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1

The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

2

Incidence of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to observe the incidence of multiple myeloma in the population of Nagasaki City from 1973 to 1982, and to assess any influence caused by A-bomb exposure, 85 cases of myeloma have been collected and analysed. Informatively, 48 cases of this number were A-bomb survivors. Among the middle-aged cases, the crude incidence rates of myeloma in the exposed group were found to be higher than those in the non-exposed group. Further, the relative risk of myeloma was higher in A-bomb survivors and this tendency become more pronounced in the those who were within 2 km of the epicenter of the blast. The age-adjusted relative risk in male and female A-bomb survivors was 1.59 and 1.68 respectively, but no significant differences were noted. (author)

3

The cancer registry in Nagasaki City, with atomic bomb survivors data, 1973-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tumor registry program in Nagasaki City was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population and a tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. According to the chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City, an increasing trend was shown in males for cancer of the colon, rectum, lung, urinary bladder, and for all sites combined, and, in females for cancer of the colon, pancreas, and breast. No decreasing trend was observed for any site in males, while a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. In comparison with age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in other prefectures and cities in 1979, the rates in Nagasaki City are high for both males and females. Sites with a tendency for high rates, in Nagasaki City, are, for males, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and lymphoid tissue, and for females, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, lung, breast, and lymphoid tissue. From these data, it is necessary to ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors than in nonexposed persons. According to the Nagasaki City tumor and tissue registry data for 1973 - 77, the crude incidence rate and relative risk for several cancers were higher in A-bomb survivors and well correlated with the radiation dose. However, the adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only frelative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes. Histopathological difference between cancer tissue of A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons was not detected. In general, it is premature to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences of malignancy between A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons, although an increase in cancer incidence and mortality is a recognized late effect of exposure to A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

4

The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

5

The cancer registry in Nagasaki city with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the establishment of the tumor registry program in Nagasaki City; it was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population. The tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. Chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City are examined for various cancers in males; a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. From these data, the authors ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed persons. The adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes of the A-bomb survivors

6

The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

7

Numerical variation of teeth in the wild house musk shrew Suncus murinus captured from Nagasaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild populations of Suncus murinus from Nagasaki were thought to be extinct, although specimens from Nagasaki are kept at the National Science Museum, Tokyo. Variation in the number of teeth, including both congenital and postnatal absence, was observed in 25 of 85 individuals. All 25 abnormal individuals were checked using a micro-CT unit to document the presence or absence of embedded teeth and any traits of postnatal absence. Four of these had congenitally absent teeth, whereas the rest showed signs of postnatal absence. There was no significant difference in the ratio of length of tooth group P(4)M(3) against palatal length between individuals with congenital absent teeth and normal ones. Because S. murinus in captivity shows a high rate of periodontal disease, we suggest that the high rate of postnatal absence of teeth in the wild population is due to oral diseases such as periodontal disease or other traumatic factors. PMID:18314092

Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Kawai, Tatsushi; Hanamura, Hajime; Koyasu, Kazuhiro

2008-07-01

8

Statistical investigation of a-bomb survivors health examinations in Nagasaki City, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical investigation was made as to results of hematological examinations in male A-bomb survivors picked out from 60,000 A-bomb survivors (the total cases, 600,000) in Nagasaki city who received general health examinations from 1965 to 1979. With respect to the exposed who were young at the time of exposure (their age; under 12 years, the mean age at the time of exposure; 6.4 years, and the mean age at the time of examinations; 33.7 years), there was a significant difference in hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure between a short-distance group exposed within 1.8 km from the center of explosion and a long-distance group exposed over 2.4 km between the age 30 and 35 years. Systematic changes in erythrocyte count and white cell count were not found. With respect to the exposed who had grown up at the time of exposure (the age at the time of exposure; over 13 years, the mean age at the time of exposure; 29.7 years, and the mean age at the time of examinations; 57.0 years), erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and white cell count in both a short-distance group and a long-distance group tended to decrease in accordance with aging. Systolic blood pressure elevated in accordance with aging, but there was not a significant difference between both groups. (Tsunoda, M.)

9

Epidemiological studies of colon cancer in Nagasaki city with special reference to radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies were conducted on 223 cases of colon cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1977, with particular emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence in atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different as compared with nonexposed persons. By site, cancer of the sigmoid colon was more frequent in males than in females, especially in older people, but no difference was seen by exposure status. Histologically, about 90% was relatively differentiated adeno-carcinoma and showed no difference by age, sex or exposure status. (author)

10

Studies on the growth of the middle school children, whose parents were exposed to the atom bomb in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagasaki junior high school students were divided into Group E (children of the exposed) and Group O (children of the non-exposed). Their growth was compared according to the degree of exposure received by their parents. An interim result was reported. There was a big difference between the height and body weight of students who lived in the center of the city and those who lived in the suburbs. These values also differed greatly according to family occupations. When the difference in physique between Group E and Group O was considered, districts and occupations were restricted. A tendency of O>E only was observed in an investigation of all subjects in all districts. A significant difference between the groups was observed in regard to some grades when districts and occupations were restricted. A scattering analysis of physique values, regarded as independent variables, of the same students according to grade revealed a difference in O>E in height, especially in boys. (Tsunoda, M.)

11

Japan's Four Major Smart Cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

NONE

2012-11-15

12

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among Atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in clinical laboratory findings before death were investigated based on the data in 621 patients (323 males and 298 females) extracted from the Scientific Data Center of Atomic-Bomb Disasters, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. A decrease in hemoglobin level and an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate began to occur 2 years before death in many of the patients with cancer, cerebrovascular disease or heart disease. (Namekawa, K.)

13

Epidemiology of large intestinal cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973?1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies were conducted on 1098 cases of large intestinal cancer (615 cases of colon cancer and 483 cases of rectum cancer) registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence in atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that in non-exposed persons, but the incidence in persons exposed at a young age tends to be higher, particularly the incidence of colon cancer in females. By site, about 56% of all colorectal cases investigated were shown to originate in the colon. In the colon, sigmoid cancer was the most frequent in both males and females, but there was no difference with regard to exposure status. In a comparison of the incidence during the first and second halves of the period examined, colorectal cancer revealed a general increasing trend, particularly for colon cancer in males and rectum cancer in females. Histologically, over 90% was differentiated adenocarcinoma and showed no difference by age, sex or exposure status. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that musinous carcinoma was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in non-exposed people. Further analysis of the incidence, site and histologic type of colorectal cancer, especially in the group exposed at a young age, is necessary. (author)

14

Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost 35 years have passed since the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were exposed to atomic bombs in August, 1945. In the same year, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was organized. The quality of radiation received by the survivors in the 2 cities differed appreciably. The Hiroshima bomb was composed of 235U so that from 15 - 30% of the radiation released was in the form of neutron particles, and the remainder was gamma. 239Pu bomb of Nagasaki released almost pure gamma radiation. Before 1950, an increased number of the axial opacity of the lenses of eyes was noted in many of the exposed survivors, and such lesions found more in Hiroshima was related to the dose. Maternal radiation exposure during the first 15 weeks of gestation caused small head children. Prenatal exposure to more than 50 rad in Hiroshima was associated with the eventual reduction in stature, 1.8 to 2.3 cm shorter in the average height at the age of 17. The chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were significantly increased in the persons who had been exposed to high dose of radiation while in utero or at any time after birth. Thyroid tumors occurred more frequently among the survivors exposed to high dose than those who received little or no radiation. The histologic types of radiation-related tumors were unique. The risk of lung cancer in the exposed persons continued to be high, regardless of smoking. Predominant leukemia in exposed children waredominant leukemia in exposed children was acute lymphoblastic, and in adults, it is chronic granulocytic leukemia. (Yamashita, S.)

15

Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

16

Semen quality of 1559 young men from four cities in Japan: a cross-sectional population-based study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To provide information of semen quality among normal young Japanese men and indicate the frequency of reduced semen quality. Design Cross-sectional, coordinated studies of Japanese young men included from university areas. The men had to be 18–24?years, and both the man and his mother had to be born in Japan. Background information was obtained from questionnaires. Standardised and quality-controlled semen analyses were performed, reproductive hormones analysed centrally and results adjusted for confounding factors. Setting Four study centres in Japan (Kawasaki, Osaka, Kanazawa and Nagasaki). Participants 1559 men, median age 21.1?years, included during 1999–2003. Outcome measures Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and reproductive hormone levels. Results Median sperm concentration was 59 (95% CI 52 to 68) million/ml, and 9% and 31.9% had less than 15 and 40 million/ml, respectively. Median percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa was 9.6 (8.8 to 10.3)%. Small, but statistically significant, differences were detected for both semen and reproductive hormone variables between men from the four cities. Overall, the semen values were lower than those of a reference population of 792 fertile Japanese men. Conclusions Assuming that the investigated men were representative for young Japanese men, a significant proportion of the population had suboptimal semen quality with reduced fertility potential, and as a group they had lower semen quality than fertile men. However, the definitive role—if any—of low semen quality for subfertility and low fertility rates remain to be investigated. PMID:23633418

Iwamoto, Teruaki; Nozawa, Shiari; Mieno, Makiko Naka; Yamakawa, Katsunori; Baba, Katsuyuki; Yoshiike, Miki; Namiki, Mikio; Koh, Eitetsu; Kanaya, Jiro; Okuyama, Akihiko; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Jiro; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Vierula, Matti; Toppari, Jorma; Jørgensen, Niels

2013-01-01

17

[Development of an advanced education program for community medicine by Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel education program about team medical care in collaboration with pharmacist and nurse. In order to perform this program smoothly, we established "Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium (Nagasaki University, The University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki Pharmaceutical Association, Nagasaki Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Nagasaki Nursing Association, Nagasaki Medical Association, Nagasaki Prefectural Government)". In this symposium, we introduce contents about university education program and life learning program of the project. PMID:22214573

Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi

2012-01-01

18

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis

19

Los Alamos, Hiroshima, Nagasaki - a personal recollection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, a physicist participating in the Manhattan Project, recalls his experiences and work in the laboratories at the time which marked the onset of the nuclear era, the construction of the first uranium and plutonium bombs in Los Alamos, and the hidious effects shown to the world by the nuclear bombing of Japan. His thoughts and memories presented 50 years after the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and now that the Cold War has ended, call for a global ban of nuclear weapons. (orig.)

20

Study on Comparison of Citizens’ Environmental Awareness Among Four Cities in China and Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to compare governmental activities and citizens’ consciousness in environmental protection in China and Japan. The citizens’ environmental awareness and the relevant acts were examined by designing and distributing questionnaires to citizens in urban and rural cities in China and Japan. The results demonstrate that there are more differences between the two countries than between urban and rural cities inside the same country. Chinese people pay more attention to local sev...

Wang, Peng; Fujii, Masahiko; Lin, Yingchao

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

22

Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

23

Delayed damage from fallout and activated radiation of A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In connection with an alternative approach to assess the risk of delayed damage from fallout and activated radiation of the A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the total doses absorbed were determined separately for the '0-9 rad T65D' and 'NIC' (Not In City) groups of individuals. The risk of organ damage from loosely ionising radiation in the low dose range was calculated on the basis of quantitative observations for mammary carcinomas and leukemia. Account was further taken of predictions about the dose-response relationship, including theories supporting the likelihood of linear and quadratic curves for the two organ lesions under investigation. The incidence of these diseases as indicated by the overall cancer index for Japan was taken as a control value. (ECB)

24

Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m-3 and 40.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m-3 and 13.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

25

Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan

26

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

27

Surface Albedo in Cities: Case Study in Sapporo and Tokyo, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface albedo of two large cities in Japan was measured using a pyranometer mounted on a helicopter to avoid the bidirectional reflectance distribution. The daytime albedo was 0.12 in the cities, which was less than that of a nearby forest (0.16). The albedo was dependent on building structure in the cities; the albedo was lower in areas with more buildings, and decreased as the aspect ratio of street canyons increased. There are two reasons for this dependency: the multiple reflection of radiation in the building canopy, as has been shown in many previous studies, and the sparse vegetation in urban areas. These two factors concurrently determine the albedo in a real city, where the vegetation amount decreases as the plan roof ratio increases.

Sugawara, Hirofumi; Takamura, Tamio

2014-12-01

28

Survey of dental radiology among RERF, Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed to assess the frequency and type of dental radiography performed during 2-week periods from March through June 1976. Patients radiographed were categorized as members of the Adult Health Study (AHS), non-AHS (Extended Life Span Study other than AHS) sample and general populations, and also categorized as Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Handbook holders (the A-bomb exposed) and nonholders of the handbook (the nonexposed). All of these groups were variously compared. They were mainly exposed to conventional oral radiography, and to a much lesser extent(3%-5%) to orthopantomography. The exposure frequencies for oral radiography per caput per year in Hiroshima were 1.2 for AHS, 0.9 for non-AHS, and 0.9 for the general population. In Nagasaki, these were 0.9, 1.1, and 0.6, respectively. The oral radiography exposure rates for the A-bomb exposed were 0.6 in Hiroshima and 0.5 in Nagasaki. For the nonexposed, these were 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Thus, the exposure rates were about 1.5 times greater among the nonexposed than the exposed in both cities. The analysis of technical factors used revealed that, compared to a previous survey (1970), many dental radiographic machines were fitted with open-end cylindrical cones. Because of this a reduction in exposure dose can be inferred. Data obtained in the present investigation are essential for subsequent estimations of exposure doses of the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. (author)

29

Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 this year, the names of 5,501 hibakusha who had died during the past year were added to the Hiroshima Cenotaph, making the total number of deaths of Hiroshima's hibakusha 269,446. In Nagasaki on August 9, 3,114 names were added to make a total of 152,276. Adding the death tolls from both cities, the total of Hiroshima/Nagasaki deaths as of August, 2010 was 421,722. The total number of hibakusha, including the living and dead, is at least 649,287, and keeping in mind those unaccounted for, it is probably more. Simply put, approximately, one third of hibakusha survive, speaking and living on behalf of all.No matter how many years go by, the number of people who were in or under the fiery clouds from the explosion of the two atomic-bombs, the first to be used against people, will always be the same, whether alive or dead. It includes those who perished instantly at and near the hypocentres, as Maruki Iri and Maruki Toshi described above,4 without ever being able to speak or even comprehend their own experience. It is for those dead and living people that we younger generations are acting and speaking on behalf of, and from whom we learn. And having fewer, or even none, of those surviving people will in no way diminish the significance of our actions, our shared memories, and our knowledge, to be inherited by future generations, so that never again will nuclear weapons be used, in combat or in experiments.

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-12-01

30

High-speed inter-city transport system in Japan: Past, present and the future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the advent of Shinkansen in 1964, a unique inter-city transport network in which high-speed railway and air transport developed simultaneously, emerged in Japan, and modal choice between them based on price and speed has been manifested. Looking ahead, the next generation high-speed transport, the Maglev, is on the horizon. In order to capture the full impacts of the Maglev technology, simulation analysis with a dynamic spatial nested logit model was conducted. From this, we identified a...

Yamaguchi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi

2009-01-01

31

Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. The enormous difference in dose rates between the atomic bombings and the radiation sources used for calibration experiments may also have some effect on some dosimetric systems or on some biological systems. Although it may be difficult to quantify some of these uncertainties, it is extremely important to keep all these uncertain factors in mind when analysing the atomic bomb effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Japan, medical X-ray examination is compulsory in schools, factories and companies. With certain diseases such as tuberculosis and some diseases of the lung and digestive systems extensive X-ray examinations may be conducted and periodically repeated. Survivors with a relatively low dose of high dose rate atomic bomb radiation must also have received some relatively low dose of low dose rate medical X-ray radiation. In other words, they must have received both high dose rate radiation and low dose rate radiation. There is a possibility of non-probabilistic uncertainties involved in estimation of the relative proportion of the two types of radiation and even greater uncertainties would be involved in the estimation of the organ doses. In these uncertainties both randomness and fuzziness may be involved.Under such situation it may be important to consider application of fuzzy theory for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiations, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. Therefore, the possibility of the combined effects of all these direct factors and the indirect factors such as those mentioned above must be considered in interpreting the effect of the atomic b

32

Nagasaki symposium on Chernobyl: Update and future. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication contains valuable, up-to-date scientific information on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, obtained from almost all the leading international and national organizations. The purpose of the Nagasaki symposium on Chernobyl was to present and discuss the available data from all over the world independent of psychological, social, economic, and political bias, and thus to make conclusions that would further medical science. To this end, the symposium consisted of two sessions, 'Chernobyl update' and 'Chernobyl in the future'. Along with the proceedings of these two sessions, the proceedings of the Japan-NIS Chernobyl thyroid symposium, held in December 1993 are included in this book. (orig.)

33

Sensitivity of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic inferences to dosimetric parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the influence that various possible values of physical dosimetric parameters can have on radiobiological interpretations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic data is analyzed. Neutron RBE's (relative biological effectiveness values) calculated from the resulting dose-response relationships are found to be most sensitive to variations in device yield, with a sensitivity ratio (SR) of 1.2 (12% change resulting from 10% parameter change). The RBE's are also very sensitive to neutron output alone (SR = 0.7) of the Hiroshima device. They are least sensitive to gamma-ray output (SR = 0.4) of the Hiroshima device. Gamma-ray risk coefficients, which depend only on Nagasaki data, are inversely proportional to the gamma-ray output (and device yield) of the Nagasaki device. On the basis of the assumption that neutrons could not have been protective, results from this analysis suggest limits on certain physical parameters - device yields and gamma-ray outputs for both cities. No such limits, however, are found for reasonable values of Hiroshima neutron output, and this parameter has the potential for strongly influencing inferences regarding neutron RBE

34

Japan'  

...Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable Nuclear Crisis - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews ...MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2011 / March / 14 / Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable Nuclear Crisis Posted on March 14, 2011 Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable ... Nuclear Crisis Where the first two catastrophes were natural and unpredictable, a nuclear meltdown is entirely unnatural and entirely predictable. by Dr....Oil spill showed the inherent dangers of the oil economy, the current nuclear crisis in Japan shows that nuclear power is not a solution....

35

Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m3 and 26.5 Bq/m3, respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

36

Hiroshima-Nagasaki exhibition towards a world of peace opens September 5 at the Vienna International Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document gives information about the Hiroshima-Nagasaki exhibition organized by the two cities together with IAEA, CTBTO and UN Office in Vienna in September 2000 at the Vienna International Centre, with the occasion of the fifty-fifth anniversary of the dropping of the atomic bombs on these cities

37

JAPAN  

Science.gov (United States)

DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-04

38

Malignant tumors and multiple primary malignant tumors of the atomic-bombed survivors in Nagasaki by autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of 10,674 bodies necropsied in Nagasaki district during 32 years period after World War II, 9,302 were selected, and their malignant tumors and multiple primary malignant tumors were discussed. They were divided into 4 groups, the group exposed within 1,000 m from the hypocenter, the group exposed within 2,000 m, the group exposed over 2,000 m + the group who entered the city after the explosion, and the non-exposed group who were born before the explosion. The percentage of cases of malignant tumors (4,784) was 51.4%, which was almost the same as the average in Japan. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors (112 cases of double cancer and 7 cases of triple cancer) was 2.48% of all malignant tumors, and it did not increase particularly. The incidence of malignant tumors and multiple malignant tumors tended to increase with the age. The incidence of malignant tumors was a little high in the group exposed within 1,000 m, and the incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer was high in the group exposed near the hypocenter in Nagasaki as same as in Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors was markedly high in the group exposed near the hypocenter. This tendency was also shown in Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors was also high in women. In the group exposed near the hypocenter, there were many cases of digestive cancer or thyroid cancer combined with cancers of other organs. Multiple malignant cancer combined with leukemia was found onlancer combined with leukemia was found only in one case. There were many combinations of cancer with cancer, but there was not a relation between a-bomb exposure and cancer or sarcoma. The time of onset of multiple malignant tumors was different in many cases of the exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

39

Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

40

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear research in Japan was restarted in 1952 after World War II. The legislation of the Atomic Energy Act in 1955 provided the basis nuclear development of the country. The nuclear engineering course was inaugurated in the Department of Applied Physics of Tokai University in 1956 as the first nuclear engineering department in Japanese Universities. Major organizations like the Science and Technology Agency (STA), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and others started around 1955. The first reactor, JRR-1 went critical in 1957 at JAERI. Since then, various research reactors including general research reactors, educational or training reactors, and test reactors have been constructed. Japan is the only country who has faced the devastating effects of nuclear weapons in World War II. Despite this terrible situation, Japan has embraced the peaceful use of nuclear technology to provide a substantial portion of its electricity. In 1966, its first commercial reactor started operation. Today, the country has 55 power reactors in operation, generating about 30% of the country's total electricity production. Japan plans to increase this to 41% in 2014. Needs for nuclear scientists and engineers are closely related to the national nuclear programmes. The current status of nuclear power generation in Japan has been given above. Following are the main nuclear activities that need a nuclear technical work force in the country: - Safe operation of current nuclear power - Safe operation of current nuclear power plants; - Development of new power and research reactors; - Activities related to front end and back end sectors of fuel cycle; - Nuclear related activities as fusion power development. The public perception plays an important role in attracting talent towards this particular discipline of education. Unfortunately, since the Chernobyl incident, the nuclear community is facing negative public perception regarding the risks of a nuclear accident. Specifically, in Japan, a series of local incidents have been reported in mass media such as; the sodium leak in Monju in December 1995, fire at the asphalt solidification plant in March 1996, invention of inspection data of spent fuel transportation casks in October 1997, criticality accident at JCO in Tokaimura in September 1999. The latest one, the JCO accident, is extremely serious because it seems to suggest at present a deteriorating situation of Japanese technologies. These accidents affected the public perception of nuclear education which reinforced the decreasing trends of nuclear engineering in the universities. According to a CECD report in 2002, in Japan, there has been an imbalance between graduated students and recruitment i.e. the number of students graduated from a nuclear related master's course were almost 300 while the recruitment by nuclear engineering was about 70 every year. In order to prevent nuclear education from a serious downturn, during the 1990s, the government changed its policy for national universities having nuclear engineering departments and restructured nuclear education. Major changes are to emphasize education on a graduate school level. The department for undergraduate education has been renamed at most of the universities. Nuclear engineering departments have disappeared from national universities except for Hokkaido University. Instead, the key words for the new department names are energy, quantum system and science. The key words, nuclear or nuclear energy are retained in the names of the graduate courses. Engineering fundamentals have been emphasized in undergraduate education. Moreover, nuclear engineering was projected as a study to utilize nuclear reactions for the welfare of mankind. Major nuclear reactions are fission and fusion, but dealing with other nuclear reactions is within the category of nuclear engineering. Since April 2004, all national universities have been reformed

 
 
 
 
41

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG)

42

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

43

Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan): outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs) with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac et...

Hayashi, Hoei; Ujike, Yoshihito

2005-01-01

44

Incidence of leukemia in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki October 1950 - December 1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present analysis of leukemia incidence is confined to 189 cases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The analysis again demonstrates that the risk of all types of leukemia has increased with dose in both cities except among individuals who received less than 100 rad in kerma total dose in Nagasaki. The shape of the dose-response curve is different in the two cities and between the two major types of leukemia (acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia), though the average marrow total dose is quite similar in each total kerma dose class in the two cities. The present findings are quite consistent with those described in the previous report. The excess risk among survivors who received 100 rad or more kerma total dose has gradually declined with years after exposure in both cities. It had disappeared among Nagasaki survivors by 1970 (25 years after exposure) but the risk was still high even after 1970 among exposed survivors in Hiroshima who were 30 years of age or older ATB. The leukemogenic effect of radiation differs in relation to dose, age ATB, and duration after exposure between Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The analysis has again supported previous observations that the leukemogenic effect of radiation in those individuals exposed at younger ages ATB was greater in the early postbomb period and declined more rapidly in subsequent years, while the effect in older individuals ATB appeared later and persisted longer. (author)

45

Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan: outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

Hayashi,Hoei

2005-04-01

46

Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

47

Initial field survey report of the 2011 East Japan Tsunami in Sendai, Natori and Iwanuma Cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The East Japan Earthquake (Mw 9.0) and associated tsunami struck the Pacific coast of eastern Japan on March 11th, 2011 at 2:46 p.m. (Japan Standard Time). Maximum run-up heights reached about 40 m along the Sanriku region’s coast and around 10 m on the Sendai coastline. The coasts of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures in particular were badly damaged, and a considerable amount of time and money will be required to restore these areas. Tsunami inundation up to 5 km inlan...

Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Chague?-goff, Catherine; Fujino, Shigehiro; Goff, James; Jaffe, Bruce; Nishimura, Yuichi; Richmond, Bruce; Szczucin?ski, Witold; Tappin, David R.; Witter, Rob; Yulianto, Eko

2011-01-01

48

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000-200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population

49

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000 - 200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population. (author)

50

Circular asymmetry of cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry of cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method, and controlling for age at the time of the bomb, sex, follow-up year, distance from hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that cancer mortality in Hiroshima was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer was higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki also cancer mortality, notably lung cancer mortality, was significantly higher in the westerly direction. Discussed are possible sources of the asymmetry, particularly the possibilities of asymmetry of epidemiologic variables and of radiation exposure, and indications for future work. (author)

51

Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors) are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 ...

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-01-01

52

Statement at Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, 15 December 2012, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When disaster struck at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the IAEA offered immediate assistance to the Plant operators and the Japanese authorities as they tried to regain control over the reactors. We began sharing verified information about the accident with the world and helped to channel international assistance to Japan. A high priority was to do everything we could to help ensure the safety of the people of Japan, especially those in Fukushima Prefecture who were most affected by the crisis. I went to Japan a few days after the accident to meet then Prime Minister Kan. I assured him that Japan could count on the support of the entire international community and stressed the need for full transparency. I sent a number of expert teams to assist in areas such as radiological monitoring, food safety, and analysis of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Plant. Four IAEA teams undertook measurements in the Fukushima region, both inside and outside the 20 km evacuation zone. An expert on marine monitoring programmes from the IAEA Environmental Laboratories helped to monitor seawater. Joint teams from the IAEA and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization advised local authorities on technical issues related to food safety and agricultural countermeasures. Some important environmental readings at key points in the unfolding crisis were taken by IAEA experts. Our presence helped to provide reassurance to the people of Japan at a very critical time. It is now one year and nine months since the accident. In that time, we have continued to work closely with Japan. Today, I will sign an important document with Governor Sato of Fukushima Prefecture on our cooperation in the coming years. The IAEA will work closely with the Prefecture in radiation monitoring and decontamination. We will also implement human health projects with Fukushima Medical University.

53

Isotope dilution sector-field ICPMS combined with extraction chromatography for rapid determination of Am-241 in soils derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in 1945  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On August 9, 1945, a Pu atomic bomb was exploded over Nagasaki, Japan. In contrast to the comprehensive studies on Pu, a great knowledge gap exists on the concentration variation and the mobility of 241Am. We investigated the current status of 241Am and Pu isotope concentrations in surface soils of Nagasaki using isotope dilution sector-field ICPMS. We reconstructed the variation of 241Am in the past 6 decades. We found that 241Am has reached maximum activity in 2008, and 241Am/239+240Pu activity ratio, similar to 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio, was a useful fingerprint for environmental radioactivity study. (author)

54

The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester…

Orr, Thomas, Ed.

55

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

56

Reevaluation of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry system currently used in analyzing the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data was developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their T65 system was called into question following a new study of the incidence of leukemia in the two cities. H.H. Rossi and C.W. Mays concluded that a worker continually exposed to neutrons at the maximum permissible level recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) stood a chance of developing leukemia that was several times higher than for the average unexposed person. Rossi and Mays recommended the NCRP reduce its permissible doses for neutrons by an order of magnitude. One of the reponses of the NCRP to this recommendation was to set up a Task Group on Atomic-Bomb Dosimetry, under the chairmanship of H.O. Wyckoff, to review the dosimetry for the data that had led to the Rossi-Mays conclusion. This paper reviews the work of this task group which has been divided into 5 areas: bomb spectra, fireball gamma rays, radiation transport, buildings, and depth dose

57

Radiation transport calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods and data used to calculate the Hiroshima and Nagasaki prompt and delayed radiation fluences for the DS02 study represent a considerable improvement over the methods and data used for the DS86 study. During the intervening sixteen years, enhancements were made in the radiation transport codes and the nuclear data that are used to describe the migration of the neutrons and gamma rays from the bomb location through the intervening air and into, out of and off the surface of the ground. Increased computational capability permits better descriptions of the weapon source spectra and their extension to higher neutron and photon energies. The weapon leakage spectra were generated in the same neutron and gamma-ray energy structures that were used in the transport calculations. No interpolation or fitting of the leakage spectra was necessary, assuring consistent and accurate representations of the data were used in the transport calculations. (J.P.N.)

58

Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

59

Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868. PMID:12234412

Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

2002-10-01

60

A method for Bayesian estimation of the probability of local intensity for some cities in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seismic hazard in terms of probability of exceedance of a given intensity in a given time span,was assessed for 12 sites in Japan.The method does not use any attenuation law.Instead,the dependence of local intensity on epicentral intensity I 0 is calculated directly from the data,using a Bayesian model.According to this model (Meroni et al., 1994),local intensity follows the binomial distribution with parameters (I 0 ,p ).The parameter p is considered as a random variable following the Beta d...

Koravos, G. C.; Galanis, O. C.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Musson, R. M. W.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Historical Documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There are two sets of documents and reports. The first covers before the bombing and includes the scienctists petitions to prevent the bombing, the bombing order, and the Potsdam Declaration. The second covers the aftermath of the bombings. These documents include: White House Press Release on Hiroshima, Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Griffith, Christopher

62

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical x-ray exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All large hospitals and 40% of the small hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed for the X-ray examinations they performed during a 2-week period in 1974. The frequency and type of X-ray examinations received by members of the RERF Adult Health Study (AHS) and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) extended, excluding AHS (Non-AHS), were compared with the general population in each city. Radiologic exposures of patients at hospitals and clinics were most frequent among the general populations. The number of patients, examinations, and exposures per caput per year in each population were estimated. Since the age distribution differed among the three populations, comparisons were made only after correcting for age. On a per caput per year basis exposure frequency was relatively high in the AHS and low in the general populations, a reflection of the greater number of patients in the AHS than in the general populations. Non-AHS males in Nagasaki had a higher X-ray examination rate than did the AHS subjects. The others in the Non-AHS did not differ appreciably from the general populations. There was no difference among these groups according to body sites examined. (author)

63

Medical and dental radiological trends in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yearly trends in radiologic practice in Japan were estimated on the basis of annual dampling surveys of medical and dental examinations and treatments covered by Government-Managed Health Insurance, modified by (1) the ratio of all insurance-covered medical care to that covered by this insurance, and (2) the ratio of insured plus privately purchased medical care to insured medical care alone. All radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations, x-ray films consumed, radiation treatments, and dental x-ray examinations, increased during the 10 years prior to this study. In 1970, numbers of examinations or treatments per capita were 1.2 for radiography, 0.1 for fluoroscopy, 0.06 for radiation treatments, and 0.3 for dental radiography, respectively. The dental radiography data were interpolated to Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cities and compared with those submitted by institutions in both cities in October 1970. The Reports of Annual Medical Care Survey, the Fund Office's Annual Reports, and the Annual Reports of the National Health Insurance were main sources for this estimate and provided more than 90% of the necessary information. (auth.)

64

Neutrons confirmed in Nagasaki and at the Army pulsed radiation Facility: Implications for Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent reports have clearly demonstrated that large discrepancies exist between neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and activation calculated using the current dosimetry system DS86. The reports confirmed previous results for cobalt activation in Hiroshoma that suggested problems, and this has spurred a joint U.S.-Japan effort to identify the source(s) of this discrepancy. Here, new results are presented that appear to eliminate both the measurements of neutron activation and the DS86 air-transport calculations are potential sources of the discrepancy in Hiroshima. Computer transport of DS86 fission neutrons through large distances of air was validated using concrete samples from Nagasaki and chloride detectors placed at selected distances from a bare uranium reactor. In both cases accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure thermal neutron activation via the reaction. 35Cl(n, ?)36Cl (half-life, 301,000 years). Good agreement was observed between measurements of neutron activation and DS86 calculations for Nagasaki, as well as for the reactor experiment. Thus the large discrepancy observed in Hiroshima appears not to be due to uncertainties in air-transport calculations or in the activation measurements; rather, the discrepancy appears to be due to uncertainties associated with the Hiroshima bomb itself. 15 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

65

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.3 contains tables of SMR for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. (J.P.N.)

66

Spatial genetic structure of Salvia japonica Thunb. population (Labiatae in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Osaka Prefecture, Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salvia japonica Thunb. (Japan: Aki-no-Tamurasou was a perennial herb, protandry insect-pollinated, and self-incompatible with water-flow dispersed seed. We used allozyme loci to know genetic structure of a S. japonica population. We examined spatial autocorrelation of individuals within five distance class with Moran`s I statistics. The area of observation was in plot 5x5 m2 in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Katano, Osaka Prefecture. The 8 loci examined were polymorphic, namely Aat-1, Aat-2, Pgi, Mnr, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Idh, and 6-Pgd. Low levels of genetic diversity were found for 29 individuals. Ninety-two percent cases for all of distance class were similar?and only 8% (8 of 105 cases were significant differences. This result indicated that the spatial genetic distributions in all of distance classes were all similar and no spatial autocorrelation of genotypes. Only in distance class 2 had one significantly positive cases (0.15 in Pgm-1c, indicating that spatial genetic structure in the study population was weak at most. In the other word that spatial pattern of the individuals within S. japonica population was random. Overall of the result was indicating that genotype among individuals of S. japonica changed distantly and tended to isolation in distance by seed dispersed.

SUDARMONO

2005-10-01

67

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.6 contains tables of SMR for multiple myeloma. (J.P.N.)

68

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.7 contains tables of SMR for malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. (J.P.N.)

69

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.4 contains tables of SMR for malignant lymphoma. (J.P.N.)

70

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.5 contains tables of SMR for non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL). (J.P.N.)

71

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No. 1 contains tables of SMR for all malignant neoplasms. (J.P.N.)

72

Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

73

Radiation-driven migration: the case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

2014-09-01

74

Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

Hui Zhang

2014-09-01

75

Mutagenicity of surface soil from residential areas in Kyoto city, Japan, and identification of major mutagens.  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the mutagenic potential of surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto city, surface soil samples were collected twice or three times from 12 sites, and their organic extracts were examined by the Ames/Salmonella assay. Almost all (>92%) samples showed mutagenicity in TA98 without and with S9 mix, and 8/25 (32%) samples showed high (1000-10,000 revertants/g of soil) or extreme (>10,000 revertants/g of soil) activity. Moreover, to identify the major mutagens in surface soil in Kyoto, a soil sample was collected at a site where soil contamination with mutagens was severe and continual. The soil extract, which showed potent mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix, was fractionated by diverse column chromatography methods. Five major mutagenic constituents were isolated and identified to be 1,6-dinitropyrene (DNP), 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP), 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (DNF), and 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (DNBeP) by co-chromatography using high performance liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. Contribution ratios of 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP to total mutagenicity of the soil extract in TA98 without S9 mix were 3, 10, 10, 10, and 6%, respectively. These nitroarenes were detected in surface soil samples collected from four different residential sites in other prefectures, and their contribution ratios to soil mutagenicity were from 0.7 to 22%. These results suggest that surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto was widely contaminated with mutagens and there were some sites where surface soils were heavily polluted. 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP may be major mutagenic constituents that contaminate surface soil in Kyoto and other residential areas. PMID:17964847

Watanabe, Tetsushi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Konishi, Erina; Hoshino, Yuri; Hasei, Tomohiro; Asanoma, Masaharu; Hirayama, Teruhisa; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2008-01-01

76

Hiroshima-Remembered.com: Documents about the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Science.gov (United States)

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These include: Potsdam Declaration, White House Press Release on Hiroshima, an Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, The Voice of Hibakusha, The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District, The Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuclear Explosions , On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project - Albert Einstein, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Griffith, Christopher

77

Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

78

The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

79

Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

80

Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

Seo, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

 
 
 
 
81

Estimation of neutron fluence of Nagasaki atomic bomb by 152Eu activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity of 152Eu in stones and rocks around the hypocenter in Nagasaki city was counted, and influences of atomic bomb neutrons were estimated. Stones and rocks were gathered in the area within 790 m in radius from the hypocenter. As the amount of generated 152Eu depends on the existence rate of Eu in rocks and stones, the amount of Eu was determined. Stones were cut in 5 cm in thickness from the surface, and the distribution of 152Eu at 30 cm in depth of stones was also investigated. The amount of Eu contained in 26 stones was 1.06 ppm on an average, and the standard deviation was 0.48 ppm. Radioactivity of 152Eu in stones was calculated into specific radioactivity of Eu/mg. The result showed that the distribution of specific radioactivity of 152Eu in exposed stones was the maximum around the surface of stones, and it decreased according to the depth from the surface of stones. Specific radioactivity of 152Eu decreased according to the distance from the hypocenter. Relaxation length where specific radioactivity of 152Eu decreased to 1/e was 239 m, and it was consistent in the range in errors with the reported value of relaxation length where absorbed dose of neutrons of atomic bomb in Nagasaki decreased to 1/e. (Tsunoda, M.)

82

Seismic reflection profiling between the Tone canal and eastern Saitama city in the Kanto plain, central Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Thick sedimentary layers down to the basement top affect the strong ground motions generated by earthquakes. Underground surveys are necessary to obtain the fundamental knowledge of active structures and earthquake hazard mitigation especially in thick sedimentary plains. The AIST carried out seismic reflection surveys almost in the middle of the Kanto plain, the metropolitan area and the largest plain of Japan. The survey lines are totally about 20km long between the Tone canal and eastern Saitama city. We used a 4-ton mini-vibrator or a 17-ton vibrator in the eastern and central parts (Yoshikawa line, 14km) and two 17-ton vibrators in the western part (Saitama line, 6km) as seismic source. Intentionally, a 3.5km part is left for future survey between the central part and the western part because of densely population. The data quality is poorer in the westernmost part of the Saitama line than in other part. This is perhaps due to energy attenuation in the surface sediments. A conventional data processing was applied to the seismic data. In the Yoshikawa line, the basement top is 1.1s deep in two way time at the eastern edge and gradually deepens westward to 1.6s at the western edge. In the Saitama line, the basement top is not clearly defined due to multiple reflectors and poorer data quality, but it is considered deeper than 2.1s. The basement depths in the seismic sections are almost compatible with those of well data near the seismic lines. The difference of depth is at least 0.5s (about 500m) in the gap between the two lines. Layers upper than the basement are horizontal or dip westward more gently than the basement top in both lines. On the basis of above results, a fault or inclined top of the basement is inferred in the gap and it has been inactive since the formation of upper sediments.

Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ito, S.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokota, T.; Yokokura, T.; Tanaka, A.

2004-12-01

83

Kioto, la antigua capital del Japón y el modelo chino de la ciudad ideal / Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan and the Chinese model of the ideal city  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ciudad de Kioto fue fundada en el año 794 cuando el emperador Kanmu decidió construir la nueva capital del Japón y abandonar la ciudad de Nara. Esta contribución recorre la historia de la fundación de Kioto en relación con los principios ideales de la ciudad china. Este modelo de cuadricula const [...] ituyó por algunos siglos una referencia cultural importante para la construcción de nuevas ciudades en Japón. Hoy la ciudad de Kioto conserva la antigua estructura urbana reticular y esta contribución tiene como finalidad proponer una reflexión sobre la influencia de la cultura china en Japón desde el 550 d.C. (período Kofun) y evaluar el desarollo de esta cultura en el tiempo y su presencia actual en la forma urbana y en su arquitectura, sobre todo religiosa. El modelo ideal de la ciudad china después de 1200 años desde la fundación de Kioto se conserva y constituye una referencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la ciudad contemporánea en estrecha relación con el paisaje. Abstract in english The city of Kyoto was founded in 794 when Emperor Kanmu decided to build a new capital of Japan and to leave the city of Nara. This paper traces the history of the foundation of Kyoto in relation to the normative principles of the Chinese city. For centuries, this urban model, with orthogonal axes, [...] had constituted a major cultural reference for the construction of new cities in Japan. Today, the city of Kyoto preserves the old urban orthogonal structure and this contribution aims to propose a reflection on the influence of Chinese culture in Japan since 550 AD (Kofun period) and to consider the development of this culture over time and its current presence in urban form; especially religious architecture. The ideal model of the Chinese city, after 1200 years since the foundation of Kyoto, is preserved and constitutes a fundamental reference for the development of the contemporary city in strict relationship with the landscape.

Olimpia, Niglio.

2014-04-01

84

Prevalence and Genetic Properties of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Definitive Phage Type 104 Isolated from Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus House Rats in Yokohama City, Japan? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the intestinal contents of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus house rats captured at two buildings, designated buildings J and YS, in Yokohama City, Japan. From October 1997 to September 1998, 52 of 339 (15.3%) house rats were found to carry Salmonella serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (DT104). In building J, 26 of 161 (16.1%) house rats carried DT104 over the 1-year study period, compared to 26 of 178 (14.6%) rats in buil...

Yokoyama, Eiji; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hara, Siro; Sata, Shin; Kuroki, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko

2007-01-01

85

Stable isotopic reconstructions of adult diets and infant feeding practices during urbanization of the city of Edo in 17th century Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urbanization of the city of Edo, the capital of premodern Japan, has been assumed to be not as a result of natural increase but that of in-migration although this assumption has never been verified. To obtain information on natural fertility in Edo, we analyzed stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 46 adult and 84 subadult human skeletons excavated from the Hitotsubashi site (1657-1683 AD: the early Edo period), Tokyo, Japan and reconstructed their breastfeeding period, one of the most important determinants of fertility. Adult females are significantly more depleted in (15) N by 0.7‰ than adult males, suggesting a dietary differentiation between sexes and/or the effect of pregnancy. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that supplementary foods were introduced around the age of 0.2 years and weaning ended around 3.1 years, which agrees with descriptions in various historical documents of the period. The duration of breastfeeding in the Hitotsubashi population was relatively longer than those in modern industrial and traditional societies and four previously reported populations in medieval and in the industrial England. As later weaning closely associates with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, our data suggest a lower natural fertility for the Hitotsubashi population. Assuming that the proportion of married people was also lower in the major cities of the earlier Edo period, our results support the assumption that Edo developed and increased its population by attracting immigrants during urbanization. PMID:24374954

Tsutaya, Takumi; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

2014-04-01

86

What can we learn from Hiroshima and Nagasaki?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic studies on children born to survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki began in 1946, and are still continuing. This is the first and only 'big science' project ever launched in human genetics. It has taught us much on design and performance of such studies. So far, no clearcut genetic ill-effects if irradiation on the progeny of survivors could be demonstrated. (author)

87

Measurement of neutron-induced 152Eu radioactivity in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced radioactivity from neutrons released at the time of the bomb (ATB) still remains near the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Data useful for estimating neutron fluence and air tissue kerma of neutrons ATB will be obtained by measuring 152Eu remaining in rocks of river embankments near the hypocenter. Samples were collected from stone embankments on both sides of rivers within a radius of 1000 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The samples were collected from 13 sites in Hiroshima and 76 sites in Nagasaki and were mainly from depths to 10 mm from the surface; however, some samples were collected from depths of 300-465 mm to check the neutron energy. Each sample was dried, pulverized, and placed in a plastic container, and the gamma ray spectrum was analyzed using a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. As the level of 152Eu produced in rocks is dependent on the Eu content, its content was quantitated by the activation analysis method using the nuclear reactor at Kyoto University. Since the value of the Eu content of the rocks had a relatively wide variation, measurements were conducted on all samples. The spatial distribution, which showed the relation between the value of 152Eu activity on the surface of the rocks and the slant distance, was obtained and the relaxation length was calculated. The depth distribution of 152Eu activity in rocks was obtained for three different cases located at the hypocenter. (fferent cases located at the hypocenter. (author)

88

Japan Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.

89

Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted. PMID:25074597

Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

2014-01-01

90

Potential plant biomass estimation through field measurement and vegetation cover mapping using ALOS satellite imagery: Case study of Fujiyoshida City, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass is a renewable energy source that is produced from living or recently living biological material. Vegetation type and biomass are considered important components that affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The ground assessment of biomass, however, has been found to be insufficient due to the limited spatial extent of surveys. This study aims to integrate field measurements with satellite remote sensing data for regional biomass mapping in Fujiyoshida City, Japan. Fujiyoshida City is situated on the northern slope of Mt. Fuji and includes a large area of forest land, named "Onshirin Forest". From 2011 to 2012, a field survey was conducted to calculate the biomass potential in situ as ground-truthed data. After fieldwork, ortho-rectified ALOS data with an AVNIR-2 scene (22 May 2008) was used to map the vegetation cover types. Japanese larch, Japanese red pine, mixed forest, other forest, grass, bare soil and roads, and buildings were identified using supervised classification. The total plant biomass was 163,252 tons. The biomass potential estimate from field measurements was extrapolated to the large forest area in Fujiyoshida City to estimate the potential plant biomass of specific vegetation cover types.

Doko, T.; Chen, W.; Qazi, O.; Okabayashi, S.; Meguro, D.; Kanamori, T.; Jones, M.; Kawata, C.; Yagasaki, T.; Ichinose, T.; Sasaki, K.

2014-03-01

91

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

92

Late Quaternary climates of East Asia deduced from the total organic carbon contents of cored sediments (MD179-3304, 3312) off Joetsu City, Japan Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations are analyzed with high temporal resolution (ca. 100 years) for cores MD179-3304 and MD179-3312 taken from the Japan Sea off Joetsu City. The temporal changes in TOC and TN concentrations vary quasi-regularly in similar patterns. The age models are formed on the basis of the dates of 14C dating, marker tephra beds, TL layers, and marine isotope events with depth. TOC concentration is high in MIS 1 and 5, low in MIS 2 and 4, and slightly elevated in MIS 3 with frequent short fluctuations. This general trend is very similar to LR04 curve, except for the reduced dominance of TOC around the MIS 5.5 substage. As shown typically in MIS 3, there are many peaks of TOC in a short interval. The details of these TOC peaks can be correlated with the warm interstadials of the Greenland ice core. We can identify a sawtooth-like decreasing trend of TOC in MIS 3. In contrast, the decreasing trend of ?18O in the ice core corresponds to an increasing trend of TOC in MIS 5. The most plausible explanation for the correlation of climate changes between East Asia and the North Atlantic is oscillation of the Arctic polar front through time. The detailed correspondence of TOC concentrations of the Japan Sea sediments to other common paleoclimate proxies means that the TOC concentrations of these sediments is an excellent paleoclimate record in Far East Asia, although the genetic relationship between air temperature and biological productivity in the Japan Sea is as yet unknown.

Urabe, Tasuku; Kuriyama, Manato; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kumon, Fujio

2014-08-01

93

Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for free-in-air tissue kerma due to initial radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uncertainty estimates and cross correlations by range/survivor have been calculated for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki free-in-air (FIA) tissue kerma obtained from two-dimensional air/ground transport calculations. The uncertainties due to modeling parameter and basic nuclear transport data uncertainties were calculated for 700-, 1000-, and 1500-m ground ranges. Only the FIA tissue kerma due to initial radiation was treated in the analysis; the uncertainties associated with terrain and building shielding and phantom attenuation were not considered in this study. Uncertainties of --20% were obtained for the prompt neutron and secondary gamma kerma and 30% for the prompt gamma kerma at both cities. The uncertainties on the total prompt kerma at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are --18 and 15%, respectively. The estimated uncertainties vary only slightly by ground range and are fairly highly correlated. The total prompt kerma uncertainties are dominated by the secondary gamma uncertainties, which in turn are dominated by the modeling parameter uncertainties, particularly those associated with the weapon yield and radiation sources

94

Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

95

Back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: epidemiological study for 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There have been a few studies regarding detail of back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) as prevalence, location, and severity. The condition of back pain in adolescents with IS was clarified based on a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey, targeting a total of 43,630 pupils, including all elementary school pupils from the fourth to sixth grade (21,893 pupils) and all junior high pupils from the first to third year (21,737 pupils) in Niigata City (population of ...

Sato, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Toru; Ito, Takui; Morita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Ren; Endo, Naoto; Tanabe, Naohito

2011-01-01

96

Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

97

Evaluation of river pollution of neonicotinoids in Osaka City (Japan) by LC/MS with dopant-assisted photoionisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) source for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was applied to determine neonicotinoid pesticides in the aquatic environment. Dopant-assisted APPI was very effective in the ionisation of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids generated protonated molecules in APPI with high sensitivity, while adduct ions, such as sodiated molecules, were predominantly generated in conventional electrospray ionisation. The ionisation of neonicotinoids was confirmed by ultra-high-resolution MS. An analytical method coupled with solid phase extraction was developed for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam. Method detection limits were 0.47 to 2.1 ng L(-1) for six neonicotinoids. Dinotefuran was the most frequent and highest among the neonicotinoids examined in the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan. The maximum concentration of dinotefuran was 220 ng L(-1). Given the toxicity of neonicotinoids for aquatic creatures, the concentrations observed here were substantially low. The change in concentrations was temporally coincident with the period of the neonicotinoid application. Although rapid photodegradation and some degradation products have been elucidated, the degradation products in the aquatic environment were not identified in the present study. PMID:22767100

Yamamoto, Atsushi; Terao, Tomoko; Hisatomi, Hirotaka; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

2012-08-01

98

Thyroid diseases among atomic bombs survivors in Nagasaki, 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an interim report of the population-based study on the incidence of thyroid diseases in Nagasaki prefecture. Included in this study were 885 patients receiving detailed examination for suspected thyroid disease, consisting of 575 exposed persons (Group I) and 310 non-exposed persons (Group II). Thyroid diseases occurred in 157 (27 %) of Group I and in 65 (21 %) of Group II. According to the type of thyroid disease, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, non-toxic uninodular and multinodular goiters were more common in Group I than Group II. The incidence of hypothyroidism was higher in Group I than Group II; however, the incidence of Graves' disease or chronic thyroiditis did not differ in the two groups. A trend toward a slightly higher incidence of thyroid cyst was observed in Group I than Group II. (Namekawa, K.).

