WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Wheelchair-accessible dental offices in Nagasaki, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of dental offices in Nagasaki, Japan, that are wheelchair accessible and to identify factors related to the adoption of barrier-free designs within the study area. METHODS: All 703 dental offices managed by members of the Nagasaki Prefecture Dental Association were studied. We evaluated the accessibility of the offices to wheelchair users and compared the percentage and adjusted odds ratio of the accessible dental offices according to dental office characteristics. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 62% deemed their offices accessible. The percentage and adjusted odds ratio of accessible offices were significantly higher for offices offering more specialties, providing more frequent home visits, and with younger head dentists. CONCLUSION: According to the self-reported results from dentists, more than one third of the dental offices in Nagasaki were not easily accessible by mobility-impaired persons. Dentists should the understand architectural and perceptual barriers faced by handicapped persons and the aged and consider barrier-free office designs for all patients.

Fukuda H; Saito T; Tsunomachi M; Doutsu T

2010-09-01

2

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 3; Cases in 31 hospitals in Nagasaki city and adjacent districts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Report 1 of this series, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors might have increased based on evidence of chromosomal aberrations and clonal formations in cultured skin cells. In Report 2, we described the results of a preliminary study using 110 cases of skin cancer collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City (Nagasaki University Hospital, A-bomb Hospital and Citizens Hospital). In that study a high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01), but no such correlation was noted in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. In this report, 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The results disclosed a high correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance (p<0.01). In addition, this correlation was the same even when the cases were analyzed separately according to sex. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

3

Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb.

2007-01-01

4

Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb.

Saito-Kokubu, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp; Esaka, F. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Magara, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyamoto, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Usuda, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamazaki, H. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yoshikawa, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nagaoka, S. [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

2007-04-15

5

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 2; Cases in the three major hospitals of Nagasaki city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Report 1 of this series, we described that, in the cultured cells of skin tissues, chromosomal aberrations seemingly induced by A-bomb exposure were observed in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, especially in those proximally exposed, and some of these cells with chromosomal aberrations formed clones. Based on these findings, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors might have increased. In this study, we tried to clarify the incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded at the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. One hundred and ten cases of skin cancer were collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City and were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter. The results were as follows: A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01). However, no such correlation was observed in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

6

Depressive symptoms in Chinese factory workers in Nagasaki, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The number of foreign workers in Japan, especially temporary workers, has been increasing recently. However, little is known about the mental health status of the foreign workers working temporarily in Japan. We examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers and attempted to identify the determining factors. The subjects were requested to complete individual questionnaires on sociodemographic variables (sex, age group, and residence period in Japan), working condition variables (number of working days per week and working hours per day), health administration variables (health checkups and health education), a social support variable (interpreters at workplace), and health behavior variables (alcohol consumption, current smoking, and regular exercise). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Of all the subjects, 95% and 84% received health checkups and health education, respectively, at their workplaces. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with high CES-D score. Further, we found that older age (30-49 yr) was marginally associated with high CES-D score. Health administration considering working time and age would be important for decreasing depressive symptoms among foreign workers.

Date Y; Abe Y; Aoyagi K; Ye Z; Takamura N; Tomita M; Osaki M; Honda S

2009-08-01

7

Depressive symptoms in Chinese factory workers in Nagasaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of foreign workers in Japan, especially temporary workers, has been increasing recently. However, little is known about the mental health status of the foreign workers working temporarily in Japan. We examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers and attempted to identify the determining factors. The subjects were requested to complete individual questionnaires on sociodemographic variables (sex, age group, and residence period in Japan), working condition variables (number of working days per week and working hours per day), health administration variables (health checkups and health education), a social support variable (interpreters at workplace), and health behavior variables (alcohol consumption, current smoking, and regular exercise). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Of all the subjects, 95% and 84% received health checkups and health education, respectively, at their workplaces. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with high CES-D score. Further, we found that older age (30-49 yr) was marginally associated with high CES-D score. Health administration considering working time and age would be important for decreasing depressive symptoms among foreign workers. PMID:19672011

Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Ye, Zhaojia; Takamura, Noboru; Tomita, Masato; Osaki, Makoto; Honda, Sumihisa

2009-08-01

8

Antifungal susceptibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates obtained in Nagasaki, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the triazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin susceptibilities of 196 A. fumigatus clinical isolates in Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates for which MICs of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were above the ECV were 7.1%, 2.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. A G54 mutation in cyp51A was detected in 64.2% (9/14 isolates) and 100% (5/5 isolates) of non-WT isolates for itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs of ?2 ?g/ml and micafungin minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of ?16 ?g/ml were recorded for two and one isolates, respectively.

Tashiro M; Izumikawa K; Minematsu A; Hirano K; Iwanaga N; Ide S; Mihara T; Hosogaya N; Takazono T; Morinaga Y; Nakamura S; Kurihara S; Imamura Y; Miyazaki T; Nishino T; Tsukamoto M; Kakeya H; Yamamoto Y; Yanagihara K; Yasuoka A; Tashiro T; Kohno S

2012-01-01

9

Clinical features of 89 patients with autoimmune hepatitis in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the clinical characteristics of 89 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, and assessed the usefulness of a provisional scoring system for the diagnosis of AIH proposed by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group in 1993. The majority of patients were middle-aged women in their fifties. All patients showed a hepatitic picture. Forty-three patients (48%) had an insidious or chronic onset, while 34 (38%) had an acute onset, and 12 (14%) had liver cirrhosis at presentation. Seventy-nine patients (89%) were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA), and 5 (6%) were positive for antibody to the hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). The prognosis was good, with 90% 3-year survival, and most patients responded well to treatment with corticosteroids. The international scoring system was useful for the diagnosis of AIH in most of our patients; the percentages of patients with definite and probable AIH were 48% and 47%, respectively. However, certain factors, such as negative ANA, positive antimitochondrial antibody, concurrent infection with hepatitis B or C virus, and insufficient response to treatment precluded the diagnosis of AIH in some patients. Whether these patients were indeed "true" AIH patients is not clear at present, and further investigation of such patients may be useful for a better understanding of AIH.

Omagari K; Kinoshita H; Kato Y; Nakata K; Kanematsu T; Kusumoto Y; Mori I; Furukawa R; Tanioka H; Tajima H; Koga M; Yano M; Kohno S

1999-04-01

10

An epidemiological study in Nagasaki City of malignant lymphoma and the atomic bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of primary site and histological type of malignant lymphoma and the relationship to the atomic bomb exposure in Nagasaki City were investigated in a population of age over 30 years during 1973 to 1982. Of 365 cases (male 207, female 158) of malignant lymphoma reported, 142 (male 66, female 76) had the atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and non-exposed groups. Primary sites of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were: lymph nodes; male exposed, 66; non-exposed, 67%; female exposed, 50%; non-exposed, 69%, gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract, male exposed, 14%; non-exposed, 11%; female exposed, 21%; non-exposed, 17%. histological reexamination of 232 cases according to the National Cancer Institute (USA) criteria yielded: diffuse large cell type, 27.2%; large cell immunoblastic type, 28.0%. No significant difference in these items was found between the exposed and the non-exposed groups. A comparison to the Hiroshma data revealed that an atomic bomb survivor does not show higher incidence in Nagasaki but in Hiroshima. (author).

1993-01-01

11

Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time.

Tokuoka, S.; Asano, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokunaga, M.; Sakamoto, G.; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.; Land, C.E.; Henson, D.E.

1984-09-01

12

WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment. PMID:23718975

Yoshizawa, Kazuko

2013-01-01

13

Lithostratigraphy and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core from Nagasaki bay, western Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest Pleistocene to Holocene deposits are distributed in Nagasaki Bay and its surrounding area. In this study, sedimentary facies and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core were analyzed for clarifying lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of Nagasaki Bay in the Holocene. The depositional environments inferred from the core succession are as follows: The lower sandy silt and clay (Unit 1), 3.55 m thick, are estuary deposits showing rapid deposition (about 19 mm/yr); the middle gravelly sand and sand (Unit 2), 0.60 m thick, are sandy tidal-sandbar deposits, and deposited extremely slowly (about 0.1 mm/yr) during rapid rising stage of sea-level; the upper clay and silt (Unit 3), 5.32 m thick, are inner bay deposits of slow deposition (about 1.3 mm/yr) during a persistent highstand in sea-level. (author)

2008-01-01

14

Effectiveness of tree rings for recording Pu history at Nagasaki, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 78-year-old tree was harvested in 1988 ast 2.8 km east of the Nagasaki Pu-bomb hypocentre, where the local fallout of the 1945 blast was highest. Surface soil concentration of 239+240Pu was 64.5 mBq g-1 and that of 137Cs was 87.4 mBq g-1. The tree rings were analyzed for concentrations of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and 40K. The concentration profiles over seven decades showed that the Pu was immobile, while Cs and K were mobile in the tree rings. In other words, the Pu concentration profile revealed a history of Pu in the surrounding environment of Nagasaki. However, the combined routes, via leaves from the atmospheric deposition and roots from surface soils to tree rings, made the record less clear. Surprisingly, the Pu from the Nagasaki Pu-bomb in the tree rings of 1946-44 played a minor role in the concentration profile compared to that from global fallout. (Author).

1993-01-01

15

WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people < 65 years being greater than 21% of the whole population. Eleven cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

Yoshizawa K

2013-01-01

16

Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

Lindee, M.S.

1990-01-01

17

Radiation dose reconstruction US occupation forces in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945-1946. Final report 1 March-6 August 80  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper limit dose estimates (internal and external) are determined for those units of the U.S. occupation forces assigned to Hiroshima or Nagasaki following the detonations of atomic weapons in those two cities. In the absence of specific maneuver and patrol data, these dose estimates are based on the maximum recorded activity levels with exposure over the entire stay period for each unit. The upper limit external dose is .03 rem for Hiroshima and .08 rem for Nagasaki. For the Nishiyama area, the upper limit is 0.63 rem. The dose from internal emitters (inhalation and ingestion) is considerably less. There is no basis for assuming that any individual in the occupation units received these upper limit doses.

McRaney, W.; McGahan, J.

1980-08-06

18

Health impact assessment of the transition to a core city in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discover whether a health impact assessment (HIA) is applicable in Japan with respect to the transition to a core city. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. METHODS: A rapid HIA was applied based on typical HIA guidelines. A rapid HIA consists of screening, scoping and assessment. In the assessment or policy analyses, information on the official opinions of Kurume was compiled and interviews were undertaken in Nagasaki, which had already become a core city (hereinafter, 'predecessor core city'). For qualitative and quantitative data, a survey of the 35 predecessor core cities was performed, together with an online questionnaire for the cities of Kurume and Aomori. RESULTS: The construction of new public health centres with the transition to core cities held major significance. In an effort to promote advantages, regionally co-ordinated health activities were quickly introduced, systems whereby residents can voluntarily participate in health activities were strengthened, and facilities where government and residents came together were built. To minimize disadvantages, special features of districts with good health services were applied to other districts, the provision of conventional health services throughout the city was improved, and prefectural and national offices opened consultation corners regarding employee or budgetary shortages. CONCLUSION: This paper reports the first use of an HIA in Japan with respect to governmental policy. However, this HIA was not a pre-assessment in principle, but rather a concurrent HIA. In the future, HIAs should be performed in Japan to make suggestions to government decision makers whenever policy is being formulated or programmes are being changed.

Hoshiko M; Hara K; Ishitake T

2009-12-01

19

Nagasaki Photographs  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection shows photographs of the damage to Nagasaki after the atomic bomb. On August 9, 1945, the American B-29 bomber Bock's Car left Tinian carrying ÂFat Man, a plutonium implosion-type bomb.

Griffith, Christopher

20

[Epidemiological studies on malignant lymphoma in Nagasaki City, especially in relation to atomic bomb exposure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred and eighty-two (182) cases of malignant lymphoma registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to the end of 1977 were studied in relation to atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in the incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and nonexposed groups. One hundred and thirty-one (131) cases excluding Hodgkin's disease and mycosis fungoides were histologically reviewed and classified according to Lymphoma Study Group (L.S.G.) and Working Formulation (W.F.) Classifications. Using the L.S.G. Classification, the three histological types (diffuse large cell, diffuse pleomorphic, and diffuse medium sized cell) occupied 72.7% and 69.0% of the exposed and nonexposed groups respectively. No significant difference in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found with an exception of a slightly higher incidence of the diffuse medium sized cell type in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group. An evaluation of these results was made in comparison with the results in Hiroshima.

Maeda H; Jubashi T; Matsuo T; Shimokawa I; Iwasaki K; Ikeda T

1987-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Story of Nagasaki  

Science.gov (United States)

On August 9, 1945, another American B-29 bomber, Bock's Car, left Tinian carrying Fat Man, a plutonium implosion-type bomb. The primary target was the Kokura Arsenal, but upon reaching the target, they found that it was covered by a heavy ground haze and smoke. This section recounts the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, the preparation beforehand, the discussion about options to bombing, and the end of World War II.

Griffith, Christopher

22

Studies on the growth of the middle school children, whose parents were exposed to the atom bomb in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagasaki junior high school students were divided into Group E (children of the exposed) and Group O (children of the non-exposed). Their growth was compared according to the degree of exposure received by their parents. An interim result was reported. There was a big difference between the height and body weight of students who lived in the center of the city and those who lived in the suburbs. These values also differed greatly according to family occupations. When the difference in physique between Group E and Group O was considered, districts and occupations were restricted. A tendency of O>E only was observed in an investigation of all subjects in all districts. A significant difference between the groups was observed in regard to some grades when districts and occupations were restricted. A scattering analysis of physique values, regarded as independent variables, of the same students according to grade revealed a difference in O>E in height, especially in boys. (Tsunoda, M.).

1978-01-01

23

Active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay in a respiratory ward in Nagasaki, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility of active surveillance cultures (ASCs) in respiratory wards, that do not have an associated intensive care unit (ICU), and the usefulness of the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ system for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have not been previously evaluated in Japan. ASCs using conventional culture methods and the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay were conducted in adult inpatients between May 11, 2009 and November 10, 2009 in a respiratory ward, without an associated ICU, in Nagasaki University Hospital. The infection and colonization rates of MRSA acquired in this respiratory ward were both investigated. A total of 159 patients were investigated. Of these, 12 (7.5%) were found positive for MRSA by the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay and 9 (5.7%) were found positive by a conventional culture test upon admission. All cases were MRSA-colonized cases and cross-transmission was not found to occur during hospitalization. The BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%. ASCs in our respiratory ward revealed that MRSA was brought in from other sites in some cases, and that current infection control measures in Nagasaki University Hospital are effective. The BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay was proven to be a useful and rapid detection tool for MRSA.

Izumikawa K; Yamamoto Y; Yanagihara K; Kiya T; Matsuda J; Morinaga Y; Kurihara S; Nakamura S; Imamura Y; Miyazaki T; Nishino T; Tsukamoto M; Kakeya H; Yasuoka A; Tashiro T; Kamihira S; Kohno S

2012-01-01

24

Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the 66,276 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors registered at the Scientific Data Center for the Atomic Bomb Disaster at the Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 were identified as having skin cancer from the records of 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City. From the cases of these survivors, a statistical analysis was made of the incidence of skin cancers by age, gender, histology and latency period in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The results showed a high correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the blast hypocenter, and that the incidence of skin cancer in the Nagasaki survivors appears now to be increasing with exposure distance. (author).

1991-01-01

25

Compiled survey of actual conditions of Osaka City Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surveys were conducted in Osaka City, Japan to study the physiological activities, such as transpiration, respiration, and photosynthesis, on plants and to observe their general physical condition. Soils were analyzed from various sites. The effects of polluted soils on the growth of plants were determined. Also, the effects of rainwater on plant growth were investigated.

Sato, H. (comp.)

1984-01-01

26

Retrospective gamma dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation doses of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been a subject of great importance for several decades, whose estimated dose depends on it, and second to all the peoples of the world, because estimates of radiation cancer risks are based mainly on the studies of the survivors. The T65D (tentative 1965 dose) was built using the BREN (Bared Reactor Experiment Nevada) reactor by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At that time, in Japan, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) group determined neutron doses using the 60Co activities induced in iron bars in some concrete buildings. The Nara University of Education (NEU) and the NIRS independently estimated gamma doses within about 1 km from the hypocenter in both cities using a thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry technique of quartz samples prepared from building materials (bricks, tiles etc.) exposed to the atomic bombs. For neutrons and gamma rays, the Japanese data were considerably good agreement with the T65D. However, in 1980, Loewe and Mendelthsohn pointed out some differences between the T65D and their calculation data based on the recommended spectra by Preeg in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The US-Japan Joint Workshop for Reassessment of A-bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for shortly US-Japan Joint Workshop was established, and then the reassessment of the A-bomb radiation jointly conducted by Japan and the United States is fundamental issue of vital importance to many fields of science and has attracted much attention internationally. Fortunately, since around 1975, the TL apparatuses became commercially available in the world. In the field of archaeology, the TL dosimetry of quartz was mostly developed for the dating of potteries and others. So that, since 1980, various TL techniques such as the quartz inclusion and the predose techniques were available for the DS86 and DS02. In the DS86, the intercomparison of TL dosimetry was carried out among two British groups, one US group and two Japanese groups. On the DS86 and DS02, gamma doses (up to about 2km from the hypocenter) by the Japanese TL dosimetry were considerably good agreements with the calculated data by the US group. (author)

2006-01-01

27

Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war

1985-01-01

28

Depositional records of plutonium and 137Cs released from Nagasaki atomic bomb in sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sediment core of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki city, depth profiles of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio, 239+240Pu and 137Cs activities were determined. Sediments containing plutonium and 137Cs, which were deposited immediately after a detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb, were identified in the core. Observed below the sediments were macroscopic charcoals, providing evidence for initial deposit of the fallout of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. This is the first entire depositional records of plutonium and 137Cs released from the Nagasaki atomic bomb together with those from atmospheric nuclear tests.

2008-01-01

29

Future population of Atomic Bomb Survivors in Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011. PMID:23920726

Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

2013-01-01

30

Future population of Atomic Bomb Survivors in Nagasaki.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

Yokota K; Mine M; Shibata Y

2013-01-01

31

Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

1990-01-01

32

Semen quality of 1559 young men from four cities in Japan: a cross-sectional population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To provide information of semen quality among normal young Japanese men and indicate the frequency of reduced semen quality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, coordinated studies of Japanese young men included from university areas. The men had to be 18-24 years, and both the man and his mother had to be born in Japan. Background information was obtained from questionnaires. Standardised and quality-controlled semen analyses were performed, reproductive hormones analysed centrally and results adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING: Four study centres in Japan (Kawasaki, Osaka, Kanazawa and Nagasaki). PARTICIPANTS: 1559 men, median age 21.1 years, included during 1999-2003. OUTCOME MEASURES: Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and reproductive hormone levels. RESULTS: Median sperm concentration was 59 (95% CI 52 to 68) million/ml, and 9% and 31.9% had less than 15 and 40 million/ml, respectively. Median percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa was 9.6 (8.8 to 10.3)%. Small, but statistically significant, differences were detected for both semen and reproductive hormone variables between men from the four cities. Overall, the semen values were lower than those of a reference population of 792 fertile Japanese men. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming that the investigated men were representative for young Japanese men, a significant proportion of the population had suboptimal semen quality with reduced fertility potential, and as a group they had lower semen quality than fertile men. However, the definitive role-if any-of low semen quality for subfertility and low fertility rates remain to be investigated.

Iwamoto T; Nozawa S; Mieno MN; Yamakawa K; Baba K; Yoshiike M; Namiki M; Koh E; Kanaya J; Okuyama A; Matsumiya K; Tsujimura A; Kanetake H; Eguchi J; Skakkebaek NE; Vierula M; Toppari J; Jørgensen N

2013-01-01

33

Increase of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among a total of 66,276 atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases of skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City; and they were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, age, sex, histology, and latent period. The results were as follows: 1. A high correlation was obsreved between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance. 2. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to the exposure distance.

Sadamori, Naoki; Hori, Makoto; Mine, Mariko and others

1989-02-01

34

Increase of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among a total of 66,276 atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases of skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City; and they were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, age, sex, histology, and latent period. The results were as follows: 1. A high correlation was obsreved between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance. 2. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to the exposure distance. (author).

1989-01-01

35

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis

1989-01-01

36

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

Antoku, S.; Hoshi, M.; Russell, W.J.; Kihara, T.; Sawada, S.; Takeshita, K.; Otake, M.; Yoshinaga, H.; Beach, D.R.

1989-03-01

37

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Remembered  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, the world commemorated the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This web site was created to provide an easy-to-use collection of resources to help students, educators, and the general public better understand that milestone of human history. It brings together information about the only use of atomic weapons in warfare. The web site offers original texts, eyewitness accounts and other historical documents, rare photographs, videos, and full-color maps.

2006-03-21

38

Epidemiology of cancers of the liver, gall bladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas in Nagasaki city from 1973 to 1982 with reference to atomic bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This epidemiology study included 808 cases of liver cancers, 378 cases of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 312 cases of pancreas cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relationship of these cancers to radiation exposure. The incidence of liver, gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer in both sexes tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors than in the nonexposed population, but were particularly significantly higher in male A-bomb survivors in each age-adjusted relative risk group. The incidence of pancreas cancer in females tended to be higher among A-bomb survivors than in the nonexposed population, and age-adjusted relative risk was significantly higher for female A-bomb survivors. No significant differences in relative distribution of histological type between exposed and nonexposed groups was observed. (author).

1990-01-01

39

Decline and approaches to revitalization in small cities: the case of Saga, Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of urban geography has primarily focused on large cities, but geographic trendsaffecting smaller urban areas also merit the attention of researchers. The local economies ofsmaller municipalities in Japan, for example, have been more seriously damaged by therecession of the last decade than the economies of larger cities. Typically, store vacancieshave increased in small cities as a result of the recession. Moreover, the population of smallcities is aging rapidly, obscuring their prospects for the future.This paper examines the outcome of changes in the case of the small city of Saga, Japan,with particular attention to the decline of its urban center and its unsuccessful efforts atdowntown revitalization. As the center of Saga Prefecture in southwestern Japan, the city ofSaga performs communication, education, administrative, and cultural functions that aresignificant in the local and regional economy. As in other small cities in Japan, the downtownof Saga has declined with the regional economy in recent years. The outlook forSaga's urban environment is serious, with increasing urban problems anticipated. In response,downtown revitalization and redevelopment efforts have been undertaken, but thesehave been unsuccessful. This study concludes that a lack of both public participation andclear policy purpose were contributing factors in the failure of Saga’s revitalization efforts.

Munetoshi Yamashita

2004-01-01

40

The 150th anniversary of Nagasaki University School of Medicine: recovery from the atomic disaster and evolution of the department of neurosurgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NAGASAKI IS LOCATED on the western edge of Japan, closer to the Asian continent. Because of this geographical proximity, Nagasaki became a gateway for the introduction of continental culture and civilization to Japan. After the port of Nagasaki was opened for trade with the Portuguese in 1571, Nagasaki had a central role in cultural exchange with the West and China until the latter half of the 19th century. As a result of the political situation, students came to Nagasaki from all over Japan to obtain information on Western science, especially in medicine, turning Nagasaki into a hub for modern academic studies. The first medical facility in Japan educating doctors in the Western style was founded in Nagasaki in 1857. Despite the tragedy of World War II, the medical school arose again. More than 10 000 physicians have completed their studies at the medical school since its founding. The Department of Neurosurgery at Nagasaki University had its origins within the Second Department of Surgery and became an independent department in 1973. The post of professor was assumed by Kazuo Mori and succeeded in 1991 by Shobu Shibata and in 2003 by Izumi Nagata, who holds the post at the time of this writing. Neurosurgery is dynamic and constantly changing at Nagasaki University with work in progress on technological, diagnostic, and surgical innovations that permit the treatment of highly complex cases. In 2007, the 150th anniversary of the founding of Nagasaki University School of Medicine was celebrated with a number of commemorative events.

Hayashi K; Ushijima R; Matsuo T; Kitagawa N; Suyama K; Nagata I

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

The 150th anniversary of Nagasaki University School of Medicine: recovery from the atomic disaster and evolution of the department of neurosurgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

NAGASAKI IS LOCATED on the western edge of Japan, closer to the Asian continent. Because of this geographical proximity, Nagasaki became a gateway for the introduction of continental culture and civilization to Japan. After the port of Nagasaki was opened for trade with the Portuguese in 1571, Nagasaki had a central role in cultural exchange with the West and China until the latter half of the 19th century. As a result of the political situation, students came to Nagasaki from all over Japan to obtain information on Western science, especially in medicine, turning Nagasaki into a hub for modern academic studies. The first medical facility in Japan educating doctors in the Western style was founded in Nagasaki in 1857. Despite the tragedy of World War II, the medical school arose again. More than 10 000 physicians have completed their studies at the medical school since its founding. The Department of Neurosurgery at Nagasaki University had its origins within the Second Department of Surgery and became an independent department in 1973. The post of professor was assumed by Kazuo Mori and succeeded in 1991 by Shobu Shibata and in 2003 by Izumi Nagata, who holds the post at the time of this writing. Neurosurgery is dynamic and constantly changing at Nagasaki University with work in progress on technological, diagnostic, and surgical innovations that permit the treatment of highly complex cases. In 2007, the 150th anniversary of the founding of Nagasaki University School of Medicine was celebrated with a number of commemorative events. PMID:19687706

Hayashi, Kentaro; Ushijima, Ryujiro; Matsuo, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

2009-09-01

42

Study on Comparison of Citizens’ Environmental Awareness Among Four Cities in China and Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to compare governmental activities and citizens’ consciousness in environmental protection in China and Japan. The citizens’ environmental awareness and the relevant acts were examined by designing and distributing questionnaires to citizens in urban and rural cities in China and Japan. The results demonstrate that there are more differences between the two countries than between urban and rural cities inside the same country. Chinese people pay more attention to local severe problems, and require more garbage classification while Japanese people are relatively satisfied with the current environmental situations. Past trends of the accessible environment could positively affect citizens’ perspectives for the environment in the future. Key words: Environmental awareness; Citizen; China; Japan; Social survey

Yingchao LIN; Masahiko FUJII; Peng WANG

2011-01-01

43

Association of periodontitis with carotid artery intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in community-dwelling people in Japan: the Nagasaki Islands study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested an association between periodontitis and atherosclerosis; however, the relationship between periodontal status and arterial alterations should be clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between periodontal status and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in community dwellers. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of 1053 subjects ?40 years with 10 teeth or more was conducted in Goto, Japan from 2008 to 2010. RESULTS: In a multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, number of present teeth, and other confounders, each 1-mm increase in mean periodontal pocket depth corresponded to a 0.02-mm increase in maximal cIMT (? = 0.018; P = 0.049) and also to a 0.1 increase in mean CAVI (? = 0.133; P = 0.040). In addition, each 1-mm increase in the mean periodontal attachment loss corresponded to a 0.01-mm increase in maximal cIMT (? = 0.013; P = 0.040). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each 1-mm increase in mean periodontal pocket depth was associated with an increased risk of a maximal cIMT >1 mm (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.430; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.067-1.918; P = 0.017) and mean CAVI of ?8 (OR, 1.323; 95% CI, 1.003-1.743; P = 0.047). Furthermore, each 1-mm increase in mean periodontal attachment loss was associated with an increased risk of a maximal cIMT >1 mm (OR, 1.251; 95% CI, 1.032-1.516; P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: A linear, dose-dependent relationship was found between periodontal pocket depth, cIMT, and arterial stiffness.

