers (CPs). The major synthetic approaches to these organic-inorganic hybrid materials are reviewed. Typical applications are highlighted, emphasizing the current bottlenecks in materials development. Utilization of the composites in the fields of energy conversion, electrochemical energy storage, sensors and nanoparticle "wiring" into conductive materials are discussed. The outlook section presents the authors' views on emerging fields of research where the combination of POMs and CPs can be expected to provide novel materials for groundbreaking new technologies. These include light-weight energy storage, high-sensitivity toxin sensors, artificial muscles, photoelectrochemical devices and components for fuel cells. PMID:25787774

  8. Ionic conductivity in the polymer electrolytes PEO/CF{sub 3}COONa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, I.; Chacon, M.; Vargas, R.A. [Valle Univ., Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica; Castillo, J. [Ingenieria Electronica, Univ. del Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the electrical and thermal characterization of polymer electrolytes based on PEO/CF{sub 3}COONa are reported, which turn out to be good ionic conductors near room temperature (of the order 10{sup -4} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} for high salt concentrations). The variation of conductivity with temperature (plotted as ln {sigma} versus 1/T) and salt concentration suggests a complex formation. This is confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which also indicates that the blends are thermally stable up to approximately 480 K. The high conductivity and the single-phase behavior of the blends are explained in terms of the plastification effect of the organic salt on the PEO. (orig.)

  9. Effective electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube-polymer composites: a simplified model and its validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Yin, Huiming

    2015-04-01

    A simplified model is presented to predict the effective electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube(CNT)-polymer composite with different material proportions, which is validated by the experiments of multi-walled CNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. CNTs are well dispersed in a PDMS matrix, and the mixture is then cured and cast into thin films for electrical characterization. The CNTs are assumed to be statistically uniformly distributed in the PDMS matrix with the three-dimensional (3D) waviness. As the proportion of CNTs increases to a certain level, namely the percolation threshold, the discrete CNTs start to connect with each other, forming a 3D network which exhibits a significant increase of effective electrical conductivity. The eight-chain model has been used to predict the effective electrical conductivity of the composite, in which the contact resistance between CNTs has been considered through the Simmons’ equation. The eight-chain network features can be significantly changed with the modification to mixing process, CNT length and diameter, and CNT clustering and curling. A Gaussian statistics-based formulation is used to calculate the effective length of a single CNT well dispersed in the matrix. The modeling results of effective electrical conductivity agree with the experiments very well, which are highly dependent on a contact resistance between CNTs and the waviness of the CNTs. The effect of inner-nanotube distance and diameter of CNTs on the effective electrical conductivity of the CNT/PDMS composite is also discussed.

  10. Easy fabrication and resistivity-temperature behavior of an anisotropically conductive carbon nanotube-polymer composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Yi-Chuan; Li, Zhong-Ming; Li, Sha-Ni; Zhang, Xiao-Na

    2010-01-21

    An easy fabrication method comprising a slit die extrusion-hot stretch-quench process was used to make carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with anisotropically conductive polymer composite (ACPC). CNTs were first premixed with polycarbonate (PC) by coagulation and then melt mixed with polyethylene (PE). During extrusion, the CNT/PC/PE composite was subjected to hot stretching to make the CNT/PC phase form in situ an oriented conductive fibril assembly in the PE matrix. Finally the aligned CNT/PC short fibrils were quenched to preserve their structure. The resultant CNT/PC/PE composite exhibited strong anisotropy in conductivity. This method has the advantages of giving a highly oriented structure with good control of electrical anisotropy as well as the ability to be fabricated in a high rate manner. Temperature-resistivity behavior was investigated by observing the resistivity during isothermal treatment (IT) as well as nonisothermal treatment (NIT). Percolation behavior was seen in the isolated direction during the first IT at 180 degrees C. This was a result of a disordering-induced conductive network. In addition, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect attenuated with IT duration. This was seen in contrast to the remaining negative temperature coefficient (NTC). The unique evolution of PTC and NTC effects originated from the ACPC's special conductive network. It can be seen that this is composed of the originally connected "intrinsic pathway" and isolated "potential pathway". PMID:20030304