Yokoyama, Naokata; Toyama, Kyoko; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Morimoto, Isao; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu

1986-11-01

99

Thyroid diseases among atomic bombs survivors in Nagasaki, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an interim report of the population-based study on the incidence of thyroid diseases in Nagasaki prefecture. Included in this study were 885 patients receiving detailed examination for suspected thyroid disease, consisting of 575 exposed persons (Group I) and 310 non-exposed persons (Group II). Thyroid diseases occurred in 157 (27 %) of Group I and in 65 (21 %) of Group II. According to the type of thyroid disease, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, non-toxic uninodular and multinodular goiters were more common in Group I than Group II. The incidence of hypothyroidism was higher in Group I than Group II; however, the incidence of Graves' disease or chronic thyroiditis did not differ in the two groups. A trend toward a slightly higher incidence of thyroid cyst was observed in Group I than Group II. (Namekawa, K.)

100

Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Landslide-susceptibility analysis using light detection and ranging-derived digital elevation models and logistic regression models: a case study in Mizunami City, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

To mitigate the damage caused by landslide disasters, different mathematical models have been applied to predict landslide spatial distribution characteristics. Although some researchers have achieved excellent results around the world, few studies take the spatial resolution of the database into account. Four types of digital elevation model (DEM) ranging from 2 to 20 m derived from light detection and ranging technology to analyze landslide susceptibility in Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, are presented. Fifteen landslide-causative factors are considered using a logistic-regression approach to create models for landslide potential analysis. Pre-existing landslide bodies are used to evaluate the performance of the four models. The results revealed that the 20-m model had the highest classification accuracy (71.9%), whereas the 2-m model had the lowest value (68.7%). In the 2-m model, 89.4% of the landslide bodies fit in the medium to very high categories. For the 20-m model, only 83.3% of the landslide bodies were concentrated in the medium to very high classes. When the cell size decreases from 20 to 2 m, the area under the relative operative characteristic increases from 0.68 to 0.77. Therefore, higher-resolution DEMs would provide better results for landslide-susceptibility mapping.

Wang, Liang-Jie; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji

2013-01-01

102

Investigation of indoor thermal environment, air quality, and energy consumption in a new detached houses of wood-frame construction in a small city in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors investigated indoor thermal environment, airtightness, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in thirteen new houses of wood-frame construction in a local city of Japan in the winter of 1985. All houses had thermally-insulated walls, ceilings, and floors, except for one house which had a concrete floor without insulation under the floor. Eight houses had concrete floors on the first level of the structure. Seven houses out of eight had hot-water pipes embedded in the concrete for floor heating and thermal insulation under the floor on the grade. Three houses out of seven also had fan coil units in the bedrooms on the second floor. The six other houses without floor heating had oil or gas local space heaters. The authors found differences in temperature profiles between the houses with floor heating and those with space heaters. The effective leakage area per floor area obtained by the fan pressurization method was distributed from 3.8 to 16 cm{sup 2}/m{sup 2}. The concentration measurements of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the living rooms showed that the two houses with unvented oil space heaters were more polluted than the other houses. The total annual amount of energy consumption was distributed from 46 to 100 GJ.

Yoshino, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Makita, Kazushi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Hasegawa, Fusao (Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai (Japan)); Utsumi, Yasuo (Miyagi National College of Technology, Natori (Japan)); Akabayashi, Shinichi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan))

1990-01-01

103

The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number observed in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture has been known by that the black rain fell after dropping atomic bomb. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number was measured in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture after dropping atomic bomb. This phenomenon differs from the general knowledge that the leukocyte number decreases by the radiation exposure. This has been noticed as a rare record confirmed by the residual radiation effect to the human body using the group data. (M.H.)

104

Fission-track age determination of accessory zircon from the Neogene-Tertiary tuff samples, around Sendai City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present work is to establish a time scale for the stratigraphic succession in and around Sendai on the basis of the age determination on the zircon crystals collected from tuffs. The fission-track age was obtained by the procedure of the track density of population registered on the zircon from each sample. Neogene-Tertiary formations are widely exposed in the area around Sendai City, and the stratigraphical studies of the area have been made by many workers. In this study, 1 rhyolite and 14 tuff samples were collected and classified according to the sampling areas. Volcanic rocks and tuff are proper dating samples, because the fission-track age of the minerals in these rocks may be equal to the age of sedimentation. The samples were crushed, washed, sieved, dried and separated chemically and magnetically, and zircon crystals were picked up. Etching with phosphoric acid, irradiation with thermal neutrons, and observation of fission tracks were made on the zircon crystals, meanwhile the principle of the fission-track dating is explained briefly. The fission-tracks on the zircon crystals used in this study were completely faded out by 1 hour heating at 7000C, therefore the annealing effect on tracks seems to be negligible. The annealing can be utilized to eliminate spontaneous fission-tracks. Concerning the accuracy of the age by fission-track dating, errors become larger as the age of samples is younger. The obtained age is given. (Kako, Iunger. The obtained age is given. (Kako, I.)

105

Comparison of cost-benefit analysis of nitrogen dioxide control in Tokyo, Japan with those in other countries and cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the economic effectiveness of past NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo, the authors compared the results of their cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of these controls with other investigations. The authors carried out a CBA of NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo using Freeman's benefit methodology and EPA and Dixon et al. cost methodologies and they compared their assumptions and results to work done by other researchers for other countries and cities, which were collected from the literature. The authors assumed 2 to 3 days duration per incidence of respiratory illness. Kenkel suggested 4.1 days and Dixon et al. assumed 2 weeks. They estimated avoided incidence per person in adults as 2.6 (upper limit UL 2.7; lower limit LL 2.4) and in children as 0.33 (UL 0.35; LL 0.30). Ostro estimated 0.20 for respiratory symptoms in adults from NO{sub 2} exposure, 5.2 for respiratory symptoms and 0.078 for asthma attacks in adults from particulates. The authors estimated work loss days (WLDs) per person for workers as 4.7 (UL 5.0; LL 4.4) and for working mothers as 0.61 (UL 0.66; LL 0.56). Shin et al.'s per-person estimates included 4.5 WLDs in Bangkok, 3.7 in Beijing, 2.3 in Shanghai, and 1.1 in Kuala Lumpur. They estimated the cost effectiveness of NO{sub 2} control in Tokyo to be $1,400/ton (UL $1,500; LL $1,300) for motor vehicles, $21,000/ton (UL $23,000; LL $19,000) for all NO{sub x} sources, and $91,000/ton (UL $98,000; LL $84,000) for stationary point sources. This compares to $240 to $1,500/ton in West Virginia for all NO{sub x} sources, $2,700/ton in northern Virginia from motor vehicles, $5,600/ton from motor vehicles in Virginia, and $17,000 to $26,000/ton from all NO{sub x} sources in the Chesapeake River Watershed. Herein, the benefits in Tokyo exceeded the costs by a ratio of approximately 6 to 1 (UL 7:1; LL 5:1).

Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H.

1999-07-01

106

Tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continued monitoring of tumor incidence is an important part of the surveillance of health effects of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) (formerly Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) has been engaged in the operation of tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These registries have been instrumental in studying risk of various specific cancer sites (thyroid, breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, and salivary gland) in a defined sample of Abomb survivors. A recent analysis of registry data revealed little basis for suspecting systematic biases of registry data (e.g., hospital-related, or diagnostic biases related to radiation dose) which may confound observed association of cancer and radiation. The analysis also showed similarities in relative risk of cancer based on incidence and mortality data. However, absolute risks estimated from mortality data may underestimate the true magnitude for certain cancer sites (including breast, stomach, lung, and uterus). The registry data are also useful in assessing secular trends of radiation-induced cancer incidence which are essential in determing the latency of cancer

107

Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were to small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable

108

Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

1984-05-01

109

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs

110

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

111

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-03-01

112

Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper presents the 36Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35Cl(n,?)36Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39K(n,?)36Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ? 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for 36Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima

113

Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

114

Estimation of humidity at various altitudes on the days of explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The moisture content of the air is an extremely important parameter in the dose calculation of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The leakage neutrons from the bombs collided with the atomic nucleus of air compositions to produce secondary gamma rays by neutron capture processes. In the present reevaluation of the A-bomb dose, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) group has used atmospheric conditions in several layers of air from ground zero to the burst point in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Also, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) group has calculated the A-bomb doses assuming the atmospheric condition at any altitude to be same as the surface condition. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the water vapour content from ground zero to the altitude of the burst point in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the time of the explosions

115

Characterization of atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) in a midsize city in Northern Japan: non-snow-clad period to snow-clad period comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected from three areas (commercial, residential and agricultural) in and near Akita City in northern Japan, from May - June 1996 (non-snow-clad period) and January - February 1997 (snow-clad period), over three days with a one-hour sampling interval for each area. The elemental composition and particle shape of TSP samples were determined and/or observed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In the hourly TSP samples collected during the non-snow-clad period, 23 elements were determined for each area, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe were the major components. On the other hand, 25 elements, excluding As and Rb, were found in the snow-clad period samples, and P, Ga, Nb and Mo were only found in the snow-clad-period samples. Dominant elements, i.e., major components, of the snow-clad period were the same as the non-snow-clad period. Comparing the arithmetic means of elemental concentrations in TSP for the non-snow-clad and snow-clad periods, in the commercial area the elemental concentrations in the snow-clad period were the same or lower than those in the non-snow-clad period, with the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti and Fe in particular being markedly lower. In the residential area the concentrations of Na, Mg and Cl were markedly higher in the snow-clad period than in the non-snow-clad period, whiriod than in the non-snow-clad period, while the concentrations of the other elements were the same or only slightly lower. In the agricultural area, the concentrations of Na and Cl were markedly higher in the snow-clad period relative to the non-snow-clad period, and the concentrations of the other elements, except for P, were low. The concentrations of the major elements and Pb were particularly low. Thus, in the residential and agricultural areas the effect of northwesterly winter wind on TSP can be observed by Cl, and it is conjectured that soil particles rising up into the air is inhibited by snow accumulation. Soil particles rising up into the air seems to be inhibited by snow accumulation in the commercial area as well. With the aid of SEM and EDX analysis, aggregates of diesel exhaust particles (DEP), soil particles and small silicon-rich spherical particles were observed in the non-snow-clad period samples for each area. In addition, small aluminum-rich and iron-rich spheres were observed during the non-snow-clad period in the commercial area. Zinc-rich fiber was observed during the non-snow-clad period in the residential area. (author)

116

 Smart Shrinking Sado: Development Strategies in Shrinking Cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapid urbanisation has resulted in shrinking cities around the world, and Japan is no exception. This thesis endeavours to understand the causes and consequences of, and prospects for, shrinking cities in Japan through a case study: the city of Sado. Sado faces the shrinking city phenomenon following deindustrialisation, deagriculturalisation and Japan‘s structure of high concentration. Within Sado, suburbanisation and peripherization is observed, draining the younger generation from the ce...

Taniguchi, Ryo

2009-01-01

117

Epidemiology of stomach cancer in Nagasaki city, with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted to ascertain whether or not the incidence of stomach cancer is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed populations. There were 2894 cases (1152 exposed and 1752 nonexposed) of stomach cancer registered during the ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The incidence of stomach cancer tend to be higher in male of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, and the incidence rate and relative risk showed a dose-dependent relationship, but no significant differences were noted. Comparison of the incidence rate between the earlier and later five years of the period examined revealed an increasing trend of incidence in male younger group (less than 59 years old) of atomic bomb survivors, despite the other groups in exposed and nonexposed population showed a decreasing trend. Analysis of histological type showed that, in female, the cancer of intestinal type (Lauren's type A) was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed people, but not significantly different. Further analysis of histological type of stomach cancer, high dose group and younger age exposed group are necessary. (author)

118

Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

119

Comparative proteome analysis of the extracellular proteins of two Haemophilus parasuis strains Nagasaki and SW114.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a comparative proteomics approach to distinguish between the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles of extracellular proteins in Nagasaki and SW114. Protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ten proteins unique to Nagasaki were putative adhesin AidA protein, putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (771aa), putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (780aa), protective surface antigen D15, 30S ribosomal protein S2, periplasmic serine protease do/hhoA-like protein, acid phosphatase, membrane protein, protein-disulfide isomerase, and iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Meanwhile, the two proteins unique to SW114 were C4-dicarboxylate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein and peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze the mRNA transcript levels of three randomly selected proteins. The afuA, AidA, and ompD15 genes encoding iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putative adhesin AidA protein and protective surface antigen D15 respectively demonstrated significantly higher mRNA transcript levels (39.606, 3.924, and 36.668, respectively) in Nagasaki than in SW114. These observations suggest the levels of differentially expressed proteins were directly proportional to their cellular mRNA levels. Three virulence-related proteins, namely, putative adhesin AidA protein, putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (771aa) and putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (780aa) were identified in Nagasaki. PMID:24657264

Wei, Xingliang; Cao, Sanjie; Zhang, Luhua; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qigui

2014-04-18

120

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10-4 per gamete per generation. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Hiroshima and Nagasaki initial radiations: delayed neutron contributions and comparison of calculated and measured cobalt activations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculated estimates of neutron doses received by atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have not included contributions from delayed neutrons emitted by fission products in the debris cloud, although the possibility of a significant contribution from this source has been suggested. In the present work, an established model accounting for gamma-ray kermas from these fission products is adapted to provide the desired neutron kerma estimates. Adaptations include use of explicit time dependence of neutron emitters, properly folded with the time-dependent phenomenology of the explosion itself, and detailed air-over-ground neutron transport with a source having an energy spectrum characteristic of these delayed neutrons. Results show that delayed neutrons are indeed negligible contributors to atomic-bomb survivor dosimetry, as well as to neutron activations at Hiroshima. About half the activation at Nagasaki, however, is due to the delayed component. Calculated activation of cobalt, a revision of previous estimates, is compared to measured values at Hiroshima and at Nagasaki. The causes of the substantial discrepancies are discussed and compared to previously reported discrepancies for sulfur activation. Additional investigation is recommended

122

Japan’s Economic Recession  

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Full Text Available Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not have any long term effect on the growth.In many respects Japan remains very unique among the developed countries. The country’s economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s has encouraged debate among the scholars to the significance of Japan’s economic past. It is widely seen as due to different model of development in areas such as industrial organisation, the role of the state, social institutions and history. Her appeal lies in the dramatic growth rates and economic transformation. Japan was first Asian country to break the western monopoly of modern industrialisation. Less than a generation ago, Japan was viewed an exemplary success story in terms of rapid economic growth and a model to be emulated by other developed and developing countries. Here I will argue that the Japanese economy suffers from severe problems that are not cyclical but structural in nature. Such structural problems are the most serious impediments to economic dynamism and the future long-run economic success of the country.

Kalim Siddiqui

2009-08-01

123

Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

2014-02-01

124

Residual radioactivity measurement in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the evaluation of DS86 neutron fluence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residual 152Eu activity produced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured in seven mineral samples located up to 1142 m from the epicenter. Europium was chemically separated from the sample and gamma-ray measurement was carried out with a well-type Ge detector. Deduced specific activities were compared with previous measurements and with activation calculation based on the DS86 neutron fluence. Present results are slightly higher than the calculation at far distances. However, systematic discrepancy as has been observed in Hiroshima is not clear. Further measurements for samples beyond 1000 m from the hypocenter are necessary to ensure the discrepancy problem. (author)

125

Residual radioactivity measurement in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the evaluation of DS86 neutron fluence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residual {sup 152}Eu activity produced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured in seven mineral samples located up to 1142 m from the epicenter. Europium was chemically separated from the sample and gamma-ray measurement was carried out with a well-type Ge detector. Deduced specific activities were compared with previous measurements and with activation calculation based on the DS86 neutron fluence. Present results are slightly higher than the calculation at far distances. However, systematic discrepancy as has been observed in Hiroshima is not clear. Further measurements for samples beyond 1000 m from the hypocenter are necessary to ensure the discrepancy problem. (author)

Shizuma, K.; Endo, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima Univ., Kasumi, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

2000-05-01

126

Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. When 140 A-bomb survivors, collected from 31 medical facilities in Nagasaki and its surrounding areas, were analyzed using logistic regression model based on the data of 66,276 A-bomb survivors, the incidence of skin cancer was found to be significantly lower in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter. This was also noted when confining to either men or women. Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors, available using DS85 dosimetry system, in the RERF-Life Span Study sample and RERF-Adult Health Study sample (1958-1985), 47 A-bomb survivors were found to have skin cancer. For them, higher incidence of skin cancer was associated with larger radiation doses. Dose-response relationship for skin cancer was linear. Twenty five of the 47 A-bomb survivors (53%) histologically had basal cell carcinoma. Since 1975, an increased rate in the incidence of skin cancer has been noticeable in A-bomb survivors exposed at ?2,500 m than those exposed at ?3,000 m. The number of excess cases of skin cancer was found to have been steadily increased since 1958. (N.K.)

127

Initial activities of a radiation emergency medical assistance team to Fukushima from Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an urgent response to serious radiological accidents in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the radiation emergency medical assistance team (REMAT) from Nagasaki University landed at Fukushima on March 14, 2011, two days after the initiation of radiation crisis by the hydrogen explosion at Unit-1 reactor. During a succession of unexpected disasters, REMAT members were involved in various activities for six days, such as setting the base for radiological triage at the Fukushima Medical University, considerations for administration of stable iodine, and risk communication with health care workers. This report briefly describes what happened around REMAT members and radiation doses measured during their activities. -- Highlights: ? The radiation emergency medical assistance team from Nagasaki was sent to Fukushima. ? The practical action level for body surface contamination was 100 kcpm. ? The ambient radiation dose in Fukushima drastically elevated on March 15, 2011. ? Higher than 10 kBq of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 were detected in soil samples. ? The effective dose of the team members ranged between 51.7 and 127.8 ?Sv in 6 days

128

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

129

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

130

Historical review of radiation research in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outline of the history of radiation research in Japan is written in connection with the names of researchers. Yoshio Nishina was a pioneer, who derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering of hard X-ray by free electrons. In 1935, the first nuclear experiment laboratory was constructed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Two cyclotrons, 26 in and 60 in pole face diameter, and a high voltage Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator were installed. Irradiation of insects and plants with fast neutrons was attempted to examine the biological effect. In August, 1945, atomic bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1950, radioisotopes were available. In early March, 1954, Bikini accident occurred. One fishing vessel was contaminated by radioactive fallout, and to investigate the effect of radioactivity, a committee consisted of investigators of physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, fisheries and geophysics was organized. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in June, 1956. Several institutions for the peaceful use of atomic energy were established. The hybrid spark chamber to image the distribution of ?-emitting isotopes on a plane surface was constructed in Nagoya University. As for the national project on food irradiation, one laboratory has played the role in irradiation techniques. Researches on radiation chemistry in universities, governmental and commercial organizations have been progressing steadily, and the machinbeen progressing steadily, and the machines for nanosecond to picosecond pulse radiolysis are working. (Yamashita, S.)

131

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2011-04-01

132

Statistical analysis of the late effect in the a-bomb survivors from the inpatient records of the internal department of Nagasaki A-Bomb Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical analysis was made as to inpatient records of internal department of Nagasaki A-bomb Hospital for 5 years between 1971 and 1975. It was not proved whether these records represented original A-bomb survivors precisely or not, because these records were not those of all A-bomb survivors. To investigate the total admission period according to age, the exposed and controls were divided into the 4 age groups: the age between 35 and 44 years, 45 and 54 years, 55 and 69 years, and over 70 years. As a result, the total admission period was significantly long in male A-bomb survivors over the age of 55 years. To investigate the total admission period according to exposure distance, the subjects were divided into 5 age groups starting from the age of 30 years every 10 years. The frequency of admission was significantly higher in male and female A-bomb survivors of middle and old ages exposed within 1.9 km than that in a long-distance group who were exposed over 2 km or entered the city after the explosion. (Tsunoda, M.)

133

A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

134

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical X-ray exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical factors used during radiological examinations performed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki medical institutions were analyzed. The most frequently performed examination was chest radiography, followed by upper GI series. More than half the radiographic exposures were from upper GI series due to the many spot films made during fluoroscopy. Comparison of the present survey results with those of a previous one showed that relatively high kVp, low mAs and mA, and smaller field sizes are now more widely used. Though there have been decreased in fluoroscopy times and tube currents over the past 10 years, the numbers of spot films used have increased. Based on these technical factors, tables of organ doses from fluoroscopic examinations were compiled. (author)

135

Revised estimates of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the summer of 1980, Loewe and Mendelsohn of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) released details of a complete but preliminary new free-field dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which was then finalized in the fall of 1980. This dosimetry was shown to have a major impact on the apparent relationship between leukemia incidence and radiation dose. The steps taken toward developing the LLNL dosimetry are discussed. These are (1) assessment of yields and computed bomb leakage spectra; (2) assumption of atmospheric conditions; (3) application of validation procedure to transport; (4) computation of prompt doses (source neutrons and source and secondary gammas); (5) evaluation and use of delayed (fission-product) gamma dose model; (6) comparison with in situ measurements; evaluation and reinterpretation of neutron activation dosimetry; (7) identification of origins of disagreement with T65 dosimetry; and (8) estimation of uncertainties

136

Recent re-assessments of the doses to survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to recalculations of the neutron output of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, re-assessments of the doses to survivors are under review. The details of the sources of radiation, bombs and detonations are given. This is followed by a discussion of the doses received by the survivors due to the immediate photon and neutron emission from the bomb and subsequent fireball, and the interactions of these radiations with air, ground and other shielding material. There remains considerable uncertainty in the results of these new calculations. The re-assessment is still in progress and will need to include recalculations of shielding factors from the effects of terrain and buildings, and a consideration of kerma to organ dose conversion factors. (U.K.)

137

Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

138

Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

139

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been mae. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

140

Japan earthquake: Footage of moment tsunami hit  

Science.gov (United States)

This video footage shows the force at which the tsunami struck Japan's coast. In the fishing port of Miyako, in Iwate prefecture, boats were overturned, while video from Kamaishi city shows cars being dragged down city streets by the water. The tsunami that followed the 8.9-magnitude earthquake wreaked havoc along a huge stretch of Japan's north-east coast, sweeping far inland and devastating a number of towns and villages. Powerful aftershocks are continuing to hit the region. Footage courtesy of TV Asahi and TBS

Bbc

 
 
 
 
141

Wind Energy Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-06-15

142

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the annual health examination records were investigated and classified by cause of death. In males with cancer, there was noted an increased incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and traces of urinary proteins 1 year to 3 years before death. However, the incidence of urinary protein traces was low compared with that in other diseases. In males with cerebral vascular diseases, there was a high incidence of hypertension. Urinary protein traces appeared from 4 years to 5 years before death. In females with cardiovascular diseases including hypertensive diseases and valvular diseases, the incidence of urinary protein traces increased from 4 years to 5 years prior to their death. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was generally high in these cases. In males with liver cirrhosis, urinary urobilinogen amount was generally more than that in other diseases. This tendency also appeared in females with liver cirrhosis 6 years before death. The incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in males with liver cirrhosis, and that of abnormal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in females with liver corrhosis. (Ueda, J.)

143

Twelve cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki (especially seven atomic bombing casualty cases). [In Japanese  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1958, there have been 12 cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki, and among them were 7 cases representing atomic bombing casualties, with 3 cases being with 2 km distance from the hypocenter. The age of onset was between 51 and 69 years, and the sex ratio was 8:4, it occurring mostly in males. Symptoms were predominantly low back pain and chest pain caused by the bone changes in 8 cases. Two cases complained of general malaise and palpitation which resulted from anemia. One developed persistent epistaris, and another complained of diplopia caused by the paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. Peripheral blood in all cases showed anemia, 9 with hyperchromic and 3 with normochromic or hypochromic anemia. Low platelet counts were seen in 3 cases. All showed leukopenia. All cases showed typical ..gamma..-globulin change with a myeloma peak, and in 4 cases showed an increase of ..beta..-globulin. Bence-Jones proteinuria was present in 5 cases. Average course was 1 year 4 months. Among complications, myeloma nephrosis, aplastic anemia, and pneumonia were the most important ones.