Hayashida H; Saito T; Kawasaki K; Kitamura M; Furugen R; Iwasaki T; Hayashida Y; Nakazato M; Sekita T; Takamura N; Maeda T

2013-07-01

44

Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

1990-09-01

45

Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan[it] Nel corso della storia la gestione dei rifiuti solidi si e sempre resa compatibile con le esigenze della societa espresse in quel determinato momento. Negli anni '50 la gestione era orientata al mantenimento di determinati standard di salute pubblica, principalmente rivolti al controllo della diffusione di malattie infettive, mentre negli anni '70 la produzione di energia dai rifiuti era considerato l'aspetto prioritario per la corretta risoluzione del problema gestionale dei rifiuti. Negli anni '90 la riduzione della produzione dei rifiuti e il loro riciclaggio sono stati inseriti, come principio, nei documenti per la regolamentazione della gestione dei rifiuti solidi. Con l'approvazione di specifiche normative quadro, a partire dai primi anni del 2000, la societa si avvia ad essere una societa basata sul riciclaggio, nel suo cammino verso la sostenibilita. Nel testo si esaminano i principali aspetti strategici della gestione dei rifiuti solidi, e problematiche annesse, in Giappone

2005-01-01

46

Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m-3 and 40.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m-3 and 13.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

1992-01-01

47

Learning cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to engage in cultural processes, community building and personal development as the new way of urban life. Learning was perceived to be a panacea to solve the social problems occurring in overwhelming processes of modernisation and industrialisation. The authors of this paper assert that the practice of and research on learning cities, especially in the East Asian region, need to go beyond the technical rationalities which are guiding government tools, and explain the realities to which they are meant to be applied. In order to do this, the authors investigated three separate but inter-connected scenes found in Japan, the Republic of Korea and China, revealing that the learning city is a phenomenon which reflects complex social dynamics and the interaction of many minds. While the cases in this region are distinctive, they do share some common characteristics. The authors place these within what they term a "community relations model", which they contrast with the "individual competence model" which is usually found in initiatives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and schemes implemented in the area of the European Union (EU).

Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

2013-09-01

48

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Report 1 of this series, we described that, in the cultured cells of skin tissues, chromosomal aberrations seemingly induced by A-bomb exposure were observed in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, especially in those proximally exposed, and some of these cells with chromosomal aberrations formed clones. Based on these findings, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors might have increased. In this study, we tried to clarify the incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded at the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. One hundred and ten cases of skin cancer were collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City and were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter. The results were as follows: A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p

1990-01-01

49

Reevaluation of atomic bomb dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reevaluation of atomic bomb doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is under examination. Particularly, the dose of neutrons differs greatly from the temporary dose (T65D) reported in 1965. Reports from the USA showed that the dose of neutrons has decreased to 4/10 of the temporary dose near Ground 0 in Hiroshima, and Nagasaki's figures were similar even though the difference was slightly smaller than that of Hiroshima. The newly evaluated dose of gamma rays showed an increase in places more than 1 km apart from Ground 0 in Hiroshima. In Japan also, the iron materials from Aioi Bridge and tiles collected at sites more than 1 km from Ground 0 are under examination.

Hoshi, Masaharu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

1982-07-01

50

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

1987-01-01

51

Survey of dental radiology among RERF, Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed to assess the frequency and type of dental radiography performed during 2-week periods from March through June 1976. Patients radiographed were categorized as members of the Adult Health Study (AHS), non-AHS (Extended Life Span Study other than AHS) sample and general populations, and also categorized as Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Handbook holders (the A-bomb exposed) and nonholders of the handbook (the nonexposed). All of these groups were variously compared. They were mainly exposed to conventional oral radiography, and to a much lesser extent(3%-5%) to orthopantomography. The exposure frequencies for oral radiography per caput per year in Hiroshima were 1.2 for AHS, 0.9 for non-AHS, and 0.9 for the general population. In Nagasaki, these were 0.9, 1.1, and 0.6, respectively. The oral radiography exposure rates for the A-bomb exposed were 0.6 in Hiroshima and 0.5 in Nagasaki. For the nonexposed, these were 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Thus, the exposure rates were about 1.5 times greater among the nonexposed than the exposed in both cities. The analysis of technical factors used revealed that, compared to a previous survey (1970), many dental radiographic machines were fitted with open-end cylindrical cones. Because of this a reduction in exposure dose can be inferred. Data obtained in the present investigation are essential for subsequent estimations of exposure doses of the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. (author)

1983-01-01

52

Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors) are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 this year, the names of 5,501 hibakusha who had died during the past year were added to the Hiroshima Cenotaph, making the total number of deaths of Hiroshima's hibakusha 269,446. In Nagasaki on August 9, 3,114 names were added to make a total of 152,276. Adding the death tolls from both cities, the total of Hiroshima/Nagasaki deaths as of August, 2010 was 421,722. The total number of hibakusha, including the living and dead, is at least 649,287, and keeping in mind those unaccounted for, it is probably more. Simply put, approximately, one third of hibakusha survive, speaking and living on behalf of all.No matter how many years go by, the number of people who were in or under the fiery clouds from the explosion of the two atomic-bombs, the first to be used against people, will always be the same, whether alive or dead. It includes those who perished instantly at and near the hypocentres, as Maruki Iri and Maruki Toshi described above,4 without ever being able to speak or even comprehend their own experience. It is for those dead and living people that we younger generations are acting and speaking on behalf of, and from whom we learn. And having fewer, or even none, of those surviving people will in no way diminish the significance of our actions, our shared memories, and our knowledge, to be inherited by future generations, so that never again will nuclear weapons be used, in combat or in experiments.

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-01-01

53

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4; Chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

54

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5; Characteristics of their skin cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

55

Reevaluation of atomic bomb dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Final Report Vol. 1 of the US-Japan Joint Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which was carried out under the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, was released on July 8, 1987. Major contents of the Report are outlined here. The bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are respectively estimated to be equivalent to 22 kt and 12.5 kt of TNT. The number of leakage neutrons from the bombs was 1.07 x 10/sup 23/ n/kt in Hiroshima and 1.65 x 10/sup 23/ n/kt in Nagasaki while the number of leakage photons was 3.04 x 10/sup 21/ ..gamma../kt in Hiroshima and 3.79 x 10/sup 22/ ..gamma../kt in Nagasaki. The effects of the scattering at the ground surface and atmospheric humidity on the kerma in tissue in Hiroshima are shown. Investigation of the contributions of prompt and delayed neutrons and gamma rays to the kerma in tissue reveals that the dose of delayed gamma rays is increasingly greater than that of prompt gamma rays at points closer to the blast center. The soft tissue kerma values estimated from TL measurements made by various research institutes are compared to calculations. Measurements of neutron-induced radioactivity are also compared to calculations. Some model houses to be used for evaluation of the shielding performance of houses are proposed. Some applications of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), a procedure for calculating the exposure dose of victims of the bombs developed in 1986 are also described. (Nogami, K.).

Maruyama, Takashi

1987-12-01

56

Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Influenza C Viruses Which Caused Two Outbreaks in Yamagata City, Japan, in 1996 and 1998  

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During the 3 years from January 1996 to December 1998, a total of 33 strains of influenza C virus were isolated from 10,726 throat swab specimens collected from children with acute respiratory illness who visited two pediatric clinics in Yamagata City, Japan. These 33 strains were isolated in cluste...

Matsuzaki, Y.; Sugawara, K.; Mizuta, K.; Tsuchiya, E.; Muraki, Y.; Hongo, S.; Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, K.

57

Relationship between the radiation dose and chromosome aberrations in atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations were found to persist in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors long after their radiation exposure. Earlier observations that the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations increased in proportion with increasing dose in both cities were confirmed. However, in every dose group, the frequency of aberrant cells was consistently higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. It is suggested that a higher neutron dose in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki may be a major component contributing to the difference in dose response between the two cities. Among the types of chromosome aberrations so far identified, reciprocal translocations were observed to predominate, and they played an important role in determining the dose-aberration relationship. (auth.).

1978-01-01

58

Geological distribution of plutonium isotopes of Nagasaki atomic bomb spread over Nagasaki and Kumamoto area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our precious studies, we measured 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in soils to determine the plutonium derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb. We found the atomic bomb plutonium was carried from the hypocenter toward the eastern area and also reached a part of the northern area in Kumamoto Prefecture. In this study, we measured atomic ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and concentrations of 239+240Pu in soil samples and determined the detailed distribution of the plutonium in Nagasaki Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture. The concentrations of 239+240Pu were comparable with the background level which was observed in soils collected at other prefectures in Japan. In consideration of the precious results, N1 samples collected at Nishiyama area (about 3 km east of hypocenter) was higher than those in other area. This means that the atomic bomb plutonium was deposited in Nishiyama area. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were between 0.12-0.21. With the results of the previous study, ratios of 0.03-0.15 were observed in the samples N1, N2, N5, N*, N6, K4, K*, P5 and P6. These values were relatively lower than global fallout value (0.176). It indicated that the atomic bomb plutonium was deposited between 2 km and about 100 km east from the hypocenter and about 30 km north and south wide. The area which the plutonium was deposited was consistent with area which a cloud of the atomic bomb passed over. This means the plutonium released from the atomic bomb was taken into the cloud and carried. Then a lot of the plutonium fell onto the Nishiyama area and a part of them was carried to Shimabara Peninsula and Kumamoto area. In Nagasaki Prefecture, area which the soil has low 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was not uniform distribution in the area which a cloud of the atomic bomb passed over. It is possibly that the plutonium was deposited with 'Black rain' and the deposition of the plutonium was affected by geographical features. (author)

2006-01-01

59

JAPAN  

Science.gov (United States)

DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-04

60

Environmental Factors and Seasonal Influenza Onset in Okayama City, Japan: Case-Crossover Study  

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Full Text Available Seasonal influenza infection is a major challenge in public health. The term "seasonal influenza" refers to the typical increase in the number of influenza patients in the winter season in temperature zones. However, it is not clear how environmental factors within a single flu season affect influenza infection in a human population. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of temperature and humidity in the 2006-7 flu season on the onset of seasonal influenza using a case-crossover study. We targeted patients who attended one pediatric clinic in Okayama city, Japan and who were diagnosed as being infected with the seasonal influenza virus. Using 2 references (time-stratified and symmetric bidirectional design), we estimated the effects of average temperature and relative humidity from the onset day (lag0) to 10 days before (lag10). The total number of subjects was 419, and their onset days ranged from 26 December 2006 to 30 April 2007. While the onset was significantly associated with lower temperature, relative humidity was not related. In particular, temperatures before the 3-day incubation period had higher-magnitude odds ratios. For example, the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for average temperature at time lag 8 was 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 1.0? decrease. Low environmental temperature significantly increased the risk of seasonal influenza onset within the 2006-7 winter season.

Tsuchihashi,Yuuki; Yorifuji,Takashi; Takao,Soshi; Suzuki,Etsuji; Mori,Shigeru; Doi,Hiroyuki; Tsuda,Toshihide

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG)

1975-01-01

62

Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan): outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs) with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179) was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6%) cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF) was documented in 20 cases (32.3%), and 1 patient (5%) was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

Hayashi,Hoei; Ujike,Yoshihito

2005-01-01

63

Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.).

1983-01-01

64

Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter examines events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences in an attempt to understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. Comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from conventional bombings, consequences of major earthquakes, historical effects of the Black Plague, widespread famines and other extreme natural events. It is concluded that mere extrapolation from the experiences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has consistently led to a gross underestimation of what the consequences of the next nuclear war would be for the global human population. (UK)

1985-01-01

65

Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Nagasaki); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Nagasaki) seika hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research and development has been performed on a stair lifter as a system to convey people handicapped in transportation, living in houses built on slopes in the city of Nagasaki. The research performed during fiscal 1999 has noticed that almost all of the stair ways in the city of Nagasaki are provided with handrails. A motor driven wheelchair was developed, which can go up and down a stair way by using the handrail as a guide, and can be driven on its wheels on flatlands or a gentle slope. This motor driven wheel chair is driven by a DC motor using a battery as the power supply, can be operated by one helper, can drive even on a steep slope (about 45 degrees), functions as an ordinary motor driven wheel chair on flatlands, moves along a guide on a slope, and can be accommodated in a small wagon-type car. As a result of the transfer service test, the wheelchair was found applicable to slopes in Nagasaki where houses are built, but it requires meticulous attention in driving if the grade exceeds 35 degrees. In addition, it was made clear that the speed of 1 km per hour is enough on stairs, but too slow on the level ground. A speed of about 4 km per hour is required. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

66

What factors are associated with good performance in children with cochlear implants? From the outcome of various language development tests, research on sensory and communicative disorders project in Japan: nagasaki experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We conducted multi-directional language development tests as a part of the Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders (RSVD) in Japan. This report discusses findings as well as factors that led to better results in children with severe-profound hearing loss. METHODS: We evaluated multiple language development tests in 33 Japanese children with cochlear implants (32 patients) and hearing aid (1 patient), including 1) Test for question and answer interaction development, 2) Word fluency test, 3) Japanese version of the Peabody picture vocabulary test-revised, 4) The standardized comprehension test of abstract words, 5) The screening test of reading and writing for Japanese primary school children, 6) The syntactic processing test of aphasia, 7) Criterion-referenced testing (CRT) for Japanese language and mathematics, 8) Pervasive development disorders ASJ rating scales, and 9) Raven's colored progressive matrices. Furthermore, we investigated the factors believed to account for the better performances in these tests. The first group, group A, consisted of 14 children with higher scores in all tests than the national average for children with hearing difficulty. The second group, group B, included 19 children that scored below the national average in any of the tests. RESULTS: Overall, the results show that 76.2% of the scores obtained by the children in these tests exceeded the national average scores of children with hearing difficulty. The children who finished above average on all tests had undergone a longer period of regular habilitation in our rehabilitation center, had their implants earlier in life, were exposed to more auditory verbal/oral communication in their education at affiliated institutions, and were more likely to have been integrated in a regular kindergarten before moving on to elementary school. CONCLUSION: In this study, we suggest that taking the above four factors into consideration will have an affect on the language development of children with severe-profound hearing loss.

Kanda Y; Kumagami H; Hara M; Sainoo Y; Sato C; Yamamoto-Fukuda T; Yoshida H; Ito A; Tanaka C; Baba K; Nakata A; Tanaka H; Fukushima K; Kasai N; Takahashi H

2012-04-01

67

Incidence of leukemia in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki October 1950 - December 1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present analysis of leukemia incidence is confined to 189 cases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The analysis again demonstrates that the risk of all types of leukemia has increased with dose in both cities except among individuals who received less than 100 rad in kerma total dose in Nagasaki. The shape of the dose-response curve is different in the two cities and between the two major types of leukemia (acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia), though the average marrow total dose is quite similar in each total kerma dose class in the two cities. The present findings are quite consistent with those described in the previous report. The excess risk among survivors who received 100 rad or more kerma total dose has gradually declined with years after exposure in both cities. It had disappeared among Nagasaki survivors by 1970 (25 years after exposure) but the risk was still high even after 1970 among exposed survivors in Hiroshima who were 30 years of age or older ATB. The leukemogenic effect of radiation differs in relation to dose, age ATB, and duration after exposure between Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The analysis has again supported previous observations that the leukemogenic effect of radiation in those individuals exposed at younger ages ATB was greater in the early postbomb period and declined more rapidly in subsequent years, while the effect in older individuals ATB appeared later and persisted longer. (author).

1982-01-01

68

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

1983-01-01

69

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

Loewe, W.E.

1983-09-01

70

The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester…

Orr, Thomas, Ed.

71

Characterization of Extracellular Chitinase from Bacterial Isolate 99 and Enterobacter sp. G-1 from Matsue City, Japan  

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Full Text Available One hundred and twenty isolates of chitosanase producing bacteria were screened from water and soil from localies around Matsue city, Japan. In previous experiments, four isolates (isolates 96, 97, 99, and 100 strain ) were analyzed for their chitosanase characteristics, and one of the isolates (99) was detected as being both a chitosanase and a chitinase producer. Characteristics of the chitinase enzyme were analyzed in this study. Chitinase from bacterial isolate 99 showed higher activities compared to that Enterobacter sp. G-1 (isolated from water in Matsue city, Japan), the activity was 0.039 U/ml and the specific activity was 0.56 U/mg protein, while those from Enterobacter sp. G-1 were 0.029 U/ml and 0.48 U/mg protein respectively. Chitinase from isolate 99 was stable in a pH range between 4-7, while that from Enterobacter sp. G-1 was stable in pH range 3-7. Optimum pH of the chitinase produced by isolate 99 was 5 whereas the chitinase from Enterobacter sp. G-1 it was pH 7. Chitinase from isolate 99 was stable at temperature 20-60°C, while that from Enterobacter sp. G-1 at 20-50°C. Chitinase secreted by isolate 99 showed optimum temperature of 50°C while chitinase from Enterobacter sp. G-1 was optimal at 40°C. Several ions (Fe2+, Ba2+, Co2+) increased the activity of the enzyme from isolate 99 whereas Ca2+ and Co2+ increased activity of the Enterobacter sp. G-1 chitinase.

MARIA ENDO MAHATA; ABDI DHARMA; IRSAN RYANTO; YOSE RIZAL

2008-01-01

72

Residual plutonium migration in soil of Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The residual 239+240Pu concentration in the Nagasaki soil was observed 36 years after the plutonium atomic bombing of Nagasakki in 1945. The highest level of 239+240Pu contamination was discovered in the soil at the edge of the Nishiyama reservoir, a level about 10-30 times higher than in other areas of Nagasaki. In the Nishiyama district, 97% of the total plutonium in the soil was retained to a depth of 0.3 m, but the remaining 3% was dispersed over a 0.3- to 2.25-m depth at approximately 0.037 Bq/kg of dry soil. The mean 239+240Pu migration rate in the Nishiyama soil for 36 years was estimated at 1.25 mm yr-1, compared to the infiltration rate of rainwater of 2500 mm yr-1.

1984-01-01

73

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to hepatitis B surface antigen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation life-span study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the pathology study sample were observed. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assessed in all of the cases with the use of orcein and aldehyde fuchsin stains and was confirmed by the immunofluorescence technique. The incidence of PLC was two times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, which was statistically significant, but little difference was noted in the prevalence of cirrhosis in the two cities. Findings that might possibly explain the higher PLC incidence in Nagasaki were 1) the 2.3 times higher presence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of HBsAg in the livers of subjects without liver disease and 2) the two times higher prevalence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of cirrhosis with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to hepatitis B virus infection, although other factors (e.g., immunologic competence affected by radiation) cannot be excluded. In both cities, a suggestive relationship of radiation dose to cirrhosis prevalence, but not to PCL prevalence, was noted. To clarify possible radiation effects on cirrhosis prevalence, further follow-up of the populations of these two cities is necessary.

Asano, M.; Kato, H.; Yoshimoto, K.; Seyama, S.; Itakura, H.; Hamada, T.; Iijima, S.

1982-12-01

74

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to hepatitis B surface antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation life-span study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the pathology study sample were observed. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assessed in all of the cases with the use of orcein and aldehyde fuchsin stains and was confirmed by the immunofluorescence technique. The incidence of PLC was two times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, which was statistically significant, but little difference was noted in the prevalence of cirrhosis in the two cities. Findings that might possibly explain the higher PLC incidence in Nagasaki were 1) the 2.3 times higher presence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of HBsAg in the livers of subjects without liver disease and 2) the two times higher prevalence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of cirrhosis with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to hepatitis B virus infection, although other factors (e.g., immunologic competence affected by radiation) cannot be excluded. In both cities, a suggestive relationship of radiation dose to cirrhosis prevalence, but not to PCL prevalence, was noted. To clarify possible radiation effects on cirrhosis prevalence, further follow-up of the populations of these two cities is necessary

1982-01-01

75

Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance with the manual, the hospital disaster task force was established. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team coordinated medical support from organizations such as physicians associations, dental associations, self-defence forces medical teams, pharmacists associations, the Japanese Red Cross and relief teams from hospitals all over the country. In three days, the joint relief team directly visited all emergency shelters to make an initial assessment and to collect information about the number and state of health of evacuees, provision of food and drinking water and the availability of electricity, water and sewerage. Outcome: Initial assessment revealed that 35 emergency shelters lacked a sufficient food supply and that 100 shelters had unsanitary conditions. The joint relief team provided the Miyagi Prefecture government and the Ishinomaki municipal government with information about emergency shelters that did not have a sufficient food supply. As of 30 September, the activities of the joint relief teams were completed, and there was no outbreak of communicable diseases in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone. A total of 328 shelters with 46 480 evacuees were managed by the Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team.Discussion: Advanced preparation to quickly establish an initial response system, expertise, and decision-making ability and the ability to get things done are required for disaster response management.

Tadashi Ishii

2011-01-01

76

A method for Bayesian estimation of the probability of local intensity for some cities in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seismic hazard in terms of probability of exceedance of a given intensity in a given time span,was assessed for 12 sites in Japan.The method does not use any attenuation law.Instead,the dependence of local intensity on epicentral intensity I 0 is calculated directly from the data,using a Bayesian model.According to this model (Meroni et al., 1994),local intensity follows the binomial distribution with parameters (I 0 ,p ).The parameter p is considered as a random variable following the Beta distribution.This manner of Bayesian estimates of p are assessed for various values of epicentral intensity and epicentral distance.In order to apply this model for the assessment of seismic hazard,the area under consideration is divided into seismic sources (zones)of known seismicity.The contribution of each source on the seismic hazard at every site is calculated according to the Bayesian model and the result is the combined effect of all the sources.High probabilities of exceedance were calculated for the sites that are in the central part of the country,with hazard decreasing slightly towards the north and the south parts.

T. M. Tsapanos; O. C. Galanis; G. C. Koravos; R. M. W. Musson

2002-01-01

77

The Nagasaki reinforced concrete building dose calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determination of radiation dose to personnel in the concrete buildings at Nagasaki is an important step in understanding the effects of radiation on personnel. The strategy was to calculate the sources of neutron and gamma radiation from the weapon, to calculate the intensity of radiation outside the buildings, to calculate the dose in the cells of a computational gridwork inside the building, and then to interpolate in this gridwork to find the dose at the position of each person. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Rhoades, W.A.

1987-01-01

78

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author).

1982-01-01

79

"US-JAPAN CONFERENCE: INFLAMMATION, DIABETES AND CANCER" held at the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conference was held to facilitate research collaborations between US and Japan scientists, and to commemorate the rich history of the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope (COH) research contributed by many Japanese doctors. Most noticeable is Dr. Ryojun Kinoshita, an internationally renowned oncologist who built the first research team at the campus of COH Medical Center in 1952. The conference received enthusiastic support from Junichi Ihara, Consul General of Japan, Los Angeles. During the two day conference, seven scientists from Japan, six scientists from Southern California, and six scientists from COH presented various aspects of cancer and diabetes research which included nuclear receptor regulation, DNA base and chromatin modifications, cancer glycosylation, circadian clock, cell polarity, tumorigenesis, micro and small RNA therapies, genomics, epigenetics, and signaling.

Fujita-Yamaguchi Y; Lin RJ; Jove R

2011-12-01

80

History of Pine Wilt Disease in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in Japan. The first occurrence of the disease was reported in Nagasaki, Kyushu. During the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was f...

Mamiya, Y.

 
 
 
 
81

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.2 contains tables of SMR for leukemia. (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

82

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.4 contains tables of SMR for malignant lymphoma. (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

83

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.6 contains tables of SMR for multiple myeloma. (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

84

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.7 contains tables of SMR for malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

85

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.5 contains tables of SMR for non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL). (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

86

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.3 contains tables of SMR for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

87

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No. 1 contains tables of SMR for all malignant neoplasms. (J.P.N.).

1993-01-01

88

Geology of the Higashiyama hills, east of the Nagaoka city, Niigata prefecture, central Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors clarified the succession and the ages of the Neogene formations which compose the Higashiyama Hills, east of the Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture, from detail field survey, biostratigraphical study by microfossils, and fission track dating. The succession of the Neogene formations distributed in this area corresponds to the standard one of the middle Miocene to Pliocene series of Nanatani, Teradomari, Shiiya, and Nishiyama Formations of the Niigata sedimentary basin. Biotite-hornblende dacite and hornblende andesite (9.0 Ma) of the Teradomari Formation, and the pyroxene andesite of the Shiiya Formation are interbedded with beds of siltstone and sandstone. The Teradomari Formation is considered to has deposited on the Nanatani Formation which has occurred as topographical high of NW trend, with clinounconformity relation. The main geological structures of NNE-SSW trending Nigoro Anticline and N-S trending Higashiyama Anticline are developed in this area. The authors inferred that the Nokogiriyama Fault, along which the west side block downs, runs on the axial part of the Nigoro Anticline, and the faulting may has began to occur in the Shiiya Stage as shown in differences of lithofacies between both flanks of the Nigoro Anticline. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Tsuneyama, Futoshi; Watanabe, Kikuo; Shimazu, Mitsuo (Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Niigata Univ., Faculty of Science, Niigata (Japan))

1989-05-01

89

Medical and dental radiological trends in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yearly trends in radiologic practice in Japan were estimated on the basis of annual dampling surveys of medical and dental examinations and treatments covered by Government-Managed Health Insurance, modified by (1) the ratio of all insurance-covered medical care to that covered by this insurance, and (2) the ratio of insured plus privately purchased medical care to insured medical care alone. All radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations, x-ray films consumed, radiation treatments, and dental x-ray examinations, increased during the 10 years prior to this study. In 1970, numbers of examinations or treatments per capita were 1.2 for radiography, 0.1 for fluoroscopy, 0.06 for radiation treatments, and 0.3 for dental radiography, respectively. The dental radiography data were interpolated to Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cities and compared with those submitted by institutions in both cities in October 1970. The Reports of Annual Medical Care Survey, the Fund Office's Annual Reports, and the Annual Reports of the National Health Insurance were main sources for this estimate and provided more than 90% of the necessary information. (auth.)

1978-01-01

90

Comparison of Rescue and Relief Activities Within 72 Hours of the Atomic Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose To clarify the factors and reasons for the differences in the outcomes of rescue and relief efforts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mainly focusing on the numbers of rescue/relief staffs and casualties in the period within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in August 1945. Methods By retrieving the data and information from the records and reports concerning the disasters in the two cities, together with other publications as to the damages by the atomic bombings and subsequent rescue-relief activities, and restoration activities. Results and Conclusions It seems that there was less damage in Nagasaki, where a stronger atomic bomb was used than in Hiroshima. There were crucial geographic factors that led to the different effects in terms of the numbers of victims; however, systematic organization and mobilization of rescue and relief staffs, maintenance of functional transportation, and advanced medical knowledge and public warning with regard to disaster all may have contributed to a lower death toll and increase in survivors in Nagasaki. Matsunari Y , Yoshimoto N . Comparison of rescue and relief activities within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):1-7 .