  11. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloy by cerium conversion and conducting polymer duplex coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Cerium conversion coating must be preceded by alkaline surface treatment. ? Cerium conversion coating promotes the anchoring of the PAni conducting polymer. ? PAni coating presents active corrosion protection associated with a barrier effect. ? Duplex coatings show superior corrosion protection than each coating alone. ? A scheme representing the treatment stages for the duplex coating is shown. - Abstract: The corrosion protection of AA6063 aluminium alloy by cerium conversion, polyaniline conducting polymer and by duplex coatings has been investigated. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated in aerated 3.5 wt.% NaCl. All coatings tested shifted the corrosion and pitting potentials to more positive values, indicating protection against corrosion. The duplex coatings are significantly more effective than each coating alone: corrosion and pitting potentials were shifted by +183 and +417 mV(SCE), respectively, by duplex coatings in relation to the untreated aluminium alloy. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are in agreement with the electrochemical results, reinforcing the superior performance of duplex coatings.

  12. Poly(2-methoxynaphthalene): A spectroelectrochemical study on a fused ring conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(2-methoxynaphthalene) (P2MN) belongs to the category of fused ring organic semiconductors that due to their planar structure have very interesting optical and electrical properties like a reduced band gap and easiness of undergoing both oxidation and reduction. Here, we present a spectroelectrochemical study by means of simultaneous recording of electron spin resonance–UV–vis–near infrared spectra (ESR–UV–vis–NIR) to probe the nature of the charge carriers in both p- and n-doped P2MN. As shown earlier P2MN is both p- and n-dopable, however, further information of the nature of both types of charge carriers is needed. In this work we demonstrate that the dominant charge carrier in p- and n-doped P2MN is positive and negative polarons, respectively. The material under study constitutes an example of an ambipolar organic conjugated polymer capable to conduct both holes and electrons. This is a unique property worthy to be further studied since only a few organic conducting polymers can reversibly be both p- and n-doped

  13. Modeling and inverse feedforward control for conducting polymer actuators with hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangjiang; Alici, Gursel; Tan, Xiaobo

    2014-02-01

    Conducting polymer actuators are biocompatible with a small footprint, and operate in air or liquid media under low actuation voltages. This makes them excellent actuators for macro- and micro-manipulation devices, however, their positioning ability or accuracy is adversely affected by their hysteresis non-linearity under open-loop control strategies. In this paper, we establish a hysteresis model for conducting polymer actuators, based on a rate-independent hysteresis model known as the Duhem model. The hysteresis model is experimentally identified and integrated with the linear dynamics of the actuator. This combined model is inverted to control the displacement of the tri-layer actuators considered in this study, without using any external feedback. The inversion requires an inverse hysteresis model which was experimentally identified using an inverse neural network model. Experimental results show that the position tracking errors are reduced by more than 50% when the hysteresis inverse model is incorporated into an inversion-based feedforward controller, indicating the potential of the proposed method in enabling wider use of such smart actuators.

  14. OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF BIO-SENSOR USING CONDUCTING POLYMERS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha.A,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research work is focused on the design, development and technological evolution of emerging fields of Nanotechnology and Conducting Polymer Electronics, Bio-Tech based Embedded Sensors and Smart Systems employing System-0n- Chip (SOC Core, as applied to Health Monitoring of Human and Complex Systems in Engineering and Medicine. With the Invention of Thin-Film Technology, it is now possible to fabricate Novel Conducting-Polymer based sensors and devices with built-in-flexible electronics resulting in high throughput devices and systems that are flexible, lighter, bio-compatible and economical also. The flexible and EmbeddedElectronics is a key enabler for a number of platform methodologies such as Designed Thin-Films, Smart Electronics and Sensor Devices. The integration of the Bio-Sensor with embedded electronics data conditioning and processing SOC and Wireless –Communication System may provide vast opportunities for Biological – Sensor Applications, especially for physiological monitoring of Leukocyte-Counts in blood sample or analyte for Leukemia Patients in the Society.