Ichimaru, M.; Yasuhi, S.; Ouchuru, S.

1963-12-01

144

Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility (LACAF) on the recently located Hiroshima bomb replicas in a near-critical configuration. These measurements, made with modern techniques, will provide a check for present-day cross sections and calculations. Similar measurements have been proposed on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly. Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Calculations of several air-transport experiments are also in progress. Calculated results are compared with experimental results. The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested. Calculations have been completed for the Ranger Fox and the Upshot-Knothole Grable tests. Measurements made at the LACAF, in conjunction with calculations, can be used to define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield

145

Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

146

Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

147

Improved Accuracy in the Measurement of 152Eu Induced by Atomic Bomb Neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

152Eu activities induced by the atomic explosion in Nagasaki, have been experimentally estimated in two roof tiles in order to improve the accuracy of the former data about positions distant from the epicentre (at 1100 m) as the slant distance. Several aspects causing estimation errors have been discussed in more detail: i.e. influence of the natural background nuclides such as 210Bi, 210Pb, 212Bi and 138La, and half-life selection of 152Eu. As a result, the value of 152Eu/Eu (i.e. ratio of the 152Eu activity to total Eu) has been estimated to be 0.336 ± 0.032 (Sample A) and 0.491 ± 0.040 (Sample B) Bq.mg-1 as the values at the time of the bombing. In a comparison between the experimental values and the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) calculation, the ratio between DS86 calculations and the present work is estimated to be 0.40-0.58. More detailed discussion on the dose estimation of thermal neutrons might be needed for the improvement of the DS86 system. (author)

148

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific radioactivities of residual europium (Eu)-152 were measured in six roof tile samples exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at two locations. The ground distances of the two locations from the hypocenter are 1020 m and 1060 m. In order to obtain reliable data, Eu-enriched samples (from 207 to 855 mg) were prepared by separating Eu from each roof tile sample (from 1 to 2 kg). For the major aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, residual radioactivity of 152Eu was measured using a low-energy photon spectrometer. For the minor aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, Eu content was determined by neutron activation analysis. Results of the specific radioactivity (152Eu/Eu, Bq mg-1) corrected to the time of bombing were in a range from 0.080 to 0.446. Although the measured values showed some scattering, they are moderately consistent with the calculated values by the DS86 methodology, i.e. the average ratio of the calculated to measured values is 1.3 +/- 0.8. PMID:10196779

Nakanishi, T; Miwa, K; Ohki, R

1998-12-01

149

Cancer of the head and neck in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1957-1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A search was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for all cases of cancer of the lip, nose and nasal cavity, accessory sinuses, larynx, and the oral cavity and pharynx with their subdivisions occurring during the period 1957-1976 among a large fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors. A total of 232 cases were identified, of which 154 (66.4%) were histologically confirmed (definite cases). Among definite cases, cancer of the epiglottis and larynx predominated (31.2%), followed by accessory sinus (24.7%) and tongue (18.8%). Of the 154 definite cases, 141 (91.6%) were squamous-cell carcinomas. Only two sarcomas were identified, neither of which was attributable to radiation exposure. Analysis of both total and definite cases, by both total group and major anatomic site, failed to reveal definite evidence of a radiation relationship. Although a suggestive relationship to radiation dose was found for accessory sinus cancers (P = 0.06) among the definite cases, inconsistencies in the data do not permit the conclusion that the incidence of tumors in this group increased as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure. The medical literature concerning post-irradiation head and neck tumors is briefly reviewed

150

Cancer of the head and neck in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1957-1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A search was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for all cases of cancer of the lip, nose and nasal cavity, accessory sinuses, larynx, and the oral cavity and pharynx with their subdivisions occurring during the period 1957-1976 among a large, fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors. A total of 232 cases were identified, of which 154 (66.4%) were histologically confirmed (definite cases). Among definite cases, cancer of the epiglottis and larynx predominated (31.2%), followed by accessory sinus (24.7%) and tongue (18.8%). Of the 154 definite cases, 141 (91.6%) were squamous-cell carcinomas. Only two sarcomas were identified, neither of which was attributable to radiation exposure. Analysis of both total and definite cases, by both total group and major anatomic site, failed to reveal definite evidence of a radiation relationship. Although a suggestive relationship to radiation dose was found for accessory sinus cancers (P . 0.06) among the definite cases, inconsistencies in the data do not permit the conclusion that the incidence of tumors in this group increased as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure. The medical literature concerning post-irradiation head and neck tumors is briefly reviewed

151

Japan's Imbalance of Payments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past three decades, Japan?s current account experienced five large swings. The yen appreciated considerably in periods when the current account boomed, and it depreciated whenever Japan?s external performance weakened. However, there has always been a certain lag in the adjustment of the exchange rate. This paper tries to explain these empirical regularities. It argues that as a result of the large movements of the current account, the flows of cash between Japan and ist trading ...

Mu?ller-plantenberg, Nikolas

2003-01-01

152

On the new supply houses per thousand heads during this five in Japan. At 47 prefectures and 80 cities; 300,000 and more population on 1995; Saikin 5 nenkan ni okeru riyo kankeibetsu jutaku chakodo suii. 47 todofuken and 80 toshi (jinko 300,000 nin 'heisei 7 {center_dot} kokucho' ijo narabini kencho shozaishi)(1993 {approx} 1997)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied before twice the construction-started houses per thousand heads during five years, 1983 {approx} 1987 and 1988 {approx} 1992 at 47 prefectures and 77 or 81 cities; 300,000 and more population and the cities of prefectural government in Japan. For the third time we study now the construction-started houses in Japan. We call the construction-started houses per thousand heads yearly the construction-started ratio at each areas. The average construction-started ratio was 11.10 houses during five years; 1983 {approx} 1987, so 12.51 houses during five years; 1988 {approx} 1992 and 11.99 houses during five years; 1993 {approx} 1997 in Japan. Then at prefectures the average construction-started ratio houses spreaded from 6.31 houses at Tottori-ken to 15.51 houses at Tokyo-to during 1983 {approx} 1987, so from 6.52 houses at Shimane-ken to 16.66 houses at Kanagawa-ken during five years; 1988 {approx} 1992 and from 8.01 house at Shimane-ken to 16.70 houses at Hyogo-ken during five years; 1993 {approx} 1997 in Japan. The same items of each tenure spreaded among some ranges during this period. Next we study on the four tenures, 1st on the owned tenure. On the owned tenure, the average construction-started ratio was 4.03 houses during 1983 {approx} 1987, so so 3.96 houses during 1988 {approx} 1992 and 4.39 houses during 1993 {approx} 1997 in Japan. 2nd on the rental tenure, the average construction-started ratio was 4.95 houses during 1983 {approx} 1987, so 5.87 houses during 1988 {approx} 1992 and 4.65 houses during 1993 {approx}1997 in Japan. 3rd on the issued tenure, the average construction-started ratio was 0.19 houses during five years; 1983 {approx} 1987, so 0.27 houses during five years; 1988 {approx} 1992 and 0.21 houses during five years; 1993 {approx} 1997 in Japan. 4th on the for-sale tenure, the average construction-started ratio was 1.93 houses during five years; 1983 {approx} 1987, so 2.41 houses during five years; 1988 {approx} 1992, so 2.73 houses during five years; 1993 {approx} 1997 in Japan.There were differences in tendencies of the construction-started houses among four tenures during fifteen years. The average construction-started ratio changed from 4.96 and 5.89 to 4.65 houses in the rental tenure, the same of the for-sale tenure changed from 1.93 and 2.41 to 2.73 houses during this periods. We obtained the following results in this studies that the construction-started houses per thousand heads in the for-sale tenure have been spreaded among range, for example from 3.75 houses or 3.42 houses to 4.37 houses, though the same values in the rental tenure have been changed from 6.66 houses or 8.27 houses to 4.50 houses now. (author)

Iida, Toshihiko; Kojina, Kyoji

1999-03-01

153

Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

154

Uncertainties in estimating dose-effects relationships under emergency (Hiroshima, Nagasaki 1945, Bikini 1954)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many types of uncertainties involved in the estimation of risks or dose-effect relationships under emergency conditions, However, they may be divided into two major categories: uncertainty due to randomness and that due to fuzziness. The conventional methods of treating uncertainty are to apply statistical methods of estimation, which are, in turn, based upon the concept of probability. Even in cases where the source of uncertainty is of non-statistical nature, formal application of statistical methods of analysis is often made to deal quantitatively with uncertainty, tacitly accepting the premise that uncertainty - whatever its nature - can be equated with randomness. Most of the work on risk analysis or risk assessment has been done using such methods. In the fuzzy set concept set uncertainties are accepted as uncertain with the introduction of the membership function. Instead of the non-fuzzy two-valued logic 'true or false' any intermediate value between zero (false) and one (true) can be assumed for the membership function in the fuzzy set theory. Use of the fuzzy set theory is proposed in an attempt to analyse the causal relation between dose and effects under emergency conditions. After the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Bikini Accident many efforts have been made to estimate the dose of survivors. However, because of various uncertainties involved in this type of estimation under the emergency conditions, the accurate estimation ofncy conditions, the accurate estimation of the individual dose is very difficult. It was recently reported that ESR dosimetry could be applied to estimate the radiation doses of the individual using the enamel of the teeth of the survivors or material such as shell-button, sugar etc. found on the person. (author)

155

Late radiation responses in man: Current evaluation from results from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.

Schull, William J.

156

Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

157

Thermoluminescence analyses of Hiroshima ceramic tile and Nagasaki brick using the pre-dose and inclusion techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a small program of diagnostic testing on ceramic tile from Hiroshima the pre-dose and inclusion measurements have been completed on a sample of tile from Hiroshima University (University of Utah reference UHFSFT02, at 1442 m from the hypocenter) and a sample of brick (NAIE06, at 1427 m) from Nagasaki. In this outline report the results of the measurements and also the results obtained from measurements on gamma-ray irradiated quartz supplied by the Oxford Laboratory and samples of gamma-ray irradiated material prepared by the University of Utah to enable a comparison of laboratory beta-particle calibrations are presented

158

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agreement with traditional values. The new discrete ordinates software appears to have potential application to conventional radiation transport calculations as well. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

159

Landslides in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This internet site, published by The Japan Landslide Society, focues on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan.

2008-09-29

160

Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

 
 
 
 
161

Academic Libraries in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

2008-01-01

162

Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

163

Education Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

Shaked, Haim

2014-01-01

164

Major element analysis of selected rock and volcanic ash samples in the Unzen area, Japan, by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determination of major elements in natural solid samples by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) with a fusion disc technique is described. Data obtained by the present XRF analytical system were found to have satisfactorily high reliability. Five rock samples and a volcanic ash sample with varying ages ranging from the present to 180 000 years, derived by the current and past volcanic activities in the Unzen area, Nagasaki, Japan were analyzed for their major elements' compositions using the above mentioned system. The chemical composition of the magma under this area has changed very little at least over the last 180 000 years. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

165

NSF/Tokyo Report: 1997 Monbusho Summer Program in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... Maria University of California, San Diego (Marine Biology) Host Institute: Nagasaki University Brown ... Casey, Brendan Cameron University of Hawaii, Manoa (Physics) Host Institute: National Laboratory for ...

166

Transport in an air-over-ground environment of prompt neutrons and gammas from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the work on radiation shielding in the last two decades has been aimed at developing adequate data on transport methods and cross sections to describe the numerous prompt-neutron and the prompt and secondary gamma-ray interactions through the various materials. When adequate experimental data are available, the calculational results can be benchmarked. In the absence of such test data, however, one must rely on results obtained from the particle-transport calculations. The two most accurate methods for these calculations are the discrete-ordinates S/sub n/ method and the Monte Carlo method. This paper is concerned with the application of the S/sub n/ method for approximating a solution to the Boltzmann transport equation in an air-over-ground two-dimensional, cylindrical geometry as applied to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki environments

167

Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

Hayakawa, K.

2012-11-15

168

Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

169

Nuclear ambitions of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made in this book to examine the nuclear policy of Japan, its external and internal compulsions. A truthful account of how nuclear technology came to be developed in Japan and an evaluation in historical perspective of how nuclearisation and militarisation have changed the entire complexation of regional security are also given

170

Depleted uranium in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, depleted uranium ammunition is regarded as nuclear weapons and meets with fierce opposition. The fact that US Marines mistakenly fired bullets containing depleted uranium on an island off Okinawa during training exercises in December 1995 and January 1996, also contributes. The overall situation in this area in Japan is outlined. (P.A.)

171

Needs Assessment of an Ethnic Chinese Community in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is a needs assessment of ethnic Chinese older adults in Japan. The Delphi method was applied to identify the needs addressed by the focus groups. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model guided the examination of the community’s political, economic and social environment in satisfying the needs of older community members. The needs were matched with a city’s Health, Welfare, and Long-term Care Insurance Program Plan seeking to identify differences between ethnic Chinese and Japanese...

Li-Mei Chen

2014-01-01

172

Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

173

Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part B. 152Eu measurements in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal neutron activation data on 60Co and 152Eu were not so sufficient at the time of the DS86 Final Report. For example, a systematic discrepancy was noted in the measured 60Co data and DS86 calculation. The 152Eu data by Nakanishi et al. (1983, 1987) as well as that of Sakanoue et al. (1987) and Okajima and Miyajima (1987), however, were roughly in agreement with the DS86 calculation (Loewe et al. 1986). Thereafter, Nakanishi (1991) performed further radiochemical sample purification and repeated the 152Eu measurements, and Shizuma et al. (1993) collected many new samples and reported 70 additional measurements for 152Eu at Hiroshima. These new 152Eu data revealed a systematic discrepancy, as seen in 60Co data of Hashizume et al. (1967). For Nagasaki, existing data at the time of DS86 Final Report were scattered and lacked the accuracy needed to determine whether or not a similar discrepancy exists in that city. Nakanishi et al. (1998) sampled roof tiles at a slant range of about 1,200 m and concrete cores from Konpirayama Mountain located at a slant range of 1,596 m. Shizuma et al. (2003) collected nine samples of rocks at ground ranges less than 1,000 m. Thus, more reliable 152Eu data were accumulated for Nagasaki. (author)

174

City Mayors  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

175

Identification of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis as vanC-type Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) from sewage and river water in the provincial city of Miyazaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a first step for assessing the risk to human health posed by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the aquatic environment, we screened sewage and urban river water samples from Miyazaki, Japan for VRE. Because vancomycin-resistant organisms are not as prevalent in sewage and river water as vancomycin-susceptible organisms, the samples were screened by minimum inhibitory concentration test using the vancomycin-supplemented membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-?-d-glucoside (mEI) agar. The isolates, presumed to be enterococci, were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The percentages of VRE isolates screened using 4 ?g mL(-1) vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar from sewage and urban river water samples were 12% and 24%, respectively. The vancomycin-resistant genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the isolates from both samples by PCR analysis. All enterococci isolates containing vanC1, which is a specific gene for vanC-type of VRE, were identified as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarum. Further, 92% enterococci isolates containing vanC2/3 were identified as E. casseliflavus/gallinarum, the remaining isolates containing vanC2/3 were E. faecium (4%) and E. faecalis (4%). Thereafter, the distribution of E. faecium and E. faecalis, which are the major types of enterococci in humans containing vanC2/3, was observed in the water samples collected. PMID:25438128

Nishiyama, Masateru; Iguchi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

176

Energy policy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the seventies, Japan could reduce its general dependence on imports of crude oil for the entire power supply in the country. Simultaneously, Japan could diversify the imports of energy from the Middle East to a certain extent and concerning to new sources of energy. The regional dependence on imported resources of energy was regionally concentrated to a substantial extent. Important changes of the regional dependence of imports were observed in certain periods of time. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the energy policy of Japan. Especially, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Challenges in the 21st century concerning to the national energy security; (b) Uncertainties with the future nuclear energy option and the regional distrust into of Japan civilian nuclear activities; (c) Japan's oil diplomacy and gas diplomacy. Despite the decrease of the dependence on crude oil by diversification into other sources of energy, the energy security of Japan is still threatened. So the dependence on imports of crude oil from the Middle East is still raised and could rise between the years 2010 and 2020. However, the greatest uncertainties exist in connection with the future of the own nuclear industry. Over the medium-term, Japan depends on the development of the nuclear energy if a stable power supply should be ensured

177

Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62 by 93 miles) Location: 42.5 deg. North lat., 140.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: North towards upper left Image Data: SRTM Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 17, 2000

2000-01-01

178

King City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

King City is a new citycenter in the expanding Kungens Kurva area in the southern part of Stockholm that combines shopping, service, dwellings and workplaces into a coherent urban environment. The project deals with the expanding city of Stockholm, where areas that before where seen as external, now form the basis of a polycentric city where the divide between innercity and suburbia is disolving.The Kungens Kurva area is today the result of “laissez-faire” planing principles that have all...

Sta?lhandske, Alexander

2014-01-01

179

Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

180

Japan's aging economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Japan's population is aging faster than that of any other country in the world. The unprecedented increase in retirees relative to the size of Japan's work force will force radical change if the nation is to avoid a fiscal crisis, or worse. These seemingly innocent demographic changes will force Japan to shrink its famously high savings rate, reverse its proud trade surplus, send more industry overseas, liberalize its tightly controlled markets, and take on a more active, high-profile foreign policy. Ultimately, these changes will shift the balance of power in East Asia." PMID:12293422

Ezrati, M

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs), including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1). The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41) and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5), respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies. PMID:24551167

Suzuki, Motoi; Minh, Le Nhat; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

2014-01-01

182

Vaccine Effectiveness against Medically Attended Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza in Japan, 2011–2012 Season  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011–2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs), including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?60.5 to 44.1). The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were ?1.5% (95% CI, ?74.7 to 41) and 50% (95% CI, ?43.2 to 82.5), respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011–2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies. PMID:24551167

Suzuki, Motoi; Minh, Le Nhat; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

2014-01-01

183

Paper making in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paper making factory in Japan where the traditional mulberry paper is still made. The various stage in the pulping, floating and using of paper are shown and some of the effects of the development of paper are discussed.

Harrison, Sarah

2004-01-01

184

Gift capsules from Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan is distributing 1600 irradiation capsules as a donation to Asian countries. This followed an approach by IAEA, which informed the Japanese Government that certain countries were finding it difficult to secure sample irradiation capsules for use in research reactors, and suggested that Japan might be able to help. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan agreed to do so, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute arranged the delivery. The capsules were designed by the Institute and made by Japanese firms for enclosing samples of materials which are to be irradiated. They are made in five dimensions, of polyethylene or aluminium. They are being sent to Taiwan, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand. (author)

185

Literacy in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines three causes for Japan's high literacy rate: (1) emphasis on literacy in Japanese society; (2) pervasive effect of the modern Japanese school system; (3) special structural features of the Japanese language which aid in functional use. (DR)

Kanaya, Toshio

1979-01-01

186

Atypical Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

DiJulio, Betsy

2011-01-01

187

Microgravity survey in Kobe, Ashiya and Nishinomiya cities, Kinki district, Japan. 1. Bouguer anomaly and concealed faults; Kobeshi, Ashiyashi, Nishinomiyashi ni okeru seimitsu juryoku tansa. 1. Juryoku ijo to fukuzai danso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, and Nishinomiya, hit by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, a microgravity survey was conducted for the clarification of subsurface structures, especially the distribution of concealed faults and the basement structures. Gravity was measured at 1824 points, and leveling and GPS-aided surveying were performed. For catching trace anomalies in gravity attributable to concealed faults, the measured gravity values were corrected using the 50m mesh topographic model provided by the Geographical Survey Institute for the preparation of a Bouguer anomaly map and Bouguer anomaly horizontal gradient map. The above-said efforts have disclosed that in the Bouguer anomaly map and horizontal gradient map a zone is found across which there is an abrupt change in Bouguer anomalies roughly agreeing with the positions of known faults; that faults are estimatedly distributed in the plain as represented for example by the Koyo fault extension; and that the Bouguer anomaly gradient is sharp even in the plain suggesting the presence of difference in height between basement structures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Murata, Y.; Endo, H.; Watanabe, S.; Makino, S.; Watanabe, S.; Urabe, A. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

1996-03-27

188

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a compilation of radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from May 1992 through March 1993. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were 0.14±0.017 Bq/p·d from Niigata and 0.20±0.015 Bq/p·d from Akita, respectively, for total diet; 0.028±0.013 Bq/kgwet from Fukushima and 0.073±0.010 Bq/kgwet from Ibaraki for rice (producing districts); 0.019±0.0091 Bq/kgwet from Kochi and 0.093±0.0099 Bq/kgwet from Shimane for rice (consuming districts); 0.059±0.0099 Bq/l from Aomori and 0.30±0.017 Bq/l from Ishikawa for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.11±0.017 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.11±0.012 Bq/l from Hokkaido for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.049±0.012 Bq/l from Yamagata and 0.065±0.0094 Bq/l from Hokkaido for milk (consuming districts); 0.65±0.020 and 2.4±0.05 Bq/l from Sample C in powdered milk; 0.74±0.019 Bq/kgwet from Yamanashi and 0.26±0.016 Bq/kgwet from Shizuoka for vegetables (producing districts); 2.3±0.04 and 0.11±0.010 Bq/kgwet from Yamagata for vegetables (consuming districts); 0.026±0.0056 from Yamaguchi for black rockfish and 0.21±0.019 Bq/kgwet from Nagasaki for tilefish; 1.2±0.03 Bq/kgwet from Kyoto and 0.18±0.016 Bq/kgwet from Fukui for crucian carp; 0.0074±0.0043 Bq/kgwet from Hiroshima for oyster and 0.033±0.0066 Bq/kgwet from Aomori for Japanese scallop; 0.040±0.0053 and 0.037±0.0067 Bq/kgwet from Nagasaki for Wakame seaweed. Annual variations in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in dietary materials are given in figures. (N.K.)

189

Plutonium isotope ratio, Pu-240/Pu-239, in forest soils and lake sediments in Nishiyama area, Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determination of isotopic composition gives useful information on the source term and the behavior of radionuclides including Pu in the environment. However, there is only a limited volume of quality data available on the levels and distributions of Pu-239 and Pu-240 isotopes in the environment. In this study, Pu isotopes in environmental samples were successfully determined by double focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after the treatment with a microwave decomposition systems. Plutonium isotopes were determined for forest soils and lake sediments collected in Nishiyama area, Nagasaki. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios observed in the samples in the Nishiyama area were obviously lower than the range of the global fallout (0.17-0.19). The low ratios (minimum 0.032) observed in Nishiyama area indicated the remaining contamination from Pu bombing in 1945. Change of the Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratio in the sediments deeper than 270 cm was observed. Since the area is contaminated also by global fallout, the Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratio can be more sensitive indicator of bomb derived Pu than Pu concentration. (author)

190

Plutonium mass balance released from the Nagasaki A-bomb and the applicability for future environmental research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of plutonium was publicly revealed on 9 August 1945 by the nuclear explosion of the Nagasaki A-Bomb whose Pu critical mass has been considered to be between 10-15 kg (still classified). Approximately 1.2 kg was fissioned during the detonation and the remaining mass was released into the environment. The height of the explosion was 503 m and the conditions were cloudy with a humidity of 71%. The amount of both local and global fallout was investigated by measuring a fission product, 137Cs, and unfissioned Pu. Deposition rates were determined for surface soils, reservoir sediments, and the concentration in vegetation, fish and other living materials in the region, up to 100 km from the hypocentre. Only 0.0375 kg of Pu (or 0.3-0.4% of the total Pu in the bomb) was deposited as local fallout from the release. The highest concentration (64.5 mBq/g or 199 mBq/cm2) of 239 + 240Pu in the surface soils was found at 2.8 km east from the hypocentre where ''black rain'' precipitated 25 min after the detonation. The concentration rapidly decreased in both directions from this point. At 100 km east from the hypocentre, Pu fallout values were at background levels while only background levels were observed west of the centre. (author)

191

Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

192

Behavior and redistribution of fallout 137Cs released by the Nagasaki A-bomb in environments of soil and sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

23.4 g 137Cs was produced by the Nagasaki A-bomb and a part of them was deposited in soil, tree and sediment cores of the Nishiyama reservoir at 3 km distance from the hypocenter. 137Cs was added as global fallout by nuclear tests since 1946, and amount of them was estimated as 50% of total cumulative radiation dose. 137Cs distribution was measured in soil, tree sediment cores and groundwater. Almost fallout 137Cs was distributed between ground surface and 40 cm depth. 95% of total amount of 137Cs was observed from surface of ground to 10 cm depth. 137Cs peak in 1945 was assumed as a simple peak and its distribution indicated to make possible estimate the particle-mixing coefficient (De) based on the Pu distribution in the local fallout peak stored at the depth of 0.22 to 0.34 m in the sediment core of the Nishiyama reservoir as De=0.08-0.12 cm2/y. The history of fallout was not clear by fallout 137Cs distribution in the rings of sugi. 137Cs concentration profile was the same as that of 40K. 40K and 137Cs concentration increased rapidly in the transition phase from sapwood to heartwood, and then approximated to the constant value. 40K seemed to be absorbed by root, but 137Cs by leaves and stem. (S.Y.)