Matsunari Y; Yoshimoto N

2013-08-01

91

[Development of modern medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and early Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following years, the Meiji government settled down a dual-track medical licensing system: one for the graduates from medical schools with certain quality and the other for the graduate from less qualified schools who should take the licensing examination.

Kim O; Takuya M

2011-12-01

92

Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

1989-01-01

93

Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

1999-01-01

94

Radiation transport calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods and data used to calculate the Hiroshima and Nagasaki prompt and delayed radiation fluences for the DS02 study represent a considerable improvement over the methods and data used for the DS86 study. During the intervening sixteen years, enhancements were made in the radiation transport codes and the nuclear data that are used to describe the migration of the neutrons and gamma rays from the bomb location through the intervening air and into, out of and off the surface of the ground. Increased computational capability permits better descriptions of the weapon source spectra and their extension to higher neutron and photon energies. The weapon leakage spectra were generated in the same neutron and gamma-ray energy structures that were used in the transport calculations. No interpolation or fitting of the leakage spectra was necessary, assuring consistent and accurate representations of the data were used in the transport calculations. (J.P.N.)

95

Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

1999-09-01

96

Epidemiological studies. From experience in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)

2011-01-01

97

Persistent chromosome aberrations in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current status of knowledge on the radiation-induced chromosome aberrations persisting since their induction in 1945 to date in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is reviewed. Dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies observed with the use of the old A-bomb dosimetry system (T65D) is also demonstrable based on the new dosimetry system (DS86). Despite the fact that the remarkable decrease in the amount of neutron component relative to the total dose in Hiroshima, there still exist inter-city differences in aberration frequency per unit dose both for kerma and bone marrow dose; the dose-square term is smaller in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The differential contribution of neutron radiation may be responsible in some part for the observed difference between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although proof still remains to be obtained. There is a wide variability of the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations between survivors within a given dose range. Random errors in the dose estimates assigned to individual survivors seem responsible, to a large extent, for the observed overdispersions in aberration frequencies in both cities. New molecular biology-oriented techniques to differentially stain specific chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes seem extremely promising for future rapid, accurate and extensive screening of reciprocal translocations observed predominantly in A-bomb survivors. Such data may be utilized to establish a better biological dosimetry system, especially for those persons who are irradiated in vivo many years before cytogenetic examinations.

Awa AA

1991-03-01

98

The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Historical Documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There are two sets of documents and reports. The first covers before the bombing and includes the scienctists petitions to prevent the bombing, the bombing order, and the Potsdam Declaration. The second covers the aftermath of the bombings. These documents include: White House Press Release on Hiroshima, Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Griffith, Christopher

99

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical x-ray exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All large hospitals and 40% of the small hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed for the X-ray examinations they performed during a 2-week period in 1974. The frequency and type of X-ray examinations received by members of the RERF Adult Health Study (AHS) and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) extended, excluding AHS (Non-AHS), were compared with the general population in each city. Radiologic exposures of patients at hospitals and clinics were most frequent among the general populations. The number of patients, examinations, and exposures per caput per year in each population were estimated. Since the age distribution differed among the three populations, comparisons were made only after correcting for age. On a per caput per year basis exposure frequency was relatively high in the AHS and low in the general populations, a reflection of the greater number of patients in the AHS than in the general populations. Non-AHS males in Nagasaki had a higher X-ray examination rate than did the AHS subjects. The others in the Non-AHS did not differ appreciably from the general populations. There was no difference among these groups according to body sites examined. (author).

1980-01-01

100

Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Does the insufficient supply of physicians worsen their urban-rural distribution? A Hiroshima-Nagasaki comparison.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Studies have suggested that a rapid increase in physicians does not necessarily change an urban-rural inequity in their distribution. However, it is unknown whether an insufficient supply of physicians worsens an inequity. Spatial competition and attraction-repulsion hypotheses were applied to the geographic distribution of physicians during a time of insufficient physician supply in Japan. METHODS: Trends of physician distribution as well as urban-rural physician flow were compared using Hiroshima Prefecture which had the lowest increase in physician-to-population ratios between 2002 and 2008 (2.7%), and Nagasaki Prefecture where the increase was one of the highest (12.0%) among the 47 Japanese prefectures. RESULTS: The Gini coefficient of physicians compared with population in Hiroshima increased by 4.1%. Movement toward inequity was greater in Hiroshima compared with Nagasaki where the increase was 2.5%. Approximately 245 physicians or 18.8% moved from rural to urban locations in Hiroshima compared with 143 (14.6%) for Nagasaki (p=0.01). In contrast, 228 (7.6%) urban physicians moved to rural areas in Hiroshima compared with 175 (11.6%) in Nagasaki (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a time of insufficient supply of physicians, a region with a smaller increase in physicians may experience worsening of the urban-rural distribution of physicians compared with a region where there is a more rapid increase in physicians. One strategy for achieving a more equitable distribution of physicians is to increase in the physician supply relative to demand in order to stimulate competition among urban physicians and maintain the power equilibrium between attraction-to and repulsion-from urban areas.

Matsumoto M; Inoue K; Kashima S; Takeuchi K

2012-01-01

102

Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

1983-01-01

103

Hiroshima-Remembered.com: Documents about the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Science.gov (United States)

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These include: Potsdam Declaration, White House Press Release on Hiroshima, an Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, The Voice of Hibakusha, The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District, The Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuclear Explosions , On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project - Albert Einstein, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Griffith, Christopher

104

Japan Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.

105

Preliminary reanalysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in relation to past and newly revised dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the chromosome data from 408 atomic bomb survivors, 229 in Hiroshima and 179 in Nagasaki, was performed in terms of the frequency of cells with radiation-induced chromosome aberrations plotted against the existing A-bomb dosimetry system (T65D), and the new dosimetry systems from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Preliminary analysis shows that the inter-city difference in aberration frequencies is still apparent at every T65D dose level, while the aberration frequencies based on both ORNL and LLNL systems do not differ strikingly between the two cities, particularly in the dose range below 200 rad. The purpose of this study is to compare the somatic chromosome aberration frequencies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, based on the T65D, ORNL and LLNL dose estimates.

1984-01-01

106

Simulation of the probable vector density that caused the Nagasaki dengue outbreak vectored by Aedes albopictus in 1942.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY Japan experienced dengue outbreaks vectored by Aedes albopictus during the Second World War. The probable vector density that caused the largest dengue outbreak in Nagasaki in 1942 was estimated using a mathematical simulation model. The estimated vector density was 15·0-558·0 per person when various assumptions of uncertain parameters were applied, such as proportion of symptomatic cases, vector mortality, and human biting rate of A. albopictus. When the most favourable disease spread conditions, such as a combination of the exclusive human biting rate and the longest vector survival were assumed, the vector density was 15-25 mosquitoes per person. Unusually high vector density due to wartime practices, and the traditional Japanese lifestyle were presumably responsible for the earlier dengue outbreak. If an outbreak occurs in present-day Japan, it is unlikely to spread as much as the previous one, as environmental conditions and human behaviour have changed in a protective manner.

Oki M; Yamamoto T

2013-03-01

107

Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

1983-01-01

108

Psychiatric sequelae in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki two decades after the explosions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Atomic bomb exposure was an extraordinarily stressful event. Although little epidemiological research has been performed on the psychiatric effects of the bombings, many medical descriptions of the survivors suggest that there was an increase of various symptoms that implied autonomic ataxia or neurosis-like disorders. The psychiatric effects of exposure to the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were assessed in this study. METHOD: From a self-administered medical questionnaire completed between 1962 and 1965 by 9421 informed and consenting Adult Health Study subjects, some questions congruent with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder and somatization disorder were selected and used as indicators of anxiety symptoms and somatization symptoms. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in relation to age, sex, city (Hiroshima vs. Nagasaki), acute radiation symptoms, exposure status (in city or not in city), ground distance from hypocenter, disease history, and death of family members were analyzed. RESULTS: A higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, 1.73) and somatization symptoms (odds ratio, 1.99) was observed in those with acute radiation symptoms than in those without them. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and somatization symptoms among people who were in the city at the time of the explosion was significantly higher than among those who were not in the city. Among the former, prevalence was lower among proximally exposed people than among distally exposed people. Symptom prevalences were also affected by age, sex, and city. Although disease history such as neurotic disorder and ulcer were risk factors for anxiety symptoms and somatization symptoms, the increased prevalence of anxiety symptoms and somatization symptoms in association with atomic bomb exposure was independent of disease history and the death of family members. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and somatization symptoms was elevated in atomic bomb survivors even 17-20 years after the bombings had occurred, indicating the long-term nature of the psychiatric effects of the experience. Psychiatric sequelae were independent of physical sequelae.

Yamada M; Izumi S

2002-09-01

109

Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 30 years ago, population-based tumor registries were established in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report, the first of a series of papers on cancer incidence, describes methodological aspects of the tumor registries and discusses issues of data quality in the context of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, the major atomic bomb survivor population. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are characterized by active case ascertainment based on abstraction of medical records at area hospitals, augmented by tissue registries operational in the area and a number of clinical and pathological programs undertaken over the years among the atomic bomb survivors. Using conventional measures of quality, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries have a death certificate-only (DCO) rate of less than 9%, a mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio of about 50%, and a histological verification (HV) rate in excess of 70%, which place these registries among the best in Japan and comparable to many established registries worldwide. All tumor registry data pertaining to the LSS population were assembled, reviewed and handled with special attention given to the quality and uniformity of data based on standardized procedures. Special studies and monitoring programs were also introduced to evaluate the quality of the tumor incidence data in the LSS. Analyses were performed to examine the quality of incidence data overall and across various substrata used for risk assessment such as age, time and radiation dose groups. No significant associations were found between radiation dose and data quality as measured by various indices. These findings warrant the use of the present tumor registry-based data for studies of cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

1994-01-01

110

A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

2008-12-01

111

Evaluation of river pollution of neonicotinoids in Osaka City (Japan) by LC/MS with dopant-assisted photoionisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) source for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was applied to determine neonicotinoid pesticides in the aquatic environment. Dopant-assisted APPI was very effective in the ionisation of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids generated protonated molecules in APPI with high sensitivity, while adduct ions, such as sodiated molecules, were predominantly generated in conventional electrospray ionisation. The ionisation of neonicotinoids was confirmed by ultra-high-resolution MS. An analytical method coupled with solid phase extraction was developed for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam. Method detection limits were 0.47 to 2.1 ng L(-1) for six neonicotinoids. Dinotefuran was the most frequent and highest among the neonicotinoids examined in the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan. The maximum concentration of dinotefuran was 220 ng L(-1). Given the toxicity of neonicotinoids for aquatic creatures, the concentrations observed here were substantially low. The change in concentrations was temporally coincident with the period of the neonicotinoid application. Although rapid photodegradation and some degradation products have been elucidated, the degradation products in the aquatic environment were not identified in the present study. PMID:22767100

Yamamoto, Atsushi; Terao, Tomoko; Hisatomi, Hirotaka; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

2012-07-05

112

Evaluation of river pollution of neonicotinoids in Osaka City (Japan) by LC/MS with dopant-assisted photoionisation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) source for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was applied to determine neonicotinoid pesticides in the aquatic environment. Dopant-assisted APPI was very effective in the ionisation of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids generated protonated molecules in APPI with high sensitivity, while adduct ions, such as sodiated molecules, were predominantly generated in conventional electrospray ionisation. The ionisation of neonicotinoids was confirmed by ultra-high-resolution MS. An analytical method coupled with solid phase extraction was developed for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam. Method detection limits were 0.47 to 2.1 ng L(-1) for six neonicotinoids. Dinotefuran was the most frequent and highest among the neonicotinoids examined in the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan. The maximum concentration of dinotefuran was 220 ng L(-1). Given the toxicity of neonicotinoids for aquatic creatures, the concentrations observed here were substantially low. The change in concentrations was temporally coincident with the period of the neonicotinoid application. Although rapid photodegradation and some degradation products have been elucidated, the degradation products in the aquatic environment were not identified in the present study.

Yamamoto A; Terao T; Hisatomi H; Kawasaki H; Arakawa R

2012-08-01

113

Influence of the 2009 financial crisis on detection of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city, Japan: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the economic recession and the detection of advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city from 2007 to 2009. DESIGN: A repeated cross-sectional study. SETTING: Osaka city has been the highest tuberculosis burden area in Japan. After the previous global financial crisis, the unemployment rate in Osaka prefecture has deteriorated from 5.3% in 2008 to 6.6% in 2009. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 3406 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were enrolled: 2530 males and 876 females; 1546 elderly cases (65 years and above) and 1860 young cases (under 65 years); 417 homeless cases and 2989 non-homeless cases. OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients' information included the sex, age, registry, health insurances, places of detection, sputum smear test results, patients' delay, doctors' delay and the grade of chest x-ray findings. They were statistically analysed between 2007 and 2008, two years before and just before the financial crisis, and between 2008 and 2009, just before and after the financial crisis. RESULTS: The total numbers of pulmonary tuberculosis cases were 1172 in 2007, 1083 in 2008 and 1151 in 2009. In health examinations for non-homeless people, higher number of cases in 2009 were sputum smear positive, had respiratory symptoms and showed advanced disease in chest x-rays than those in 2008, with a longer patients' delay. On the contrary, in health examination for homeless people, fewer cases of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis were found in 2009 than in 2008, with a shorter patients' delay. In clinical examinations, there was no trend towards a difference between non-homeless and homeless people. CONCLUSIONS: Although homeless people might be protected by public assistance, tuberculosis prevention and control need to be reinforced for the non-homeless population after the financial crisis.

Danno K; Komukai J; Yoshida H; Matsumoto K; Koda S; Terakawa K; Iso H

2013-01-01

114

Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan; La gestione strategica dei rifiuti solidi nelle citta giapponesi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan. [Italian] Nel corso della storia la gestione dei rifiuti solidi si e sempre resa compatibile con le esigenze della societa espresse in quel determinato momento. Negli anni '50 la gestione era orientata al mantenimento di determinati standard di salute pubblica, principalmente rivolti al controllo della diffusione di malattie infettive, mentre negli anni '70 la produzione di energia dai rifiuti era considerato l'aspetto prioritario per la corretta risoluzione del problema gestionale dei rifiuti. Negli anni '90 la riduzione della produzione dei rifiuti e il loro riciclaggio sono stati inseriti, come principio, nei documenti per la regolamentazione della gestione dei rifiuti solidi. Con l'approvazione di specifiche normative quadro, a partire dai primi anni del 2000, la societa si avvia ad essere una societa basata sul riciclaggio, nel suo cammino verso la sostenibilita. Nel testo si esaminano i principali aspetti strategici della gestione dei rifiuti solidi, e problematiche annesse, in Giappone.

Tanaka, M. [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Istituto di scienze naturali e tecnologiche

2005-09-15

115

Landslide-susceptibility analysis using light detection and ranging-derived digital elevation models and logistic regression models: a case study in Mizunami City, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

To mitigate the damage caused by landslide disasters, different mathematical models have been applied to predict landslide spatial distribution characteristics. Although some researchers have achieved excellent results around the world, few studies take the spatial resolution of the database into account. Four types of digital elevation model (DEM) ranging from 2 to 20 m derived from light detection and ranging technology to analyze landslide susceptibility in Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, are presented. Fifteen landslide-causative factors are considered using a logistic-regression approach to create models for landslide potential analysis. Pre-existing landslide bodies are used to evaluate the performance of the four models. The results revealed that the 20-m model had the highest classification accuracy (71.9%), whereas the 2-m model had the lowest value (68.7%). In the 2-m model, 89.4% of the landslide bodies fit in the medium to very high categories. For the 20-m model, only 83.3% of the landslide bodies were concentrated in the medium to very high classes. When the cell size decreases from 20 to 2 m, the area under the relative operative characteristic increases from 0.68 to 0.77. Therefore, higher-resolution DEMs would provide better results for landslide-susceptibility mapping.

Wang, Liang-Jie; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji

2013-01-01

116

Comparison of cost-benefit analysis of nitrogen dioxide control in Tokyo, Japan with those in other countries and cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the economic effectiveness of past NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo, the authors compared the results of their cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of these controls with other investigations. The authors carried out a CBA of NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo using Freeman's benefit methodology and EPA and Dixon et al. cost methodologies and they compared their assumptions and results to work done by other researchers for other countries and cities, which were collected from the literature. The authors assumed 2 to 3 days duration per incidence of respiratory illness. Kenkel suggested 4.1 days and Dixon et al. assumed 2 weeks. They estimated avoided incidence per person in adults as 2.6 (upper limit UL 2.7; lower limit LL 2.4) and in children as 0.33 (UL 0.35; LL 0.30). Ostro estimated 0.20 for respiratory symptoms in adults from NO{sub 2} exposure, 5.2 for respiratory symptoms and 0.078 for asthma attacks in adults from particulates. The authors estimated work loss days (WLDs) per person for workers as 4.7 (UL 5.0; LL 4.4) and for working mothers as 0.61 (UL 0.66; LL 0.56). Shin et al.'s per-person estimates included 4.5 WLDs in Bangkok, 3.7 in Beijing, 2.3 in Shanghai, and 1.1 in Kuala Lumpur. They estimated the cost effectiveness of NO{sub 2} control in Tokyo to be $1,400/ton (UL $1,500; LL $1,300) for motor vehicles, $21,000/ton (UL $23,000; LL $19,000) for all NO{sub x} sources, and $91,000/ton (UL $98,000; LL $84,000) for stationary point sources. This compares to $240 to $1,500/ton in West Virginia for all NO{sub x} sources, $2,700/ton in northern Virginia from motor vehicles, $5,600/ton from motor vehicles in Virginia, and $17,000 to $26,000/ton from all NO{sub x} sources in the Chesapeake River Watershed. Herein, the benefits in Tokyo exceeded the costs by a ratio of approximately 6 to 1 (UL 7:1; LL 5:1).

Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H.

1999-07-01

117

Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for free-in-air tissue kerma due to initial radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Uncertainty estimates and cross correlations by range/survivor have been calculated for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki free-in-air (FIA) tissue kerma obtained from two-dimensional air/ground transport calculations. The uncertainties due to modeling parameter and basic nuclear transport data uncertainties were calculated for 700-, 1000-, and 1500-m ground ranges. Only the FIA tissue kerma due to initial radiation was treated in the analysis; the uncertainties associated with terrain and building shielding and phantom attenuation were not considered in this study. Uncertainties of --20% were obtained for the prompt neutron and secondary gamma kerma and 30% for the prompt gamma kerma at both cities. The uncertainties on the total prompt kerma at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are --18 and 15%, respectively. The estimated uncertainties vary only slightly by ground range and are fairly highly correlated. The total prompt kerma uncertainties are dominated by the secondary gamma uncertainties, which in turn are dominated by the modeling parameter uncertainties, particularly those associated with the weapon yield and radiation sources

1988-01-01

118

Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in several districts in the western part of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in 365 locations of several districts in the western part of Japan were carried out with more than 6 month exposures of CR-39 bare track detectors. The arithmetic mean value of all measurements was 29.9 Bq/m3, the standard deviation was 36.1 Bq/m3, the geometric mean was 19.1 Bq/m3 and the median was 18.1 Bq/m3. The geometric means of the distributions for Hiroshima city, Nagasaki city, Mihama town, Misasa town, and Shiga prefecture were 26.2, 9.9, 32.4, 27.7, and 21.0 Bq/m3, respectively. Correlations between the concentration and various factors were analyzed from the results of the measurements. The factors analyzed were regional differences, construction materials, purpose of the room, age of the house, number of floors, etc. From the results of the studies, the regional differences and construction materials were found to have apparent correlations. Personal monitoring was also carryied out on 25 persons living in Misasa. The median value of the radon concentrations obtained from the personal monitoring approximately agreed with that obtained from the measurements in the dwellings. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between the individual values obtained from the personal monitoring and the measurement in the dwellings. (author).

1989-01-01

119

Measurement of Nagasaki Pu global transport rates, comparing with SO2 from historic volcanic eruptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An artificial single dose contaminant was released at Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, detonating plutonium (10-15 kg) atomic bomb. A portion, 1,2 kg of 239Pu was fissioned releasing 21 kt TNT energy along with various fission products. The rest of the unexpended fissile material, 239+240Pu, 13.8 kg (3.49 x 1013 Bq), was dispersed into the atmosphere along with a fission product, 137Cs, 23.4 g (7.44 x 1013 Bq). The fate of 239+240Pu and 137Cs was investigated by analysing both local and global fallout. The highest concentration of 239+240Pu was 64.5 mBq/g (181 mBq/cm2) while it was 188 mBq/g (526 mBq/cm2) for 137Cs both at 2.8 km east from the hypocentre. The total amount of deposition in the local fallout region of 264 km2 was 37.5 g (9.48 x 1010Bq) for 239+240Pu and 3.14 mg (5.88 x 1010Bq) for 137Cs. The ratio of the local fallout against the total amount of the radionuclides released was 0.27 % for 239+240Pu and 0.134% for 137Cs. Recent advancements in analytical technology made it possible for artificial radionuclides released from the Nagasaki explosion to be detected in the Arctic ice core layer of 1945. The 239+240Pu and the 137Cs, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition was 0.16 ?Bq/cm2 for 239+240Pu and 20 ?Bq/cm2 for 137Cs. During the atmospheric testing, the deposition of 239+240Pu and 137Cs varied more than 100 times with the highest peaks of over 50 ?Bq/cm2 for 239+240Pu and over 800 ?Bq/cm2 for 137Cs both occurred in 1962. Analyzing Arctic data, there are many new information for long global transport, the history of nuclear weapons development etc. (author)

2002-01-01

120

Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author).

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki.

1982-04-02

122

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are radiobiologically examined for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are changed very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki.

1982-04-02

123

History of pine wilt disease in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in Japan. The first occurrence of the disease was reported in Nagasaki, Kyushu. During the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was found in 34 prefectures. The annual loss of pine trees increased from 30,000 m(3) to 1.2 million m(3) during these two decades. The enormous increase in timber loss in the 1970s resulted in 2.4 million m(3) of annual loss in 1979. The affected area expanded into 45 prefectures of 47 prefectures in Japan. In cool areas the disease differs in epidemiology from that in heavily infested areas in the warm regions. A national project for controlling pine wilt disease lays special emphasis on the healthy pine forests predominating throughout cool areas in northern Japan.

Mamiya Y

1988-04-01

124

Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

1958-07-01

125

Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author).

1982-01-01

126

Nuclear past, nuclear present: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and contemporary strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The controversial atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 represent the only occasions when atomic weapons have been employed in war, yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the relationship between the bombings and the course of subsequent nuclear strategy. Dr. Clark contends that the August 1945 experience was crucially formative and gave rise to a set of influential assumptions about the moral acceptability of using nuclear weapons, the rationality of nuclear decision-making, and the controllability of nuclear operations. The author's detailed reconstruction of the events of 1945 sheds new light upon these assumptions and contributes to the present debate about nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear concerns and problems back to some of the misleading conclusions drawn from the bombings.

Clark, I.

1985-01-01

127

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the radiation doses to occupants of two reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki, who survived the immediate effects of the nuclear weapon detonation, are determined using state-of-the-art radiation transport techniques. The radiation doses at all locations in the buildings are calculated using the Three-Dimensional Oak Ridge Discrete Ordinates Radiation Transport Code which was constructed especially for this task. This code represents a new and unique capability that has been previously reported. This study resulted in case-by-case lists of doses to occupants and an uncertainty analysis. These data have been used in a companion study as the basis for determining a new value of the dose producing a 50% risk of fatality.

Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T. (Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

1992-11-01

128

Reevaluation of the atomic bomb dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tentative dose proposed in 1965 (T65D) has long been used as the exposure dose of the atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But recent studies have suggested the necessity of reevaluating the exposure dose. The problems necessitating the reevaluation are pointed out. They are 1) investigation of the absolute output of the atomic bomb, 2) the isotropy of emitted energy, 3) investigations on the energy spectrum of the neutrons emitted from the atomic bomb, 4) calculation and measurement of the energy spectrum and radioactivation of neutrons in the air and exposed material, 5) calculation and measurement of the dose of gamma rays, 6) investigations on screening and 7) investigations on organs dose.

Hoshi, Masaji (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

1982-06-01

129

Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

130

Urban and spatial planning in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

Marin Tominaga

2011-01-01

131

Relationship Between Dose and Chromosome Aberrations in Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations were found to persist in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors long after their radiation exposure. Earlier observations that the frequency of cells with chromos...

A. A. Awa T. Sofuni T. Honda M. Itoh S. Neriishi

1978-01-01

132

Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. SETTING: Atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 86 611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received <0.2 Gy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from stroke or heart disease as the underlying cause of death and dose-response relations with atomic bomb radiation. RESULTS: About 9600 participants died of stroke and 8400 died of heart disease between 1950 and 2003. For stroke, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 9% (95% confidence interval 1% to 17%, P=0.02) on the basis of a linear dose-response model, but an indication of possible upward curvature suggested relatively little risk at low doses. For heart disease, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 14% (6% to 23%, P<0.001); a linear model provided the best fit, suggesting excess risk even at lower doses. However, the dose-response effect over the restricted dose range of 0 to 0.5 Gy was not significant. Prospective data on smoking, alcohol intake, education, occupation, obesity, and diabetes had almost no impact on the radiation risk estimates for either stroke or heart disease, and misdiagnosis of cancers as circulatory diseases could not account for the associations seen. CONCLUSION: Doses above 0.5 Gy are associated with an elevated risk of both stroke and heart disease, but the degree of risk at lower doses is unclear. Stroke and heart disease together account for about one third as many radiation associated excess deaths as do cancers among atomic bomb survivors.

Shimizu Y; Kodama K; Nishi N; Kasagi F; Suyama A; Soda M; Grant EJ; Sugiyama H; Sakata R; Moriwaki H; Hayashi M; Konda M; Shore RE

2010-01-01

133

Radiochemical estimation of neutron fluence of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To estimate neutron fluence of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs by radiochemical methods. Methods: Thermal neutron fluence at the time of explosion was estimated from the results of radiochemical analysis of residual 60Co in iron materials or iron products. Results: Materials were obtained through the kindness of Dr. Masanori Nakaidzum. The distribution of neutron fluence in Hiroshima and Nagasaki can be determined by measuring the residual radioactivity of many pieces of material by radiochemical methods presented in the paper

1987-01-01

134

Japan Japan Japón  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften in Japan. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153

Kazujo Suzuki

2000-01-01

135

Pathological study of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 9331 autopsies were carried out in Nagasaki-district after the world war II, the chronological changes of the diseases incidences and the difference between exposed and unexposed cases were reviewed. Diseases of the circulatory system, hepatic diseases, and hematopoietic disorders were 14.8%, 13.5%, and 9.2%, respectively. The rate of malignant tumors from '76 to '77 was 67.7%, which was about 10% higher than the national average. In the hepatic lesions, cirrhosis and hepatoma were 1.7 and 1.4 times higher than the national average, respectively, and the highest rate was observed at the age of forties and fifties. For the hematopoietic disorders, leukemia was higher than malignant lymphoma until '60, which order became reverse after '61, and the incidences were 1.9 and 2.2 times higher than the national average, respectively, in '76. Chronological changes of disorders of the circulatory system had not been effected by exposure. (Nakanishi, T.)