  15. Bio/abiotic interface constructed from nanoscale DNA dendrimer and conducting polymer for ultrasensitive biomolecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Liao, Wei; Xu, Zheng; Yang, Yang; Wong, David T; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2009-08-01

    For sensors detecting immobilized biomarkers, the interface between the surface and the fluid medium plays an important role in determining the levels of signal and noise in the electrochemical detection process. When protein is directly immobilized on the metal electrode, denaturation of the protein by surface-protein interaction results in low activity and low signal level. A conducting polymer-based interface can prevent the protein conformation change and alleviate this problem. A DNA dendrimer is introduced into the interfacial film on the sensor surface to further improve the sensor performance. DNA dendrimer is a nanoscale dendrite constructed of short DNA sequences, which can be easily incorporated into the abiotic conducting polymer matrix and is biocompatible with most biological species. In this work, DNA dendrimer and polypyrrole (DDPpy) form the bio/abiotic interface on electrochemical sensors. Detection of two salivary protein markers (IL-8 and IL-1beta) and one mRNA salivary marker (IL-8) is used to demonstrate the efficiency of the DDPpy sensor. A limit of detection (LOD) of protein of 100-200 fg mL(-1) is achieved, which is three orders of magnitude better than that without the DNA dendrimer interface. An LOD of 10 aM is established for IL-8 mRNA. The typical sample volume used in the detection is 4 microL, thus the LOD reaches only 25 target molecules (40 yoctomole). PMID:19384878

  16. Micropatterning of Functional Conductive Polymers with Multiple Surface Chemistries in Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Acikgo?z, Canet

    2012-01-01

    A versatile procedure is presented for fast and efficient micropatterning of multiple types of covalently bound surface chemistry in perfect register on and between conductive polymer microcircuits. The micropatterning principle is applied to several types of native and functionalized PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) thin films. The method is based on contacting PEDOT-type thin films with a micropatterned agarose stamp containing an oxidant (aqueous hypochlorite) and applying a nonionic detergent. Where contacted, PEDOT not only loses its conductance but is entirely removed, thereby locally revealing the underlying substrate. Surface analysis showed that the substrate surface chemistry was fully exposed and not affected by the treatment. Click chemistry could thus be applied to selectively modify re-exposed alkyne and azide functional groups of functionalized polystyrene substrates. The versatility of the method is illustrated by micropatterning cell-binding RGD-functionalized PEDOT on low cell-binding PMOXA (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)) to produce cell-capturing microelectrodes on a cell nonadhesive background in a few simple steps. The method should be applicable to a wide range of native and chemically functionalized conjugated polymer systems.

  17. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1?g) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288?A. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35?A) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77?A). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  18. Conductivity type and crystal orientation of GaAs nanocrystals fabricated in silicon by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of III–V semiconductor material within silicon technology is crucial for performance of advanced electronic devices. This paper presents the investigations of microstructural and opto-electronic properties of GaAs quantum dots (QDs) formed in silicon by means of sequential ion implantation and flash lamp annealing (FLA). Formation of crystalline GaAs QDs with well-defined crystal orientation and conductivity type was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and ?-Raman spectroscopy. The influence of the post implantation millisecond-range annealing on the evolution of the nanoparticles size, shape, crystallographic orientation and doping type of GaAs QDs is discussed

  19. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ? From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ? Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ? The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell

  20. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2012-01-01

    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  1. Solvent-free synthesis, coating and morphogenesis of conductive polymer materials through spontaneous generation of activated monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Ryo; Oaki, Yuya; Kuwabara, Kento; Hayashi, Kosei; Imai, Hiroaki

    2014-10-14

    Synthesis, coating, and morphogenesis of conductive polymers were achieved on a variety of substrates through spontaneous generation of activated monomer vapors under ambient pressure and low temperature conditions. The present approach facilitates the generation of complex hierarchical morphologies and the conductive coating for improvement of electrochemical properties. PMID:25145680