193

Treatment outcome of elderly patients with aggressive adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma: Nagasaki University Hospital experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

VCAP (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone)-AMP (doxorubicin, ranimustine, and prednisone)-VECP (vindesine, etoposide, carboplatin, and prednisone) is a standard regimen for aggressive adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). However, the efficacy of this regimen has not been fully elucidated for patients aged 70 years or older. Here, we retrospectively analyzed elderly patients with aggressive ATL at Nagasaki University Hospital between 1994 and 2010 to assess treatment outcomes. Of 148 evaluable patients, 54 were aged 70 years or older at diagnosis. The median survival time (MST) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years in elderly patients were 10.6 months and 22.1%, respectively. Thirty-four patients received VCAP-AMP-VECP as the initial treatment, although the doses were reduced for most patients. In these patients, MST and OS at 2 years were 13.4 months and 26.6%, respectively. Eleven of 34 patients (32%) received maintenance oral chemotherapy after two or three cycles of VCAP-AMP-VECP, and MST and OS at 2 years were 16.7 months and 32.7%, respectively. Our results suggest that the VCAP-AMP-VECP regimen may be effective and that maintenance oral chemotherapy may be considered as a therapeutic option for elderly patients with aggressive ATL. PMID:25209605

Makiyama, Junya; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Tsushima, Hideki; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriwaki, Yuji; Sawayama, Yasushi; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Hata, Tomoko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi

2014-11-01

194

Incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to neutron and gamma dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia during 1950-71 in the fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been analyzed as a function of individual gamma and neutron kerma and marrow dose. Two dose response models were tested for each of acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of the separate risks imposed by the gamma ray and neutron doses; in Model I both are assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that while the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from gamma rays is proportional to dose-squared. Weighted regression analyses were performed for each model. When the two models were fitted to the data for all types of leukemia, the estimated regression coefficients corresponding to the neutron and gamma ray doses both differed significantly from zero, for each model. However, when analysis was restricted to acute leukemia, both the neutron and gamma ray coefficients were significant only for Model II, and with respect to chronic granulocytic leukemia, only the coefficient of the neutron dose was significant, using either Model I or Model II. It appeared that the responses of the two leukemia types differed by type of radiation. If the chronic granulocytic and acute leukemias are considered together, the Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither models is rejected by the data. (author)

195

Basic research report on regional new energy for Nagasaki Prefecture; Nagasakiken chiiki shin energy kiso chosa hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nagasaki prefecture has been engaged in the two tasks of new energy basic research and new energy vision formulation for two years or in fiscal 1998 and 1999. The estimated value (described in Gcal/year) of the amount in existence of renewable energy includes 5,595,683 from photovoltaic power; 20,628,033 from passive solar use; 178,688 to 818,002 from wind power; 419,040 from seawater temperature difference; 210,923 from geothermal energy and hot water; 939,109 from direct combustion of biomass; and 40,695 from small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power. As for recyclable type of energy, there is 162,281 to 186,222 from refuse fueled power; 373,247 from waste heat out of refuse treatment; 204,682 to 1,181,952 from digestion gas out of sewage treatment gas; and 342,223 to 1,071,497 from utilization of water after sewage treatment. The above are categorized into electric power, heat utilization, and direct use as fuel in the process of estimating the amount of energy in existence (Gcal/year in terms of calorific value). As the result, the amount obtained for each of the said three categories is 6,198,568 to 7,839093 from electric power; 21,973,466 to 22,702,740 from heat utilization; and 1,587,620 from direct use as fuel. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-01

196

Methodology of detecting internal radiation on paraffin embedded materials of Nagasaki atomic bomb casualties and DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose to establish a methodology in the title, expression of 53BP1, a tumor suppressing p53 related-DNA checkpoint protein, was examined in paraffin embedded specimens of the liver and spleen of a thorotrast (T) patient, 7 Nagasaki A-bomb exposed casualties and 2 non-exposed subjects. The 53BP1 protein was detected by immuno-fluorescent staining. Focal 53BP1 was seen in cells around T granules in liver, epithelium of bile duct and spleen of the patient. It was also observed in cells of liver and bile duct epithelium of casualties and the expression was particularly high in those outdoor-exposed at 0.5 km distance from the hypocenter and with shortest surviving period. 53BP1 foci were reported to be the indicator of genome instability in A-bomb casualties. The foci were found to be formed by T in this study, suggesting that DNA double strand had been broken by internal radiation exposure and its repair mechanism had been operated. Thus 53BP1 can be an indicator of internal exposure. (T.T.)

197

State of research and perspective on adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a review article entitled ''Physical Benefits from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,'' published in Health Physics in December of 1982, Professor T.D. Luckey of the University of Missouri, asserted the ''radiation hormesis'' with 200 references. This resulted in the first International Symposium on Radiation Hormesis in Oakland, California (August 1985). CRIEPI consulted many specialists about Luckey's paper and studied many other papers such as Lorenz, 1954; Luckey, 1980, Liu et al., 1985. Radiation hormesis research in Japan has been based on the rationale that if Luckey's claim were to be true, radiation management in Japan has been extremely erroneous. CRIEPI organized a Hormesis Research Steering Committee composed of leading specialists in the field concerned, and began research in cooperation with a number of universities, as well as the National Cancer Research Institute, and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After obtaining interesting results in various experiments on the health effects of exposure to low doses of radiation, we have proceeded on an expanded program, which involves fourteen universities and two research institutes throughout Japan. The interesting results we obtained can be categorized in five groups. 1. Enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes and suppression of cancer, 2. Radio-adaptive response relating to the activation of DNA repair and adoptosis, 3. Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 4. Radiation effect on neuro-transmitting system through increase of key enzymes, 5. Others, including the therapy of adult-disease such as diabetes and hypertension. We are now carrying out experimental activities on the effects of low-dose radiation on mammals. After several years of research activities, we are recognizing Luckey's claim. Some basic surveys including Hiroshima Nagasaki and animal experiments in Japan have brought us valuable informations on the health effects of low-dose radiation. The followings are some topical research informations obtained across Japan. (author)

198

Japan’s energy security predicament post-Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If energy security is defined as the availability of energy at all times in various forms, in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices, without unacceptable or irreversible impact on the economy and the environment, Japan is facing an energy security predicament. For a country that was already uneasy about energy security, the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which caused a nuclear catastrophe in TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, turned this unease into outright anxiety. With the temporary and/or permanent closure of many nuclear reactors Japan has had to replace lost power. Tokyo has had no choice but to secure additional fossil fuels, a strategy that has negatively affected Japan’s economy due to rising fuel costs. The increase in Japan’s fossil fuel consumption has also caused a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions, and affected Tokyo’s commitment to Kyoto targets. This paper analyzes the consequences of the 2011 nuclear disaster for Japan’s energy security. Recognizing that Japan’s future energy policy choices are constrained and path dependent, the paper outlines energy policy recommendations for Japan’s government. - Highlights: ? Analysis of Japan’s energy security situation post-Fukushima. ? Energy transition is path dependant and slow. ? Government is facing significant challenges in terms of future energy policy.

199

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did not differ between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women under 10 years of age at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any time during the first four decades of life, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. An unresolved question is whether breast cancer risk is increased by radiation exposure at ages older than 40

200

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

 
 
 
 
201

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

202

Sin City?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships.

Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.

2007-01-01

203

City building  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

NDLTD Innovative ETD Award 2005. The design of a multi-functional building entails the synthesis of multiple systems and networks. The needs of multiple clients must be effectively overlaid to create a build able, contextually suitable and aesthetically pleasing architectural solution. The proposed building is a public, urban building. City buildings consist of spaces that are essentially part of the city, simultaneously dependant on the whole and separated by building line...

Pienaar, Rousseau

2005-01-01

204

Sustainable cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementatiorocess, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

205

Megaloblastic anemia in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

Taguchi,Hirokuni

1978-08-01

206

Tokyo and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Tokyo and Japan should be interesting and educational for people from junior-high students to adults. It provides an interactive experience as a virtual tourist on a trip to Tokyo. You can also 'Ask the Old Japan Hand' questions about Tokyo and what it's like to live there. There are also links to many Japanese sites that publish in English. The site is young, but growing. It's direction and speed of growth will be determined by the reactions of the visitors. Your input is encouraged.

207

Japan ADS Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been proceeding with the research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled fast subcritical core with 800 MWth. Various activities were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the ADS from viewpoints of the accelerator, LBE handling technology, minor actinide bearing fuel and subcritical core design. The design study and discussion of effective application on the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) was also continued under a framework of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) project.

Sasa, Toshinobu

2010-06-01

208

Japan's nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is becoming more than ever unavoidable that the nuclear power program in Japan must be pursued. The program described is based on the LWR and FBR. Present projections are for about 20 FBR units by 2010 and for the LWRs to reach a peak in 2010 with 110 units. Current and proposed developments are outlined. Figures based on program estimates are given for requirements for uranium as well as enrichment, reprocessing and waste disposal. It is established policy that Japan will develop a completely closed fuel cycle

209

Association between mortality and residual radiation in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors exposed at long-distance from the hypocenter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mortality of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at 3 km or longer distance from the hypocenter was compared with that of those who were additionally exposed to residual radiation because of their entrance in the area at 1 km or closer to the center within 24 hr post explosion. The latter survivors (group I), 2,357 men with average age of 28.4 y and 2,618 women of 26.5 y at the exposure, were alive at 1970, and the former (group II, without exposure to residual radiation) was selected to match their numbers in sex, exposed distance, ages at exposure and at start of the follow-up study to those of group I. Follow-up was conducted from 1970 to 2007, and their total, malignant, cerebrovascular, cardiac and pneumonic deaths were observed. Cox proportional hazard model was used for estimation of mortality risk with covariates of sex and age at start of the study. The risk in group II was defined to be standard. Ages at start of the study were 53.3 and 51.4 y in men and women, respectively. Crude mortality tended to be higher in men of group I at ages of 40-49 and 50-59 y at start of the study. Hazard ratios of total and malignant tumor deaths in group I were 0.965 and 1.092, respectively, without statistic significance from group II and of other deaths, 0.982-0.999, also of statistic insignificance. Thus increased mortality due to residual radiation was not observed. (T.T.)

210

Measurements of europium-152 depth profile of stone embankments exposed the Nagasaki atomic bomb for neutron spectrum analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative measurement of neutron-induced radionuclide of 152Eu in rocks near the hypocenter (ground center of the atomic bomb explosion) in Nagasaki was performed to obtain the depth profiles and calculate the neutron energy spectrum. Core samples were drilled and taken from the stone embankments on both sides of river within a radius of 500 m from the hypocenter. After cutting each core into about 27 mm-thick sections, each section was measured its gamma-ray spectrum with a pure germanium semiconductor detector and analyzed a content of natural europium by the activation method. The highest value 8.0 x 10-2 Bq/?g of 152Eu at the time of the blast was obtained from the surface plates of rock cores collected near the hypocenter. The surface activity of cores was reduced with increasing the slant distances from the hypocenter. The slopes of the depth profiles were similar among samples taken from the same location. In order to analyze the depth profile of 152Eu activity in rock andesite, experiments using a fast neutron reactor and thermal neutron reactor were carried out. Comparing the measurements on the A-bomb exposure rock with the simulated results at the reactors, among the experiments, the depth profile using the neutron moderator of 10 mm polyethylene was closed to that obtained from the A-bomb exposed samples. The experiment of thermal neutron incidence only could not reproduce the profiles from the A-bomb exposedduce the profiles from the A-bomb exposed samples. This fact indicates that the depth profiles of 152Eu in rock exposed to the A-bomb include valuable information concerning the neutron spectrum and intensity. (author)

211

Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

212

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan...limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation...

2010-04-01

213

Visit preschool and primary school in Japan / Návšt?va mate?ské a základné školy v Japonsku  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Czech Republic and Japan - faraway countries of different culture, traditions and present-day way of life. The cooperation of Czech city Pilsen/Plze? and a Japan city Takasaki has been lasting already for 20 years despite all these differences. A lot of activities, which presented life, culture and art in these two different countries, ran through this period. Artists, actors, craftsmen did not hesitate to present their art in a foreign country. Those events were accompanied not only by exp...

Honzíková Jarmila

2011-01-01

214

Educational Practices in an Age of Information Innovation: Audiovisual Education Prize Winning Papers in 1998. AVE in Japan No. 38.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet contains two papers that won the 1998 Audiovisual Education Prize of the Japan Audio-Visual Education Association. "Nurturing the Ability To Live in an Advanced Information Network Society: Making the Most Effective Use of Networking" reports on a study of 7th grade students in Okazaki City (Japan). The focus was on an 8-month…

Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

215

The Japan Papers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains three papers on college student exchange between Japan and the United States. The first paper, entitled "The University of Massachusetts and Hokkaido University: A Case Study in Educational Cooperation," by Barbara B. Burn, describes the long-standing relationship between these two institutions in order to identify some…

Bailey, Jackson H.; And Others

216

Special Education in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the status of special education for mentally and physically handicapped children in Japan. Among the topics covered are these: (1) placement of students with "heavy" handicaps in special schools; (2) more mainstreamed placement of children with "light" handicaps; and (3) enforcement by prefectural and municipal governments of…

Saito, Akira

217

Nuclear Power in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

Powell, John W.

1983-01-01

218

Teaching Unit: Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

Evans, Dina

219

Globalization and Education in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

220

FUN CITY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Vacant city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if  not recognized by any instrument. It is the Vacant city, magmatic, formless, pervasive and widespread, marginal and interstitial. Its spaces express, in their programmatic essence, those conditions of re-colonization of the territory intended to minimum investment  of financial capital and maximum return in terms of social value as a result of a transformation. 

Nicola Marzot

2013-06-01

222

City 2020+  

Science.gov (United States)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

223

Japan and Zhongdong Railway Incident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been for quite some time the conspiracy that Japan invaded China and seized the Northeast. In the process of its implementation of the conspiracy, there had a vehement interest conflict between Japan and Soviet Russia. After the Japan-Russia War, Northeast China became a sphere of influence between Russia and Japan, but they fought against each other continually for Zhongdong Railway issue. After the September 18 Incident, situation of Zhongdong Railway was in depression, together with threat of Puppet Manchu, so in 1933, Soviet Union government transferred all its authority in Zhongdong Railway to “Manchuria Government” in a paid form. Japan eventually achieved its purpose.

Hongjun Zhang

2009-07-01

224

Jerusalem : holy city, embattled city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No Arab-Israeli peace process will succeed without a solution for Jerusalem. The author describes stages of the Jerusalem history as a holy city of the Jews, Christians and Muslims and analyses their religious and mental ties to the town. Also the division of Jerusalem was not able to stop the hatred. Jerusalem must be one city and the capital of both, Israel and Palestine. This was the core of the Oslo peace process, and it is still essential for a sustainable solution.

Ansprenger, Franz

2004-01-01

225

Disability Evaluation in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine the current state and social ramifications of disability evaluation in Japan, public data from Annual Reports on Health and Welfare 1998-1999 were investigated. All data were analyzed based on the classification of disabilities and the effects of age-appropriate welfare services, which have been developed through a half-century of legislative efforts to support disability evaluation. These data suggest that disability evaluation, while essentially affected by age and impairment fac...

Suzuki, Tsunehiko

2009-01-01

226

Emergency preparedness in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the countermeasures implemented in Japan in case of a nuclear accident. Various aspects of the subject are tackled such as the regulatory system for the nuclear reactor or the preparedness arrangements (responsibilities of the various government and public organizations, nuclear emergency action plans including the emergency planning zones, the emergency environmental monitoring and the emergency medical treatment). It should be noted that training exercises for the population is already implemented. (TEC). 3 figs., 3 tabs

227

Astrophysics missions of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan is operating three astrophysics missions, Yohkoh, ASCA and HALCA, as of the middle of 2000. At the same time, two astrophysical satellites, Astro-F and Solar-B are under development, and Astro-EII satellite is about to start developing as a re-challenge mission of Astro-E which failed to be carried into a stable orbit on Feb. 10, 2000. These six missions are briefly reviewed.

Inoue, H.

228

Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / ?Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / ?Dn--96.5 / ?Dn. (author)

229

Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

230

Thorotrast injury in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thorotrast injuries in Japan were discovered after 1945, and 94 autopsy cases were examined up to 1970. These autopsy cases included 60 cases of malignant tumor of the liver and 9 cases of blood disease. Examination of thorotrast-administered autopsy cases in Japan has revealed, among other things, that about one-half of all thorotrast-administered cases were war-wounded ex-servicemen and that the dates of injection in these cases were concentrated between 1932 and 1945. Based on this preliminary findings, a follow-up study was made on 147 thorotrast-administered war-wounded ex-serviceman after a lapse of 31 to 36 years from injection, and 6 cases of malignant tumor of the liver, 1 case of leukemia, 1 case of thrombocytopenic purpura, and 5 cases of liver cirrhosis were found among the samples. The incidence of these diseases in the samples was significantly higher than in the controls. The total number of thorotrast-administered persons living in Japan as of 1973 was roughly estimated at 5,000. (auth.)

231

Use of incineration heat from integrated waste treatment in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Treatment and Resource Recovery Centre of Toyohashi City in Japan disposes of waste efficiently while making good use of energy and other resources, by integrating the treatment of municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes. The Centre helps local agriculture by supplying heat from the incinerators to greenhouses. Waste heat is also used for the plant and buildings in the Centre, for heating an adjacent gymnasium and for generating electricity. Compost is also produced from the household organic wastes and animal faeces. (UK)

232

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Isolated from Wild Rodents in Japan?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and glt...

Inoue, Kai; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Sato, Yukita; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki

2008-01-01

233

Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan. Current issues with historical review and future perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine (RAI, 131I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of ''radiophobia ''. There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. (author)

234

The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.

1998-01-01

235

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japana income for the regions in Japan

236

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

2008-02-15

237

Whether Increases in Ambulance Transports is Stratified by Heat Stroke in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan in 2011?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the link between heat stroke and high air temperature from July to September in 2010 in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. Daily data of ambulance transports stratified by heat stroke and the highest air temperature were obtained. Heat stroke was significantly correlated with the highest temperature. The 9.0 magnitude earthquake and following tsunami on March 11, 2011, destroyed many cities in the northwestern part of Japan. Taken together, heat stroke may dramatically increase in Fukushima prefecture, Japan in 2011.

Nobuyuki Miyatake

2011-10-01

238

Japan's nuclear policy at crossroads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emerging changes in the security calculus within the Korean Peninsula are forcing Japan to revisit its existing position on the nuclear issue. The changing security environment has triggered several debates within Japan on the nuclearisation of the island nation. Although, at present, domestic opinion within Japan is opposed to exercising the nuclear option, there has been a break in the hitherto established taboo to have an open debate on the country's nuclear policy. These debates have triggered thinking on the circumstances in which Japan might choose to cross the nuclear rubicon. (author)

239

Sheepskin Effects in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data for the 1990 ?s,this paper examines the role of sheepskin effects in the returns to education for Japan.Our estimation results indicate that sheepskin effects explain about 50%of the total returns to schooling.We further find that sheepskin effect are only important for workers in small firms with the size of these effects being similar to comparable estimates for the US.Finally,the estimated sheepskin effects are decreasing with firm tenure,in particular for small firms.These resu...

Bauer, Thomas K.; Dross, Patrick J.; Haisken-denew, John P.

2003-01-01

240

Gems of Japanized English  

CERN Document Server

Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as "a Specialist in the Decease of Children"; eggs were sold as "extract of fowl" ; and a notice advised that "Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water. " Fortunately, things are improving, but very slowly. A m

Kenrick, Miranda

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Perry Visits Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon opening this website, visitors will be treated to an image from an anonymous Japanese scroll which depicts a steam locomotive and several Japanese onlookers. It's an excellent way to start a digital collection dedicated to Commodore Matthew Perry's visit to Japan in 1854. The collection is part of Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives, and it was created as part of a project by Professor Susan Smulyan and her students. On the site, visitors can peruse three different sets of images, including those created by the American artist William Heine and a set of broadsides by anonymous Japanese creators. The subject matter is the same for all of these works (Commodore Perry's visit to Japan), and visitors can take a close look at each image, and also read accompanying essays by students. That's far from all, as visitors can also read accounts of the expeditions written by Commodore Perry and William Heine. The site is rounded out by a detailed bibliography containing scholarly works, journal articles, and web sources.

242

Role of Nuclear Energy in Japan Post–Fukushima : Alternatives and their Impact on Japan’s GHG Emission Targets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper, “Role of Nuclear Energy in Japan Post – Fukushima: Alternatives and their Impact onJapan’s GHG Emission Targets”, is to emphasize that Japan’s expected new energy policy must be in accordancewith its existing environmental targets with regards to GHG emissions. The main research question is how Japan cancontinue to meet its emissions targets in the aftermath of the Fukushima crisis, where public opinion—gaugedthrough newspaper articles—in Japan has now...

Niazi, Zarrar

2013-01-01

243

Safety Concerns of Tourism Business in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is focused on the current state of tourism industry in Japan after the nuclear disaster of 2011. A focus is made on networking activities of Japan Government aimed at boosting leisure travel flows to Japan.

Karavaeva, Irina P.; Arzumanova, Natalia I.

2012-01-01

244

75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-07-01

245

Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow induced a debris flow and it moved downstream for about 1 km.

Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

2012-04-01

246

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

247

The automobile in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

2005-01-01

248

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki A-bomb at the point 1.6 km of explosion point  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 was measured in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki A-bomb at the point 1.6 km of the explosion point. Andesite separated from the concrete sample was pulverized and subjected to chemical separation of lanthanoide. To determine specific radioactivity of europium-152 (i.e., {sup 152}Eu/Eu) in the lanthanoide-enriched specimen, Eu was measured by neutron activation analysis, and residual {sup 152}Eu was measured by the use of a heavily shielded Ge gamma-ray detector connected to PHA. The result of {sup 152}Eu/Eu measurement is shown together with values obtained previously to the present work and calculated value by DS86 methodology. (author)

Hosotani, Risa [Kanazawa Univ., Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Nakanishi, Takashi [Kanazawa Univ., Faculty of Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

2001-06-01

249

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

250

Methylmercury exposure and mortality in southern Japan: a close look at causes of death.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines mortality patterns by cause of death to investigate the effect of exposure to methylmercury in a small area of Minamata City (Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan), which has the highest concentration of patients with Minamata disease. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) are computed by cause of death for the study area, using the age specific rates of the entire city as a standard. The SMRs for liver cancer and chronic liver disease in the study area are significantly higher than ...

Tamashiro, H.; Arakaki, M.; Futatsuka, M.; Lee, E. S.

1986-01-01

251

Branding Cities, Changing Societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place.

Ooi, Can-Seng

2010-01-01

252

Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%). The ...

Fujiko Yamada; Takeo Fujiwara

2014-01-01

253

Japan and the global environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although tions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

254

Radiation processing in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

255

Radiation processing in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

2001-03-01

256

France/Japan/Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to sustain its steady economic growth Turkey wishes to build 3 nuclear power plants in the next future. In 2010 an agreement was signed with Russia to build the first one on the Akkuyu site in the south region. In last may an agreement was signed between Turkey and Japan to open exclusive trade talks for the construction of a second nuclear power plant that will be localized near the Black sea 320 km away from Ankara. This plant will home 4 reactors probably of the ATMEA1 type, provided by Atmea, the co-enterprise between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and Areva. Turk authorities have justified this choice by highlighted the Japanese know-how concerning resistance to earthquakes and the technological quality of Areva. (A.C.)