1980-01-01

136

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs

1989-01-01

137

Distribution of residual plutonium from atomic bomb in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the distribution of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb in Nagasaki, the concentration of [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, and [sup 238]Pu were determined in surface soil samples collected at 70 sites within a radium of 15 km from the hypocenter. Five sites at >15 km served as controls (background radioactivity). The maximum concentration of [sup 239+240]Pu was 1455 MBq[center dot]km[sup -2] at the site 3 km eastward from the hypocenter, as compared with the background concentration of 69.6[+-]16.9 MBq[center dot]km[sup -2]. None of the soil samples, collected from the westward sites, showed the concentration higher than the background. Four sites eastward from the hypocenter showed higher concentrations than the background concentration of 3471[+-]807 MBq[center dot]km[sup -2]. The concentration of [sup 238]Pu was significantly higher in soil samples from 18 eastward sites than the background (1.47[+-]0.00 MBq[center dot]kg[sup -2]); however, this was not seen in the westward soil samples. There was a high correlation between [sup 239+240]Pu and [sup 238]Pu (r=0.995). (N.K.).

Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Okumura, Yutaka; Yoshida, Masahiro (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Disease Inst.); Takatsuji, Toshihiro

1992-12-01

138

Leukaemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors from 1945 through 1959*  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of the Nagasaki leukaemia experience during a period of 14 years after the detonation of the atomic bomb, together with comparisons with data from Hiroshima and from other series of post-radiation leukaemia cases, again demonstrates beyond reasonable doubt the leukaemogenic effect on man of ionizing radiation. An increased risk of leukaemia following doses probably as low as 100 rads (air-entry dose) of whole-body radiation is demonstrated on the basis of the available estimates of atomic bomb radiation doses. At doses above this level the increase in leukaemia incidence may be linearly related to the radiation dose. The data are too limited to allow of an evaluation of the risk represented by doses at the lower levels of radiation; but it seems clear that, if a threshold dose for leukaemia induction exists, it is lower than the threshold dose for the clinical expression of acute radiation syndrome. The sex and age distribution of radiation-induced leukaemia and the types of leukaemia observed are also discussed.

Tomonaga, Masanobu

1962-01-01

139

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-03-01

140

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper presents the 36Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35Cl(n,?)36Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39K(n,?)36Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ? 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences atnces most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for 36Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima.

2005-01-01

142

Cytogenetics of the in-utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The presence of chimaerism in peripheral lymphocyte chromosome 21 years after A-bomb radiation was examined using 16 males who had been exposed in-utero to radiation from A-bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (10 cases in Hiroshima and 6 cases in Nagasaki). At the same time, doses of in-utero radiation were estimated. It was found that no cells possess XX chromosome by observing 1,600 chromosome metaphases in 16 cases (100 per a person). Estimated dose of in-utero radiation was 44 - 151 rad, or 75.6 rad on the average for 10 cases in Hiroshima and 61 - 197 rad, or 104 rad on the average for 6 cases in Nagasaki. Estimated radiation dose of their mothers used as a basis for estimating in-utero radiation dose was 120 - 149 rad or 207.9 rad on the average for cases in Hiroshima and 148 - 477 rad or 251 rad on the average for cases in Nagasaki. A ratio of total dose given to mother to that given to fetus was 2.75 in cases of Hiroshima and 2.41 in those of Nagasaki. (Iwagami, H.)

1978-01-01

143

Stratigraphy of the miocene series and the middle miocene volcanism in the area northeast of Tottori city, southwest Japan. Tottorishi hokutoho chiiki no chushinto sojo to chuki chushinsei no kazan katsudo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the stratigraphy of the Miocene Tottori Group and the Middle Miocene volcanism in the area northeast of Tottori City. The Tottori Group is divided into the Yazu and Iwami Formations in ascending order, and they are in unconformable relation. The Yazu Formation is subdivided into the two conformable members of the lower Koge Conglomerate and the upper Kawabara Volcanic. The Iwami Formation is divided into the Fuganji Mudstone, Oda Andesite, Aragane Pyroclastic, and Shichiyama Sandstone and mudstone Members, which are partly a contemporaneous heterotopic faces. The Oda Andesite Member is characterized by the lava flows of subaqueous extrusion from the vent near Oda, and the Aragane Pyroclastic Member by a large amount of submarine dacitic pyroclastic flows. These volcanic activities are inferred to have occurred on the deep sea floor from the middle part of continental slope. Such volcanic activities are restricted within the coastal area of Japan Sea. 43 refs., 9 figs.

Matsumoto, T. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Science)

1991-09-15

144

Neutron-induced 63Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a comprehensive presentation of results obtained at the Munich Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Those inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were affected by the A-bomb explosions, were exposed to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field. Few years later about 120,000 survivors of both cities were selected, and since then radiation-induced late effects such as leukemia and solid tumors are being investigated in this cohort. When the present study was initiated, the fast neutron fluences that caused the neutron doses of these survivors had never been determined experimentally. In principle, this would have been possible if radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons from the A-bomb explosions had been detected in samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki at distances where the inhabitants survived. However, no suitable radioisotope had so far been identified. As a contribution to a large international effort to re-evaluate the A-bomb dosimetry, the concentration of the radionuclide (63)Ni (half-life 100.1 years) has been measured in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements were mainly performed at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich, Germany, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry. Because the (63)Ni had been produced in these samples by fast A-bomb neutrons via the reaction (63)Cu(n,p)(63)Ni, these measurements allow direct experimental validation of calculated neutron doses to the members of the LSS cohort, for the first time. The results of these efforts have already been published in a compact form. A more detailed discussion of the methodical aspects of these measurements and their results are given in the present paper. Eight copper samples that had been significantly exposed to fast neutrons from the Hiroshima A-bomb explosion were investigated. In general, measured (63)Ni concentrations decreased in these samples with increasing distance to the hypocenter, from 4 x 10(6 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at 391 m, to about 1 x 10(5 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at about 1,400 m. Additional measurements performed on three large-distant copper samples from Hiroshima (distance to the hypocenter 1,880-7,500 m) and on three large-distant copper samples from Nagasaki (distance to the hypocenter 3,931-4,428 m) that were not exposed significantly to A-bomb neutrons, suggest a typical background concentration of about 8 x 10(4 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper. If the observed background is accounted for, the results are consistent with state-of-the-art neutron transport calculations for Hiroshima, in particular for those distances where the victims survived and were included in the life span study cohort. PMID:17828415

Rühm, W; Carroll, K L; Egbert, S D; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Straume, T; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K

2007-09-08

145

Neutron-induced 63Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a comprehensive presentation of results obtained at the Munich Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Those inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were affected by the A-bomb explosions, were exposed to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field. Few years later about 120,000 survivors of both cities were selected, and since then radiation-induced late effects such as leukemia and solid tumors are being investigated in this cohort. When the present study was initiated, the fast neutron fluences that caused the neutron doses of these survivors had never been determined experimentally. In principle, this would have been possible if radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons from the A-bomb explosions had been detected in samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki at distances where the inhabitants survived. However, no suitable radioisotope had so far been identified. As a contribution to a large international effort to re-evaluate the A-bomb dosimetry, the concentration of the radionuclide (63)Ni (half-life 100.1 years) has been measured in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements were mainly performed at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich, Germany, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry. Because the (63)Ni had been produced in these samples by fast A-bomb neutrons via the reaction (63)Cu(n,p)(63)Ni, these measurements allow direct experimental validation of calculated neutron doses to the members of the LSS cohort, for the first time. The results of these efforts have already been published in a compact form. A more detailed discussion of the methodical aspects of these measurements and their results are given in the present paper. Eight copper samples that had been significantly exposed to fast neutrons from the Hiroshima A-bomb explosion were investigated. In general, measured (63)Ni concentrations decreased in these samples with increasing distance to the hypocenter, from 4 x 10(6 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at 391 m, to about 1 x 10(5 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at about 1,400 m. Additional measurements performed on three large-distant copper samples from Hiroshima (distance to the hypocenter 1,880-7,500 m) and on three large-distant copper samples from Nagasaki (distance to the hypocenter 3,931-4,428 m) that were not exposed significantly to A-bomb neutrons, suggest a typical background concentration of about 8 x 10(4 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper. If the observed background is accounted for, the results are consistent with state-of-the-art neutron transport calculations for Hiroshima, in particular for those distances where the victims survived and were included in the life span study cohort.

Rühm W; Carroll KL; Egbert SD; Faestermann T; Knie K; Korschinek G; Martinelli RE; Marchetti AA; McAninch JE; Rugel G; Straume T; Wallner A; Wallner C; Fujita S; Hasai H; Hoshi M; Shizuma K

2007-11-01

146

Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

1988-01-01

147

Epicenter of the Nagasaki weapon: a reanalysis of available data with recommended values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant source of uncertainty in estimates of radiation dose for atomic-bomb survivors of Nagasaki and in correlations of radiation dose with medical effects observed in these survivors is due to unresolved discrepancies in the literature with respect to the location of the epicenter or burst point of the weapon. Available data on the epicenter of the weapon have been reanalyzed in this report using several different approaches. These appear to have resolved some of the major discrepancies found in the literature and to justify a recalculation of radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors of Nagasaki. A recommended epicenter for recalculating the radiation doses is given in the report

1976-01-01

148

Cytogenetic findings 30 years after low level exposure to the Nagasaki atom bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied in seventeen Australian former prisoners of war who had been exposed to about 50 rads whole body radiation thirty years previously at Nagasaki. Only three yielded individual discernible evidence of remaining radiation damage to the chromosomes of their lymphocytes. In comparing the cytogenetic findings in this exposed group with other Australians at Nagasaki who were not exposed distinction was not possible between the groups using the criterion of dicentrics/cell. However, distinction could be made on a hits/cell basis. (auth.).

1977-01-01

149

Epidemiology of stomach cancer in Nagasaki city, with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted to ascertain whether or not the incidence of stomach cancer is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed populations. There were 2894 cases (1152 exposed and 1752 nonexposed) of stomach cancer registered during the ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The incidence of stomach cancer tend to be higher in male of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, and the incidence rate and relative risk showed a dose-dependent relationship, but no significant differences were noted. Comparison of the incidence rate between the earlier and later five years of the period examined revealed an increasing trend of incidence in male younger group (less than 59 years old) of atomic bomb survivors, despite the other groups in exposed and nonexposed population showed a decreasing trend. Analysis of histological type showed that, in female, the cancer of intestinal type (Lauren's type A) was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed people, but not significantly different. Further analysis of histological type of stomach cancer, high dose group and younger age exposed group are necessary. (author).

1987-01-01

150

Present status of the reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been going on by the American committee (chairman; Dr. F. Seitz) and the Japanese committee (chairman; Dr. E. Tajima). Here, the status of these committees is written and some discussions are done about their problems. (author).

1983-12-01

151

Critical requirements for a posteriori track recorder neutron dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International programs have been carried out over the last four decades to quantify the exposure of atom bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unfortunately, the quest for accurate gamma-ray and neutron exposure doses of atom bomb survivors has proven illusive. In the most recent of these programs, designated as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), a serious and persistent discrepancy has arisen between neutron transport calculations and radiometric (RM) neutron dosimetry for the Hiroshima site, which has been called the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. A recently completed in-depth analysis demonstrates that a simple single factor panacea does not exist to explain the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. Careful treatment of a number of specific experimental and calculational effects is required before any progress can be achieved. Within this perspective, the applicability of solid state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites is examined as an independent alternative to radiometric (RM) neutron dosimetry. The utility of the SSTR method for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites is analyzed in light of: (i) the current status of the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma; and (ii) SSTR characteristics that are specifically germane to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites. On this basis, critical SSTR requirements are identified, recommended ways of meeting these critical requirements are advanced and the domain of applicability of SSTR neutron dosimetry at the Hiroshima site is estimated. (author).

Gold, R. [Metrology Control Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-01

152

Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake.

Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

2006-06-01

153

Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), ?1-microglobulin (?1-MG), ?2-microglobulin (?2-MG), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., ? 4 ?g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, ?1-MG, ?2-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 ?g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 ?g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in ?1-MG and NAG (?2-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake.

2006-06-01

154

Do the national survey results reflect the state of drug-induced liver injury in a single local city in which there is no hospital having Members of the Board of Councilors of the Japan Society of Hepatology? Results of a questionnaire survey conducted in a local city.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim:? This survey aims at clarifying if there are common features of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in local areas and in the national surveys, and the degree of dissemination of the new diagnostic criteria (JDDW scale) proposed during the Japan Digestive Disease Week (JDDW) in 2004 and Manual for Serious Side-Effects of DILI (Manual) published in April 2008. Methods:? An anonymous questionnaire for DILI was conducted for 6?weeks starting on 20 October 2008. The participants were 179 medical doctors. One hundred and fifty-seven of them belonged to the Medical Association of Nakatsu City (population: 86?000 persons), which is located in northern Kyushu, and 22 physicians working in a core hospital, Nakatsu Municipal Hospital. Results:? Seventy-four percent of the responding doctors with 13 various specialties had experienced DILI cases. The three most frequent causative drugs were antibiotics, folk medicines and drugs for the circulatory system. DILI associated with folk medicines was encountered mostly after 2000. The doctors' recognition of the JDDW scale and Manual were as low as 17% and 29%, respectively. Conclusion:? This survey revealed that the results of the national investigations conducted by the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) reflect the current state of DILI in local areas in which there is no hospital with Members of the Board of Councilors of the JSH. Widespread utilization of the Manual and JDDW scale by local doctors must be facilitated for early diagnosis of DILI and the prevention of severe conditions.

Hisamochi A; Kumashiro R; Sata M

2011-03-01

155

Fuel combustion in thermal power plants in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The position of black coal in the energy balance of Japan is discussed. About 75% of electric energy is produced by thermal power plants. Eighty-five per cent of electricity is produced by power plants fired with liquid fuels and 3% by coal fired plants. Coal production in Japan, the forecast coal import to the country by 1990 (132 Mt/year), proportion of coal imported from various countries, chemical and physical properties of coal from Australia, China and Japan are discussed. Coal classification used in Japan is evaluated. The following topics associated with coal combustion in fossil-fuel power plants in Japan are discussed: coal grindability, types of pulverizing systems, slagging properties of boiler fuel in Japan, systems for slag removal, main types of steam boilers and coal fired furnaces, burner arrangement and design, air pollution control from fly ash, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, utilization of fly ash for cement production, methods for removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas using ammonia and catalysts or ammonia without catalysts, efficiency of nitrogen oxide control, abatement of nitrogen oxide emission from boilers by flue gas recirculation and reducing combustion temperatures. The results of research into air pollution control carried out by the Nagasaki Technical Institute are reviewed.

Kotler, V.R.

1983-11-01

156

Japan’s Economic Recession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not have any long term effect on the growth.In many respects Japan remains very unique among the developed countries. The country’s economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s has encouraged debate among the scholars to the significance of Japan’s economic past. It is widely seen as due to different model of development in areas such as industrial organisation, the role of the state, social institutions and history. Her appeal lies in the dramatic growth rates and economic transformation. Japan was first Asian country to break the western monopoly of modern industrialisation. Less than a generation ago, Japan was viewed an exemplary success story in terms of rapid economic growth and a model to be emulated by other developed and developing countries. Here I will argue that the Japanese economy suffers from severe problems that are not cyclical but structural in nature. Such structural problems are the most serious impediments to economic dynamism and the future long-run economic success of the country.

Kalim Siddiqui

2009-01-01

157

Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested.

1981-01-01

158

The new radiation dose estimation for people exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ABS93D (Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose) which being a method established in Atomic Bomb-Radiation Medical Institute of Hiroshima University for estimating the atomic-bomb radiation dose based on DS86 (Dosimetry System 1986), was applied for people exposed to Nagasaki atomic bomb radiation who had been registered in the Database Center for Atomic Bomb Radiation, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University. It was possible to estimate the dose for 10,022 people who had been present at the known distance from the explosion site and had been either exposed ''unshielded'' in the open-air or exposed ''shielded'' outdoors by a wooden construction or trees and indoors in a wooden construction. The population exposed at

1997-01-01

159

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10-4 per gamete per generation. (author).

1989-01-01

160

The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1955 - 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of 20,348 persons included in the extended Life Span Study in Nagasaki, 59 persons were registered as having skin tumors during the years 1955 - 1984. Included in this study were 40 patients with histologically proven skin cancer. Thirty five patients were considered to be exposed to ? one cGy. There was statistically significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure doses in both men and women (p

 
 
 
 
161

Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 Nagasaki strain adheres and invades PK-15 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro ability of two H. parasuis serovars of different virulence (serovar 5, Nagasaki strain, highly virulent, belonging to serovar 5, and SW114 strain, nonvirulent, belonging to serovar 3) to adhere to and invade porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK-15 line). Nagasaki strain was able to attach at high levels from 60 to 180 min of incubation irrespective of the concentrations compared (10(7)-10(10)CFU), and a substantial increase of surface projections could be seen in PK-15 cells by scanning electron microscopy. This virulent strain was also able to invade effectively these epithelial cells, and the highest invasion capacity was reached at 180 min of infection. On the contrary, nonvirulent SW114 strain hardly adhered to PK-15 cells, and it did not invade these cells, thus suggesting that adherence and invasion of porcine kidney epithelial cells could be a virulence mechanism involved in the lesions caused by H. parasuis Nagasaki strain in this organ. PMID:21839589

Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F

2011-07-28

162

Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 Nagasaki strain adheres and invades PK-15 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro ability of two H. parasuis serovars of different virulence (serovar 5, Nagasaki strain, highly virulent, belonging to serovar 5, and SW114 strain, nonvirulent, belonging to serovar 3) to adhere to and invade porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK-15 line). Nagasaki strain was able to attach at high levels from 60 to 180 min of incubation irrespective of the concentrations compared (10(7)-10(10)CFU), and a substantial increase of surface projections could be seen in PK-15 cells by scanning electron microscopy. This virulent strain was also able to invade effectively these epithelial cells, and the highest invasion capacity was reached at 180 min of infection. On the contrary, nonvirulent SW114 strain hardly adhered to PK-15 cells, and it did not invade these cells, thus suggesting that adherence and invasion of porcine kidney epithelial cells could be a virulence mechanism involved in the lesions caused by H. parasuis Nagasaki strain in this organ.

Frandoloso R; Martínez-Martínez S; Gutiérrez-Martín CB; Rodríguez-Ferri EF

2012-01-01

163

The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings.

Kerr, G.D.

1988-08-18

164

Individual testimonies of nursing care after the atomic bombing of Nagasaki in 1945.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe the situation with respect to nursing care conducted immediately before and after the atomic bombing of Nagasaki in 1945. METHODS: Nurses who were registered nursing staff in Nagasaki at the time of the bombing volunteered to participate in this research. Individual interviews were conducted to obtain information concerning the nursing activities in affected areas. The collected information was compared with official documents regarding the atomic bombing of Nagasaki and findings of current studies of disaster situation nursing. RESULT: Five participants indicated that starting on the day of the bombing, nursing care activities changed from moment to moment according to the condition of radiation victims, the condition of affected areas, and the relief systems in place. Under these conditions, nurses attempted to provide nursing care to victims of the bombing through any means possible. CONCLUSION: The participants in the present study communicated a single message: that nursing care must be flexible in critical situations. Triage and cooperation with other types of medical professionals were also identified as important factors in nursing care.

Matsunari Y; Nakao R

2013-04-01

165

Current trends in conservation education in Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conservation education (CE) is an important component of environmental education. Its goal is to teach the theory and practice of preservation and restoration of biodiversity affected by human activities so that people can increase their awareness of conservation issues and change their attitudes and behavior to promote environmental conservation. This paper describes two successful case studies to highlight trends in CE in Japan. One case is a project implemented to create “agricultural wetlands” that resulted in the establishment of a Ramsar Convention site comprised of a restored wetland and its adjacent rice paddy in a rural area near Sendai City in northern Japan. Rice paddy fields are a major component of Satoyama, which are traditional agricultural ecosystems in Japan and occupy 40% of the undeveloped landscape in Japan (. Third National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan. Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan, Tokyo). Restoration of Satoyama and wetlands by local citizens is a key component of CE practices in Japan, where practical, hands-on, community-based learning is important. The second CE project, geared toward university students and citizens in Yokohama, restored degraded dragonfly ponds and created butterfly biotope in the second largest city in Japan. Restoration of habitat that is centered around highly visible, popular species such as dragonflies and butterflies also benefits other, less prominent species that share these habitats, yet allows residents to easily monitor the benefits of the project.

Kobori Hiromi

2009-09-01

166

Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive {sup 36}Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for {sup 36}Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima.

Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

2005-01-14

167

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2010-10-30

168

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features.

Matsukane Y; Sato H; Tanaka S; Kamata Y; Sugita-Konishi Y

2011-04-01

169

Aging Effect of (137)Cs Obtained from (137)Cs in the Kanto Loam Layer from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and in the Nishiyama Loam Layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb Explosion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3 - 5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

Ohta T; Mahara Y; Kubota T; Igarashi T

2013-01-01

170

Treatment of relapsed adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the Nagasaki Transplant Group experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) relapse is a serious therapeutic challenge after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 35 patients who experienced progression of or relapsed persistent ATL after a first allo-SCT at 3 institutions in Nagasaki prefecture (Japan) between 1997 and 2010. Twenty-nine patients were treated by the withdrawal of immune suppressants as the initial intervention, which resulted in complete remission (CR) in 2 patients. As the second intervention, 9 patients went on to receive a combination of donor lymphocyte infusion and cytoreductive therapy and CR was achieved in 4 patients. Of 6 patients who had already had their immune suppressants discontinued before the relapse, 3 patients with local recurrence received local cytoreductive therapy as the initial treatment, which resulted in CR for more than 19 months. Donor lymphocyte infusion-induced remissions of ATL were durable, with 3 cases of long-term remission of more than 3 years and, interestingly, the emergence or progression of chronic GVHD was observed in all of these cases. For all 35 patients, overall survival after relapse was 19.3% at 3 years. The results of the present study suggest that induction of a graft-versus-ATL effect may be crucial to obtaining durable remission for ATL patients with relapse or progression after allo-SCT.

Itonaga H; Tsushima H; Taguchi J; Fukushima T; Taniguchi H; Sato S; Ando K; Sawayama Y; Matsuo E; Yamasaki R; Onimaru Y; Imanishi D; Imaizumi Y; Yoshida S; Hata T; Moriuchi Y; Uike N; Miyazaki Y

2013-01-01

171

Feasibility of cord blood transplantation in chemosensitive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of the Nagasaki Transplantation Network.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been reported that cord blood transplantation (CBT) for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) results in poorer outcomes than transplantation using other stem cell sources. To identify a subset of ATL in which CBT is feasible, we retrospectively analyzed 27 patients treated with CBT at three institutions in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The estimated overall survival (OS) rate at 3 years was 27.4 %. Of 16 patients who received CBT during remission (complete, CR, or partial, PR), the OS rate at 3 years was 50 %, while during refractory periods (non-CR or non-PR), the OS rate was 9.1 %. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was given to 18 patients, and myeloablative conditioning (MAC) was used in nine, with 3-year OS of 50.0 and 0 %, respectively. Of the 19 deaths, nine were due to progressive disease, eight (five MAC and three RIC) to infection, and two to multiple organ failure. These results suggest that CBT provides similar results with those in other transplantation procedures for selected ATL patients, such as those in CR or PR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the use of CBT in aggressive ATL.

Fukushima T; Itonaga H; Moriuchi Y; Yoshida S; Taguchi J; Imaizumi Y; Imanishi D; Tsushima H; Sawayama Y; Matsuo E; Hata T; Miyazaki Y

2013-04-01

172

Change of blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Changes in blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors were surveyed from 1973 to 1982. Systolic hypertension tended to decrease, while diastolic hypertension tended to increase in younger male survivors. The incidence of hypertension tended to decrease or be constant. According to the WHO classification of hypertension, the type of H, in which both diastolic and systolic blood pressures were high, and the type of SH, in which only systolic blood pressure was high, tended to decrease, while the type of DH, in which only diastolic blood pressure was high, tended to increase. (Namekawa, K.)

1984-01-01

173

Cytogenetic study of A-bomb survivors and their children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome studies were performed on the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors and their children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to evaluate both somatic and genetic effects of A-bomb irradiation. Radiation-induced chromosome exchanges, particularly symmetric types, have persisted in the somatic cells of survivors, and a dose-aberration relationship is present more than two decades after A-bomb exposure. Among the children of the exposed, the frequencies of cases with sex chromosome aneuploidy or structural rearrangements appeared to be slightly higher in the children of the exposed parents than in the controls, though the differences between the two groups of children are not statistically significant.

1975-11-30

174

Recreation city. Recreation toshi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Japan, it was the recreation cities where parks appeared as a principal part of city planning and led the community developments more than twenty years ago. The Japan economy growth rate became high, and the record-breaking leisure boom started in about 1965. Confronting the destruction of nature by the popularized, diversified and large-scale recreation demands and by the rush of developments of various types, the need of supply of large-scale recreational spaces rich in selectivity rapidly increased. In 1969, the New National Total Development Plan was established, and large-scale development projects were born one after another. This report generally introduces five large-scale development projects undertaken in the sectors, Kumanonada (Mie Prefecture), Kujukuri (Chiba Prefecture), Nanyo (Aichi Prefecture), Oku-Ou Mountains (Yamagata Prefecture), and Oku Tadami (Niigata Prefecture). Furthermore, the transition of the business results of the three sectors, Kumanonada, Kujukuri and Nanyo among the five are described.

Nishizawa, S. (Parks and Open Space Association of Japan, Tokyo (Japan))

1992-08-06

175

Landscape planning for a safe city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

M. Ishikawa

2002-01-01

176

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are radiobiologically examined for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are changed very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki.

Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

1982-03-25

177

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki.

Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

1982-04-30

178

Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested. (ERB)

Whalen, P.P.

1981-09-01

179

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author).

1986-01-01

180

Effects of Radiation on the Incidence of Prostate Cancer among Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (?2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18,400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51 and [1.21, 1.89]; 1.80 and [1.26, 2.57]; and1.88 and [1.20, 2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Kondo H; Soda M; Mine M; Yokota K

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Wind Energy Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-06-15

182

Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Great East Japan (T?hoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

Goodwin R; Takahashi M; Sun S; Gaines SO Jr

2012-01-01

183

Persistent distress after psychological exposure to the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although there is speculation that individuals living in the vicinity of nuclear disasters have persistent mental health deterioration due to psychological stress, few attempts have been made to examine this issue. AIMS: To determine whether having been in the vicinity of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion in the absence of substantial exposure to radiation affected the mental health of local inhabitants more than half a century later. METHOD: Participants were randomly recruited from individuals who lived in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion in uncontaminated suburbs of Nagasaki. This sample (n = 347) was stratified by gender, age, perception of the explosion and current district of residence. Controls (n = 288) were recruited from among individuals who had moved into the area from outside Nagasaki 5-15 years after the bombing, matched for gender, age and district of residence. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of those at high risk of mental disorder based on the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, with a cut-off point of 5/6. Other parameters related to individual perception of the explosion, health status, life events and habits were also assessed. RESULTS: Having been in the vicinity of the explosion was the most significant factor (OR = 5.26, 95% CI 2.56-11.11) contributing to poorer mental health; erroneous knowledge of radiological hazard showed a mild association. In the sample group, anxiety after learning of the potential radiological hazard was significantly correlated with poor mental health (P<0.05), whereas anxiety about the explosion, or the degree of perception of it, was not; 74.5% of the sample group believed erroneously that the flash of the explosion was synonymous with radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Having been in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion without radiological exposure continued to be associated with poorer mental health more than half a century after the event. Fear on learning about the potential radiological hazard and lack of knowledge about radiological risk are responsible for this association.