  2. Lithium and proton conducting membranes: Two sets of challenges for the polymer physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Michel

    2005-03-01

    Advanced energy conversion systems are sought actively for chemical to electric transformation, as storage (batteries) or production (fuel cells). Solid-state systems mean higher energy density and safety. Polymers add the extra advantages of mechanical and design flexibility, ease of processing. Lithium is now synonymous for high energy density batteries, while proton-conducting membrane is the motto in fuel cells. Though the two species are kin in the first row of the elements, the requirements for moving the corresponding ions differ considerably in concept and practice. *H^+ does not exist formally and is always borne by a guest molecule. Its coordination is one, or two when H bonds are present. Proton^ motion is either that of the guest (vehicular) or from translocation (Grotthus) through a chain of hydrogen bonded relays (tenfold increase in mobility). Water is the ubiquitous guest/relay (H3O^+), as it is the by-product of the electrochemical reaction. In terms of polymer membranes, the need for a chemically robust backbone (fluorinated, electron-depleted aromatics) incompatible with the aqueous proton environment leads to bi-continuous phase-separated systems. The fraction of vehicular process that leads to co-transport of water and the lack of selectivity between water and methanol ---the most practical fuel---, remain the main challenges. Other guests (imidazole, pKa = 7) are also considered. Li^+ (6.510-2 nm radius) requires a 4 to 6-fold coordination in a water-free environment. When the ligand shell is the polymer [e.g. poly(ethylene oxide)], the motion of Li^+ is allowed^ by a solvation/desolvation process. This ``immobile solvent'' conductivity, assisted by the segmental motion, requires (Tg+ 100 K), i.e. @ 60 C. Adding plasticizing discrete molecules lowers Tg and ultimately they replace the Li^+ close^ environment (gels with liquid-like conductivity). Safety is still an incentive to get a solvent-free electrolyte working at (sub)ambient temperature. Most recent progresses come from establishing some order [(liquid)crystal, chain orientation, chirality]. The conductivity in this case decouples from Tg, initially thought to be an inevitable barrier.

  3. Solid-state NMR studies of ion dynamics in proton-conducting polymers and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Gang

    High resolution solid state 1H NMR is used to investigate proton mobility of Nafion, Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketones(S-PEEK) and their composites, which provides better understanding of their proton conductivities. Proton exchange between sulfonic acid groups and water was observed in these materials. The proton mobility is dependent on both the temperature and the water content. Variable temperature experiments were used to determine the activation energy for proton transportation which generally increases with decrease in hydration level. The preparation of Nafion/SiO2 composites can cause large difference in proton diffusion coefficients and proton conductivities in dried states. This indicates that the amount of dopants needs to be optimized to minimize the blocking of proton diffusion pathways by dopant particles. Detailed information on the control of surface hydroxyl groups in Nafion/SiO2 is obtained through the combination of 29Si and 1H NMR. Although hydrated Nafion/ZrP composites show reduced proton activation energy, they present lower proton conductivity at 35 °C than unmodified Nafion. For composites dried at 160 °C, both the conversion of monohydrogen phosphate into pyrophosphate and the protonation of monohydrogen phosphate have been observed, which could be one of reasons for the decreased proton conductivity after rehydration. Under high humidification, a single or multiple sulfonic acid proton environments was observed in S-PEEKs, which explains the small proton conductivity difference between some of S-PEEKs. However, the observed conductivity difference for S-PEEKs cast from different solvents was attributed to distinct mobilities of polymer chains. In the crosslinked S-PEEK, not all the crosslinkers of ethylene glycol are fully crosslinked. Proton exchange between residual sulfonic acid and hydroxyls of the crosslinker was observed, which is the primary reason that the crosslinked S-PEEK, with very low residual degree of sulfonation (13 %), still shows proton conductivity comparable to those of S-PEEKs.