257

An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

2006-10-01

258

City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

2008-01-01

259

On the data between the ratio of new supply houses at four tenures in Japan. At 47 prefectures and 80 cities; 300,000 and more population on 1995; Shinsetsu chako jutaku no riyo kankeibetsu deta. 47 todofuken and 80 toshi (jinko 300,000 nin 'heisei 7 {center_dot} kokucho' ijo narabini kencho shozaishi)(1993 {approx} 1997)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the owned tenure, the average construction-started ratio spreaded from 1.15 houses in Amagasaki-shi to 6.30 houses in Hamamatsu-shi during 1983 {approx} 1987, the same values spreaded from 1.42 houses in Amagasaki-shi to 5083 houses in Akita-shi during 1988 {approx} 1992 and the same values spreaded from 1.44 houses in Osaka-shi to 6.67 houses in Aomori-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997. 2nd on the rental tenure, the average construction-started ratio spreaded from 1.88 house in Sakai-shi to 14.32 houses in Ichikawa-shi during 1983 {approx} 1987, the same values spreaded from 3.72 houses in Sakai-shi to 13.93 houses in Kawasaki-shi during 1988 {approx} 1992 and from 2.82 houses in Yokosuka-shi to 9.88 houses in Sendai-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997, espicialy 13.17 houses in Nishinomiya-shi. 3rd on the issued tenure, the average construction-started ratio spreaded from 0.05 houses in Maebashi-shi 0.45 houses in Mito-shi during 1983 {approx} 1992 and from 0.02 houses in Naha-shi to 0.74 houses in Omiya-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997, espicialy 1.00 houses in Nishinomiya-shi. 4th on the for-sale tenure, the average construction-started ratio spraeded from 0.36 houses in Kurashiki-shi 5.65 houses in Kobe-shi during 1983 {approx} 1987, the same values spreaded from 0.89 houses in Iwaki-shi and Fukui-shi to 6.14 houses in Fukuoka-shi during 1988 {approx} 1992 and from 0.63 houses in Kurashiki-shi to 7.51 houses in Urawa-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997, especially 8.66 houses in Nishinomiya-shi. The construction-started hoses of the rental tenure were leading during this fifteen years, but the construction-started houses of the for-sale tenure were increasing recently in Japan, though the same values of the owned tenure were continuing during this periods. At 80 cities the construction-started ratio of the rental tenure spreaded from 2.61 houses in Kitakyushu-shi to 12.01 houses in Hachioji-shi on 1993, the same values spreaded from 2.41 houses in Toyota-shi to 9.98 houses in Sendai-shi on 1994, the same values spreaded from 1.86 houses in Okazaki-shi to 10.70 houses in Sendai-shi on 1995, the same values spreaded from 2.04 houses in Kawagoe-shi on 1996, the same values spreaded from 1.73 houses in Yokosuka-shi to 8.70 houses in Sendai-shi on 1997. Especially there were high grade ratio of the construction-started houses of the rental tenure which were occurred by the grate earthquake in 1995 at Hyogo-ken, in Nishinomiya-shi 25.14 houses on 1995, 18.75 houses on 1996, 18.75 houses on 1996, 11.47 houses on 1997. (author)

Iida, Toshihiko; Kojina, Kyoji

1999-03-01

260

Worldwide cryogenics - Japan. Research and development at the Japanese National Research Institute for Metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research activities at the National Research Institute for Metals on high-field superconducting materials and the structure materials for cryogenic use are described. The superconducting materials research building equipped with a 17.5 T superconducting magnet, was recently constructed in Tsukuba New Science City of Japan to further progress in superconducting and cryogenic engineering. (author)

 
 
 
 
261

History of R and D on environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for tokai reprocessing facility in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan's basic policy of utilization of atomic energy is strongly limited only for the peaceful use under the statutory control, reflecting the catastrophic experience of twice atomic bomb detonation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. To attain a sustainable prosperous happy life of people, the energy resource is one of indispensable factor which ranks with foods and environment. Japan has started peaceful atomic energy development program since 1955, the program contained power reactor, uranium exploration, plutonium utilization including reprocessing of spent fuel and MOX fuel and so on. Tokai Reprocessing plant for spent fuel was constructed from 1970 and has been operated since 1977. At the start of the operation, to protect the vicinity people and the environment from radiation hazard which might be occurred by the discharged radioactivity from the plant a total environmental monitoring program was set by the implementing organization. Prior to the operation, environmental monitoring technique had to be developed. This presentation will introduce the history of R and D on low level environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for Tokai Reprocessing Facility in Japan. (authors)

262

Biosimilar development and regulation in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Japan, biosimilars guidelines following the principles of the EU framework were established by Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in March 2009. The guidelines cover the manufacturing process, characterization of quality attributes, and clinical and non-clinical studies for biosimilars. In this paper, the requirements for regulatory approval of biosimilars in Japan are outlined.

GaBI Journal Editor

2013-12-01

263

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

264

Purification of europium for the determination of the specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the specific radioactivity of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to assess the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, the use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic bombs and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic bomb. This chemical procedure has been successful for materials exposed to the atomic bomb within a 1400 m slant distance from the explosion point over Hiroshima. At Nagasaki, materials exposed at distances greater than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, we have undertaken the determination of the specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at a place distant from the explosion point. However, because of radioactive decay during the ?60 years since 1945 and the great distance from the explosion point, the currennce from the explosion point, the current specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?2x10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem in the measurement of ultra low-level 152Eu radioactivity arises due to interference from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y). Hence, our chemical procedure for preparing a Eu-enriched counting source must be improved, and much attention must be given to the removal of Ac from the sample. An approximately 19 kg concrete sample was obtained from the outer surface of a building exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at a distance of 1596 m from the explosion point. From the concrete sample, approximately 9.6 kg of andesite (used as osteodentin) and approximately 7.7 kg of mortar were separated. Because preliminary neutron activation analysis demonstrated that the Eu concentration in the andesite fraction (0.96 ppm) was higher than the concentration in the mortar fraction (0.41 ppm), approximately 7.8 kg aliquots of andesite were subjected to a chemical procedure to separate rare-earth elements (REEs) including Eu. After total decomposition of the pulverized andesite by fusion with sodium hydroxide, removal of major elements (such as Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, and Mg) was carried out by precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange column methods. A crude specimen obtained in this manner was subjected to preliminary measurement of Eu and radionuclides. The crude specimen, which was enriched in REEs, was then subjected to total decomposition and chemical procedures to obtain a purified specimen, which was virtually free of major elements and Ac. To remove Ac from the REEs, the major elements were first removed, then solvent extraction with 1M HDEHP-benzene was applied to the REE fraction in dilute nitric acid medium. Preliminary measurements of Eu and radionuclides in the crude specimen revealed that the content of 227Ac daughters in the specimen was too high to determine the low-level 152Eu radioactivity. A series of tracer experiments using 152Eu and 228Ac demonstrated that solvent extraction in a 1M HDEHP-benzene/dilute HNO3 system is an efficient method to remove Ac from Eu (Figs. 1 and 2). In the case of the actual crude specimen enriched in REEs, Eu and Ac were first extracted into 300 mL of 1M HDEHP-benzene from 300 mL of 0.1 M HNO3 solution. The organic phase was then washed with five 300 mL portions of 0.2 M HNO3. Some results of the enrichment and purification of Eu from the sample exposed to the atomic bomb are given in Table 1. Although the overall recovery of Eu in the purified specimen is only ?26%, the remov

265

Current status of measles in Japan: molecular and seroepidemiological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

On account of the measles vaccination campaign, with vaccinations carried out on the first birthdays of children, the number of reported cases of measles was reduced to 545 in 2005, which is the lowest so far in Japan. We conducted a molecular epidemiological study of measles virus to determine the circulating measles virus genotypes in Japan since 1984. Different genotypes, C1, D3, D5, and H1, were the major strains isolated in outbreaks in 1984, 1987-1988, 1991-1993, and 2000, respectively. When measles was in the control phase, a sporadic outbreak was reported, but the causative virus was found to be of imported measles virus lineage. We also conducted a seroepidemiological study to investigate the persistence of vaccine-acquired immunity in Himeji City, Japan. Before 1990, vaccine coverage was 84.5% and it increased gradually, to 88.5% in 1991-1995, 92.7% in 1996-2000, and 94.6% after 2000. Measles outbreaks were observed annually before 1978 and in 1980, 1981, 1984, 1990, and 1996; there were no measles cases after 1997 in Himeji City. In 1994-1998, a serological study of 795 sera showed that measles neutralization test (NT) antibodies were sufficiently preserved, even 12 years after the first-dose immunization. In 1999-2003, 26 (3.7%) of 695 sera were negative for NT. The positive rate for measles NT decreased to approximately 90% as the elapsed time after the first-dose immunization increased to 6 or 7 years. The immunity obtained after receiving measles vaccine decays by 6-7 years after the first dose when the measles was controlled. A two-dose schedule of measles vaccine was implemented in Japan in 2006; we should continue molecular and serological surveillance. PMID:17235638

Okafuji, Teruo; Okafuji, Takao; Fujino, Motoko; Nakayama, Tetsuo

2006-12-01

266

Nuclear power in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

267

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

268

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from January through September 1992. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were 0.19±0.011 Bq/p·d from Kamisaibara-mura (Okayama) and 0.34±0.021 Bq/p·d from Nagano, respectively, for total diet; 0.021±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Chiba and 0.048±0.0076 Bq/kgwet from Kanazawa for rice (producing districts); 0.18±0.013 Bq/l and 0.16±0.010 Bq/l from Aomori for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.14±0.012 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.12±0.009 Bq/l from Hikawa-machi (Shimane) for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.057±0.0068 Bq/l from Sapporo and 0.15±0.014 Bq/l from Nagasaki for milk (consuming districts); 0.76±0.029 Bq/l and 2.0±0.04 Bq/l from Sample C for powdered milk; 0.50±0.015 Bq/kgwet and 2.6±0.04 Bq/kgwet from Oota (Shimane) for vegetables (producing districts); 0.37±0.019 Bq/kgwet and 0.098±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sendai for vegetables (consuming districts); 1.9±0.09 Bq/kg from Ue-mura (Kumamoto) and 3.1±0.14 Bq/kg from Kawaminami-machi (Miyazaki) for Japanese tea; 0.035±0.0063 Bq/kgwet in Scorpion-fish collected from Hamada (Shimane) and 0.42±0.024 Bq/kgwet in Skipjack from Tosa (Kochi) for sea fish; 0.95±0.033 Bq/kgwet from Akita and 0.38±0.025 Bq/kgwet from Kasumigaura (Ibaraki) for freshwater fish; 0.010±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.054±0.013 Bq/kgwet from Minamichita-machi (Aichi) for shellfish; 0.049±0.012 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.036±0.0095 Bq/kgwet from Muta (Aomori) for seaweeds. (N.K.)

269

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from January through September 1992. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were 0.19{+-}0.011 Bq/p{center_dot}d from Kamisaibara-mura (Okayama) and 0.34{+-}0.021 Bq/p{center_dot}d from Nagano, respectively, for total diet; 0.021{+-}0.011 Bq/kgwet from Chiba and 0.048{+-}0.0076 Bq/kgwet from Kanazawa for rice (producing districts); 0.18{+-}0.013 Bq/l and 0.16{+-}0.010 Bq/l from Aomori for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.14{+-}0.012 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.12{+-}0.009 Bq/l from Hikawa-machi (Shimane) for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.057{+-}0.0068 Bq/l from Sapporo and 0.15{+-}0.014 Bq/l from Nagasaki for milk (consuming districts); 0.76{+-}0.029 Bq/l and 2.0{+-}0.04 Bq/l from Sample C for powdered milk; 0.50{+-}0.015 Bq/kgwet and 2.6{+-}0.04 Bq/kgwet from Oota (Shimane) for vegetables (producing districts); 0.37{+-}0.019 Bq/kgwet and 0.098{+-}0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sendai for vegetables (consuming districts); 1.9{+-}0.09 Bq/kg from Ue-mura (Kumamoto) and 3.1{+-}0.14 Bq/kg from Kawaminami-machi (Miyazaki) for Japanese tea; 0.035{+-}0.0063 Bq/kgwet in Scorpion-fish collected from Hamada (Shimane) and 0.42{+-}0.024 Bq/kgwet in Skipjack from Tosa (Kochi) for sea fish; 0.95{+-}0.033 Bq/kgwet from Akita and 0.38{+-}0.025 Bq/kgwet from Kasumigaura (Ibaraki) for freshwater fish; 0.010{+-}0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.054{+-}0.013 Bq/kgwet from Minamichita-machi (Aichi) for shellfish; 0.049{+-}0.012 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.036{+-}0.0095 Bq/kgwet from Muta (Aomori) for seaweeds. (N.K.).

NONE

1994-09-01

270

Climatological features on the decrease in the heavy rainfall days around Western Japan in the mature stage of the Baiu season after 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant rainy season called "Baiu (in Japan)/Meiyu (in China)" appears before the midsummer in East Asia and the heavy rainfall events frequently occur there, especially around the western Japan and Central China (from late June to early July), due to the huge moisture transport from the tropics or subtropics. The present study examined the synoptic features and the recent long-term change in the Baiu precipitation around Kyushu District (western Japan) based on the daily precipitation data and NCEP/NCAR Re-analysis data during 1971~2008. We paid special attention to the relation among the appearance frequency of "heavy rainfall days" (with more than 50mm/day), the location of the surface front, the meridional extension of the "heavy rainfall area" and its synoptic conditions. It was pointed out that the total precipitation in June decreased greatly after ~2000 in the mainland of Kyushu except for its southern part, especially decreased in the northwestern Kyushu (Otani and Kato, EGU2010). Although the appearance frequency of the surface front around the southern Kyushu (30~32N) was nearly the same in both periods (1971~2000 and 2001~2008), the total precipitation and the contribution of the heavy rainfall days at Nagasaki (northwestern part of Kyushu) decreased after ~2000, with its increase at Kagoshima (southern part of Kyushu). It is also noted that the mean precipitation at Nagasaki did not increase when the front is located to the north of Nagasaki after ~2000, in spite of the increase in the appearance frequency of the front there. Climatologically, the baroclinicity around the Baiu front in the east of Japan is not so small. However, the weak baroclinic zone extended further westward to the East China Sea area (the narrow meridional width) in relatively many cases when the heavy rainfall days appeared around the northwestern part of Kyushu. The synoptic fields of air temperature were not so different from the heavy rainfall days and the non-heavy rainfall days around the northwest Kyushu when the surface front located around there (31.5~33.5N). On the other hand, it had been a meso-?- or synoptic- scale low pressure was located to the west of Kyushu in the heavy rainfall days, and the low-level southerly winds from the tropics or subtropics could penetrate to the frontal zone compared with the non-heavy rainfall days. According to the surface weather maps, an anticyclone was found around the Japan Sea area, in the northeast quadrant of that disturbance in many cases. In other words, the synoptic situation with the low-level strong southerly wind with the high equivalent potential temperature across that baroclinic zone might be one of the important patterns which bring the heavy rainfall around the northwestern part of Kyushu. It is necessary to examine how the appearance tendency of such synoptic situation feasible for bringing the heavy rainfall events changed after 2000 in the future.

Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Kuranoshin

2014-05-01

271

A clinicopathological study on gastric cancer of the atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, by autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autopsy findings of gastric cancer were examined in 265 patients consisting of those exposed at ? 2,000 m from the hypocenter (group 1), those exposed at > 2,000 m or those entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and non-exposed controls (group 3). The largest number of patients was in their sixties and seventies, irrespective of exposure status. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.6 : 1. The incidence of gastric cancer decreased up to 1975 in all groups. Thereafter, it began to increase, especially in group 1. The most common site of cancer was the pyloric antrum in all groups. Histologically, poorly differentiated type was observed most frequently in group 1; however, this was not statistically significant. Multiple primaries, which were unlikely to be related to exposure, were observed in 22 autopsy cases. (Namekawa, K.)

272

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

273

Estimation of daily uranium ingestion by urban residents in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

125 types of food were collected mainly from Yokohama City which is one of the typical urban cities in Japan. The samples, were divided into the 18 food categories in the report of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS),1 were analysed for uranium by ?-spectrometry after chemical separation. Concentrations of 238U in individual types of food ranged from 9.85 * 10-5 Bq * kg-1 in grain vinegar to 5.90 Bq * kg-1 in boiled and dried hijiki. The median value of 238U was found to be 4.83 * 10-3 Bq * kg-1 on a raw weight basis. The daily intake of 238U per person by ingestion was estimated to be approximately 14 mBq with more than 50% of it coming from marine products. (author)

274

Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

275

The City at Stake:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing...

Sophie Esmann Andersen; Anne Ellerup Nielsen

2009-01-01

276

Meningococcemia without meningitis in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of meningococcemia without meningitis, which is a rare infectious disease in Japan. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with fever and joint pain. Her clinical presentation and the results of laboratory examination on admission suggested viral infection. However, her condition rapidly progressed to septic shock with fulminans purpura. Blood culture grew Neisseria meningitidis. She received antimicrobial therapy and underwent localized therapy for skin lesions. Meningococcal infection should be considered in patients who have fever along with skin rash or petechiae even when there are no signs of meningitis. In this report, we also review case reports of meningococcemia without meningitis in Japan. PMID:18758132

Horino, Tetsuya; Kato, Tetsuro; Sato, Fumiya; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Nakazawa, Yasushi; Yoshida, Masaki; Onodera, Shoichi; Kohda, Masato; Matsuo, Koma; Ishiji, Takaoki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Haruo

2008-01-01

277

INSTANT CITY : PERFORMATIVE ARCHITECTURE AND CITY LIFE  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.

Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

2013-01-01

278

What Is Clean Cities?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

2007-08-01

279

75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International...determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-09-23

280

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold alcohol. (b) In accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section,...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Japan's Middle East policy : 'still mercantile realism'.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan's vital interests, both its energy security and US alliance, are at stake in the Middle East. Change in Japan's Middle East policy is charted over three periods, from a stance independent of the United States to one increasingly aligned with US policy. This is explained in terms of four variables: level of US hegemony, threats in East Asia, energy vulnerabilities in the Middle East, and normative change inside Japan. Japan's policy in Middle East/North Africa reflects its general move t...

Miyagi, Yukiko

2012-01-01

282

Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

283

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

284

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

285

The March 2011 Japan tsunami  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The March 11th 2011 Tohoku-iki earthquake was the fifth largest on Earth in the last 50 years, it created one of the most devastating tsunamis in history. Dave Tappin describes the background to the tsunami and its impact based on his research on tsunamis and visits to Japan over the past three months.

Tappin, Dave

2011-01-01

286

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol came into force in December 1999 in Japan. After that, Japan makes an effort to meet the Additional Protocol. Through the submission of the initial declaration and the annual declaration, or through the implementation of the complementary access, Japan got many experiences. (author)

287

History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

Masalski, Kathleen Woods

288

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

289

Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D? - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D? - 0.06)>0, where D? is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

290

The nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the development and use of nuclear power are considered key building blocks of safe energy supply in the 21st century. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle so as to utilize uranium and plutonium from spent fuel elements is to establish nuclear power as a quasi-domestic energy source in Japan. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. is the only private enterprise in Japan to offer nuclear fuel cycle services. At Rokkasho, the company operates plants for reprocessing (under construction), uranium enrichment, treatment of radioactive waste, and a repository for low level radioactive materials. Consequently, an important sector of Japan's future energy supply is ensured on this location. (orig.)

291

Scientists Examine Challenges and Lessons From Japan's Earthquake and Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

A week after the magnitude 9.0 great Tohoku earthquake and the resulting tragic and damaging tsunami of 11 March struck Japan, the ramifications continued, with a series of major aftershocks (as Eos went to press, there had been about 4 dozen with magnitudes greater than 6); the grim search for missing people—the death toll was expected to approximate 10,000; the urgent assistance needed for the more than 400,000 homeless and the 1 million people without water; and the frantic efforts to avert an environmental catastrophe at Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, about 225 kilometers northeast of Tokyo, where radiation was leaking. The earthquake offshore of Honshu in northeastern Japan (see Figure 1) was a plate boundary rupture along the Japan Trench subduction zone, with the source area of the earthquake estimated at 400-500 kilometers long with a maximum slip of 20 meters, determined through various means including Global Positioning System (GPS) and seismographic data, according to Kenji Satake, professor at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo. In some places the tsunami may have topped 7 meters—the maximum instrumental measurement at many coastal tide gauges—and some parts of the coastline may have been inundated more than 5 kilometers inland, Satake indicated. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) noted that eyewitnesses reported that the highest tsunami waves were 13 meters high. Satake also noted that continuous GPS stations indicate that the coast near Sendai—which is 130 kilometers west of the earthquake and is the largest city in the Tohoku region of Honshu—moved more than 4 meters horizontally and subsided about 0.8 meter.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

292

Victory City: The City of the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

293

Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-07-01

294

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this {proportional_to}60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be {proportional_to}3 x 10{sup -4} Bq-{sup 152}Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of {sup 227}Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

Hosotani, R.; Izumi, H.; Nomura, T.; Yokoyama, A.; Nakanishi, T. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology

2004-07-01

295

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ?60 years since 1945 and long distance from thers since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

296

Japan reforms its nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

297

Japan reforms its nuclear safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

Anon.

2013-11-15

298

Conceptions of CSR in Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese companies in terms of social employee issues and concerns. A strong relationship between companies and employees has always been an advantage of the Japanese economy, and this strength was developed further by the integration of CSR into management systems and strategies. But increasing environmental concerns have raised crucial questions about environmental issues with regards to CSR. How do Japanese companies incorporate environmental issues into their CSR aims and achievements? What is the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan? This paper will analyze the conceptualization of CSR in TEPCO documents and the political discussions following the Fukushima accident. Drawing on rhetorical theory, especially on the importance of metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; 1999) and how this applies to the field of strategic management (Audebrand, 2010), Thus, the paper interrogates CSR as a site of conceptual and metaphorical "struggle" regarding how to conceive the social responsibilities of companies. It identifies three main conceptions of CSR; a narrow economic conception, a broad economic conception and a systemic conception of CSR. They represent different taken-for-granted conceptual frameworks used to understand CSR and the strategic challenges for CSR in Japan. Such a conceptual analysis provides important insight into how Japanese companies conceive of environmental issues and incorporate these into their CSR aims and achievements. As such, this paper will argue, part of the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan is to deal with the preconceptions about the nature of business activities amongst managers, politicians, and other CSR agents.

Lystbæk, Christian Tang

2014-01-01

299

Introduction to Japan NUS (JANUS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan NUS (JANUS) is outlined. JANUS was originally founded with the aim of rendering consulting services for nuclear power generation, JANUS services have been expanded over the years to include other fields such as fossil power, the petroleum industry and other energy and industrial systems. JANUS have offered a wide range of information services and analysis and/or assessment services and computerized system development services and environmental services. The overseas partners of JANUS is also introduced. (10 ills.)

300

Potato irradiation technology in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ry?tar?. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it ref...

Rosa Lee

2011-01-01

302

Contemporary Popular Beliefs in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis discusses contemporary popular beliefs in Japan. It asks the questions what superstitions are generally known to Japanese people and if they have any affects on their behavior and daily lives. The thesis is divided into four main chapters. The introduction examines what is normally considered to be superstitious beliefs as well as Japanese superstition in general. The second chapter handles the methodology of the survey written and distributed by the author. Third chapter is on th...

Lára Ósk Hafbergsdóttir 1984

2010-01-01

303

The Joint Cities The Joint Cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

Romano Fistola

2010-04-01

304

Aerial measuring system in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Forces in Japan (USFJ) to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the Government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 h, including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple USFJ aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with USFJ pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These factors combined to make for a programmatically unanticipated situation. In addition to the challenges of multiple and ongoing releases, integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight into addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System's mission beyond the borders of the U.S. PMID:22469929

Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

2012-05-01

305

Coal ash utilization in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan is one of the major coal-importing countries in the world, importing more than 100 types of coal every year, with some of the electric power plants using as many as 20 types of coal per year. The major sources are Australia, U.S., China, and Indonesia. Japan's dependency on coal is expected to keep the same level in future, under to diversify energy resources in our country. In order to use the coal stably, it is important to expand effective utilization of coal as well as to use coal cleanly and effectively. JCOAL investigates the data of coal ash production & utilization every year. In 2003 fiscal year, about 9.9 million tons of coal ash was produced in coal combustion, of which 85% was effectively used and the rest was disposed. The utilization rate of cement raw material (alternative for clay) is 70% and cement/concrete admixture 5%, civil engineering field 10%, and construction field 5%, agriculture field 2%, others 8%. Using the coal ash as a cement raw material has little room for increasing the amount any further, therefore it is required to expand the effective utilization in cement admixture or in the civil engineering field. This paper describes the situation of coal ash production and the trend of utilization in Japan.

Yuko Yamazaki; Yoshiaki Sakai; Akemitsu Akimoto; Atsushi Kobari [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2005-07-01

306

Nutrition and Depressive Symptoms in Community-dwelling Elderly Persons in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between dietary intake and depressivesymptoms in community-dwelling elderly persons. Five-hundred elderly persons aged 65 to 75 years were randomly selected from the population of O city in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Among 401 respondents (response rate, 80.0%), data from 279 (133 males, 146 females) who completed the questionnaire concerning dietary intake and depressive state were analyzed using logistic regression. ...