Kim Y; Tsutsumi A; Izutsu T; Kawamura N; Miyazaki T; Kikkawa T

2011-11-01

184

Incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1955 - 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of 20,348 persons included in the extended Life Span Study in Nagasaki, 59 persons were registered as having skin tumors during the years 1955 - 1984. Included in this study were 40 patients with histologically proven skin cancer. Thirty five patients were considered to be exposed to greater than or equal to one cGy. There was statistically significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure doses in both men and women (p < 0.01). Overall, the incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated as well with the distance from the hypocenter; however, this was not significant when restricted to either men or women. Because the incidence of skin cancer has definitively increased since 1955 among A-bomb survivors, follow-up of A-bomb survivors is warranted with respect to atomic bomb-related skin cancer. (Namekawa, K.).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Yoshida, Hikotaro; Ichimaru, Michito; Honda, Takeo; Yoshida, Katsuro; Fujiwara, Naoko; Sadamori, Michiko.

1988-03-01

185

A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

1993-01-01

186

Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon) en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón) en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

Clotilde Jacquelard

2011-01-01

187

Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

1958-04-01

188

Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gamma rays from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gamma rays produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gamma rays from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An interest in initial nuclear radiation at distances of as much as 2000 m from the hypocenter demands the use of discrete ordinates transport (DOT) techniques. The two-dimensional (2D) DOT-IV code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was used to calculate the tissue kerma in an air-over-ground geometry from prompt neutrons and prompt primary gamma rays and from prompt secondary gamma rays produced in air and in soil. Data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were used as the source terms. The tissue kerma at ground level from delayed fission-product gamma rays and delayed neutrons, was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc., (SAI). This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the immediate rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission-products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gamma rays and delayed fission-product gamma rays are the dominant components of the total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author).

1983-01-01

189

The earliest telescope preserved in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2008-11-01

190

Epidemiology studies of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans of Japan by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous epidemiological studies of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in Japan showed that only C. neoformans var. neoformans is present and serotype A is the most common with frequencies in excess of 95%. A DNA fingerprinting method, using a genomic DNA probe (UT-4p), has become available recently which discriminates between individual isolates in a population that are morphologically and serologically indistinguishable. Fifty-two serotype A isolates of C. neoformans were obtained from three different institutions (in Nagasaki, Chiba, and Tokyo) in Japan. Only two of these strains were isolated from AIDS patients and one from pigeon excreta. Of the nine reported finger-printing patterns in serotype A, only three types (IV, V and VII) were observed in Japanese isolates. Pattern IV was almost exclusively observed in Nagasaki isolates (21/22) with only one of pattern VII. In Chiba, however, patterns VII and IV appeared to be equally distributed. In Tokyo, patterns IV and V (which included two isolates from AIDS patients) were observed at similar frequencies. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of four isolates of serotype AD showed a typical serotype A pattern which also contained a serotype D-specific band. This finding suggests the independence of serotype AD. These data could enhance the survey of the epidemiology of cryptococcosis.

Kohno S; Varma A; Kwon-Chung KJ; Hara K

1994-12-01

191

Sonic City. Sonic City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outlined is cogeneration system of buildings in the Sonic City. Those buildings contain public offices, private offices, urban style hotel and multi-purpose halls. Efficiency of their thermal source is designed to be heightened by concentration, and both city gas and electricity are simultaneously used with an installation of thermal accumulation tank. Further, the hot heat source is partially recovered by cogeneration, and utilized for the hot water supply and swimming pool heating. The principal particulars of the cogeneration are 250kVA generator of 3[phi][center dot]3W[center dot]415V, 300PS gas engine of 1000rpm (using city gas as fuel) and shell-and-tube exhaust gas heat exchanger (recovering a thermal quantity of 108MCal/m). The system has operated without trouble since the operational start in 1988. Its power generation efficiency is stabilized at about 26% and its total energy efficiency is between 40 and 50% through the year. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kikuchi, M. (Fujita Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-08-01

192

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the annual health examination records were investigated and classified by cause of death. In males with cancer, there was noted an increased incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and traces of urinary proteins 1 year to 3 years before death. However, the incidence of urinary protein traces was low compared with that in other diseases. In males with cerebral vascular diseases, there was a high incidence of hypertension. Urinary protein traces appeared from 4 years to 5 years before death. In females with cardiovascular diseases including hypertensive diseases and valvular diseases, the incidence of urinary protein traces increased from 4 years to 5 years prior to their death. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was generally high in these cases. In males with liver cirrhosis, urinary urobilinogen amount was generally more than that in other diseases. This tendency also appeared in females with liver cirrhosis 6 years before death. The incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in males with liver cirrhosis, and that of abnormal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in females with liver corrhosis. (Ueda, J.)

1980-01-01

193

Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays using ceramic samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; A comparison with DS86 estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reports gamma-ray doses measured using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry of atomic-bomb-exposed ceramic samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Advances in the dosimetry of TL-sensitive minerals in the field of TL dating of archaeological and geological materials made it possible to measure a radiation dose of 10{sup -2} Gy. Ceramic samples such as tiles and bricks were collected from locations between 523 and 2,453 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and from between 731 and 1,565 m in Nagasaki. The gamma-ray dose estimates derived from these samples are compared with estimates from DS86. A significant discrepancy was noted between the doses measured for samples from Hiroshima and DS86 values. One possible cause of this discrepancy might be a secondary gamma-ray dose related to the neutron dose. (author).

Nagatomo, Tsuneto; Ichikawa, Yoneta (Nara Univ. of Education (Japan)); Hoshi, Masaharu

1991-03-01

194

Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays using ceramic samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a comparison with DS86 estimates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports gamma-ray doses measured using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry of atomic-bomb-exposed ceramic samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Advances in the dosimetry of TL-sensitive minerals in the field of TL dating of archaeological and geological materials made it possible to measure a radiation dose of 10(-2) Gy. Ceramic samples such as tiles and bricks were collected from locations between 523 and 2,453 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and from between 731 and 1,565 m in Nagasaki. The gamma-ray dose estimates derived from these samples are compared with estimates from DS86. A significant discrepancy was noted between the doses measured for samples from Hiroshima and DS86 values. One possible cause of this discrepancy might be a secondary gamma-ray dose related to the neutron dose.

Nagatomo T; Ichikawa Y; Hoshi M

1991-03-01

195

Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

2013-04-01

196

FAQs: Japan Nuclear Concerns  

Science.gov (United States)

... Donor centre Global network Global Health Cluster FAQs: Japan nuclear concerns September 2011 Current risk What is ... current risk of radiation-related health problems in Japan for those residing near the reactor in comparison ...

197

Simulating distribution of trihalomethane in tap water in the area receiving a combination of advanced treated water and conventionally treated different source water: 1998, 1999 and 2002 data on Osaka Prefecture and its surrounding cities, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical equations for explaining trihalomethane (THM) distribution were established based on data on tap water in Osaka City before and after starting the advanced treatment and were represented by the following equations for bromodichloromethane (S(1)), dibromochloromethane (S(2)) and bromoform distribution factors (S(3)) as a function of chloroform distribution factor (S(0)), respectively: S(1) = -0.97S(0)(2) + 0.75S(0) + 0.19 (regression coefficient: r = 0.71), S(2) = 0.13S (0) (2) -0.76S(0) + 0.51 (r = 0.98) and S(3) = 0.83S(0)(2) -0.99S(0) + 0.30 (r = 0.97). Further, the derived equations were verified by THMs data of Osaka Prefecture and its surrounding cities (except for Osaka City), receiving a combination of advanced treated water and conventionally treated different source water. PMID:19475326

Yamamoto, Kohji; Mori, Yoshiaki

2009-05-28

198

Simulating distribution of trihalomethane in tap water in the area receiving a combination of advanced treated water and conventionally treated different source water: 1998, 1999 and 2002 data on Osaka Prefecture and its surrounding cities, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Empirical equations for explaining trihalomethane (THM) distribution were established based on data on tap water in Osaka City before and after starting the advanced treatment and were represented by the following equations for bromodichloromethane (S(1)), dibromochloromethane (S(2)) and bromoform distribution factors (S(3)) as a function of chloroform distribution factor (S(0)), respectively: S(1) = -0.97S(0)(2) + 0.75S(0) + 0.19 (regression coefficient: r = 0.71), S(2) = 0.13S (0) (2) -0.76S(0) + 0.51 (r = 0.98) and S(3) = 0.83S(0)(2) -0.99S(0) + 0.30 (r = 0.97). Further, the derived equations were verified by THMs data of Osaka Prefecture and its surrounding cities (except for Osaka City), receiving a combination of advanced treated water and conventionally treated different source water.

Yamamoto K; Mori Y

2009-11-01

199

Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

200

Academic Libraries in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation sickness and subsequent cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an analysis of data obtained from the Life Span Study, a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of a linear dose response between the estimated dose of ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (p 0.2) by the presence of epilation. The results for leukemia were not modified by age or sex and were consistent in both cities. These observations suggest that those individuals who experienced early effects of radiation were more likely to die of leukemia during the follow-up period than individuals who were exposed to the same level of A-bomb radiation but did not develop epilation. The robustness of this finding on the interaction of two difficult but important problems was investigated. These were the validity of a linear dose-response model for leukemia, and the level of assumed precision of the radiation dosimetry system used for assignment of dose estimates to individual survivors. Assuming 35 % random dose errors and a dose-response function cubic in dose, the excess relative risk for leukemia was still estimated to be 1.89 times higher for the group with epilation, and the p-value for a test of association between leukemia and epilation remained significant at the 0.10 level. If 50 % random dosimetry errors are assumed using the same cubic model, the dose response in the epilation group is estimated to be 1.58 times higher than the others, but is not significant (p

1990-01-01

202

Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

1983-01-01

203

Learning disabilities in individuals exposed prenatally to ionizing radiation: The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The brain, undoubtedly the most complex organ in the mammalian body, is the culmination of a long and interrelated sequence of molecular, cellular and tissue events. Brain function hinges on the orderly progression of these, each of which must occur correctly, temporally and spatially. Impingement on any one will give rise to a less developed system of cellular connections, and hence impaired function. Moreover, the neurons of the central nervous system are not self-renewing and thus neuronal loss cannot be repaired through repopulation. Reanalysis of the data on the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggests that severe mental retardation occurs primarily, if not exclusively in the period from the 8th through the 15th week following fertilization. Within this window of vulnerability, the increase in mental retardation appears linear with dose and without theshold. More subtle functional effects also occur as reflected in diminished performance on intelligence tests and in school. These findings and their implications for space travel and regulatory agencies charged with the specification of acceptable risks should not require further elaboration in this article given the focus of the radiobiological presentations at this meeting.

Schull, William J.; Otake, Masanori

204

Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

1978-01-01

205

Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

1978-01-01

206

Myelodysplastic syndromes in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. A preliminary analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous hematological group characterized by an ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in a variety of cytopenias, morphological abnormalities of blood cells, chromosomal aberrations, and an increases risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. Despite of its nature of close relation to leukemia, MDS has been not well investigated in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with over 80,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki to assess the incidence of MDS and its relation with A-bomb exposure status. In a preliminary analysis, we confirmed 162 MDS cases during 1980 to 2004. The median age at diagnosis was 71 years old. The incidence rate was higher in men than women, and an inverse relationship was observed between incidence of MDS and the distance from the hypocenter. We suggest that A-bomb radiation may affect the occurrence of MDS in A-bomb survivors even more than 50 years passed after the explosion. Further detail analyses are necessary to confirm these results. (author)

2005-01-01

207

Relationship between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation exposure is a possible predisposing factor for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), but the association has been uncertain. We investigated the relationship between radiation exposure and MGUS prevalence by using data from the M-protein screening for Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors between 1988 and 2004. Radiation exposure was assessed by exposure distance from the hypocenter and exposure radiation dose. We computed prevalence ratios (PRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for exposure age and sex. A total of 1082 cases of MGUS were identified from 52 525 participants. MGUS prevalence was significantly higher in people exposed at distance within 1.5 km than beyond 3.0 km (PR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) among those exposed at age 20 years or younger, but it was not found among those exposed at age 20 years or older. MGUS prevalence was also significantly higher in people exposed to more than 0.1 Gy than those exposed to less than 0.01 Gy (PR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8) among those exposed at age 20 years or younger. Thus, people exposed at younger age exhibited a significantly high risk of MGUS when exposed to a high radiation dose. There was no clear association between radiation exposure and the malignant progression of MGUS. Further detailed analysis is needed. PMID:18849487

Iwanaga, Masako; Tagawa, Masuko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Yokota, Ken-ichi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Fukushima, Takuya; Hata, Tomoko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Momita, Sabro; Kamihira, Shimeru; Tomonaga, Masao

2008-10-10

208

A study on double cancer of the atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, by autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double cancer was observed in 49 of the 1,998 autopsy cases in Nagasaki Atomic-bomb Memorial Hospital for the past 25 years. It was the most frequent in atomic-bomb exposed groups in their sixties and seventies and in non-exposed group in their fifties and sixties. Males were more common than females with the ratio of 2 to 1 in the non-exposed group, while in exposed groups the ratio was 1 (males) to 2 (females). The frequency of malignant tumors was 3.1% in the non-exposed group, 4.6% in the exposed group over 2 km, and 6.7% in the exposed group within 2 km. Double cancer consisted mostly of epithelial tumors. Gastric cancer was the most frequent in both main and second primary cancer (18 cases). The incidence of latent thyroid cancer and prostatic cancer was also relatively high. Gastric cancer observed in many cases was Borrmann's II or III type. The incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to be high as the histological type of gastric cancer in exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.).

1984-01-01

209

Relationship between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation exposure is a possible predisposing factor for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), but the association has been uncertain. We investigated the relationship between radiation exposure and MGUS prevalence by using data from the M-protein screening for Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors between 1988 and 2004. Radiation exposure was assessed by exposure distance from the hypocenter and exposure radiation dose. We computed prevalence ratios (PRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for exposure age and sex. A total of 1082 cases of MGUS were identified from 52 525 participants. MGUS prevalence was significantly higher in people exposed at distance within 1.5 km than beyond 3.0 km (PR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) among those exposed at age 20 years or younger, but it was not found among those exposed at age 20 years or older. MGUS prevalence was also significantly higher in people exposed to more than 0.1 Gy than those exposed to less than 0.01 Gy (PR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8) among those exposed at age 20 years or younger. Thus, people exposed at younger age exhibited a significantly high risk of MGUS when exposed to a high radiation dose. There was no clear association between radiation exposure and the malignant progression of MGUS. Further detailed analysis is needed.

Iwanaga M; Tagawa M; Tsukasaki K; Matsuo T; Yokota K; Miyazaki Y; Fukushima T; Hata T; Imaizumi Y; Imanishi D; Taguchi J; Momita S; Kamihira S; Tomonaga M

2009-02-01

210

Historic Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

211

Long-term efficacy of imatinib in a practical setting is correlated with imatinib trough concentration that is influenced by body size: a report by the Nagasaki CML Study Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Imatinib has dramatically improved long-term survival of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. To analyze its efficacy in a practical setting, we registered most of CML patients in Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan. Of these, 73 patients received imatinib as an initial therapy. The overall survival rate of these patients was 88.7% at 6 years, and the cumulative complete cytogenetic response rate was 82.5% at 18 months. These results are comparable with the data of other reports including the IRIS study; however, the administered imatinib dose was smaller in our study than that in other reports. To address these discrepancies, we measured the trough concentration of imatinib among 35 patients. Although 39% of the patients were administered less than 400 mg/day, the trough level was comparable to those of previous reports. The trough level of imatinib showed a significant relationship with its efficacy, and was clearly related to dose of imatinib administrated and dose of imatinib divided by body surface area (BSA). Considering the smaller BSA of Japanese patients as compared to those of foreign origin, the results suggest that a lower dose of imatinib could maintain enough trough level and provided excellent results for the treatment of CML in our registry.

Sakai M; Miyazaki Y; Matsuo E; Moriuchi Y; Hata T; Fukushima T; Imaizumi Y; Imanishi D; Taguchi J; Iwanaga M; Tsushima H; Inoue Y; Takasaki Y; Tsuchiya T; Komoda M; Ando K; Horio K; Moriwaki Y; Tominaga S; Itonaga H; Nagai K; Tsukasaki K; Tsutsumi C; Sawayama Y; Yamasaki R; Ogawa D; Kawaguchi Y; Ikeda S; Yoshida S; Onimaru Y; Tawara M; Atogami S; Koida S; Joh T; Yamamura M; Matsuo Y; Soda H; Nonaka H; Jinnai I; Kuriyama K; Tomonaga M

2009-04-01

212

Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author).

1961-01-01

213

Incidence of multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Association with radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPC), we analyzed the association between the incidence of second primary cancers in survivors of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, and exposure distance. The incidence rate (IR) of a second primary cancer was calculated and stratified by the distance from the hypocenter and age at the time of bombing for the years 1968 through 1999. The IR of the first primary cancer was also calculated and compared with the second primary cancer to determine whether atomic bomb radiation was associated with the multiplicity of tumors. There were 511 confirmed cases of MPC in the 7572 cancer-bearing survivors. The crude IR was 27.6 per 100000 person-years. The IR of second primaries decreased significantly with increasing distance from the hypocenter: relative risk, 0.89 per 1.0 km; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.94. A significant decrease was also noted for those of older ages at the time of the bombing, based on the attained age of the second primary cancer: relative risk, 0.91 per 1 year; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.92. These findings suggest that the radiation has affected the incidence of MPC. Furthermore, when compared with the first primary cancer, a stronger distance effect was suggested on the occurrence of a second primary cancer in the survivors. The present study suggests the significance of atomic bomb radiation on MPC in the survivors. These results on the incidence of MPC in the tumor-bearing survivors and its correlations with the atomic bombing of 62 years ago are described for the first time in this report. (author)

2008-01-01

214

Structure of the capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from Haemophilus parasuis strains ER-6P (serovar 15) and Nagasaki (serovar 5).  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium from the family Pasteurellaceae and a swine pathogen. H. parasuis is found in the upper respiratory tract of piglets and produces Glässer's disease, an invasive disease characterized by polyserositis. H. parasuis contains a short lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) reported to play a partial role in interaction with host cells. The presence of capsule has been phenotypically demonstrated in certain H. parasuis strains and its role in virulence has been suggested, but the chemical structure of the surface polysaccharides of this bacterium was unknown. The structure of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and LOS from virulent strains ER-6P and Nagasaki was studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. CPS from both strains had the same main chain with disaccharide repeating unit, substituted with ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-GalNAc-(1-P-(strain ER-6P) or ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-Gal-(1-P-strain Nagasaki) side chains, where R is the N-acetyl or N-glycolyl group. Glycolyl-neuraminic acid is widely found in animal glycoproteins, but it apparently has not been found in bacteria before, and might be important for the biology of this microorganism. Ac and Gc were present in equal amounts in the strain ER-6P but Nagasaki contained only about 20% of Gc substituent. Both strains produced the same LPS of a rough type with a single phosphorylated Kdo linking core and lipid A parts. LOS structure was similar to some strains of H. influenzae and contained a globotetraose terminal sequence. PMID:23664728

Perry, Malcolm B; Maclean, Leann L; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Aragon, Virginia; Vinogradov, Evgeny

2013-04-27

215

Structure of the capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from Haemophilus parasuis strains ER-6P (serovar 15) and Nagasaki (serovar 5).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium from the family Pasteurellaceae and a swine pathogen. H. parasuis is found in the upper respiratory tract of piglets and produces Glässer's disease, an invasive disease characterized by polyserositis. H. parasuis contains a short lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) reported to play a partial role in interaction with host cells. The presence of capsule has been phenotypically demonstrated in certain H. parasuis strains and its role in virulence has been suggested, but the chemical structure of the surface polysaccharides of this bacterium was unknown. The structure of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and LOS from virulent strains ER-6P and Nagasaki was studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. CPS from both strains had the same main chain with disaccharide repeating unit, substituted with ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-GalNAc-(1-P-(strain ER-6P) or ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-Gal-(1-P-strain Nagasaki) side chains, where R is the N-acetyl or N-glycolyl group. Glycolyl-neuraminic acid is widely found in animal glycoproteins, but it apparently has not been found in bacteria before, and might be important for the biology of this microorganism. Ac and Gc were present in equal amounts in the strain ER-6P but Nagasaki contained only about 20% of Gc substituent. Both strains produced the same LPS of a rough type with a single phosphorylated Kdo linking core and lipid A parts. LOS structure was similar to some strains of H. influenzae and contained a globotetraose terminal sequence.

Perry MB; Maclean LL; Gottschalk M; Aragon V; Vinogradov E

2013-08-01

216

Risk of myelodysplastic syndromes in people exposed to ionizing radiation: a retrospective cohort study of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been fully investigated among people exposed to ionizing radiation. We investigate MDS risk and radiation dose-response in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using two databases of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: 64,026 people with known exposure distance in the database of Nagasaki University Atomic-Bomb Disease Institute (ABDI) and 22,245 people with estimated radiation dose in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS). Patients with MDS diagnosed from 1985 to 2004 were identified by record linkage between the cohorts and the Nagasaki Prefecture Cancer Registry. Cox and Poisson regression models were used to estimate relationships between exposure distance or dose and MDS risk. RESULTS: There were 151 patients with MDS in the ABDI cohort and 47 patients with MDS in the LSS cohort. MDS rate increased inversely with exposure distance, with an excess relative risk (ERR) decay per km of 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.0; P < .001) for ABDI. MDS risk also showed a significant linear response to exposure dose level (P < .001) with an ERR per Gy of 4.3 (95% CI, 1.6 to 9.5; P < .001). After adjustment for sex, attained age, and birth year, the MDS risk was significantly greater in those exposed when young. CONCLUSION: A significant linear radiation dose-response for MDS exists in atomic bomb survivors 40 to 60 years after radiation exposure. Clinicians should perform careful long-term follow-up of irradiated people to detect MDS as early as possible.

Iwanaga M; Hsu WL; Soda M; Takasaki Y; Tawara M; Joh T; Amenomori T; Yamamura M; Yoshida Y; Koba T; Miyazaki Y; Matsuo T; Preston DL; Suyama A; Kodama K; Tomonaga M

2011-02-01

217

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agreement with traditional values. The new discrete ordinates software appears to have potential application to conventional radiation transport calculations as well. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1988-01-01

218

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agreement with traditional values. The new discrete ordinates software appears to have potential application to conventional radiation transport calculations as well. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1988-01-01

219

Degregulation in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years Japan has emerged as a major economic force in the world economy which, in spite of its strength, has produced another, less positive side. Driven by continual trade disputes and the unexpectedly high value of the yen, Japan`s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the architect of Japan`s industrial policy, has undertaken to increase efficiency in the domestic economy. MITI`s process lies beneath the surface of the current effort to deregulate the electricity sector in Japan. Cited for inefficiency resulting in high energy costs, this key industrial sector is central to MITI`s plan to improve domestic industrial efficiency. Major points include allowing independent power production, developing a bidding system for wholesale power, permitting non-utilities to engage in the retail sale of electricity within certain specified areas, and permitting non-utilities to use the grids of the country`s 10 major utilities. A strong currency and stable economy together with an absence of a significant country risk will be comforting factors to both developers and foreign lending institutions seeking to finance projects in Japan. Japan`s future, therefore, holds some promise for future independent power project development.

Zimmer, M.J.; Miller, D.B. [Reid & Priest, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

220

Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Database in Japan 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the following topics: present situation of database services in Japan; trends of database in foreign countries; international development of databases; current state of in-house databases in Japan; utilization of database; local databases; new trends related to database; activities for promotion of database; and chronological table of database.

1989-01-01

222

Nuclear ambitions of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made in this book to examine the nuclear policy of Japan, its external and internal compulsions. A truthful account of how nuclear technology came to be developed in Japan and an evaluation in historical perspective of how nuclearisation and militarisation have changed the entire complexation of regional security are also given.

1995-01-01

223

Japan and LPG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution.

1993-01-01

224

Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

1983-01-01

225

Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure.

Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M. and others

1988-06-01

226

RBE of neutrons in cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-78  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in cancer mortality in the period 1950-78 in a fixed cohort of 109,000 individuals is reported. The RBE of neutrons has been estimated by fitting several models to the dose-response curves in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for leukemia, lung, breast, and stomach cancers where the dose-response relationship has been confirmed and for cancers of all sites other than leukemia. A simple additive model was used because two other models where mortality is assumed to level off in the high dose group due to cell killing fit closely resembling the simple additive model. Thus, primarily, the L-L model where mortality is assumed to increase linearly with gamma and neutron doses and the Q-L model where mortality increases proportionally to the square of the gamma dose and linearly with the neutron dose were used. Since the observations on cancers of all sites fit both the L-L and Q-L models, the RBE was estimated for both. The RBE based on the kerma dose (and tissue dose) is leukemia 7.3 (14.7), stomach cancer 3.0 (7.4), lung cancer 2.2 (4.7), and breast cancer 4.6 (6.5) using the L-L model. Under the Q-L model, the RBE is dose dependent and decreases with increasing dose. At 100 rad it is 5.1 (5.5), 3.1 (3.4), 8.3 (9.2), and 11.6 (12.7), respectively. The L-Q-L model where mortality increases with the gamma dose and its square, and linearly with the neutron dose, fits better than either the L-L model or the Q-L model for the data on cancer other than leukemia. However, one or the other of the two estimated coefficients associated with the gamma dose are negative. (author).

1983-01-01

227

Sin City?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships.

Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.

2007-01-01

228

Recycle City  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

229

Sonic City  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sonic City is a wearable system for creating electronic music in based on sensing bodily andenvironmental parameters. Context and user action are mapped to sound processing parametersand turn live concrete sounds into music. Thus, a personal soundscape is co-produced by a user'sbody, local activity and urban ambiance simply by walking through the city. Encounters, events,architecture, weather, (mis)behaviours -- all become means of interacting with, appropriating, or`playing the city'.We have developed a working prototype that consists of a range of sensors, a microphone,headphones, and a small laptop running the music programming environment PD. In relation tosensor values, concrete urban sounds are processed in real time with a cross-coupled mappingstrategy incorporating sound processing objects such as filters, delay loops, envelopes, sampling,playback, mute, and echoes. Currently, the system is embedded into a jacket designed foradaptable sensor placement and experimental tests with 'players' on-site in the city.In this project, it is our intention to support musical creativity integrated into everyday life. Webreak out of traditional contexts for music creation to explore the creative potential within ourlocal surroundings and mundane activities. Wearing Sonic City, anyone can experience a simplewalk down the street as an expressive act, a path through the city as a personal composition. As acomplement to lived urban experience, it is a new, intimate soundscape intended to enhanceperception and encourage new uses of the urban landscape. Developed as an extensible prototypingplatform, it is a vehicle for engaging a wide range of people in playing the city as a musicalinterface. Thus, Sonic City is our platform for exploring emerging urban behaviou...