  4. Towards tunable sensitivity of electrical property to strain for conductive polymer composites based on thermoplastic elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Liu, Siyao; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaoyu; Ji, Mizhi; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2013-06-26

    The use of conductive polymer composites (CPCs) as strain sensors has been widely investigated and various resistivity-strain sensitivities are desirable for different applications. In this study, the use of mixed carbon fillers and functionalized carbon nanotubes was demonstrated to be vital for preparing thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based strain sensors with tunable sensitivity. To understand the strain sensing behavior, we carried out scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), mechanical test, and rheology-electrical measurement. Hybrid fillers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon black (CB) could reduce the entanglement in conductive network structure, thus increase the resistivity-strain sensitivity. Furthermore, incorporation of additional functionalized MWNTs in the CPCs could enhance the interfacial interaction between nanofillers and TPU, leading to further increase in sensitivity. Through such a simple method, strain sensors could be efficiently fabricated with large strain-sensing capability (strain as large as 200%) and a wide range of strain sensitivity (gauge factor ranging from 5 to 140238). Finally, the exponential revolution of resistive response to strain was fitted with a model based on tunneling theory by Simmons. It was observed that the change in tunneling distance and the number of conductive pathways could be accelerated significantly by adjusting conductive network structure and interfacial interaction. This study provides a guideline for the preparation of high-performance CPC strain sensors with a large range of resistivity-strain sensitivity. PMID:23713404

  5. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation in p-type PVA/CuI polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Makled

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available PVA/CuI polymer composite samples have been prepared and subjected to characterizations using FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC analysis, ac spectroscopy and dc conduction. The FT-IR spectral analysis shows remarkable variation of the absorption peak positions whereas DSC illustrates a little decrease of both glass transition temperature, Tg, and crystallization fraction, ?, with increasing CuI concentration. An increase of dc conductivity for PVA/CuI nano composite by increasing CuI concentration is recoded up to 15 wt%, besides it obeys Arhenuis plot with an activation energy in the range 0.54–1.32 eV. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity showed power law with an exponent 0.33 < s < 0.69 which predicts hopping conduction mechanism. The frequency dependence of both dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss obeys Debye dispersion relations in wide range of temperatures and frequency. Significant values of dipole relaxation time obtained which are thermally activated with activation energies in the range 0.33–0.87 eV. A significant value of hopping distance in the range 3.4–1.2 nm is estimated in agreement with the value of Bohr radius of the exciton.

  6. Effect of propylene carbonate and dimethylformamide on ionic conductivity of P(ECH-EO) based polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new plasticized polymer electrolyte composed of poly(epichlorohydrin-ethyleneoxide) (P(ECH-EO)) as host polymer, mixture of ?-butyrolactone (?-BL) and propylenecarbonate (PC), ?-butyrolactone (?-BL) and dimethylformamide (DMF) as plasticizer and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) as salt were prepared by simple solution casting technique. The structure and the surface morphological characterization were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized optical microscopic (POM) measurements respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was carried out on the plasticized polymer electrolyte to observe the change in transition temperature caused by the addition of two different plasticizers (PC and DMF). The thermal stability of the plasticized polymer electrolyte was studied by TG/DTA and found as the plasticizer content increases the thermal stability of the film decreased. Impedance spectroscopy technique was used to study the mode of ion conduction in the plasticized polymer electrolyte. The highest ionic conductivity is found to be 5.8 × 10?4 S cm?1 at 303 K for DMF plasticized polymer electrolyte. The electrochemical stability of the plasticized polymer electrolyte has been studied by cyclic voltammetry using aluminum (Al) as the blocking electrodes. The films were found to be electrochemically stable till 1.2 V.

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Chemically Deposited Single and Bi-layered Conducting Polymer Coatings on Mild Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Mobin; Nelofar, Tanveer.