Oishi, Junko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Norito

2009-01-01

307

Relationship between recurrent liquefaction-induced damage and subsurface conditions in Midorigaoka, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Midorigaoka, Kushiro City, northeast Japan, suffered liquefaction-induced ground failures during four successive earthquakes in the past thirty years. This paper presents the ground failures and their effects to structures observed in Midorigaoka during the earthquakes, and examines the relationships between recurrent liquefaction-induced damage and subsurface conditions. As a result, thick liquefiable fill, slope of the ground surface, and subsurface water conditions, which resulted primarily from filling a marshy valley, are found to be responsible on the damage

308

Relationship between Vegetation Composition and Dissolved Nitrogen in Wetlands of Higashi-Hiroshima, West Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-four wetlands located in Higashi-Hiroshima City in West Japan were selected for this studyin order to investigate both the relationship between aquatic plant composition and environmental conditions; andthe relationship between changing land use patterns in the catchments and the concentration of different formsof nitrogen in the wetlands. The dominant and subdominant species which comprised the principal vegetationwere determined based on a vegetation census conducted in each wetland ...

Haidary Miandoab, Azam; Kaneyuki Nakane

2007-01-01

309

[Healthy Cities projects].  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research. PMID:12061093

Takano, Takehito

2002-05-01

310

Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

2001-01-01

311

Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

Jorge Morel

2014-09-01

312

Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan). PMID:18818992

Borovoy, Amy

2008-12-01

313

The City at Stake:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

Sophie Esmann Andersen

2009-12-01

314

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

315

Retirement memorial lecture. Review of studies on assessment of radiation exposed dose-exposure dose estimation in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described are following author's experiences about studies of dosimetry performed in such fields as in the title and concomitant thoughts of the health effect of radiation. The author expresses the degree of radiation risk, when simplified, with the equation, health effect/dose. The effect is either deterministic like alopecia/leucopenia or stochastic like carcinogenesis. DS02 (Dosimetry System 2002) leading to about 10% increase of the risk in the equation above is established with investigation of 120 thousands exposed people by Japanese and American reassessment study of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where neutron dose has been problematic but solved. Exposed dose 4000 mGy of Dolon village 110 km afar from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site has been said to be the highest among its nearest regions. However, the external exposure dose is estimated to be 400 mGy by dosimetry of bricks and other materials and factors concerned in radiation spread like soil Cs-137, Pu-239/240 against the reported dose above by old Soviet Union. Radioactive contamination in wide areas and in local spots is observed following the hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12-15, 2011) in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and decontamination is in progress with a measure of Cs-137. As for Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, following respective matters are different: the number of evacuated people of 400 thousands vs 85 thousands; 145 thousands people involved in contaminated area of >37eople involved in contaminated area of >37 kBq/km2 vs 8 thousands in >30 thousands kBq/km2; areas subjected to forced evacuation of 13 thousands km2 vs areas to planned evacuation of 8 hundreds km2; and released radioactivity of 5200 thousands TBq vs 770 thousands TBq. In Fukushima, there are additional problems of contamination of sea and of waste of the Plant rubbles. The author thinks that all of information and standard criteria about contamination should be more easily disclosed to public for their self judgment and decision. (T.T.)

316

Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hiroshi Toshida1,2, Yoshiaki Kadota3, Chikako Suto2, Toshihiko Ohta1, Akira Murakami21Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Shizuoka, 2Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, 3Bausch & Lomb Japan Co, Ltd, Research and Development, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan.Methods: The subjects were 1000 men and ...

Toshida H; Kadota Y; Suto C; Ohta T.; Murakami A

2012-01-01

317

A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW, Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including typical depressive states. Suffocations/hangings are the most common methods used to commit suicide by both sexes. Utilities and interactions among these several components were considered, as well as a perspective of suicidal behavior. Conclusion. In order to prevent suicide and avoid the worst tragedy for a family, it is an essential requirement to collect and analyze any information concerning suicide victims.

Yamamura Takehiko

2006-01-01

318

Exploring New York City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?Exploring New York City? dokumentiert und reflektiert die Studienreise des Lehrstuhls für Landschaftsarchitektur unter der Leitung von Johannes Rolfes nach New York City. Der Bericht enthält Ausarbeitungen der 28 teilnehmenden Studierenden zu allgemeinen Themen der Stadtentwicklung New Yorks und speziellen sowie aktuellen Stadtentwicklungsprojekten Manhattans. Zusätzlich werden verschiedene Orte der Stadt in Bildern und kurzen Kommentaren vorgestellt. Die thematische Bandbreite umfasst ...

Eikermann, Ninon; Elkholi, Rana Ahmed Salaheldin; Gao, Boyu; Gast, Pia Katharina Theresia; Germann, Marc; Großkunze, Melanie; Ha?fele, Florian Martin; Hertel, Daniela Elisabeth; Holst, Lisa; Karmeier, Lisa; Kru?ger, Sandra; Kupke, Christiane; Lambertus, Janina Laura; Lautenschlager, Daniel Maximilian; Leitaru, Imbi

2014-01-01

319

City Streets: Outdoor Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

"City Street Learning", an extension of Philadelphia inner-city regular reading and mathematics classes for elementary students, turns the school neighborhood into an outdoor classroom. It also combines science and social studies activities, community surveys and interviews, as well as reading and mathematics. (Author/RK)

Stranix, Edward; Fleishman, Michael

1977-01-01

320

Public information activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear p: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find new ways of increasing effectiveness and to examined carefully the proposals made at this conference

 
 
 
 
321

Bone marrow transplantation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

322

Characteristics of Japan’s Commodities Index and its Correlation with Stock Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The commodity indexes associated with Japan’s commodity-futures markets were formed in 2008 and publicized by the Tokyo Commodity Exchange and the Tokyo Grain Exchange. In this paper, I used these indexes to analyze the properties of Japan’s commodity futures as portfolio investments, and could confirm that they possess investment characteristics that differ from stocks, and that commodity investors can enjoy favorable “diversified investment” effects if leveraged skillfully.

Yamori, Nobuyoshi

2009-01-01

323

Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

324

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields: nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work.

1994-01-01

325

Cells and batteries in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, research programs are done jointly or independently by three organization types: private firms, universities and national institutes. This paper presents cells and batteries production in three chapters: the first one is dealing with the 'MOONLIGHT' project (advanced batteries, fuel cells and electric-powered vehicle), the second one with general purpose cells and batteries (Ni/Cd, Ni/Metal Hydride, Pb/PbO2 and lithium batteries), the last chapter gives a list and a precise description of the different organizations visited. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

326

Coal exploration technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four examples of coal exploration technologies in Japan have been selected from a NEDO survey for this article. They are entitled. seismic reflection survey by the crooked line method applied to coalfield in a mountainous region; b) application of seismic reflection survey by bay cable method in the shallow area at Ariake Bay; c) three dimensional seismic reflection survey conducted at offshore Nishisonogi District drilling exploration by semi-submersible drilling rig at Offshore Kushiro; e) Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP, survey at Offshore Drilling No. 62-Kushi-2 in Offshore Kushiro District. 28 figs., 11 tabs.

Inoue, M. (Japan Technical Cooperation Center for Coal Resources Development (Japan))

1991-07-01

327

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

328

Japanese History, Post-Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jason ?nanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuz? and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

George Lazopoulos

2014-03-01

329

Universities Scale Like Cities  

CERN Document Server

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

van Raan, Anthony F J

2012-01-01

330

JapanBizTech: The Source for Technology Business in Japan and Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan BizTech is a source for technology and business news from Japan and Asia developed by Nikkei Business Publications. It covers the latest news and research breakthroughs in the communications, electronics and computer industries in Japan and other Asian countries. An online directory for technology and business contacts throughout Asia in banking, communications, transport equipment and wholesale is available at the site.

331

Food Irradiation Development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology-Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected, to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

332

Food irradiation development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

333

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

334

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

335

Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by supercritical flows, resulting in the loss of landward seawall slopes. Such erosion was also observed at landward side of footpath between rice fields. The Sendai plain was subjected just after the main shock of the earthquake. Seawater inundation resulting from tsunami run-up lasted two months. The historical document Sandai-jitsuroku, which gives a detailed history of all of Japan, describes the Jogan earthquake and subsequent tsunami which have attacked Sendai plain in AD 869. The document describes the prolonged period of flooding, and it is suggested that co-seismic subsidence of the plain took place. The inundation area of the Jogan tsunami estimated by the distribution of tsunami deposit mostly overlaps with that of the 3.11 tsunami. Considering the very similarity of seismic shocks between the both, we interpreted the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami is the second coming of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami.

Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

2011-12-01

336

@City: technologising Barcelona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

Rojas, Jesús

2007-05-01

337

Globalization and cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation, new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and developing countries (including post-socialist. Urban policy and urban regime concepts are analysed in the third part, by focusing on economic competitiveness and democratic potentials of (developed, developing and post-socialist cities in the global world. Finally, paper concludes that new analytical concepts on cities developed since the1970’s actually deconstruct and reconstitute inherited forms of urban analysis with more or less success. Increased importance of cities as socio-economic actors in global economy has not contributed to the closure of the developmental gap. Contrary to that, it has been reproducing according to the new regulatory principles.

Petrovi? Mina

2004-01-01

338

Japan, a journey in irradiated lands. Japan changes its fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article describes the situation in terms of radioactivity, contamination and decontamination, of living conditions and of issues in the immediate surroundings of the Fukushima power station and in places located at different distances of the Fukushima power station: 10 km away, in a village 20 km away, in a farming and agriculture area 50 km away from the station, and in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (the greatest nuclear power station in the world, 220 km away from Fukushima). The article also evokes works performed in these places, sometimes with the help of French companies, to manage the wastes or decontamination purposes. The second article comments the perspectives of development of new energy sources, with a strong trend of investments in renewable energies. The author indicates that Japan not always possesses the required technologies. In this respect, the article outlines that there could be opportunities for French companies in the field of offshore wind energy

339

75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

340

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States...orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely...

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Japan's oil situation and relationship with the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on Japan's energy supply structure and the demand for energy in the country. It focuses on oil relations between Japan and the Middle Eastern oil countries, and Japan's attempt to enhance energy supply-security policy measures

342

City Lights of Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

2002-01-01

343

The Flower of Cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Flower of Cities (2012) Stephen Goss (b. 1964) For violin, two guitars, percussion, and double bass. John Williams has commissioned composer Stephen Goss to write a new work especially for this 50th anniversary Festival, taking its title from William Dunbar’s poetic tribute to England’s capital: ‘London, thou art the flower of cities all.’ More famous for its landmark buildings such as St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Gherkin, the City of London is also home to around 200 areas of o...

Goss, Sm

2012-01-01

344

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

345

Japan adapts waste solidification to its needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solidification techniques for Japan's waste generated by an expanding nuclear programme are being re-evaluated with a view to maximising both volume reduction and cost-effectiveness. Three materials are either in use or being developed as solidifying matrices: cement, bitumen and plastics. The relative merits of the materials and their applicability to Japan's needs are discussed. (U.K.)

346

Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

Yamaguchi, Makoto

347

The Role of German in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

Sang, Juergen

348

Development of clean coal technologies in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

2013-07-01

349

Research of geological hazards in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution is one the results of authors' cooperation on erosion and landslide hazards studies in two different geomorphologic areas of Japan. The physico-geographical and geological nature of the surveyed regions - typical for Japan - are described and examined from point of view of the intensity and causes of erosion and landslide events. (authors)

350

PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation' (IJWBME 2011) will be held on 7-10 December 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan. This workshop was held for the first time on 17-19 December 2009 at NPL, New Delhi. Keeping in mind the importance of organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation and their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world, IJWBME 2009 was jointly organized by the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science & Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Much progress in the field of biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation is expected for the 21st Century. Organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic electroluminescent devices, organic thin-film transistors, organic sensors, biological systems and so on have especially attracted much attention. The main purpose of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for researchers interested in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation, to come together in an informal and friendly atmosphere and exchange technical knowledge and experience. We are sure that this workshop will be very useful and fruitful for all participants in summarizing the recent progress in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation and preparing new ground for the next generation. Many papers have been submitted from India and Japan and more than 30 papers have been accepted for presentation. The main topics of interest are as follows: Bioelectronics Biomolecular Electronics Fabrication Techniques Self-assembled Monolayers Nano-sensors Environmental Monitoring Organic Devices Organic Functional Materials We would like to express our sincere thanks to the organizing committee members of this workshop and the many organizations such as the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), India, the Society of Organic Nanometric Interfacial Controlled Electronic (NICE) Devices, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, Himeji City, Himeji Convention & Visitors Bureau, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India and the University of Hyogo for their financial support. Thanks are also given to The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Division of Molecular Electronics and Bioelectronics, The Japan Society of Applied Physics (M & BE), the Technical Committee on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation Materials of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Japan (IEEJ), the Technical Group on Organic Molecular Electronics, Electronics Society of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE), and the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Japan Chapter, for their cooperation. Finally, we hope that the many young and active researchers who are participating will enjoy stimulating discussions and exchange ideas with each other at IJWBME 2011, Himeji, Japan. 7 April 2011 IJWBME 2011 Chairs Mitsuyoshi Onoda Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan Bansi D Malhotra Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India Conference photograph Participants of the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation 2011, December 7-10 2011, EGRET Himeji, Japan The PDF also contains a list of sponsors.

Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Malhotra, Bansi D.

2012-04-01

351

Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: View width 15 km ( 9.2 miles); view distance 12 km (7.3 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

2001-01-01

352

78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum'') on February 18-19...

2013-12-26

353

City fiiling / Triin Ojari  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

Ojari, Triin, 1974-

2006-01-01

354

Sister Cities International  

Science.gov (United States)

People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

355

City sewer collectors biocorrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

Ksia¸?ek, Mariusz

2014-12-01

356

Japan's Future in East Asia and the Pacific  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan’s Future in East Asia and the Pacific takes a ’big-picture‘ approach to Japan’s economic place in East Asia alongside that of China. It analyses Japan’s successes and experiments in trade policy as well as its failures in macro-economic policy. Japan’s diplomatic and economic integration strategies are also examined for their impact on East Asia and on Australia. The collection assesses China’s growth and dynamism and questions the nature of the competition for economic in...

Pangestu, Mari; Song, Ligang

2007-01-01

357

Nuclear power generation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following matters are described. (1) Need of nuclear power generation and its development target. As the most promising energy substitute, nuclear power generation has the features of stable fuel supply and low generating cost. According to the Government program, the target capacity of nuclear power generation in 1990 is 51000 - 53000 MW, the petroleum equivalent of 75,900,000 kl. (2) Safety of nuclear power generation. While the safety of nuclear power generation is not adequately acknowledged by the people, full measures are being taken to secure it. (3) Accident in the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station of Japan Atomic Power Co. In the nuclear power station, the accident of drain water leakage from a feed water heater occurred, and resulted in the leakage of radioactivity into a general drainage, but without any adverse effects. (J.P.N.)

358

Application of EB in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

2003-02-01

359

Improving the City environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

360

Monitoring a city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of indicators to measure urban sustainability is highlighted in Agenda 21 and has been emphasised as an important instrument at many of the European Conferences on Sustainable Cities and Towns. This study is an explorative analysis of eight European cities to determine what aspects of sustainable development are measured, what reasons are given for using indicators to measure urban sustainability, and to what extent uniformity has been included in indicator design. The most striking f...

Persson, Jesper; Johansson, Madeleine; Margaux Raimond, Dit Yvon; Hedren, Johan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The geomorphic history of the Ainoura plain, Kyushu, Japan, based on excavation of the Monzen ruins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La compleja línea de costa en la región noroccidental de Kyushu, Japón, está compuesta por acantilados, ensenadas de laderas inclinadas y archipiélagos, y es producto de la subsidencia de un cinturón montañoso. Los valles aluviales y las estrechas llanuras de inundación de esta región se encuentran [...] densamente pobladas y están sujetas a continuos movimientos en masa. Ainoura es un ejemplo de esta llanura de inundación. La excavación de Monzen Ruin realizada por -Nagasaki Prefectural Board of Education- en la llanura de inundación Ainoura revela la historia geomorfológica; la depositación de gravas, arenas y lodos en los últimos milenios. En la sucesión aluvial, los primeros en llenar el canal fueron los depósitos de lodos y arenas, probablemente como resultado de la transgresión del óptimo climático que ocurrió durante el Holoceno. Consecutivamente, los depósitos de grava empezaron a reemplazar las capas de arena y lodo mediante la erosión y depositación sucesiva, elevando el lecho del río. Nosotros corroboramos que el conglomerado de la llanura de inundación Ainoura proviene del deslizamiento de tierras de la zona interior de Hokusho, ya que la Llanura de inundación Hino, ubicada al sureste de Ainoura, no contiene capas de conglomerados. El lecho del río Ainoura muestra que el Monzen Ruin se localiza en la abrupta reducción del gradiente, lo cual explica el material clástico grueso en esta área. Adicionalmente, nosotros reportamos la paleo-línea de costa de la llanura de inundación de Ainoura durante el optimo climático que ocurrió durante el Holoceno. La paleolínea de costa no se movió significativamente hasta que la población empezó a recuperar tierra. Por consiguiente, nosotros predecimos que el mismo proceso de depositación podría ocurrir en la llanura de inundación de Ainoura al interior de la línea de costa. Abstract in english The complex coastline of north-western Kyushu, Japan, consisting of cliffs, steep-sided inlets and archipelagos, has resulted from subsidence in mountainous terrain; the region’s populated river valleys, having narrow alluvial plains, often suffer rock avalanches. The Ainoura plain is one such alluv [...] ial plain. Excavation of the Monzen ruins on the Ainoura Plain by the Nagasaki Prefectural Board of Education has revealed the plain’s geomorphic history regarding how the gravels and associated muds and sands were deposited during the last several thousand years. Regarding alluvial succession, mud and sand first filled in the trough, possibly as part of the transgression caused by the Holocene climatic optimum, and gravel later began to replace parts of the sand and mud layers by successive erosion and sedimentation, thereby raising riverbed level. It was confirmed that such conglomerate from the Ainoura plain was derived from the Hokusho landslide area in the hinterland because there is no conglomerate layer in the Hino plain (a small plain southeast of the Ainoura plain). The Ainoura River’s thalweg shows that the Monzen ruins are located at a sudden reduction in its gradient, thereby accounting for the thickness of coarse clastic material in that area. The reconstructed Ainoura plain’s paleoshoreline during the Holocene climatic optimum is also reported. The paleoshoreline did not move much until people began to reclaim land; it would thus be expected that the similar deposition would happened on the Ainoura plain inside this paleoshoreline.

Hirotsugu, Mori; Shoichi, Shimoyama; Kazuaki, Soejima.

2012-12-01

362

Forest medicine research in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

2014-01-01

363

Monitoring of PCDD/F in ambient air of the city of Ostrava  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The city of Ostrava in the Czech Republic is heavily polluted due to the coal mining, metallurgy and chemical production activities that have taken place in the region. This paper provided the results of a long-term study of dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) contaminants in the ambient atmosphere of the city. A polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler was used to obtain samples from January to July 2003, as well as from March to April 2004. Analyses of the samples were performed using high resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) and gas chromatography (GC). Results showed that PCDD/F levels in Ostrava were comparable with the levels found in industrial cities in Germany, Japan, and Korea. Correlations between PCDD/F concentrations and total suspended particulates (TSP) in the city center were estimated at 0.87. It was concluded that PCDD/F concentrations were related to TSP levels in the city. 2 figs.

Tomsej, T.; Grabic, R.; Tomsejova, S.; Miturova, H.; Ocelka, T. [Ostrava Inst. of Public Health, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

2005-07-01

364

Art in Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

The organizers of Art in Cities say, "Cities are like a huge art gallery with a permanently changing exhibition." Therefore, this web site exists to collect submissions of artwork from cities all over the world, and plot it on a map. To view the art, browse by selecting points on the map, or search by City, Submitter, or artist (Artwork by). There is also a quick link to the most recent uploads. On the day we visited, this link lead to stencil art and graffiti from several cities in the Netherlands, including Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Eindhoven, as well as one from San Bernardino, CA. This was just the first page of 473 for this specific link, which is in turn only a fraction of the close to 6,000 pieces of art on view at the site. Submitting art is as easy as uploading an image from your computer, and filling out a few fields on a form thus encouraging anyone to walk the streets of their city looking for art to add the site.

365

Sedimentary features observed in the tsunami deposits at Rikuzentakata City  

Science.gov (United States)

The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami triggered by an earthquake off the east coast of northeastern Honshu Island (Tohoku region), Japan, deposited large amounts of sediment on land, including the Sendai Plain and Sanriku Coast. This study reports on the characteristics of the tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City, southeastern Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. A field survey identified the inundation pattern of the tsunami in this region and the facies model of the tsunami deposits at the bay-head deltas of estuarine systems. The tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City generally consist of one to four units that represent a discrete runup or backwash flow. Each unit is characterized by initial inverse grading and successive normal grading that correspond to the accelerating and decelerating stages of the flow, respectively. An internal erosional surface often developed between the inverse-graded and normal-graded units. It corresponds to the maximum shear velocity of the flow and truncates the underlying inverse-graded unit. In the case of the runup unit, silty fine-grained drapes overlay the graded sandy interval. A correlation of the sedimentary structures and grain fabric analysis revealed that the Tohoku-Oki tsunami inundated Rikuzentakata City at least twice and that the flow velocity exceeded 2.4 m/s. Paleontological analysis of the sediment and kriging estimation of the total volume of the tsunami deposit implied that the sediments were sourced not only from eroded beach sands but also from the seafloor of Hirota Bay or more offshore regions.

Naruse, Hajime; Arai, Kazuno; Matsumoto, Dan; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shota; Tanaka, Gengo; Murayama, Masafumi

2012-12-01

366

The scale of biomass production in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

2005-11-01

367

Skin diseases described in Japan 2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last century of modern dermatology, more than 30 skin diseases have been described first by physicians from Japan. Many of those conditions were disorders of pigmentation and keratinization, which are quite common in Oriental patients. Since the late 1940s, a number of skin diseases first reported in Japan have gained attention internationally among them being Kimura disease, hypomelanosis of Ito, Kawasaki disease, adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, prurigo pigmentosa, and Ofuji's papuloerythroderma. In this article, we review skin diseases that were first established as distinct entities in Japan, in order to familiarize readers of the Western literature with these conditions. PMID:16353745

Teraki, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Takeji

2005-01-01

368

Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

369

Universities scale like cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment. PMID:23544062

van Raan, Anthony F J

2013-01-01

370

Earth's City Lights  

Science.gov (United States)

This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

2002-01-01

371

Hamilton : the electric city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

Gilbert, R. [Richard Gilbert Consultant, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2006-04-13

372

Hamilton : the electric city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

373

University Teacher Training in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La formación del profesorado universitario en Japón ha sido promovida en el marco del “Desarrollo profesional docente (FD”. La formación del profesorado se convirtió en un "deber sustancial» para los profesores de los centros de pregrado por una orden ministerial en 2008 (en 2007 para los centros de posgrado. Sin embargo, el contenido de la Capacitación Docente queda a la discreción de cada organización, y el marco legal no impone como obligatoria la participación de todo el personal académico en la formación del profesorado. En la década de 2000, las universidades japonesas empezaron a moverse de acuerdo con presiones externas, como las inspecciones para garantizar la calidad, la obtención de fondos externos, y la publicación de datos acerca de sus estudiantes. Estas circunstancias han promovido los movimientos de la Capacitación Docente aplicada a las actividades de educación en las instituciones, y entendidas según el concepto del KAIZEN (proceso de mejora colectiva que sigue el ciclo planificación-acción-verificación. Sin embargo, la formación del profesorado basada en las habilidades de enseñanza todavía no es una prioridad en Japón.ABSTRACTUniversity teacher training in Japan has been promoted as a part of ‘Faculty Development (FD’. Teacher training became a ‘substantial duty’ to faculties for of undergraduate schools by a ministerial ordinance in 2008 (graduate schools in 2007. However, contents of the Faculty Development are left to each organisation’s discretion, and the ordinance does not have the legal right to mandate the participation of all academic staff in teacher training. In the 2000s, Japanese universities were under the external pressures such as quality assurance inspections, acquisition of external funds, and the exposure of data about their students. These circumstances have promoted the movements of the Faculty Development as KAIZEN (collective improvement by means of the plan-do-check-action cycle activities of education at institutions. However, a few institutions offer a systematised programme of teaching and learning for academic staff. The teacher training for enhancement of teaching skills is still not a priority in Japan.

Kaori Kato

2013-12-01

374

Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: February 8, 2001

2001-01-01

375

Life in the City  

Science.gov (United States)

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a close-up look at biodiversity in a city park. The site opens by telling kids that, despite appearances, a great deal of biodiversity exists in cities. From tiny mites to mighty trees, thousands of species thrive there. It then takes them to a slice of life from a thriving city park, where they are asked to find 10 hidden critters living alongside the trees, plants, and insects. Each time they locate one of the tiny critters, they are rewarded with a quick look at its importance to the habitat.