R. Maz; L. Gaye

230

Neurological deficit among the survivors exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A reassessment and new directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extensive epidemiological and experimental literature records the deleterious effects on the embryonic and fetal central nervous system of exposure to ionizing radiation; much of the human evidence stems from studies of the in utero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (orig./MG).

1986-01-01

231

Air-over-ground calculations of the neutron, prompt, and secondary-gamma free-in-air tissue kerma from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports preliminary results of the two-dimensional discrete-ordinate, calculations for the air-over-ground transport of radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapon devices. It was found that the gamma-ray kerma dominated the total kerma for both environments.

Pace, J.V. III; Knight, J.R.; Bartine, D.E.

1982-01-01

232

Sustainable cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed.

1992-01-01

233

Groundwater contamination in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1992-07-01

234

Energy policy of Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy consumption/unit production ratio of Japan was improved by more than 30% since 1983, and Japan is now among the top group of the world as long as the ratio is concerned. However, Japan must be said weak, depending mainly on unstable petroleum as her source of energy supply. In the middle of 1990's, the share of the OPEC countries in the world oil supply may become bigger, and the energy supply will again be unstable, tightening the demand and supply situation. Considering the energy situation after the first oil crisis in 1973 and second oil crisis in 1978, Japan established her overall energy policy to promote stable oil supply, develop and introduce alternate energy for petroleum, and save energy. The points to be considered in carrying out the energy policy are international contribution, promotion of technological development, and arrangement of fair competition environment. Main subjects in the resources energy policy in 1989 are outlined.

Mukai, Jun' ichiro (Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan))

1989-01-05

235

Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.  

Science.gov (United States)

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden. PMID:20521422

Yamazaki, Masakatsu

2009-01-01

236

Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden.

Yamazaki M

2009-01-01

237

Biomarkers of radiosensitivity in a-bomb survivors pregnant at the time of bombings in hiroshima and nagasaki.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions. Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and on approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity.

Miles EF; Tatsukawa Y; Funamoto S; Kamada N; Nakashima E; Kodama Y; Seed T; Kusonoki Y; Nakachi K; Fujiwara S; Akahoshi M; Neriishi K

2011-01-01

238

A new blood fluke of the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Sanguinicolidae) from Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) cultured in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new sanguinicolid blood fluke, Cardicola orientalis n. sp., is described from the afferent branchial artery and heart of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel) cultured in Mie and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is most similar to C. ambrosioi Braicovich, Etchegoin, Timi et Sardella, 2006 from the Brazilian flathead, Percophis brasiliensis Quoy & Gaimard, but can be differentiated by the position of the female genital pore (in midline or slightly sinistral in C. orientalis vs. sinistral in C. ambrosioi) and much longer distance between male and female genital pore (101microm vs. 27microm). In wet mount preparations of infected fish, eggs were accumulated in great numbers in the gill lamellae and afferent filament arteries. Importance of this blood fluke infection of cultured Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan is discussed.

Ogawa K; Tanaka S; Sugihara Y; Takami I

2010-03-01

239

A new blood fluke of the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Sanguinicolidae) from Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) cultured in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new sanguinicolid blood fluke, Cardicola orientalis n. sp., is described from the afferent branchial artery and heart of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel) cultured in Mie and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is most similar to C. ambrosioi Braicovich, Etchegoin, Timi et Sardella, 2006 from the Brazilian flathead, Percophis brasiliensis Quoy & Gaimard, but can be differentiated by the position of the female genital pore (in midline or slightly sinistral in C. orientalis vs. sinistral in C. ambrosioi) and much longer distance between male and female genital pore (101microm vs. 27microm). In wet mount preparations of infected fish, eggs were accumulated in great numbers in the gill lamellae and afferent filament arteries. Importance of this blood fluke infection of cultured Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan is discussed. PMID:19835980

Ogawa, K; Tanaka, S; Sugihara, Y; Takami, I

2009-10-14

240

Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Quo Vadis, Japan?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan?

1993-01-01

242

The definition of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is insufficient for the medical environment in Japan: a comparison of HCAP and nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia, which was proposed in the ATS/IDSA guidelines. The guidelines explain that HCAP patients should be treated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs directed at multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, in Japan, there are many elderly people who received in-home care service. These patients seemed to be consistent with the concept of HCAP, but they did not meet the definition of HCAP. Therefore, the Japanese Respiratory Society modified the definition of HCAP according to the medical environmental in Japan. We retrospectively observed HCAP patients and nursing home and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) patients who were hospitalized during 24 months at the Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital (Nagasaki, Japan). Patient background, disease severity, identified pathogens, initial antibiotic regimens, and outcomes were compared. A total of 108 patients (77 HCAP and 31 NHCAP except HCAP patients) were evaluated. Of NHCAP except HCAP patients, 27 (87.1 %) were above 3 in the ECOG PS score. There were almost no significant differences between the two groups in characteristics, pneumonia severity, identified bacteria, initial antibiotic regimens, and response rate of initial antibiotic therapy. Although the in-hospital mortality of HCAP patients and NHCAP except HCAP patients was 9.1 % and 19.4 %, respectively, this difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). Our study suggested that, in the criteria of HCAP, some Japanese patients, who were consistent with the concept of HCAP, were classified as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Therefore, there is a need to change the definition of HCAP according to the medical environment in Japan.

Kaku N; Yanagihara K; Morinaga Y; Izumikawa K; Nagashima S; Kakeya H; Yamamoto Y; Fukuda M; Takatani H; Fukuda M; Hashiguchi K; Kohno S

2013-02-01

243

Lessons from Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most remarkable of Japan's many achievements in the past twenty years has been the relatively slow increase in its energy demand during a period when its economy has grown dramatically. Between 1973 and 1987 Japan's Gross National Product (GNP) expanded by 4% per annum in real terms while its total primary energy requirements rose by only 1% per annum. In other words by the end of this period Japan was using 34% less energy to produce the same amount of goods and services. This improvement in energy efficiency was at its most pronounced between 1979 and 1986, when the ratio of energy consumption to GNP fell by one fifth. (author).

Taylor, L.; Brown, I.; Boyle, S. (Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (UK))

1990-01-01

244

Japan's nuclear juggernaut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of nuclear energy in Japan is presented. Nuclear energy provides 17% of Japan's electricity but could provide much more. 25 more reactors (to add to the existing 27) are planned by 1995. The cooperation between Japanese government and industry and the economic assistance in building new plants means that these are not likely to be cancelled. Public acceptance of new plants has often been obtained by large cash employment inducements. Now, however, there is growing disillusionment when short-term well paid employment building the reactors is followed by unemployment when the reactor is in operation. Also there is a growing opposition to the storage of the nuclear waste. To maintain the growth of its nuclear industry Japan needs to export to provide a steady flow of big orders. (U.K.).

1984-01-01

245

Pension Reform in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to establish guidelines for public pension reform in Japan, using a numerical simulation approach. The paper introduces the example of a minimum guaranteed pension in the Swedish pension system and compares this with the basic pension in Japan’s public pension system, with regard to methods of income redistribution through a public pension scheme. Simulation results show that the switch from the basic pension to the guaranteed pension does not always generate favorable results. If we consider a public pension program with the same scale as the current Japanese program, the highest level of social welfare is attained when a public pension system consists of only a basic pension and is financed by a consumption tax.

Akira Okamoto

2010-01-01

246

Megaloblastic anemia in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

Taguchi,Hirokuni

1978-01-01

247

Hydrogen city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sources of energy from which hydrogen can be produced in massive quantity and at low cost are surveyed briefly. A short account of devices to be employed for the production of hydrogen are presented. Primarily the sun, sea and runoff waters are to be harnessed. The methodology and devices to be used to convert the available but diffused energy into hydrogen are helio-hydro-gravity, helio-aero-gravity, salt gradient solar pond, principle of magnetohydrodynamics, etc. The discussion on the inexhaustibility of naturally occurring sources utilized and/or harnessed in this process will lead to the low cost for hydrogen production. This process is imagined to be designed in a model city named 'Hydrogen City' which produces hydrogen and is run on hydrogen in order to meet its energy needs.

Lodhi, M.A.K.

1987-01-01

248

Tokyo and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Tokyo and Japan should be interesting and educational for people from junior-high students to adults. It provides an interactive experience as a virtual tourist on a trip to Tokyo. You can also 'Ask the Old Japan Hand' questions about Tokyo and what it's like to live there. There are also links to many Japanese sites that publish in English. The site is young, but growing. It's direction and speed of growth will be determined by the reactions of the visitors. Your input is encouraged.

249

Disaster in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2011-03-28

250

Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author).

1980-01-01

251

Nuclear power development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

1994-01-01

252

[Proton therapy in Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Japan has the oldest experience in proton therapy outside the United States and Russia. The main treatment indications are hepatoma, lung and oesophageal carcinomas. The last center built in Chiba in the suburbs of Tokyo has two synchrotrons and three treatment rooms. Cost has been close to 2 billion French francs.

Schwartz LH; Tatsuzaki H

1995-01-01

253

Value change in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the relationship between socioeconomic change and value change. The general assumptions of unidimensionality of modern and traditional values and their exclusive character is questioned on the basis of available datafrom surveys carried out in Japan and in the West. Traditional v...

Trommsdorff, Gisela

254

Legalized Abortion in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The ...

Hart, Thomas M.

255

Acidic deposition in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1987 the authors have investigated the state of acidic deposition and its effects in Japan. The study has covered all the research areas including atmosphere, soil, terrestrial water and forest. The main results are summarized below: (1) The annual average pH of precipitation observed at 20 sites throughout the Japan archipelago ranged from 4.6 to 5.2. (2) The annual deposition of sulfur on the country exceeded its annual anthropogenic emission from the country, implying the significance of its transport from the exterior of the Japan archipelago. (3) The acid-neutralizing capacity was determined for 500 surface soils collected throughout the Japan archipelago, and the sites were classified into three classes in reference to sensitivity to acidic deposition. (4) The input-output budget of chemical constituents, evaluated at two forested watersheds, revealed that the wet deposition of H[sup +] was smaller than the amount of H[sup +] produced in soil by biological activity by one digit. (5) The decline of Japanese cedar was observed at 5 of 9 regions investigated, but it was inferred that the decline was not attributable to the sole effect of acidic deposition.

1992-01-01

256

Kinetic City  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, this website offers an assortment of science experiments, games, activities, and projects. In the Shape it Up game, students can learn about land formations and processes. Users can learn the basic interactions of mixing different chemicals in the Slush Rush link. Educators can find Leader packets and information on how to start a Kinetic City club. Besides the games educating users about topics in the physical sciences, the website also offers a variety of biology-related activities. After filling out the free sign-up form, the website saves individual's power points and results.

257

Japan and Zhongdong Railway Incident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been for quite some time the conspiracy that Japan invaded China and seized the Northeast. In the process of its implementation of the conspiracy, there had a vehement interest conflict between Japan and Soviet Russia. After the Japan-Russia War, Northeast China became a sphere of influence between Russia and Japan, but they fought against each other continually for Zhongdong Railway issue. After the September 18 Incident, situation of Zhongdong Railway was in depression, together with threat of Puppet Manchu, so in 1933, Soviet Union government transferred all its authority in Zhongdong Railway to “Manchuria Government” in a paid form. Japan eventually achieved its purpose.

Hongjun Zhang

2009-01-01

258

Biomarkers of radiosensitivity in a-bomb survivors pregnant at the time of bombings in hiroshima and nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions. Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and on approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity. PMID:21637355

Miles, Edward F; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo

2010-09-29

259

Pathological study of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki district. The rise and fall in main histopathological changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

9331 autopsies were carried out in Nagasaki-district after the world war II, the chronological changes of the diseases incidences and the difference between exposed and unexposed cases were reviewed. Diseases of the circulatory system, hepatic diseases, and hematopoietic disorders were 14.8%, 13.5%, and 9.2%, respectively. The rate of malignant tumors from '76 to '77 was 67.7%, which was about 10% higher than the national average. In the hepatic lesions, cirrhosis and hepatoma were 1.7 and 1.4 times higher than the national average, respectively, and the highest rate was observed at the age of forties and fifties. For the hematopoietic disorders, leukemia was higher than malignant lymphoma until '60, which order became reverse after '61, and the incidences were 1.9 and 2.2 times higher than the national average, respectively, in '76. Chronological changes of disorders of the circulatory system had not been effected by exposure.

Kishikawa, M.; Nishimori, I. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1980-11-01

260

Methodology of detecting internal radiation on paraffin embedded materials of Nagasaki atomic bomb casualties and DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For the purpose to establish a methodology in the title, expression of 53BP1, a tumor suppressing p53 related-DNA checkpoint protein, was examined in paraffin embedded specimens of the liver and spleen of a thorotrast (T) patient, 7 Nagasaki A-bomb exposed casualties and 2 non-exposed subjects. The 53BP1 protein was detected by immuno-fluorescent staining. Focal 53BP1 was seen in cells around T granules in liver, epithelium of bile duct and spleen of the patient. It was also observed in cells of liver and bile duct epithelium of casualties and the expression was particularly high in those outdoor-exposed at 0.5 km distance from the hypocenter and with shortest surviving period. 53BP1 foci were reported to be the indicator of genome instability in A-bomb casualties. The foci were found to be formed by T in this study, suggesting that DNA double strand had been broken by internal radiation exposure and its repair mechanism had been operated. Thus 53BP1 can be an indicator of internal exposure. (T.T.)

2011-06-05

 
 
 
 
261

Incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to neutron and gamma dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia during 1950-71 in the fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been analyzed as a function of individual gamma and neutron kerma and marrow dose. Two dose response models were tested for each of acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of the separate risks imposed by the gamma ray and neutron doses; in Model I both are assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that while the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from gamma rays is proportional to dose-squared. Weighted regression analyses were performed for each model. When the two models were fitted to the data for all types of leukemia, the estimated regression coefficients corresponding to the neutron and gamma ray doses both differed significantly from zero, for each model. However, when analysis was restricted to acute leukemia, both the neutron and gamma ray coefficients were significant only for Model II, and with respect to chronic granulocytic leukemia, only the coefficient of the neutron dose was significant, using either Model I or Model II. It appeared that the responses of the two leukemia types differed by type of radiation. If the chronic granulocytic and acute leukemias are considered together, the Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither models is rejected by the data. (author).

1978-01-01

262

Basic research report on regional new energy for Nagasaki Prefecture; Nagasakiken chiiki shin energy kiso chosa hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nagasaki prefecture has been engaged in the two tasks of new energy basic research and new energy vision formulation for two years or in fiscal 1998 and 1999. The estimated value (described in Gcal/year) of the amount in existence of renewable energy includes 5,595,683 from photovoltaic power; 20,628,033 from passive solar use; 178,688 to 818,002 from wind power; 419,040 from seawater temperature difference; 210,923 from geothermal energy and hot water; 939,109 from direct combustion of biomass; and 40,695 from small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power. As for recyclable type of energy, there is 162,281 to 186,222 from refuse fueled power; 373,247 from waste heat out of refuse treatment; 204,682 to 1,181,952 from digestion gas out of sewage treatment gas; and 342,223 to 1,071,497 from utilization of water after sewage treatment. The above are categorized into electric power, heat utilization, and direct use as fuel in the process of estimating the amount of energy in existence (Gcal/year in terms of calorific value). As the result, the amount obtained for each of the said three categories is 6,198,568 to 7,839093 from electric power; 21,973,466 to 22,702,740 from heat utilization; and 1,587,620 from direct use as fuel. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-01

263

Incidence of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors belonging to a fixed cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation was examined in relation to age at the time of the bomb (ATB), calendar time, and type of leukemia over the period 1950-71. Confirmed cases of leukemia in the Leukemia Registry, a fixed cohort of 109,000 subjects and the T65 dose calculations provided the basis for the analysis. Calendar time was divided into three periods, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-26 years after the bombs. The larger the exposure dose and the younger the age ATB, the greater was the effect in the early period and the more rapid was the decline in risk in subsequent years. In the oldest group, aged 45 or over ATB, the increase in risk appeared later and was sustained in the period 1960-71. Chronic granulocytic leukemia contributed substantially to the total leukemogenic effect initially but made little contribution after 1955. Sensitivity to the leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation not only depended on age ATB but its expression varied by type of leukemia and with time after exposure. Although the effect of atomic radiation on the incidence of leukemia in the atomic survivors is now greatly reduced and apparently on the wane, in the period 1966-71 the incidence was still greater than expected, especially in Hiroshima. In the Nagasaki sample, no case of leukemia was observed among the high-dose subjects from July 1966 to the end of 1971. (author)

1978-01-01

264

Residual neutron-induced radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks exposed to Nagasaki Atomic Bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks exposed by Nagasaki Atomic Bomb were determined. Samples were obtained from the surface to 2 cm in depth of rocks. Each sample was pulverized and placed in a plastic container, and gamma-ray spectrum was measured with a pure germanium semiconductor detector. To determine the amount of natural element of cobalt and europium contained in each sample, the neutron activation method was performed by the reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). The radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 were evaluated as per 1 mg natural element at the time of Atomic Bomb. The results show that the radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks were decreased with increasing slant distance. The Co-60 activity was 6.88±2.13 Bq/mgCo and the Eu-152 activity was 75.9±8.79 Bq/mgEu at 510 m from the epicenter. When we compared the activity of Eu-152 calculated by Loewe with our data, we found a divergence between them as the distance from the epicenter increases. (author).

1989-01-26

265

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

266

Occupational exposure in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation workers. The date on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official publication of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers was estimated to be about 0.26 million. The annual collective dose equivalents were estimated to be about 22 person?Sv for medical workers, 84 person?Sv for workers in nuclear power station and 11 person?Sv for other workers. The population dose were calculated to be about 2.25 mSv/person/year. (author).

1995-01-01

267

Branding Cities, Changing Societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place.

Ooi, Can-Seng

2010-01-01

268

Nuclear situation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

269

Simplified PWR in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of SLWRs aims to reduce the operation and maintenance human burden and also to improve plant economy by simplifying plant systems and equipment. We have been participating in the U.S. EPRI's SLWR development program in cooperation with Japanese Utilities, as well as undertaking the research and development of SLWRs in Japan that comply with the Japanese site conditions and seismic standards peculiar to Japan. This time we introduce the SPWR development program in Japan. The main object of this program are power uprate, wider plant application such as higher aseismic siting and costdown. SPWR is jointly studied by JAPC, Japanese PWR Utilities, EdF, WH and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Considering the limitation of site availability, larger plant is generally preferable in Japan. SPWR (3-loop plant) is the plant concept based on two-loop U.S.AP-600 to meet the Japanese requirements, such as earthquake resistance. In the SPWR primary system, a Canned motor pump is adopted as the RCP to eliminate the shaft seal and the Cross-over Leg. A third loop is added to increase the power level to 1000Mwe. Based on the 3-loop SPWR concept, further review was made to look at the possibility uprate. We have also studied 4 loop plant concept for the purpose of uprating. In this case, however, the distance between loop pipes becomes narrow, because of the two cold leg per loop configuration adopted in the SPWR. This arrangement makes the reactor internals storage space long and slender, and IRWST located outside of it makes the containment larger than that of 1500MWe APWR. In the 4-loop case, it is possible to attain the 1300MWe

1998-01-01

270

Simplified PWR in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of SLWRs aims to reduce the operation and maintenance human burden and also to improve plant economy by simplifying plant systems and equipment. We have been participating in the U.S. EPRI's SLWR development program in cooperation with Japanese Utilities, as well as undertaking the research and development of SLWRs in Japan that comply with the Japanese site conditions and seismic standards peculiar to Japan. This time we introduce the SPWR development program in Japan. The main object of this program are power uprate, wider plant application such as higher aseismic siting and costdown. SPWR is jointly studied by JAPC, Japanese PWR Utilities, EdF, WH and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Considering the limitation of site availability, larger plant is generally preferable in Japan. SPWR (3-loop plant) is the plant concept based on two-loop U.S.AP-600 to meet the Japanese requirements, such as earthquake resistance. In the SPWR primary system, a Canned motor pump is adopted as the RCP to eliminate the shaft seal and the Cross-over Leg. A third loop is added to increase the power level to 1000Mwe. Based on the 3-loop SPWR concept, further review was made to look at the possibility uprate. We have also studied 4 loop plant concept for the purpose of uprating. In this case, however, the distance between loop pipes becomes narrow, because of the two cold leg per loop configuration adopted in the SPWR. This arrangement makes the reactor internals storage space long and slender, and IRWST located outside of it makes the containment larger than that of 1500MWe APWR. In the 4-loop case, it is possible to attain the 1300MWe.

Tabata, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Yuzuru [The Japan Atomic Power Com., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-07-01

271

Holography in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The present state of activities of holography in Japan is reviewed. Electro-holography, holographic 3D printer, recording material have been studying in research organizations, universities, and research institutes. Optical head using hologram has been developed by main electric companies. The market of hologram in security is going to extend. Several private and group exhibitions were opened within a year. HODIC meeting is opened every three months and symposiums on 3D imaging are held every year.

Kubota, Toshihiro

1998-02-01

272

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author).

1985-01-01

273

Re-evaluation of atomic bomb dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dosimetry system, DS86, for atomic bomb radiation was developed in March 1986 by the collaborative efforts of the US and Japanese atomic bomb dosimetry reassessment committees. This new system was used by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to recalculate individual exposure doses for the survivors which had thus far been estimated on the basis of the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) system. Reanalyses of the health data for the survivors are under way using the new doses. The major results obtained to date are as follows: (1) the re-evaluation of the exposures does not change the list of radiation-related cancers; (2) some city differences in dose-response previously thought to be real when the T65D doses were used, such as for leukemia, are no longer significant with the DS86 doses; and (3) assuming a linear dose-response, and using estimated organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetry systems are very similar, whereas those based on shielded kerma are about 40% higher with the new dosimetry. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs.

1988-01-01

274

Equine keratomycosis in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, clinical progress, visual outcome, and laboratory findings of equine keratomycosis in Japan. PROCEDURE: ?Retrospective study of the medical records of horses clinically and mycologically diagnosed with keratomycosis at the Equine Hospitals of the Japan Racing Association from 2005 to 2011. RESULTS: The diagnosis of keratomycosis was confirmed in eight horses (40.0% of the 20 horses with infectious keratitis from which fungi and/or bacteria were isolated). Fungi recovered from corneal swabs were identified as Aspergillus flavus (4), Aspergillus niger (1), Fusarium solani (1), and Mortierella wolfii (2). All horses were treated medically with topical antifungals, and one horse was also treated surgically. The median of treatment period was 40 days. Two horses were rendered blind in the affected eye and the others retained vision. Conclusions: Equine keratomycosis comprises a considerable portion of infectious keratitis in Japan, and the causative fungi that we isolated had been isolated previously from horses with keratomycosis in other regions with the exception of M. wolfii. Culture and cytological examination of corneal lesions should be immediately performed on eyes with signs of keratitis, particularly on those not improving with antibacterial medication, as early initiation of aggressive antifungal treatment tended to result in better outcome and shorter treatment period.

Wada S; Hobo S; Ode H; Niwa H; Moriyama H

2013-01-01

275

[Physiological anthropology in Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the history of about 100 years of anthropology in Japan, studies of physiological anthropology have made very important contributions from the standpoint of physiological function of mankind. The activity of physiological anthropology in Japan has started systemically November 1978 when the study group was organized under Prof. Keiichi Yoshida as the president and the first meeting was held in February 1979. The study group has developed to Research Society of Physiological Anthropology (President Prof. Keiichi Yosida, October 1982) and then reorganized as Society of Physiological Anthropology (President Prof. Masaro Kaji, Kurume University School of Medicine, April 1987). An increase of members of the Society from 122 in 1982 to 570 in 1991 suggests the prosperity of the study in this field. The Society has two meetings every year since 1979 and the 27th meeting was held last October. The Annals of Physiological Anthropology is published quarterly (will be published bimonthly from 1992) since 1983 and about 300 papers including 116 original articles have been reported. The Annals covers the following fields: Clothing and thermal physiology, Living in normal and abnormal environment, Nutrition and morphology, Sports physiology and medicine, Work physiology, Ergonomics, General physiology and others. In recent progress of science, study in physiological anthropology must respond to various environments in every field of living. The future of physiological anthropology was discussed in the situation of rapidly changing patterns of human life in Japan.

Kaji M

1992-03-01

276

Hiroshima: A City with Peace as Its Purpose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Employs a summary of the story "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes" by Eleanor Coerr as an introduction to the city of Hiroshima's (Japan) quest for world peace, peace education, and strong opposition to nuclear warfare. Discusses various symbols of peace, such as paper cranes in Japanese culture, and offers five teaching activities. (CMK)

Nesbitt, Donna

1998-01-01

277

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

2008-01-01

278

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

2008-02-15

279

Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the prevalence and mortality of CHF used to be relatively low in Japan, the disorder has been markedly increasing due to the rapid aging of the society and the Westernization of lifestyle that facilitates the development of coronary artery disease. The Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART)-1 study was one of the largest cohorts in Japan. The study has clarified the characteristics and prognosis of Japanese patients with CHF, demonstrating that their prognosis was similarly poor compared with those in Western countries. However, we still need evidence for the prevention and treatment of CHF based on the large cohort studies or randomized treatment trials in the Japanese population. Since the strategy for CHF management is now changing from treatment to prevention, a larger-size prospective cohort, called the CHART-2 study, has been initiated to evaluate the risk factors of CHF in Japan. This review summarizes the current status of CHF studies in Japan and discusses their future perspectives.Keywords: heart failure, aging, Japanese

Nobuyuki Shiba; Hiroaki Shimokawa

2008-01-01

280

Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

Higashi T; Kudo T; Kinuya S

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Thinking about tuberculosis in Osaka City].  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence rate of tuberculosis in Osaka City (104.2 per 100,000 population) is extremely high, namely 3 times higher than the national average. Why the tuberculosis situation of Osaka City is so bad? The reason could be summarized as follows: Before the end of the World War II (1945), it was the sequelae of high prevalence observed in the era of Meiji, Taisho and early years of Showa. However, after the World War II, especially from the Heisei era (1989-), it is deeply affected by the influence of socio-economic background in Japan. Osaka City is characterized as the city of merchants and small enterprises. And therefore, the city substantially has the nature of the locality that brings in or produces some kinds of social vulnerability such as temporary laborers and homeless people. Of the tuberculosis patients in Osaka City, about 20% are homeless. In addition, patients of the smear positive infectious tuberculosis are often discovered among temporary laborers who change their residences and job sites from place to place and contact widely with citizens. These two are the most difficult problems in tuberculosis control program of Osaka City. In the meantime, there are many citizens who are careless of their health and do not follow the law or social rule, and this has apparently no direct connection with the problems of tuberculosis. However, it might be one of the factors of an undesirable trend of tuberculosis in Osaka City. In order to improve such a unfavorable tuberculosis situation in Osaka City, effective and strong supporting activities to the tuberculosis program are essentially needed. And these activities must be done from the standpoint of health-promotion, namely, health education for citizens and improvement of social environmental conditions to maintain healthy and cultural life. PMID:11201140

Kameda, K

2000-12-01

282

[Thinking about tuberculosis in Osaka City  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence rate of tuberculosis in Osaka City (104.2 per 100,000 population) is extremely high, namely 3 times higher than the national average. Why the tuberculosis situation of Osaka City is so bad? The reason could be summarized as follows: Before the end of the World War II (1945), it was the sequelae of high prevalence observed in the era of Meiji, Taisho and early years of Showa. However, after the World War II, especially from the Heisei era (1989-), it is deeply affected by the influence of socio-economic background in Japan. Osaka City is characterized as the city of merchants and small enterprises. And therefore, the city substantially has the nature of the locality that brings in or produces some kinds of social vulnerability such as temporary laborers and homeless people. Of the tuberculosis patients in Osaka City, about 20% are homeless. In addition, patients of the smear positive infectious tuberculosis are often discovered among temporary laborers who change their residences and job sites from place to place and contact widely with citizens. These two are the most difficult problems in tuberculosis control program of Osaka City. In the meantime, there are many citizens who are careless of their health and do not follow the law or social rule, and this has apparently no direct connection with the problems of tuberculosis. However, it might be one of the factors of an undesirable trend of tuberculosis in Osaka City. In order to improve such a unfavorable tuberculosis situation in Osaka City, effective and strong supporting activities to the tuberculosis program are essentially needed. And these activities must be done from the standpoint of health-promotion, namely, health education for citizens and improvement of social environmental conditions to maintain healthy and cultural life.