    2011-07-19

    Full Text Available The emeraldine base (EB) was synthesized by chemically oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride aqueous medium. The polymer was chemically deposited on mild steel specimens using tetra methyl urea (TMU) as solvent through solvent evaporation method. The coat [...] ing of polypyrrole (PPy) on carbon steel was deposited by chemical polymerization. A bi-layered polymer coating comprising of inner coat of PPy with top coat of EB (PPy/EB) was also deposited on mild steel following identical procedure. The deposited EB, PPy and PPy/EB coatings were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The anticorrosive properties of single and bi-layered coatings was investigated in major corrosive environments such as 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl solution, artificial seawater, distilled water, tap water and open atmosphere by conducting various corrosion tests which include: immersion test, open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and atmospheric exposure test. The results of immersion tests showed that the PPy/EB coating gave best protection in all media under investigation, the protection efficiency being in the range of 72 to 79% after 30 days of immersion. The result of OCP measurements showed significant positive shift in the corrosion potential for single as well as bi-layered coatings in all corrosive medium under investigation; the bi-layered coating showing more positive corrosion potential. The potentiodynamic polarization studies also confirmed lower corrosion rates for PPy/EB coating than the single polymer coatings.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Chemically Deposited Single and Bi-layered Conducting Polymer Coatings on Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mobin

    Full Text Available The emeraldine base (EB was synthesized by chemically oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride aqueous medium. The polymer was chemically deposited on mild steel specimens using tetra methyl urea (TMU as solvent through solvent evaporation method. The coating of polypyrrole (PPy on carbon steel was deposited by chemical polymerization. A bi-layered polymer coating comprising of inner coat of PPy with top coat of EB (PPy/EB was also deposited on mild steel following identical procedure. The deposited EB, PPy and PPy/EB coatings were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The anticorrosive properties of single and bi-layered coatings was investigated in major corrosive environments such as 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl solution, artificial seawater, distilled water, tap water and open atmosphere by conducting various corrosion tests which include: immersion test, open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and atmospheric exposure test. The results of immersion tests showed that the PPy/EB coating gave best protection in all media under investigation, the protection efficiency being in the range of 72 to 79% after 30 days of immersion. The result of OCP measurements showed significant positive shift in the corrosion potential for single as well as bi-layered coatings in all corrosive medium under investigation; the bi-layered coating showing more positive corrosion potential. The potentiodynamic polarization studies also confirmed lower corrosion rates for PPy/EB coating than the single polymer coatings.

  9. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 ?m were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range between ?200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 ?F cm?2) compared to other thin film microelectrode materials. Finally, we use constant potential amperometry to measure the release of transmitters from a group of PC 12 cells. The results show how the current response decreases for a series of stimulations with high K+ buffer.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio A., Beleze; Aldo J. G., Zarbin.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são relatadas e discutidas a síntese e a caracterização de dois materiais híbridos orgânico-inorgânico, formados entre o ácido antimônico cristalino (AAC), como fração inorgânica, e dois polímeros condutores (polipirrol e polianilina) como fração orgânica. Os híbridos foram obtidos a [...] partir da polimerização oxidativa in situ dos monômeros, utilizando-se o próprio AAC como agente oxidante, a partir da redução dos átomos de Sb(V) presentes em sua estrutura. Os materiais foram caracterizados por espectroscopias infravermelho e Raman, voltametria cíclica, difratometria de raios-X, análise elementar CHN e espectroscopia de ressonância paramagnética eletrônica. Os resultados evidenciaram que ambos os polímeros foram formados em sua forma oxidada, com a própria estrutura do AAC atuando como contra-íon. Abstract in english In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA) and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V) present [...] in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  11. Li+ conducting polymer electrolyte based on ionic liquid for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer electrolyte (PE), based on PVdF-co-HFP polymer network and MePrPipNTf2 + LiNTf2 ionic liquid (MePrPip: N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium cation, NTf2 is bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide anion) was prepared. PE contained small amounts of vinylene carbonate. The performance of metallic-lithium and graphite (G) anodes working together with the electrolyte were tested with the use of: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic charging/discharging and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specific conductance of the membrane was ca. 4 mS cm?1 at 25 °C with activation energy of 14.35 kJ mol?1. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the charged/discharged graphite anodes differed in morphology from the pristine material. The surface of graphite flakes was covered with small crystals with a diameter of ca. 1 ?m (the solid electrolyte interface, SEI). When the graphite anode was soaked with the 1 M LiPF6 solution in PC + DMC (propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively), before the G|PE|Li cell assembling, its reversible capacity was ca. 340 mAh g?1 (after the 50th cycle)