376

The Guardian Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

The Guardian newspaper has crafted this wonderful site to bring curious urbanologists news from Seoul to San Francisco. Supported in part by the Rockefeller Foundation, the site offers "a forum for debate and the sharing of ideas about the future of cities around the world.â Articles on the homepage might include pieces on investment in Detroit by Chinese corporations or the shifting public art scene in Glasgow. New visitors may wish to start with "An urbanist's tour of South Korea,â which features the musings of Colin Marshall on this dynamic Asian country. Moving along, the Global voices section features an interactive map of the best city blogs around the world. The site also contains the visually stimulating In pictures area and the up-to-the-moment Latest on cities newsfeed.

377

Water in the City  

Science.gov (United States)

Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.

378

Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

379

River and Wetland Restoration: Lessons from Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a peer reviewed article from BioScience focuses on river and wetland restoration projects in Japan. River and wetland restoration has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon and is becoming a highly profitable business. Although researchers worldwide know a lot about restoration practices in Europe and the United States, we have only scant information about the activities in Japan, where more than 23,000 river restoration projects have been conducted during the past 15 years. In Japan, restoration is a daunting business because of the high human population density, urbanization, and harsh environmental conditions. Here we provide an overview of the various restoration activities in Japan and discuss the lessons that we can draw from them.

KEIGO NAKAMURA, KLEMENT TOCKNER, and KUNIHIKO AMANO (;)

2006-05-01

380

Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

 
 
 
 
381

Rebalancing China’s economic growth: some insights from Japan’s experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the greatest challenges China faces is how to reshape its heavily investment-driven mode of economic growth. By investigating how the rebalancing of Japan’s economic growth mode was realized in the 1970s, we indicate that it is essential in the rebalancing to correct the distortions in the factor cost (labor cost and capital cost) in a harmonious way. In addition, we refer to Japan’s experience to indicate that achieving domestic rebalancing does not necessarily lead to external re...

Muto, Ichiro; Fukumoto, Tomoyuki

2011-01-01

382

Coal exploration technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The followings are prepared as the examples of coal exploration in Japan. All there examples have been selected from a series of Domestic coal exploration activities called the Basic coal survey for its resources development which were undertaken by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in the past from 1982 to 1990. Seismic Reflection Survey by the Crooked Line Method applied to coalfield in a mountainous region, application of Seismic Reflection Survey by Bay Cable Method in the shallow area at Ariake Bay, Dimensional Seismic Reflection Survey conducted at offshore Nishisonogi district, drilling exploration by Semi-Submersible drilling rig at offshore Kushiro, VSP Survey at offshore drilling No. 62-Kushi-2 in offshore Kushiro district. The results obtained from the seismic reflection surveys by crooked line method show a marked improvement on previous interpretation of geological structure. The result of the survey was sufficient to determine actual status of the potential coal seams and the other geological information needed for their development. The survey verified the effectiveness of seismic reflection survey using a streamer cable system for coal exploration in the offshore area, and established a combined exploration survey by seismic and offshore drilling surveys. The result of the studies shows that VSP survey is more accurate in detecting the reflection event than seismic survey alone.

Inouse, M. (Dia Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-01-01

383

Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ry?tar?. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it reflects their ‘philosophies of the age’, which may be discovered by examining popular heroes with their subsequent replications.This article will identify why Shinsengumi is appealing by comparing Shiba’s hero in Moeyo ken with its twenty-first century reincarnation in Gintama, a popular manga series, and by discerning reader response to Moeyo ken from customer reviews on Amazon.co.jp. It will be demonstrated from these studies that a likely reason for the Japanese public’s romanticisation of Shinsengumi in recent years could be their attraction to autonomous, self-determining heroes who also appreciate the value of community.

Rosa Lee

2011-01-01

384

Spent fuel treatment in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

385

From the Jura to Japan...  

CERN Multimedia

Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

2012-01-01

386

Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Blackard, W.G.; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L.R.

1964-03-12

387

Plans for super-beams in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Japan, as the first experiment utilizes J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) neutrino facility, T2K (Tokai to Kamioka Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) starts operation. T2K is supposed to give critical information, which guides the future direction of the neutrino physics. Possible new generation discovery experiment based on T2K outcome is discussed. Especially, description of J-PARC neutrino beam upgrade plan and discussion on far detector options to max...

Hasegawa, Takuya

2010-01-01

388

Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan  

CERN Document Server

Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

Sprague, John

1993-01-01

389

Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demons...

Raymo, James M.; Iwasawa, Miho; Bumpass, Larry

2009-01-01

390

Status of historical seismology in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan's combination of high seismicity and a long history has produced copious written records of historical earthquakes. Systematic collection and investigation of such historical documents began late in the 19th century. Now, almost all of Japan's known historical materials on earthquakes have been transcribed into 25 printed volumes. The collections include records of about 400 destructive earthquakes from A.D. 599 to 1872. Epicentral coordinates and magnitudes have been estimated for abou...

Ishibashi, K.

2004-01-01

391

Prototyping a Smart City  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city.

Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

392

Inner City Asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inner city has long been recognized as an area of high asthma morbidity and mortality. A wide range of factors interact to create this environment. These factors include well-recognized asthma risk factors that are not specific to the inner city, the structure and delivery of health care, the location and function of the urban environment, and social inequities. In this article, these facets are reviewed, and successful and unsuccessful interventions are discussed, to understand what is needed to solve this problem. PMID:25459579

Gergen, Peter J; Togias, Alkis

2015-02-01

393

Internal Structure of the Sambongi Fan - Towada Volcano, Japan: Putting the Theory to the Test, using an Extensive GPR Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Towada Caldera Volcano is located in Aomori Prefecture - Northern Honshu Island, Japan. The caldera, today filled by a lake, has produced 15,000 years ago a complex eruption emplacing an Ignimbrite deposit topped by the lake outburst flood deposit, through which the present Oirase River cuts. This deposit has shaped the geomorphologic feature named Sambongi fan, on which Towada City extends. Based on outcrops, a few coring and radiocarbon dating, Kataoka (2011) has developed a theory tyin...

Gomez, Christopher; Kyoko, Kataoka

2011-01-01

394

Prevalence of mood disorders according to dsm-iii-r criteria in the community elderly residents in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence rates of mood disorders according to the DSM- III -R criteria in the community elderly were investigated with structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. The subjects were 1,965 randomly selected residents aged 65 years or more who lived in Nagai City, Japan. In the first phase, a questionnaire including the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was distributed to all subjects. In the second phase, all persons scoring 6 points or more on the GDS and approxima...

Ihara, Kazushige; Muraoka, Yoshiaki; Oiji, Arata; Nadaoka, Toshihide

1998-01-01

395

Human Development Programme in Serbia (City-to-city)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is excerpted from the sixth UNDP-UNOPS Report on Multilateral Human Development Programmes (2004). This text reports on the “City-to-City” programme which started to operate in Serbia in February 2001. The City-to-City Programme aims to promote, support and strengthen decentralised cooperation links between European local entities, regions, and organisations in civil society and the six Serbian towns of Belgrade, Kragujevac, Nis, Novi Sad, Pancevo and Smederevo.

Undp-unops Edinfodec Project, Cooperazione Italiana

2004-01-01

396

Communicating city histories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New developments in electronic communications have the capacity to transform the ways in which people gain access to archaeological and historical information. Several projects are already under way, which aim to disseminate urban history to the public in London and other European cities.

Suzanne Keene

2003-10-01

397

Communicating city histories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New developments in electronic communications have the capacity to transform the ways in which people gain access to archaeological and historical information. Several projects are already under way, which aim to disseminate urban history to the public in London and other European cities.

Suzanne Keene

2003-01-01

398

City model enrichment  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

399

Accreted oceanic materials in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Phanerozoic circum-Pacific orogenic belts contain numerous ocean-derived materials accreted through plate converging processes. Japanese Islands, in particular, display various kinds of oceanic materials of different origins including fragments of seamounts, oceanic reef limestone, MORB-like rocks and oceanic mantle, and pelagic sediments. The compilation of these rocks in many subduction complexes of Late Permian to the present, led to following conclusions. Accretion processes work effectively only for materials primarily composing the upper portion of subducting oceanic crust, i.e. Layer 1 and Layer 2. Many fragments of seamount with alkali basalt (600), hot-spot seamount (26), oceanic reef limestone (291), MORB-like basalt (200), and numerous cherts (more than 1000) are recognized as ancient oceanic materials accreted to the Japanese Islands. However, gabbros and mantle materials of Layer 3 and lower parts of the oceanic lithosphere, scarcely occur in subduction-accretion complexes except for a few examples of back-arc basin or fore-arc origin. Accretion occurs episodically. In Southwest Japan, oceanic materials were accreted intermittently in (a) end-Permian, (b) Middle-Late Jurassic, (c) Late Cretaceous times, (d) at ca. 50 Ma, and (e) in Miocene times, while in Northeast Japan and Hokkaido this occurred in (b) Middle-Late Jurassic, (c) Late Cretaceous, and (f) Early Cretaceous times. In contrast to the general belief on accretion of younger oceanic plates, the majority of Japanese subduction-accretion complexes were formed during the subduction of plates, up to 160 Ma old. The accretionary events in end-Permian and Middle-Late Jurassic times coincide with northward collision of ancient island arcs, oceanic rises or seamount chains (of hot-spot origin) with the Asian continent. Accretion relevant to subduction of older plates may be controlled by the collision-subduction process of these topographic reliefs on an oceanic plate. In addition, the chronological coincidence with the continent collision-amalgamation between the Sino-Korean and Siberian platforms and between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze blocks, also implies collision-induced voluminous supply of elastics from back-arc regions and its contribution to the formation of huge accretionary complexes. Accreted fragments of ancient seamounts are much smaller than the average size of modern seamounts. This implies that most parts of a colliding seamount are not accreted but subducted together with the underlying oceanic crust to much deeper levels. With respect to the metamorphic grades for Japanese subduction complexes, oceanic materials have less than 1 vol.% in the zeolite facies, 15-20% in the prehnite-pumpellyite metagraywacke facies, and ca. 30% in the greenschist/glaucophane schist facies and albite-epidote amphibolite fades. This relationship indicates that the major process for landward accretion of oceanic materials is not off-scraping or sedimentary mixing at the trench, but underplating (subcretion) at much deeper levels of a subduction zone.

Isozaki, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Furuoka, F.

1990-09-01

400

Sinking coastal cities  

Science.gov (United States)

In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent threat of subsidence. As subsidence is spatially different and can be caused by multi processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues), where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Introduction of JNES in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), an incorporated administrative agency, was established on October 1, 2003, as a technical support organization to the nuclear regulatory authority, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), with the mission to ensure the safety of nuclear installations for energy use. JNES's activities include inspection of nuclear installations, safety analysis and evaluation, emergency preparedness support, technical survey, tests and research for ensuring nuclear safety, and information analysis, evaluation and transmission. The studies on new approaches to ensure nuclear safety on the basis of the latest technological knowledge are also within JNES's scope of responsibilities. The paper addresses the following issues: Outline of organization; - Major Tasks; - Organization Chart; - The number of management and staff; - Budget Scale; - Role and Mission; - Major Tasks; - Inspection Activities; - Activities concerning Analysis and Evaluation of the Safety of Nuclear Installations; - Supporting Activities for the Nuclear Disaster Preparedness; - Study, Test and Research to Ensure the Nuclear Safety; - Collection, arrangement and provision of information to ensure the safety. In conclusion, since activities in the nuclear safety area have become further specialized and gained international dimension, which reflects the latest technical progress, JNES, recognizing itself as a professional organization, is keenly aware of its extremely large and important role in this area. With its foremost concern being to assure the public safety, JNES will respect transparency and give plain explanations based on scientific and rational judgments. The public expects from nuclear experts to show the true picture of the nuclear technology, and one believes that serious discussions and plain explanations by nuclear experts will surely gain the public confidence. Upon recognition of these facts, JNES staff will fulfill their jobs with all their strength to meet the public's expectations for ensuring nuclear safety.

Komori, Kazuhiro [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, JNES, Fujita Kanko Toranomon Building, 17-1, Toranomon 3-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

2004-07-01

402

Ocean Science Communication in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

Ichikawa, H.

2011-12-01

403

Japan’s Positive and Negative Aid Sanctions Policy Toward Asian Countries: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, Japan’s positive and negative aid sanctions policy toward Asian countries since the introduction of new aid guidelines will be examined and discussed. Japan can choose to impose negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients that conduct desirable polices in the light of Japan’s ODA Charter. The Jap...

Furuoka, Fumitaka

2007-01-01

404

Bushehr as an Energic City  

Science.gov (United States)

Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow`s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem. For this purpose, we try to answer these questions: what is called as an energic city?; What are its main characteristics?; What are the aims of changing a city into an energic city? And what should be done to obtain the aims? For these purposes we offer a model which responds to the sustainability of Bushehr. This model uses 3 levels of activity that each level should respond to 5 significant characteristics of an energic city. For this purpose we present some applied ways in each category to obtain those characteristics.

Sabatsani, Nasser

405

The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami. An update and lessons from the past great earthquakes in Japan since 1923  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (?18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of ''Tsunami, ten-den-ko.'' This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11th tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massivethquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (?105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters. (author)

406

Smart city: fact and fiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transforming a city into a Smart City is a complex and multidimensional process which changes over time since all the involved stakeholders work to achieve more and better results. “To be smart” affects many aspects of a city including economics, government, people, living, mobility, environment, energy and services. This paper aims at critically analysing the main features related to smart cities such as terminological issues, the heterogeneous theoretical background and the methodo...

Santis, Roberta; Fasano, Alessandra; Mignolli, Nadia; Villa, Anna

2014-01-01

407

Neogene stress field in SW Japan and mechanism of deformation during the Sea of Japan opening  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new structural data from SW Japan and discuss the mechanism of deformation during the opening of the Sea of Japan. We studied the Miocene basins at the southern margin of the Sea of Japan (northern coast of SW Japan) and of the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) by means of fault slip analysis to determine stress field directions during the opening of the Sea of Japan in early and middle Miocene time. On the southern margin, the stress field was extensional or transtensional with a NW-SE trending extension direction. The MTL was a normal fault in Shikoku during early middle Miocene and probably a normal fault with a left-lateral component in central Japan before having been strained by the collisions of the Tanzawa and Izu blocks with central Japan. We combine our results with published data for the Sea of Japan area and show that early and middle Miocene stress field directions are remarkably consistent on the eastern, southern, and western margins of the Sea of Japan with ?Hmax trending NE-SW and ?Hmin trending NW-SE. The stress regime is transpressional or transtensional on the eastern and western margin and almost purely extensional on the southern margin. This stress field distribution is in agreement with the model of the opening of the Sea of Japan in an extensional transfer zone between two N-S right-lateral strike-slip zones proposed by Jolivet et al. (1991). Analogue modelings and kinematic reconstructions showed that this model accounts for 20° to 30° of clockwise rotation in SW Japan, while paleomagnetic rotations reached 40° to 50° during the opening. We present structural data showing that SW Japan was strained during the rotation and did not behave as a rigid block. Our observations suggest that rotations of small blocks may have occurred. We propose that SW Japan has been sheared between the right-lateral strike-slip zones which bound the Sea of Japan and that the missing 10° to 30° of rotation are to be found in its internal deformation. In our model, the MTL is a normal fault with a strike-slip component rotating in a right-lateral shear zone.

Fournier, Marc; Jolivet, Laurent; Fabbri, Olivier

1995-12-01

408

Need for Sustainability and Coexistence with Wildlife in a Compact City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the underuse of wildlife and the increase in wildlife population due to decreased hunting have led to serious problems in both rural and urban areas. Traditional conservation methods are no longer applicable in such situations. The main purpose of this paper is, therefore, to explore ways to cope with increases in wildlife population and related issues, especially in urban areas. First, we present an overview of the current status of wildlife in urban areas, and examine why wildlife appears in cities. Then, after reviewing current expectations from compact cities through a comparison of Japan and western countries, we examine additional requirements for compact cities and depict possible future visions. Currently, the main objectives in establishing compact cities are sustainability and the prevention of population decline in local cities. We assert that when current cities are transformed into compact cities, consideration should be given to returning some space to wildlife whose habitats were altered when the cities were developed. We affirm that it is possible to ensure some space for wildlife. One possible use of reclaimed areas is as wildlife corridors, which should be distinguished from green space for residents. Former vegetation should be restored and continuous corridors secured, with recognition of the value of wildlife.

Yukichika Kawata

2014-08-01

409

The great East Japan earthquake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

Fluke, R.

2011-06-15

410

Advanced USC technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

2010-07-01

411

The great East Japan earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

412

Teknologiundersøgelse for superledende komponenter : Altiviteter i Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denne rapport henvender sig til teknikere og beslutningstagere med interesse for udviklingen af superledende materialer og komponenter til elforsyningen. Rapporten beskriver resultaterne af besøg i februar-marts 2002 hos en række japanske virksomheder, der arbejder med udvikling af superledende materialer og komponenter. De besøgte virksomheder omfatter: · Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) · International Superconductivity Technology Center (ISTEC) · Kyushu Electric Power Company · Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. · Fujikura Ltd. · Toshiba Corp. Den danske delegation, som bestod af rapportens forfattere, blev i forbindelse med besøgene modtaget af en række centralt placerede beslutningstagere, ledere og forskere inden for superledningsområdet i Japan. Dette har resulteret i et godt indblik i teknologiens status og udvikling i Japan. De japanske aktiviteter er interessante, fordi der fokuseres massivt på udvikling af superledende materialer og anvendelse af materialerne i komponenter til elforsyningen. Ifølge Dr. Shirabe Akita fra CRIEPI er der mere end 1300 forskere i Japan, der arbejder med superledning. De japanske elforsyningsselskaber har ca. 50 personer ansat, der direkte arbejder med udvikling af superledende komponenter. En række aktiviteter vedrørende superledning udføres i Japan som nationale projekter, støttet af den japanske regering. Desuden foregår der en række aktiviteter finansieret af elselskaberne, og endelig foregår der kommercielle aktiviteter primært på området for lavtemperatursuperledere. Der gennemføres i Japan pt. 5 nationale projekter vedrørende superledning finansieret af regeringen (se nedenstående tabel). Budgettet for de 5 projekter er 75-150 mio. DKK pr. år pr. projekt, i alt størrelsesorden 500 mio. DKK pr. år.

Østergaard, Jacob; Træholt, Chresten

2002-01-01

413

Q fever in Japan: an update review.  

Science.gov (United States)

As neglected zoonosis for many years, Q fever is now ubiquitous in Japan. Similarly to elsewhere in the world, domestic animals are considered to be important reservoirs of the causal agent, Coxiella burnetii, a resistant intracellular bacterium. Infected animals shed bacteria in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucous and birth products. Inhalation of bacteria present in the environment is the main route of animal and human infection. Shedding of C. burnetii in milk by domestic ruminants has a very limited impact as raw milk is seldom ingested by the Japanese population. The clinical expression of Q fever in Japan is similar to its clinical expression elsewhere. However clinical cases in children are more frequently reported in this country. Moreover, C. burnetii is specified as one of the causative organisms of atypical pneumonia in the Japanese Respiratory Society Guideline for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. In Japan, C. burnetii isolates are associated with acute illness and are mainly of moderate to low virulence. Cats are considered a significant source of C. burnetii responsible for human outbreaks in association with the presence of infected parturient cats. Since its recognition as a reportable disease in 1999, 7-46 clinical cases of Q fever have been reported by year. The epidemiology of Q fever in Japan remains to be elucidated and the exact modes of transmission are still unproven. Important further research is necessary to improve knowledge of the disease itself, the endogenous hosts and reservoirs, and the epidemiological cycle of coxiellosis in Japan. PMID:21146331

Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Horii, Yoichiro; Misawa, Naoaki; Saegerman, Claude

2011-05-01

414

Spent fuel treatment options in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 81% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, 55 nuclear power plants are in operation with total power capacity of 49 GW currently, which produce about one- third of the total electricity generation in Japan. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. Tokai reprocessing plant completed reprocessing service at the end of March 2006 The cumulative amount of spent fuel reprocessed in the plant was 1,116 t of spent fuel including 10 t of MOX fuel from the experimental Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) 'FUGEN'. Japan's first commercial reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-mura is scheduled to start service operations in August 2007. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWR will be promoted. (author)

415

Middle term prospects for Japan's safeguards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan has responded to IAEA requirements on reinforced safeguard regulations. The IAEA additional protocol entered in force in Japan on December 1999. Japan submitted a preliminary information report to IAEA on June 2000 after joint works with the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) of Japan. The first annual report was submitted to IAEA on May 2001. Another activity for the additional protocol is complementary accesses. The total 36 accesses to facilities have been done from November 2000 to September 2001. Procedures of access to managements are under discussion. MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been constructing the Rokkasho Safeguards On-Site Laboratory from 1997, and the Rokkasho Safeguards Center from 2000. The Design Information Verification (DIV) is now ongoing. Much more personal resources will be needed for future inspections. Therefore, the budget for safeguards is increasing in contrast to the flat base budget for the total atomic energy. As for future activity, a MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuels) fuel processing plant is one of the issues for discussion. The construction of the MOX processing plant is supposed to begin on around 2004. The conclusion of additional protocol will be given by IAEA until end of 2002. Shift to integrated safeguards are under discussions by MEXT, NMCC and utilities of Japan parallel with IAEA. Key issues of discussion are cost saving for safeguards, development of personal resources for inspectolopment of personal resources for inspectors and the role of NMCC. (Y. Tanaka)

416

Heavy metal pollution in Ancient Nara, Japan, during the eighth century  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantitatively investigated the eighth century heavy metal pollution in Heijo-kyo (Ancient Nara), the first large, international city of Japan. In this metropolis, mercury, copper, and lead levels in soil were increased by urban activity and by the construction of the Great Buddha statue, Nara Daibutsu. Mercury and copper pollution associated with the construction of the statue was particularly high in the immediate vicinity of the statue, but markedly lower in the wider city environment. We therefore reject the hypothesis that extensive mercury pollution associated with the construction of the Nara Daibutsu made it necessary to abandon Ancient Nara, even though severe lead pollution was detected at several sites. The isotopic composition of the lead indicated that it originated mainly from the Naganobori mine in Yamaguchi, which was a major source of the copper for the Nara Daibutsu.

Kawahata, Hodaka; Yamashita, Shusuke; Yamaoka, Kyoko; Okai, Takashi; Shimoda, Gen; Imai, Noboru

2014-12-01

417

Raptors in the City  

Science.gov (United States)

This new Web site from the nonprofit educational program Raptors in the City was developed to enhance inner city kids' use of technology and connection with nature. Appropriate for all types of students, the site focuses on the Peregrine Falcon, a species previously on the brink of extinction, but, through population recovery efforts on many downtown skyscrapers, has become an endangered species success story. Students are able to navigate through the entire 2002 courtship and nesting story of a pair of falcons nesting on a skyscraper in Cleveland, Ohio, and view images of the birds in their nest. Additionally, the site includes a link to a live falcon cam and describes additional educational curricula that can be purchased from Mindfull Publishing.

418

Where Are the Cities?  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation requires students to locate several major U.S. cities using four different sources: an outline map, a nighttime lights image, an atlas map, and a space shuttle image. After analyzing and comparing the information from those sources, students will offer explanations for establishing cities in particular locations. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 4 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 3 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 3, while related, can be done independently. Please see Investigation 1 of this module for a two-page module overview and list of all standards addressed.

419

City 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

TED's City 2.0 is "a gathering place for urban citizens to share innovations and inspire actions." The focus of this rather wonderful series of events was to work on envisioning the cities of the future. Visitors to the site will find archived videos from the devoted day of urban inspiration in 2012 and 2013 and they can click through the Videos area to get started. There are over two dozen talks here, including The Art of Data, Globalizing Home and Emerging from the Ecotone. Moving on to the People section, visitors can look over the stories shared from around the globe via the clickable map of the world. Visitors with a specific interest in a certain type of urban success story might want to use the Themes area to look over talks on art, housing, public space, or other matters.

2012-01-01

420

URBZ: User Generated Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

The User Generated Cities organization (URBZ) "facilitates the production and exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and practices towards better cities for all." With offices in Mumbai and Geneva, URBZ deploys a variety of web-based tools "for the production and sharing of information by residents and stakeholders." On their homepage, visitors can read postings from staff members on the construction of multi-story buildings in the developing world and sustainable architecture design charrettes. Moving on, visitors can learn more about URBZ by clicking on the "Workshops" section. Here they will find diagrams and explanations of URBZ's design philosophy and their work with local communities. Interested parties can also sign up here to receive email updates and to learn more about their upcoming events.