Kameda K

2000-12-01

283

[Development of urbanization in Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"In Japan urbanisation has developed very rapidly in relation with economic development and concentration of the population and industry in towns; in consequence urbanisation is making rapid progress in the suburbs of large towns. The author emphasises some geographical aspects of urbanisation in Japan: urban growth, spatial urbanisation, transformation of the landscape, regional circulation of capitals and characteristics of urbanisation in Japan." (summary in ENG, JPN)

Takahashi N

1980-04-01

284

Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author).

1980-01-01

285

Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4. Combined analysis of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at less than or equal to9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.).

Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.

1988-03-01

286

Fuel recycle in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been the policy of the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission that all spent fuel from the Japanese nuclear power program should be recycled in order to make effective use of limited uranium resources. Japan can carry on most of the steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, reactor fuel element fabrication, reprocessing, and MOX fuel element fabrication. This paper reviews some problems to be solved in regard to the development of advanced power reactors, plutonium MOX fuel development, plutonium recycling, and the fate of depleted uranium recovered from reprocessing

1983-01-01

287

Gems of Japanized English  

CERN Multimedia

Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as "a Specialist in the Decease of Children"; eggs were sold as "extract of fowl" ; and a notice advised that "Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water. " Fortunately, things are improving, but very slowly. A m

Kenrick, Miranda

2011-01-01

288

Distribution of nuclear bomb Pu in Nishiyama area, Nagasaki, estimated by accurate and precise determination of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio in soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plutonium isotopes in forest soils collected in Nishiyama area, Nagasaki, were successfully determined by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after the treatment with a microwave decomposition system. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios observed in the samples in the Nishiyama area were obviously lower than the range of the global fallout. The low ratios (minimum 0.032) observed in Nishiyama area indicated the influence of detonation of the Pu nuclear weapon in 1945. Since the area is contaminated also by global fallout, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio can be more sensitive indicator of bomb-derived Pu than Pu activity concentration.

Yoshida, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: s_yoshid@nirs.go.jp; Muramatsu, Y. [Gakushuin University, Mejiro 1-5-1, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Yamazaki, S. [Tokyo Nuclear Services Co., Ltd., Ueno 7-2-7, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-0005 (Japan); Ban-nai, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

2007-07-15

289

Perry Visits Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon opening this website, visitors will be treated to an image from an anonymous Japanese scroll which depicts a steam locomotive and several Japanese onlookers. It's an excellent way to start a digital collection dedicated to Commodore Matthew Perry's visit to Japan in 1854. The collection is part of Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives, and it was created as part of a project by Professor Susan Smulyan and her students. On the site, visitors can peruse three different sets of images, including those created by the American artist William Heine and a set of broadsides by anonymous Japanese creators. The subject matter is the same for all of these works (Commodore Perry's visit to Japan), and visitors can take a close look at each image, and also read accompanying essays by students. That's far from all, as visitors can also read accounts of the expeditions written by Commodore Perry and William Heine. The site is rounded out by a detailed bibliography containing scholarly works, journal articles, and web sources.

290

Energy Statistics in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Integral Energy Statistics'' is well known as official energy statistics providing comprehensive and systematically arranged information about energy demand and supply in Japan and is widely used. However, this contains many problems. The ''Energy Balance Table'' issued by the Energy Economics Research Institute of Japan provides energy statistics which is almost free from the problems contained in the Integral Energy Statistics. Energy statistics in particular fields include electric power statistics, petroleum statistics, gas statistics, and coal statistics. Most of the statistics above reflect emphasis on the supply side. Statistics reflecting emphasis on the demand side include the ''Energy Consumption Structure Statistics''(retitled in 1983 ''Petroleum and Other Energy Consumption Structure Statistics'') and the ''Petroleum and Other Energy Consumption Trend Statistics'' issued by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Statistic data can be easily utilized if it is implemented in a database. There are some official databases which are available through computer communication. It would be beneficial to users if statistical data is available in floppy disks or similar media. (1 fig, 5 tabs, 35 refs)

Saito, Takeshi

1987-09-01

291

Nuclear industry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Station with 6 BWRs totaling 4,696 MW has attained the total generated electric power of 200 million MWh, the largest power generation in a single nuclear power station in the world. The plutonium reprocessed in France was unloaded in Tokyo Port, and transported to the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. These two events were the prominence in papers in the past three months. This shining operation performance and the heavy dependence of Japanese nuclear fuel cycle on foreign countries indicate the state of nuclear power and the present state of nuclear industry in Japan. The industry has grown up regarding the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and laid a firm foundation in the Japanese industrial structure with the annual sales exceeding one billion yen. ''Atoms in Japan'' plans to review the present state of the nuclear industry in a series of articles, and in this first installment, the characteristics of the nuclear industry, the progress of the nuclear industry, the framework of the nuclear industry, the activity in a field of nuclear fuel cycle, and the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

1985-01-01

292

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

293

Complication of laparoscopy in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trends of examinees and complications of laparoscopy were examined by a questionaire sent to all representative institutions in Japan. As a conclusion, the rate of complication by this examination was 10 times higher, while its mortality was 25 times higher, as compared with gastroenterological endoscopic examination. This article may indicate the present status of laparoscopy in Japan.

Takemoto T; Okita K; Fukumoto Y; Kodama T; Harada T

1980-04-01

294

Water changed the cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas

Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

2009-01-01

295

Nuclear power development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since energy consumption in developing countries is assumed to increase substantially in the 21st century, it becomes more and more important for Japan, a country with scarce energy resources, to achieve energy supply security. In addition, international efforts have also been focused toward mitigating greenhouse effects caused by energy consumption. Human society has to pool together all its technological capabilities in order to maintain sustainable development while minimizing the burden on the environment. In Japan, nuclear power has been extensively introduced because of such advantages as stable fuel supply and minimum greenhouse effects. As of the end of March 2004, 52 nuclear power reactors generated about 30% of total electricity in Japan. Overall, nuclear power comprised about 16% of the total primary energy supply in Japan in 2001. Considering the complicated situation surrounding energy supply in Japan in this century, it is necessary to continuously promote nuclear power generation while also emphasizing the need for a closed nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

2004-01-01

296

Japan and the global environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment.

1993-01-01

297

[Buddhist mummies in Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which were laid in daisies for Buddhist images at golden Konjikido, a model of the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, did not bear any evidence of Ainu character in their physical traits. Of these, the mummy of Yasuhira Fujiwara, of which the head and neck were severely injured by swords, showed that it had been decapitated. This decapitated head had suffered mutilations: i.e. a long iron nail had been driven into the forehead, and the both auricles and the nose had been cut off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Morimoto I

1993-08-01

298

Generic antibiotics in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk particle and amount of solubilizer. The Japanese government hopes to increase the diffusion rate of generic drugs (in terms of quantity) from 20.2 % in 2010 to 30 % or more in 2012, and therefore it will be necessary to clarify the advantages of generic antibiotics in terms of expenditure and equivalency with the branded drugs.

Fujimura S; Watanabe A

2012-08-01

299

A New Education Scheme for Japan: Importing Education PPP Structures from England and Scotland (Part 2)  

Science.gov (United States)

There are very few PFI projects in Japan that are specifically designed for education, but there are a few hybrid or complex PFIs that includes education in their facilities and services. In this article, the authors discuss the Ichikawa City Seventh District Junior High School building (an education PFI), which includes a school lunch room,…

Tachioka, Hiroshi; Campbell, Joel R.

2006-01-01

300

Sarin poisoning of a rescue team in the Matsumoto sarin incident in Japan.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: A nerve agent sarin (isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate) was released in Matsumoto city, Japan, on 27 June 1994. About 600 people were affected by the sarin, including seven who died. Fifty two rescuers engaged in helping the victims and 18 were affected. The aim was to investigate how...

Nakajima, T; Sato, S; Morita, H; Yanagisawa, N

 
 
 
 
301

Radiation processing in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

2001-01-01

302

Bankruptcy Procedure In Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper asks whether close bank-firm relations mitigate the negative consequences of abankruptcy regime without Chapter 11-type protections for management. In Japan, majorcreditors control the fate of the bankrupt firm. Potential costs of such a regime are destruction offirm value as management seeks to stave off bankruptcy, and inefficient liquidations. Whilebankrupt firms affiliated with keiretsu banks are more likely to be liquidated, we interpret this as aconsequence of an unusual sample rather than evidence of excessive liquidation by overly powerfulbanks. Moreover, we do not find any evidence that keiretsu banks are slow to give up on poorperformers and liquidate too late. Lastly, we find that keiretsu banks seem as willing as any to usethe courts in the liquidation process. This is an indication that the courts may actually help resolvesome difficulties and do not intrinsically play a counterproductive role

Jean Helwege; Frank Packer; Nikko Salomon; Smith Barney

303

Radiation processing in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

2001-03-01

304

Japan AFM roadmap 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews recent progress in Japan in the techniques and applications of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), specifically focusing on three topics: (1) mechanical discrimination of intermixed two-atom species and their manipulation by frequency modulation (FM) AFM under ultrahigh vacuum; (2) sub-molecular and atomic-resolution imaging in liquids by FM-AFM; and (3) high-speed imaging of biological macromolecules in solution by amplitude modulation (AM) AFM. After reviewing the state of the art of these high-performance AFMs and various techniques that have enabled them, we present future prospects for these AFMs and for technological innovations that will be led by them. These prospects are given from the viewpoint of Japanese groups that have been involved in these three topics

2007-02-28

305

Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

1990-01-01

306

Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / ?Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / ?Dn--96.5 / ?Dn. (author)

1982-01-01

307

Can Japan do without nuclear energy?; Kan Japan zonder kernenergie?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At this moment, only 17 of the 54 nuclear plants in Japan are in operation. Nevertheless, Tokyo and other regions are not left without power. Businesses and consumers turn out to be able to save 10-15 percent in energy use. Moreover, businesses are shifting production to the weekend. It looks as though Japan is at the pilot stage of the road to a nuclear free future. [Dutch] Op dit moment zijn slechts 17 van de 54 kerncentrales in Japan operationeel. Toch zitten Tokio en andere regio's niet zonder stroom. Bedrijven en consumenten blijken 10-15 procent energie te kunnen besparen. Bovendien verleggen bedrijven hun productie naar het weekend. Het is alsof Japan bezig is met een testfase op weg naar een kernenergie-vrije toekomst.

Op den Brouw, P.

2011-08-26

308

The Cogema group in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The partnership between the Cogema group and Japan in the domain of fuel cycle started about 20 years ago and the 10 Japanese nuclear operators are all clients of the Cogema group. The 1997 turnover realized with Japan reached 3.6 billions of francs (11% of the total turnover of the group). This short paper presents briefly the nuclear program of Japan (nuclear park, spent fuels reprocessing-recycling strategy) and the contracts between Cogema and the Japanese nuclear operators (natural uranium, uranium conversion and enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle and MOX fuel production markets). (J.S.)

1998-01-01

309

Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsia in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the western part of Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rickettsial infection in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the western part of Japan (Shimane, Fukuoka, Saga and Nagasaki Prefectures) was surveyed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detecting the rickettsial citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Four of one hundred and ninety-four feral raccoon spleens (2.1%) were positive for Rickettsia spp. One gltA gene sequence was identical to R. helvetica, whereas the other 3 sequences were identical and had the highest similarity (98.4%) to R. amblyommii. Simultaneously, we determined a partial sequence of the rickettsial 17-kilodalton (17K) genus-common antigen gene in the later 3 raccoon samples. Their sequences were identical and had the highest similarity (98.5%) to Rickettsia sp. Hj126. Based on the sequences of gltA and 17K antigen genes, these raccoons might be infected with spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia most closely related to R. amblyommii and/or Rickettsia sp. Hj126. Feral raccoons may be a susceptible reservoir for SFG rickettsiae in Japan.

Baba K; Kaneda T; Nishimura H; Sato H

2013-02-01

310

A geographical study of the international urban system between China and Japan in terms of Japanese affiliated entreprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Japanese-affiliated enterprises in China are considered to have played important rolesfor economic development of both two countries. Looking at cities with Japanese-affiliatedenterprises, this research investigates the changes in the international urban system betweenChina and Japan. We selected 5084 direct investments items from Japan to China and investigatedthe spatial structure of the international urban system in 4 periods.

Guoqing Du

2004-01-01

311

Nuclear power development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

1994-01-01

312

Nuclear power controversy in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arguments for and against nuclear energy in Japan date back to the 1950's, when the research and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy were resumed after the World War 2. In the history of the controversy over this question, anti-nuclear power movement became active in 1970's, and has continued as the mainstream of the nuclear controversy. A review is made on the nuclear controversy, which is composed of the opposition movement supported by the Japan socialist party, with the Japan Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs as the main body, and citizen groups, labor unions, environmentalist groups, etc., and the movement supported by the Japan Scientist Congress, and carried on by fishery associations and local residents.

Nemoto, K. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

1981-07-01

313

Nuclear power controversy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arguments for and against nuclear energy in Japan date back to the 1950's, when the research and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy were resumed after the World War 2. In the history of the controversy over this question, anti-nuclear power movement became active in 1970's, and has continued as the mainstream of the nuclear controversy. A review is made on the nuclear controversy, which is composed of the opposition movement supported by the Japan socialist party, with the Japan Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs as the main body, and citizen groups, labor unions, environmentalist groups, etc., and the movement supported by the Japan Scientist Congress, and carried on by fishery associations and local residents. (J.P.N.).

1981-01-01

314

Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections.

Shiota S; Murakawi K; Suzuki R; Fujioka T; Yamaoka Y

2013-01-01

315

Japan and the Energy Crisis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The energy crisis in Japan is discussed in terms of market reliance on petroleum imports. Retrospective treatment is given the energy situation as it has existed in the economic milieu since the second World War. The requirements, possibilities, and diffi...

Y. K. Sergeyev

1974-01-01

316

Pediatric CT scan usage in Japan. Results of a hospital survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to examine the usage parameters of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) in children because of concerns of possible overuse in Japanese hospitals, including the ''technical'' CT exposure settings and the ''clinical'' grounds for CT requests. We examined the methodology at the radiology department to reduce radiation exposure to children and performed a retrospective study on pediatric CT requests during a 1-year period at Nagasaki University Hospital. The parameters of diagnostic CT usage for minor head trauma and acute appendicitis were studied in detail. CT radiation dose settings are adjusted for children based on guidelines issued by the Japan Radiological Society, with few limitations. CT requests were made for 62% of minor head trauma cases and 76% of cases clinically suspected to be acute appendicitis. These figures are considerably higher than those reported by studies in the United Kingdom, Canada, or the United States. No specific guidelines are advocated regarding CT usage for minor head trauma. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children is almost routinely referred for confirmation'' by CT. CT radiation risks to children at Japanese hospitals need to be considered more seriously. Physicians should be encouraged to follow diagnostic algorithms that help avoid unnecessary CT usage in children. (author)

2006-01-01

317

The photovoltaic energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

318

Reactor cold sources in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The developmental history and the present status of reactor cold sources in Japan are reviewed as well as the descriptions of the existing two reactor cold sources. One is the first cold source in Japan inserted and operated since 1987 at Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), and the other, JRR-3 cold source, is expected to start operation before this summer. A brief discussion on the future developments for cold sources is given

1991-01-01

319

Japan and the fifth generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan's efforts to develop artificial intelligence are intended to make computers that are very easy to use and can handle natural language. It may turn out that the big, powerful computer at the center of a network does not have to have such functions, that the personal computers in the network can perform those functions. There is no question that Japan's national economic plans rely on progress in computers.

Lemmons, P.

1983-11-01

320

The shortage of pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The shortage of physicians is of great concern in Japan. We aim to assess the pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan. Data were obtained from a governmental survey that included the number of physicians and child population in each municipality (i.e., 888 cities and 1,466 towns, villages, or rural areas). The supply of pediatricians was evaluated by physician-to-child population ratios of pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice, and geographical distributions using Lorenz curves and Gini indices. Lorenz curves are drawn to visualize geographical mal-distribution of physicians and the Gini indices range from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating larger inequity in physician distribution. Between 1996 and 2004, the numbers of pediatricians per 100,000 children increased from 69 to 84 and this increase was constantly observed both in cities, and towns/villages. Lorenz curves showed that both pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were relatively equally distributed in cities. The Gini indices in 1996 and 2004 were 0.337 and 0.321, respectively in pediatricians and 0.264 and 0.278, respectively in non-pediatricians in pediatric practice. In contrast, pediatricians were unequally distributed in rural areas (the Gini indices; 0.723 and 0.703, respectively). In such areas, non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were more equally distributed than pediatricians (0.419 and 0.482, respectively). These results suggest that non-pediatricians in pediatric practice have played a significant role in supporting pediatric care in rural areas. In conclusion, the absolute numbers of pediatricians increased in Japan between 1996 and 2004; however, they were mal-distributed in rural areas.

Nomura K; Inoue S; Yano E

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

The shortage of pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shortage of physicians is of great concern in Japan. We aim to assess the pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan. Data were obtained from a governmental survey that included the number of physicians and child population in each municipality (i.e., 888 cities and 1,466 towns, villages, or rural areas). The supply of pediatricians was evaluated by physician-to-child population ratios of pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice, and geographical distributions using Lorenz curves and Gini indices. Lorenz curves are drawn to visualize geographical mal-distribution of physicians and the Gini indices range from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating larger inequity in physician distribution. Between 1996 and 2004, the numbers of pediatricians per 100,000 children increased from 69 to 84 and this increase was constantly observed both in cities, and towns/villages. Lorenz curves showed that both pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were relatively equally distributed in cities. The Gini indices in 1996 and 2004 were 0.337 and 0.321, respectively in pediatricians and 0.264 and 0.278, respectively in non-pediatricians in pediatric practice. In contrast, pediatricians were unequally distributed in rural areas (the Gini indices; 0.723 and 0.703, respectively). In such areas, non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were more equally distributed than pediatricians (0.419 and 0.482, respectively). These results suggest that non-pediatricians in pediatric practice have played a significant role in supporting pediatric care in rural areas. In conclusion, the absolute numbers of pediatricians increased in Japan between 1996 and 2004; however, they were mal-distributed in rural areas. PMID:19346735

Nomura, Kyoko; Inoue, Satoshi; Yano, Eiji

2009-04-01

322

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

1991-01-01

323

Estimation of daily uranium ingestion by urban residents in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

125 types of food were collected mainly from Yokohama City which is one of the typical urban cities in Japan. The samples, were divided into the 18 food categories in the report of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS),1 were analysed for uranium by ?-spectrometry after chemical separation. Concentrations of 238U in individual types of food ranged from 9.85 * 10-5 Bq * kg-1 in grain vinegar to 5.90 Bq * kg-1 in boiled and dried hijiki. The median value of 238U was found to be 4.83 * 10-3 Bq * kg-1 on a raw weight basis. The daily intake of 238U per person by ingestion was estimated to be approximately 14 mBq with more than 50% of it coming from marine products. (author)

1997-01-01

324

Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author).

1978-01-01

325

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 10, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

;Partial Contents: Biotechnology (Japan: Japan`s RITE Introduces Biotech Projects, Japan: Pharmacia Biotech Develops Detection Method for Point Mutation); Energy (Japan: New Catalyst for Synthesis Gas Reduces Energy Needs, Japan: Major Company Activities for Promotion of Wind Power Generation, Japan: Waste Power Generation System in Saitama Draws Much Attention); Environment (Japan: AIST`s NIMC To Develop Efficient Decomposition Method for Waste Using Super-Critial Water, Japan: Kyoei Co. Develops High Temperature Fusion Furnace for Industrial Waste Treatment, Japan: Air Dry Cleaning for Recycling Chemically Contaminated Plastic Sheets); Microelectronics (Japan: Toshiba Corp. DEC To jointly Develop LSI for ATM); Science and Technology Policy (Japan`s MITI To Begin Electronic Commerce Experiment Project); Technology Transfer (Japan: Nissho Iwai Delivers Cleaner Plant to Russia`s Energiya, Japan: Energy Agency Transfers Coal Fired Power Generation Technology to Indonesia); Telecommunications (Japan`s MPT Releases Study Report on Advanced Information Technologies).

NONE

1996-04-10

326

Victory City: The City of the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

327

LNG trade developments reflect Japan`s energy policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the first LNG deliveries were 30 years ago from North Africa to Europe, the trade is now dominated by demand for LNG in the Far East. In 1994, 76 per cent of LNG deliveries worldwide were to the Far East compared with 22 per cent to Europe. Japan requires clean energy more than most other countries and gas is a prime fuel. The way the LNG trade will expand is with movement of LNG from Abu Dhabi and from Qatar to Japan dominating the new business. (author)

Anon.

1996-12-31

328

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a compilation of radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from May 1992 through March 1993. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were 0.14±0.017 Bq/p?d from Niigata and 0.20±0.015 Bq/p?d from Akita, respectively, for total diet; 0.028±0.013 Bq/kgwet from Fukushima and 0.073±0.010 Bq/kgwet from Ibaraki for rice (producing districts); 0.019±0.0091 Bq/kgwet from Kochi and 0.093±0.0099 Bq/kgwet from Shimane for rice (consuming districts); 0.059±0.0099 Bq/l from Aomori and 0.30±0.017 Bq/l from Ishikawa for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.11±0.017 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.11±0.012 Bq/l from Hokkaido for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.049±0.012 Bq/l from Yamagata and 0.065±0.0094 Bq/l from Hokkaido for milk (consuming districts); 0.65±0.020 and 2.4±0.05 Bq/l from Sample C in powdered milk; 0.74±0.019 Bq/kgwet from Yamanashi and 0.26±0.016 Bq/kgwet from Shizuoka for vegetables (producing districts); 2.3±0.04 and 0.11±0.010 Bq/kgwet from Yamagata for vegetables (consuming districts); 0.026±0.0056 from Yamaguc0.18±0.016 Bq/kgwet from Fukui for crucian carp; 0.0074±0.0043 Bq/kgwet from Hiroshima for oyster and 0.033±0.0066 Bq/kgwet from Aomori for Japanese scallop; 0.040±0.0053 and 0.037±0.0067 Bq/kgwet from Nagasaki for Wakame seaweed. Annual variations in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in dietary materials are given in figures. (N.K.).

1994-01-01

329

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from January through September 1992. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were 0.19±0.011 Bq/p·d from Kamisaibara-mura (Okayama) and 0.34±0.021 Bq/p·d from Nagano, respectively, for total diet; 0.021±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Chiba and 0.048±0.0076 Bq/kgwet from Kanazawa for rice (producing districts); 0.18±0.013 Bq/l and 0.16±0.010 Bq/l from Aomori for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.14±0.012 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.12±0.009 Bq/l from Hikawa-machi (Shimane) for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.057±0.0068 Bq/l from Sapporo and 0.15±0.014 Bq/l from Nagasaki for milk (consuming districts); 0.76±0.029 Bq/l and 2.0±0.04 Bq/l from Sample C for powdered milk; 0.50±0.015 Bq/kgwet and 2.6±0.04 Bq/kgwet from Oota (Shimane) for vegetables (producing districts); 0.37±0.019 Bq/kgwet and 0.098±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sendai for vegetables (consuming districts); 1.9±0.09 Bq/kg from Ue-mura (Kumamoto) and 3.1±0.14 Bq/kg from Kawaminami-machi (Miyazaki) for Japanese tea; 0.035±0.0063 Bq/kgwet in Scorpion-fish collected from Hamada (Shimane) and 0.42±0.024 Bq/kgwet in Skipjack from Tosa (Kochi) for sea fish; 0.95±0.033 Bq/kgwet from Akita and 0.38±0.025 Bq/kgwet from Kasumigaura (Ibaraki) for freshwater fish; 0.010±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.054±0.013 Bq/kgwet from Minamichita-machi (Aichi) for shellfish; 0.049±0.012 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.036±0.0095 Bq/kgwet from Muta (Aomori) for seaweeds. (N.K.)

1994-01-01

330

Impending epidemic: future projection of heart failure in Japan to the year 2055.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The future burden of heart failure in Japan was projected to 2055 in order to prospectively estimate of the number of these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The statistics are based on prevalence data of left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) in Sado City using the Sado Heart Failure Study (2003) and population estimates from the Japanese National Institute of Population and Social Security Research Report (2006). The number of Japanese outpatients with LVD was 979,000 in 2005, and is predicted to increase gradually as the population ages, reaching 1.3 million by 2030. CONCLUSION: LVD is expected to precipitate a future epidemic of heart failure in Japan.

Okura Y; Ramadan MM; Ohno Y; Mitsuma W; Tanaka K; Ito M; Suzuki K; Tanabe N; Kodama M; Aizawa Y

2008-03-01

331

Incidence of osteoporotic fractures in Sado, Japan in 2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted a survey of fracture incidences associated with senile osteoporosis in 2010 in Sado City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, including compression vertebral fractures, hip fractures, distal radius fractures, and fractures of the proximal end of the humerus. We previously conducted a similar survey from 2004-2006 in Sado City. The purpose of the current study was to determine the incidence of osteoporotic fractures in Sado City in 2010 and to examine changes over time. We calculated the incidence of each fracture per 100,000 person-years based on the population of Sado City. Hip and vertebral fractures showed marked increases from 2004-2006, but a similar increase was not found from 2006-2010. The average age at injury increased in 2010 compared to 2004, except for fractures of the radius. Among the subjects with hip fractures, 14 % had a history of contralateral hip fracture. The percentage of patients taking medication for osteoporosis before injury was higher in 2010 compared with 2004, but these percentages were still only 7 and 13 % for those with subsequent hip and vertebral fractures, respectively.

Sakuma M; Endo N; Oinuma T; Miyasaka D; Oguma Y; Imao K; Koga H; Tanabe N

2013-07-01

332

Recycling of plastics in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Clean Japan Center is an NGO concerned with recycling. This article presents an overview of methods for recyling products made of various types of plastic. A number of such methods are in use or being studied. Emphasis is given to the state of plastics recycling in Japan. The uses of waste plastics as materials in other industrials is outlined - these include waste plastics as a reducer in blast furnaces, replacing coke and pulverized coal; waste plastics as a source of heat in cement kilns as an alternative to pulverized coal; and waste plastics being incinerated to generate power. 3 figs.