  12. Inkjet-printed silver conductors using silver nitrate ink and their electrical contacts with conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a low-cost and direct-writing silver metallization process based on drop-on-demand inkjet printing technique. Silver nitrate dissolved in the mixture of water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a metal precursor for metallization. The fabricated silver films on polyimide substrate were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical measurements. The experimental results show that the inkjet-printed silver tracks have well-defined shapes. The resistivity of the printed silver tracks is around 1.5x10-5 ?.cm, one order of magnitude larger than that of bulk silver, which is attributed to the porosities as well as the residual impurities. Two conducting polymers (CP), sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) and poly(ethylene dioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT/PSS), were inkjet-printed on the surface of the silver tracks to study electrical properties of the Ag-polymer contacts. The current-voltage measurement results show that the printed Ag-PEDOT/PSS and Ag-SPANi contacts exhibit 'ohmic' behavior

  13. Modern generation of polymer electrolytes based on lithium conductive imidazole salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzicki, L.; Kasprzyk, M.; Kuziak, K.; Zukowska, G.Z.; Bukowska, M.; Marcinek, M.; Szczecinski, P.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Armand, M. [LRCS, University de Picardie Jules Verne, UMR 6007 CNRS, 33 rue de Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper the application of completely new generation imidazole-derived salts in a model polymer electrolyte is described. As a polymer matrix, two types of liquid low molecular weight PEO analogues e.g. dimethyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) of 500 g mol{sup -1} average molar mass (PEGDME500) and methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) of 350 g mol{sup -1} average molar mass (PEGME350) were used. Room temperature conductivities measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were found to be as high as 10{sup -3}-10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} in the 0.1-1 mol dm{sup -3} range of salt concentrations. Li{sup +} transference numbers higher than 0.5 were measured and calculated using the Bruce-Vincent method. For a complete electrochemical characterization the interphase resistance stability over time was carefully monitored for a period of 30 days. Structural analysis and interactions between electrolyte components were done by Raman spectroscopy. Fuoss-Kraus semiempirical method was applied for estimation of free ions and ionic agglomerates showing that fraction of ionic agglomerates for salt concentration of 0.1-1 mol dm{sup -3} is much lower than in electrolytes containing LiClO{sub 4} in corresponding concentrations. (author)

  14. Polymer/Pristine Graphene Based Composites: From Emulsions to Strong, Electrically Conducting Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltornist, Steven; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Xu, Thomas; Dobrynin, Andrey; Adamson, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    The unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of graphene make it a perfect candidate for applications in graphene/graphite based polymer composites, yet challenges due to the lack of solubility of pristine graphene/graphite in water, common organic solvents, and polymer solutions and melts have limited its practical utilization. Here we report a scalable and environmentally friendly technique to form water-in-oil type emulsions stabilized by a graphitic skin consisting of overlapping pristine graphene sheets that enables the synthesis of open cell foams containing a continuous graphitic skin network. At the heart of our technique is the strong attraction of graphene to high-energy oil and water interfaces. This allows for the creation of stable water-in-oil emulsions with controlled droplet size and overlapping graphene sheets playing the role of surfactant by covering the droplet surface and stabilizing the interfaces with a thin graphitic skin. These emulsions are used as templates for the synthesis of the open cell foams with densities below 0.35 g/cm3 and exhibiting remarkable mechanical and electrical properties including compressive moduli up to ~ 100 MPa, compressive strengths of over 8.3 MPa, and bulk conductivities approaching 7 S/m.

  15. Nanojunction between fullerene and one-dimensional conductive polymer on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Masato; Okawa, Yuji; Joachim, Christian; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2014-12-23

    Bottom-up creation of huge molecular complexes by covalently interconnecting functional molecules and conductive polymers is a key technology for constructing nanoscale electronic circuits. In this study, we have created an array of molecule-polymer nanojunctions from C60 molecules and polydiacetylene (PDA) nanowires at designated positions on solid surfaces by controlling self-assemblies and intermolecular chemical reactions of molecular ingredients predeposited onto the surfaces. In the proposed method, the construction of each nanojunction spontaneously proceeds via two types of chemical reactions: a chain polymerization among self-assembled diacetylene compound molecules for creating a single PDA nanowire and a subsequent cycloaddition reaction between the propagating forefront part of the PDA backbone and a single C60 molecule adsorbed on the surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy has proved that the C60 molecule is covalently connected to each end of the ?-conjugated PDA backbone. Furthermore, the decrease in the energy gap of the C60 molecule in nanojunctions is observed as compared with that of pristine C60 molecules, which is considered to be due to the covalent interaction between the PDA edge and the C60 molecule. PMID:25469761

  16. An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Rahman, Md Aminur; Do, Minh Hien; Ban, Changill; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2010-03-15

    An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the conducting polymer (poly 5, 2': 5', 2''-terthiophene-3'-carboxyl acid (poly-TTCA)) layer. The AuNPs, dendrimers, and CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the polymer layer in order to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor probes. The particle sizes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobilization of dendrimers, CdS, and anti-CAT were confirmed using energy disruptive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. The detection of CAP was based on the competitive immuno-interaction between the free- and labeled-CAP for active sites of the anti-CAT. Hydrazine was used as the label for CAP, and it electrochemically catalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) at -0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a linear range of CAP detection between 50 pg/mL and 950 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 45 pg/mL. The immunosensor was examined in real meat samples for the analysis of CAP. PMID:20116233

  17. Optimization of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell employing a nanocrystal-polymer composite electrolyte modified with water and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell employing a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PEO-PVDF)/TiO2 gel electrolyte modified by various concentrations of water and ethanol is described. It is shown that the introduction of water and ethanol prevents the crystallization of the polymer matrix, and enhances the free I-/I3- concentration and the networks for ion transportation in the electrolyte, thus leading to an improvement in conductivity. A high energy conversion efficiency of about 5.8% is achieved by controlling the additive concentration in the electrolyte. Optimization of the additive-modified electrolyte performance has been obtained by studying the cross-linking behavior of water and ethanol with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and viscosity measurements, and the electrical conduction behavior of the electrolyte with impedance spectra measurements.

  18. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell

  19. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

  20. Electrical and electrochemical properties of magnesium ion conducting composite gel polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G P; Hashmi, S A [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Agrawal, R C, E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.i [School of Studies in Physics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur-492010, Chhattisgarh (India)

    2010-06-30

    The effect of micro- and nano-sized MgO and nano-sized SiO{sub 2} dispersion on the electrical and electrochemical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) based Mg{sup 2+} ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte has been investigated. The gel electrolytes have been characterized using electrical conductivity, cationic transport number (t{sub +}) measurements and cyclic voltammetry. A two-maxima feature has been observed in the 'conductivity versus composition' curve at {approx}3 wt% and 10-15 wt% of the filler contents. The highest conductivity has been obtained for the SiO{sub 2} dispersed gel electrolyte of {approx}1 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for 3 wt% and {approx}9 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 15 wt% content. The value of 't{sub +}' is found to be enhanced substantially with increasing amount of MgO (both micro- and nanoparticles), whereas in the case of SiO{sub 2} dispersion the value does not increase substantially. The highest 't{sub +}' value of {approx}0.44 has been obtained for the addition of 10 wt% MgO nanoparticles. The enhancement in 't{sub +}' is explained on the basis of the formation of space-charge regions due to the presence of MgO : Mg{sup 2+}-like species, which supports Mg{sup 2+} ion motion. A substantial increase in the amount of anodic and cathodic peak currents is observed due to the addition of nano-sized MgO particles in the gel polymer electrolyte, whereas in the cases of micrometre-sized MgO and nano-sized SiO{sub 2} the enhancement is not significant. The enhancement in conductivity in SiO{sub 2} dispersed nanocomposite gel electrolyte is predominantly due to anionic motion.