Masaki, K. [Clean Japan Center, Tokyo (Japan). PET Bottle Recycling Project Dept.

1998-10-01

333

Ecosystem appropriation by cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimated the ecological footprint of cities in Baltic Europe and globally. The 29 largest cities of Baltic Europe appropriate for their resource consumption and waste assimilation an area of forest, agricultural, marine, and wetland ecosystems that is at least 565-1130 times larger than the area of the cities themselves. Of the global human population, 20% (1.1 billion), living in 744 large cities worldwide, appropriate for their seafood consumption as much as 25% of the globally available area of productive marine ecosystems. The same cities` appropriation of forests for assimilation of CO{sub 2} emissions exceeds the full sink capacity of the world`s forests by more than 10%. If the goal as emphasized at the UN Habit II Conference, 1966, is sustainable human settlements, the increasingly limited capacity of ecosystems to sustain urban areas has to be explicitly accounted for in city planning and development. 57 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

Folke, C.; Jansson, Aasa; Larsson, Jonas [Beijer International Inst. of Ecological Economics, Stockholm (Sweden); Costanza, R. [Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Maryland International Inst. for Ecological Economics

1997-05-01

334

Estimation of dose due to cosmic rays in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays at all municipalities in Japan are estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. Latitude, longitude and altitude data for all municipalities are assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50-m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component are grouped into two categories, ionizing component including photons and neutron component. The population weighted average dose in Japan is estimated to be 29.2 nSv h-1 for the ionizing component, 6.1 nSv h-1 for the neutron component and 35.3 nSv h-1 for the total. The highest value among prefecture averages is found in Nagano Prefecture to be 44.0 nSv h -1 although it is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumption in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report for dose estimation due to cosmic rays, the doses in Japan are estimated to be 0.21 mSv a-1 for the ionizing component, 0.045 mSv a-1 for the neutron component and 0.26 mSv a-1 for the total. (author)

2002-01-01

335

75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

2010-09-23

336

Recent nuclear PA issues in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the recent PA issues in Japan, the recent nuclear PA activities in JAERO (Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization), i.e. activities with citizens, support for education, media information, and assistance in regional efforts

1997-01-01

337

Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the fo...

W. G. Blackard Y. Omori L. R. Freedman

1964-01-01

338

Recent nuclear PA issues in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the recent PA issues in Japan, the recent nuclear PA activities in JAERO (Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization), i.e. activities with citizens, support for education, media information, and assistance in regional efforts.

Fujii, Nobuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-12-31

339

Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

1998-01-01

340

Recent meteor observing activities in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

Yamamoto, M.

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffee...

Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko

342

Recent mariculture techniques in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of sea products in Japan increases regularly, reaching 10 million tonnes in 1972. In 1976, marine aquaculture products accounted for about 9.8 % of the total amount in quantity and about 19 % in value. The aquacultural production consisted mainly of Japanese amberjacks, Japanese shrim...

Uno Yutaka

343

Japan's new basic energy plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: ? Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. ? Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. ? Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. ? Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

2011-01-01

344

Japan awaits steam coal influx  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan is planning a series of deep water transhipment centres to accommodate the expected increase in coal imports. The main Japanese coal importing centres are given and possible sites for further development. As land space is scarce, several offshore power-stations are being considered. The prime consumers of coal are expected to be the steel, electric power and cement industries.

1981-10-01

345

Purification of europium for the determination of the specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the specific radioactivity of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to assess the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, the use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic bombs and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic bomb. This chemical procedure has been successful for materials exposed to the atomic bomb within a 1400 m slant distance from the explosion point over Hiroshima. At Nagasaki, materials exposed at distances greater than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, we have undertaken the determination of the specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at a place distant from the explosion point. However, because of radioactive decay during the ?60 years since 1945 and the great distance from the explosion point, the current specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?2x10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem in the measurement of ultra low-level 152Eu radioactivity arises due to interference from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y). Hence, our chemical procedure for preparing a Eu-enriched counting source must be improved, and much attention must be given to the removal of Ac from the sample. An approximately 19 kg concrete sample was obtained from the outer surface of a building exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at a distance of 1596 m from the explosion point. From the concrete sample, approximately 9.6 kg of andesite (used as osteodentin) and approximately 7.7 kg of mortar were separated. Because preliminary neutron activation analysis demonstrated that the Eu concentration in the andesite fraction (0.96 ppm) was higher than the concentration in the mortar fraction (0.41 ppm), approximately 7.8 kg aliquots of andesite were subjected to a chemical procedure to separate rare-earth elements (REEs) including Eu. After total decomposition of the pulverized andesite by fusion with sodium hydroxide, removal of major elements (such as Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, and Mg) was carried out by precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange column methods. A crude specimen obtained in this manner was subjected to preliminary measurement of Eu and radionuclides. The crude specimen, which was enriched in REEs, was then subjected to total decomposition and chemical procedures to obtain a purified specimen, which was virtually free of major elements and Ac. To remove Ac from the REEs, the major elements were first removed, then solvent extraction with 1M HDEHP-benzene was applied to the REE fraction in dilute nitric acid medium. Preliminary measurements of Eu and radionuclides in the crude specimen revealed that the content of 227Ac daughters in the specimen was too high to determine the low-level 152Eu radioactivity. A series of tracer experiments using 152Eu and 228Ac demonstrated that solvent extraction in a 1M HDEHP-benzene/dilute HNO3 system is an efficient method to remove Ac from Eu (Figs. 1 and 2). In the case of the actual crude specimen enriched in REEs, Eu and Ac were first extracted into 300 mL of 1M HDEHP-benzene from 300 mL of 0.1 M HNO3 solution. The organic phase was then washed with five 300 mL portions of 0.2 M HNO3. Some results of the enrichment and purification of Eu from the sample exposed to the atomic bomb are given in Table 1. Although the overall recovery of Eu in the purified specimen is only ?26%, the removal of Ac from Eu has finally enabled the

2004-01-01

346

The City at Stake:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively), thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

Sophie Esmann Andersen; Anne Ellerup Nielsen

2009-01-01

347

Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282). Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%), under 40 years of age (64.5%) and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00). We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8%) among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209), 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

Suguimoto S Pilar; Ono-Kihara Masako; Feldman Mitchell D; Kihara Masahiro

2012-01-01

348

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ?60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

2004-09-03

349

Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to...

Oku T; Tanabe K; Ogawa S; Sadamori N; Nakamura S

350

Walkout in Crystal City  

Science.gov (United States)

When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

351

Lost City News Release  

Science.gov (United States)

This press release from the National Science Foundation provides an overview of the 2003 expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the Atlantis Massif. It briefly describes the expedition, features of the Lost City, research results and implications for future discoveries. Photos and images accompany the text.

Affairs, Office O.; Foundation, National S.

352

Modernizing city hall  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Bernardino (Calif.) City Hall is a six-story building with a penthouse and basement containing more than 100,000 ft{sup 2} (9,290 m{sup 2}) of conditioned space. The occupancies include offices, the City Council chambers, council member offices, and 24-hour computer facilities. The city was concerned about energy costs in an environment of declining city revenues. The city wanted to modernize the facility by replacing the chiller plant, solve some deferred maintenance issues, be environmentally responsible by eliminating CFCs, and maintain both comfort and indoor air quality. However, this would have to be accomplished without any impact on the city`s general fund. It was also necessary to keep the City Hall in operation during the renovation and have minimal impact on the comfort of the occupants. This project demonstrates that, where the facility managers take a pro-active interest in energy conservation, it is possible to find opportunities for self-funded projects that modernize cash- strapped municipal facilities by combining lighting and HVAC energy efficiency measures.

Tamney, J.E.

1997-03-01

353

Marriage and the City  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset.

Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael

2005-01-01

354

Universities Scale Like Cities  

CERN Multimedia

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

van Raan, Anthony F J

2012-01-01

355

[Regional differences in prevalence of anemia found by periodic health checkups at workplaces in Japan].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anemia-related blood examinations are included in examinations for periodic health checkups at workplaces designated by the Industrial Safety and Health Law in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were regional differences in the prevalence of anemia in workers and, if so, to investigate possible reasons for the differences. Relationships between prevalence of anemia found by periodic health checkups and some common factors related to anemia in each prefecture of Japan were investigated by ecological regression analysis using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. There were regional differences in the prevalence of anemia in the prefectures of Japan (5.2-11.7%), and high prevalence was observed in prefectures in the northeastern district, such as Iwate, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, and in Fukui, Shimane and Nagasaki Prefectures. Prevalence of anemia in each prefecture was significantly correlated with the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver dysfunction, abnormality in ECG, hyperglycemia or glucosuria at health checkups in each prefecture. Prevalence of anemia in each prefecture was significantly correlated with the percentage of patients receiving therapy for anemia in each prefecture but not with the prevalence of myoma uteri, endometriosis uteri or mortality of uterus cancer in each prefecture. There was also no significant correlation of the prevalence of anemia with the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia or dietary iron intake in each prefecture. The prevalence of anemia in each prefecture showed significant positive correlations with the ratio of female population to total population and the ratio of female workers to total workers in each prefecture; it also showed a significant negative correlation with the ratio of the number of large-sized workplaces (300 or more workers) to the number of workplaces with 50 or more workers in each prefecture. A considerable regional difference in the prevalence of anemia was found by periodic health checkups at workplaces, and we consider that this difference is not due to regional differences in the incidence of diseases causing genital bleeding in women but to regional differences in the ratio of female workers to total workers and the status of health control at the workplace, which depends on size of the workplace.

Shimomura T; Wakabayashi I

2010-01-01

356

[Regional differences in prevalence of anemia found by periodic health checkups at workplaces in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Anemia-related blood examinations are included in examinations for periodic health checkups at workplaces designated by the Industrial Safety and Health Law in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were regional differences in the prevalence of anemia in workers and, if so, to investigate possible reasons for the differences. Relationships between prevalence of anemia found by periodic health checkups and some common factors related to anemia in each prefecture of Japan were investigated by ecological regression analysis using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. There were regional differences in the prevalence of anemia in the prefectures of Japan (5.2-11.7%), and high prevalence was observed in prefectures in the northeastern district, such as Iwate, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, and in Fukui, Shimane and Nagasaki Prefectures. Prevalence of anemia in each prefecture was significantly correlated with the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver dysfunction, abnormality in ECG, hyperglycemia or glucosuria at health checkups in each prefecture. Prevalence of anemia in each prefecture was significantly correlated with the percentage of patients receiving therapy for anemia in each prefecture but not with the prevalence of myoma uteri, endometriosis uteri or mortality of uterus cancer in each prefecture. There was also no significant correlation of the prevalence of anemia with the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia or dietary iron intake in each prefecture. The prevalence of anemia in each prefecture showed significant positive correlations with the ratio of female population to total population and the ratio of female workers to total workers in each prefecture; it also showed a significant negative correlation with the ratio of the number of large-sized workplaces (300 or more workers) to the number of workplaces with 50 or more workers in each prefecture. A considerable regional difference in the prevalence of anemia was found by periodic health checkups at workplaces, and we consider that this difference is not due to regional differences in the incidence of diseases causing genital bleeding in women but to regional differences in the ratio of female workers to total workers and the status of health control at the workplace, which depends on size of the workplace. PMID:19942817

Shimomura, Tomoko; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

2009-11-27

357

Harmonizing national with international standards in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a Japanese engineer`s view on harmonization of global standards as the key factor in maintaining and promoting free trade. Japan is endowed with almost no natural resources, and, for this reason, Japan must rely on international trade to sustain its standard of living. Japan fully recognizes that the maintenance and promotion of mutually beneficial free trade is indispensable for cooperation in an international society, and is essential for Japan`s survival. It is very clear that the promotion of the international harmonization of standards is the key factor in the maintenance and promotion of free trade. And Japan is one of the countries most eagerly hoping for its realization. The authors focus on three issues concerning the international harmonization of Japanese standards: (1) Efforts Japan has made for the harmonization of Japanese standards with international ones; (2) natural or tectonic circumstances unique to Japanese standards; and (3) relationship between standard harmonization and international trade.

Hohki, Keiichi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Hammons, T.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

358

Relationship between recurrent liquefaction-induced damage and subsurface conditions in Midorigaoka, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Midorigaoka, Kushiro City, northeast Japan, suffered liquefaction-induced ground failures during four successive earthquakes in the past thirty years. This paper presents the ground failures and their effects to structures observed in Midorigaoka during the earthquakes, and examines the relationships between recurrent liquefaction-induced damage and subsurface conditions. As a result, thick liquefiable fill, slope of the ground surface, and subsurface water conditions, which resulted primarily from filling a marshy valley, are found to be responsible on the damage

2008-07-08

359

@City: technologising Barcelona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS) and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

Rojas, Jesús; Pellicer, Isabel; Santoro, Valeria; Vivas i Elias, Pep

2007-01-01

360

Starrett City energy exchange  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Starrett City/26th Ward Energy Project is a joint effort of Starrett City (a privately owned and operated 5881-unit high rise housing complex located in Brooklyn, NY) and the city of New York Department of Environmental Protection to develop the means to utilize waste-derived energy produced as by-products of municipal waste water treatment. Starrett City, a development of over 20,000 residents with its own schools, shopping and community centers, and power plant, is located directly across the street from the City of New York's 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant. Out of five energy exchange options, a cooperative project team recommended three: (1) transmitting all digester gas from the 26th Ward wastewater sewage-treatment facility to Starrett's cogeneration-type total energy plant (TEP), (2) piping hot water from the Starrett TEP to provide space and process heat to the 26th Ward, and (3) pumping treated effluent from the 26th Ward to the TEP to eliminate the need for Starrett's cooling tower. Starrett City assumed all installation and maintenance costs, both on city property and the TEP. Starrett projects a 53$ million saving in fuel costs over the next 20 years. The project will serve as a model for similar energy resource development efforts and offer the rationale for the private sector and municipalities to build together for the future.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Globalization and cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and developing countries (including post-socialist). Urban policy and urban regime concepts are analysed in the third part, by focusing on economic competitiveness and democratic potentials of (developed, developing and post-socialist) cities in the global world. Finally, paper concludes that new analytical concepts on cities developed since the1970’s actually deconstruct and reconstitute inherited forms of urban analysis with more or less success. Increased importance of cities as socio-economic actors in global economy has not contributed to the closure of the developmental gap. Contrary to that, it has been reproducing according to the new regulatory principles.

Petrovi? Mina

2004-01-01

362

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

NONE

1996-12-03

363

Power generation technologies in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cumulated power generating capacity in Japan as per March 1992 amounted to 204 GW, of which 150 GW (77%) was contributed by the utilities, 27 GW (13%) by regional suppliers, and 20 GW (10%) by industrial producers. Of the 204 GW capacity 63% was in fossil fired power plants, 17% in nuclear power plants, and 20% in hydroelectric stations. The fossil fuels used in energy generation break down into oil (47%), liquefied natural gas (38%), and coal (15%). Electricity generation in Japan totals 789 TWh, of which 61% is produced from fossil fuels, 27% from nuclear fuels, and 12% from water power. Major areas of interest in nuclear power generation are the development of the advanced light water reactor line, the commercialization of the faster breeder, and the establishment of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. (orig.).

1994-01-01

364

Biomedical materials research in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The state of research in biomedical materials, particularly biomedical polymers, in Japan as of July 1981 is summerized. Based on visits to approximately 30 universities, research institutes, and medical schools, this report does not cover every relevant research group in Japan. References to provide further information to readers in selected areas are included, including recent articles by Japanese scientists that are written in English or have an English abstract. R and D in the areas of artificial heart blood pumps, artificial organs, bioenergetics, polymers for pharmaceutical use, the biocompatibility and structure of hydrogels, and the synthesis of photosensitive materials is discussed. The authors note that the Japanese Ministry of Education published a major report, approx. 600 pages long and containing 80 separate reports, which dealt with various aspects of basis research on biomedical polymers from 1977 to 1980.

Anderson, J.M.

1982-09-01

365

US-Japan Data Linkage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial testing of the US-Japan Data Link has proceeded and the entire system is approaching operational status. An overview of the technical structure of the linkage is given. The file transport and interactive terminal capabilities are discussed and specific example are included. Some considerations of the initial use and scope of allowed activities, and the management of the Linkage are also outlined. (author).

1985-01-01

366

Development of IGCC in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research and development and current status of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in Japan is outlined. The technology is to be used in electric utilities for coal utilization, because of its efficiency and for environmental protection. The results of pilot plant studies on the IGCC based air blown and oxygen blown gasifiers are reported. Research and development is continuing to scale up both gasifier types. 7 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs., 2 photos.

Mimaki, T. [Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry, Nagasaka (Japan)

1997-09-01

367

Coal liquefaction. [Japan; NEDOL Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Processes for the direct liquefaction of coal are being developed in various countries, and include solvent extraction, two-stage liquefaction and direct hydrocracking. Three processes are being developed in Japan: the NEDOL Process for bituminous coal, a brown coal liquefaction process, and an SRC production process. Indirect liquefaction is carried out via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or the Mobil Process. The properties and uses of coal liquids are described. 35 references.

Kamiya, Y.

1985-01-01

368

Towards the sustainable city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a selection of architectural design projects produced since 1983 by the practice of Stephen Greenberg and Dean Hawkes. Each of these, in some way, incorporates aspects of the research into low-energy design which has followed the increase in energy costs which occurred in the early 1970s. The aim of the paper is to show how these individual projects may be seen collectively as elements of a low-energy city, or as steps towards the idea of a sustainable city. The paper develops a critique of this proposition and concludes with a speculation about the nature of the truly sustainable city. (author)

Hawkes, Dean [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Architecture

1995-04-01

369

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

NONE

1996-02-20

370

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

NONE

1996-05-07

371

JapanÂs Pop Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Not so long ago, young people in the United States borrowed extensively from European consumer fashions and tastes to create trends in a variety of areas. For a time in the early 1990s, all things that dealt with former Communist regimes were all the rage, and Anglophilia has been a common condition since the cult of people who have found Queen Elizabeth and the Beatles fashionable. These days, many young people around the world are flocking to countries such as Japan and South Korea for the latest trends in popular culture. This fun and intriguing radio documentary from the American RadioWorks group takes visitors inside the world of JapanÂs pop culture products, with stops to visit an anime convention and such. Utilizing a visual interface that resembles a typical manga comic book, visitors can look through the available audio segments, or listen to the program in its entirety. The site is rounded out by a selection of links and resources that will be of interest to those who are seeking more material on the world of contemporary popular culture in Japan.

2006-01-01

372

Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

2007-01-01

373

Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

2011-03-01

374

Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures.

Okubo T

2012-10-01

375

Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study.

Douple EB; Mabuchi K; Cullings HM; Preston DL; Kodama K; Shimizu Y; Fujiwara S; Shore RE

2011-03-01

376

Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures. PMID:22908354

Okubo, Toshiteru

2012-08-19

377

The sustainable city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural marshes are replacing expensive man-made sewage treatment plants. Leaves that once wound up in landfills are now enhancing soils. Ecological landscaping is cooling entire communities and reducing energy use. In coming to view our cities as ecosystems, we are learning to apply the concepts and principles that have sustained rural forests and farms for generations. The question now is, how can those concepts be applied to cities, and how can individual citizens - as well as community leaders - act to improve the sustainability of the places they call home. This article discusses the following topics in reference to developing cities which can sustain themselves: energy efficiency; pollution and waste reduction; capturing natural processes (taking advantage of species that thrive in and benefit the city); merging ecological, economic, and social factors. 6 figs.

Gangloff, D.

1995-05-01

378

Improving the City environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs.

1995-01-01

379

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

2001-11-02

380

A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW), Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO) in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including typical depressive states. Suffocations/hangings are the most common methods used to commit suicide by both sexes. Utilities and interactions among these several components were considered, as well as a perspective of suicidal behavior. Conclusion. In order to prevent suicide and avoid the worst tragedy for a family, it is an essential requirement to collect and analyze any information concerning suicide victims.

Yamamura Takehiko; Kinoshita Hiroshi; Nishiguchi Minori; Hishida Shigeru

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Japan`s energy supply-demand situation and long-term forecast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given statistics on Japan`s energy flow (1994), energy consumption by sector (1965-94) and advanced countries` energy consumption by sector (1993). Forecasts are given for primary energy supply and final energy consumption by sector (1994, 2005, 2015).

Kudo, H.

1996-05-01

382

Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

2009-01-01

383

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)  

Science.gov (United States)

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

384

[Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature.

Haneda J; Shiobara Y; Inui M; Sekiguchi T; Sato Y; Takayama Y; Kikuno R; Okuda S; Inoue M; Sasahara T

2006-11-01

385

Bioaccumulation of nitroarenes in bivalves at Osaka Bay, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports for the first time the detection and occurrence of nitroarenes (NPAHs) in marine organisms. Mussels and oysters collected from Osaka Bay, Japan, had total NPAHs concentrations that ranged from 2380 to 24,688 pg/g dry and 2672 to 25,961 pg/g dry, respectively. Relatively higher concentrations were detected in sampling sites located near the central district and suburbs of Osaka City implying that the most probable sources of NPAHs in the two bivalves are exhaust gases and smokes emitted by automobiles and industrial plants. Bivalves had relatively higher residues of 1-nitronaphthalene, 2-nitronaphthalene, 3-nitrophenanthrene, and 9-nitrophenanthrenes. Residues of 2-nitrofluorene, 1-nitropyrene, 4-nitropyrenes, and 6-nitrochrysene were much lower compared to nitronaphthalenes and nitrophenanthrenes. Inter-species differences was only observed for 2-nitronaphthalene with oysters exhibiting significantly higher residues than mussels.

Uno S; Tanaka H; Miki S; Kokushi E; Ito K; Yamamoto M; Koyama J

2011-01-01

386

Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

2009-01-01

387

Japan nuclear ship sea trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

1992-01-01

388

Japan Biotech Forum: London 2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Japan Biotech Forum, held in London, included topics covering new licensing developments in the Japanese pharma and biotech industries. This conference report highlights selected presentations on licensing opportunities from several Japanese companies, including CanBas, LivTech, REGiMMUNE, D Western Therapeutics Institute and Chiome Bioscience. Investigational drugs discussed include CBP-501 (CanBas), LIV-2008 (LivTech), RGI-2001 (REGiMMUNE), IVX-214 (D Western Therapeutics Institute/ Nippon Shinyaku) and anti-Sema 3A (Chiome Bioscience).

Al-Shamahi A

2010-11-01

389

Coal exploration technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four examples of coal exploration technologies in Japan have been selected from a NEDO survey for this article. They are entitled. seismic reflection survey by the crooked line method applied to coalfield in a mountainous region; b) application of seismic reflection survey by bay cable method in the shallow area at Ariake Bay; c) three dimensional seismic reflection survey conducted at offshore Nishisonogi District drilling exploration by semi-submersible drilling rig at Offshore Kushiro; e) Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP, survey at Offshore Drilling No. 62-Kushi-2 in Offshore Kushiro District. 28 figs., 11 tabs.

Inoue, M. (Japan Technical Cooperation Center for Coal Resources Development (Japan))

1991-07-01

390

Coal energy projects in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation describes the research currently being carried out in Japan, under the aegis of the `Sunshine Project, with the objective of obtaining energy from coal. Details are presented of two mains areas of research and development - coal liquefaction and coal gasification. The coal liquefaction projects include: brown coal liquefaction and bituminous coal liquefaction using solvent extraction solvolysis and hydrogenation. The coal gasification projects included: hydrogen production and power generation using IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles). Other future coal conversion projects are also mentioned. 5 figs.

Shimada, H.; Murayama, T. [Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Agency of Industrial Science Technology

1994-03-01

391

Universities scale like cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

van Raan AF

2013-01-01

392

Hamilton : the electric city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

2006-01-01

393

The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shrinking mining cities — once prosperous settlements servicing a mining site or a system of mining sites — are characterized by long-term population and/or economic decline. Many of these towns experience periods of growth and shrinkage, mirroring the ebbs and flows of international mineral markets which determine the fortunes of the dominant mining corporation upon which each of these towns heavily depends. This dependence on one main industry produces a parallel development in the fluctuations of both workforce and population. Thus, the strategies of the main company in these towns can, to a great extent, determine future developments and have a great impact on urban management plans. Climate conditions, knowledge, education and health services, as well as transportation links, are important factors that have impacted on lifestyles in mining cities, but it is the parallel development with the private sector operators (often a single corporation) that constitutes the distinctive feature of these cities and that ultimately defines their shrinkage. This article discusses shrinking mining cities in capitalist economies, the factors underpinning their development, and some of the planning and community challenges faced by these cities in Australia, Canada, Japan and Mexico.

Martinez-Fernandez C; Wu CT; Schatz LK; Taira N; Vargas-Hernández JG

2012-01-01

394

Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The institutional framework adopted by the Japanese Government to address climate change is outlined and the actions taken by the Government summarised. Issues and actions for regional cooperation are given - these include contribution to the Global Environment Facility, holding a seminar and a summit on climate change, and participating in activities implemented jointly, and in the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research.

Nagayama, T. [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Global Environment Dept.

1998-12-31

395

75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

396

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

397

Water in the City  

Science.gov (United States)

Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.

398

City profile Aberdeen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Aberdeen can trace its origins, many of its buildings and street patterns back over hundreds of years, it is the last three decades that have radically affected and shaped the modem city. The discovery of North Sea oil and the decision by the major oil companies to centre their exploration and development activities in Aberdeen has provided a unique opportunity, though one that has brought associated and significant problems of growth management. Oil-related prosperity has been accompanied by growing economic disparities, pressure for new housing and commercial development and demands for investment in transport infrastructure. The management of development versus conservation tensions, as well as the need to ensure oil-related growth benefits the whole community, have led to unique and groundbreaking public-private partnerships in the city. As the significance of oil in the local economy wanes attention is now increasingly being focused on how to ensure the longer term prosperity of the city. (Author)

Tiesdell, Steve; Allmendinger, Phil [Aberdeen Univ., European Urban and Regional Research Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

2004-04-01

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Life in the City  

Science.gov (United States)

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a close-up look at biodiversity in a city park. The site opens by telling kids that, despite appearances, a great deal of biodiversity exists in cities. From tiny mites to mighty trees, thousands of species thrive there. It then takes them to a slice of life from a thriving city park, where they are asked to find 10 hidden critters living alongside the trees, plants, and insects. Each time they locate one of the tiny critters, they are rewarded with a quick look at its importance to the habitat.

400

CITY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and outline the involvement of local government and citizens in sustainable development. In other words, in this paper will highlight that good local government collaboration with citizens leads to support economic and sustainable city. The phrase "city motor development" is very common in the development strategies of each city, but we meet frequently and lips each represented locally. Importance of the work is given by observing citizen involvement in local development projects, but also re-elected their views on problems and potential solutions, both short and long term sustainability. Mention that this scientific approach, without intending to limit the approach as a process of local development, I look at two related areas of analysis: economic and administrative.

CAMELIA MARIN; ISABELLA SIMA; ALINA VOICULE?; MIHAELA RUXANDA

2012-01-01