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1

The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

1994-12-01

2

Multiprefectural Spread of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Attributable to a Single Genogroup II Norovirus Strain from a Tourist Restaurant in Nagasaki, Japan  

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A series of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NVs) among tourist groups from several prefectures was associated with eating a lunch prepared by a restaurant in Nagasaki City, Japan, on 18 and 19 November 2003. A retrospective cohort study was performed to estimate the magnitude of the outbreak and identify the source of infection. Epidemiological information was obtained through the local public health centers in the areas where the illness occurred. Stool and vomit specimens a...

Hirakata, Yoichi; Arisawa, Kokichi; Nishio, Osamu; Nakagomi, Osamu

2005-01-01

3

Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb.

Saito-Kokubu, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp; Esaka, F. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Magara, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyamoto, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Usuda, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamazaki, H. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yoshikawa, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nagaoka, S. [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

2007-04-15

4

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 2; Cases in the three major hospitals of Nagasaki city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Report 1 of this series, we described that, in the cultured cells of skin tissues, chromosomal aberrations seemingly induced by A-bomb exposure were observed in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, especially in those proximally exposed, and some of these cells with chromosomal aberrations formed clones. Based on these findings, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors might have increased. In this study, we tried to clarify the incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded at the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. One hundred and ten cases of skin cancer were collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City and were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter. The results were as follows: A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01). However, no such correlation was observed in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

5

The cancer registry in Nagasaki City, with atomic bomb survivors data, 1973-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tumor registry program in Nagasaki City was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population and a tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. According to the chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City, an increasing trend was shown in males for cancer of the colon, rectum, lung, urinary bladder, and for all sites combined, and, in females for cancer of the colon, pancreas, and breast. No decreasing trend was observed for any site in males, while a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. In comparison with age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in other prefectures and cities in 1979, the rates in Nagasaki City are high for both males and females. Sites with a tendency for high rates, in Nagasaki City, are, for males, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and lymphoid tissue, and for females, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, lung, breast, and lymphoid tissue. From these data, it is necessary to ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors than in nonexposed persons. According to the Nagasaki City tumor and tissue registry data for 1973 - 77, the crude incidence rate and relative risk for several cancers were higher in A-bomb survivors and well correlated with the radiation dose. However, the adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes. Histopathological difference between cancer tissue of A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons was not detected. In general, it is premature to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences of malignancy between A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons, although an increase in cancer incidence and mortality is a recognized late effect of exposure to A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

1986-01-01

6

The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

1980-01-01

7

Antifungal Susceptibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus Clinical Isolates Obtained in Nagasaki, Japan  

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We investigated the triazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin susceptibilities of 196 A. fumigatus clinical isolates in Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates for which MICs of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were above the ECV were 7.1%, 2.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. A G54 mutation in cyp51A was detected in 64.2% (9/14 isolates) and 100% (5/5 isolates) of non-WT isolates for itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs of ?2 ?g/...

Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi; Minematsu, Asuka; Hirano, Katsuji; Iwanaga, Naoki; Ide, Shotaro; Mihara, Tomo; Hosogaya, Naoki; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Kurihara, Shintaro; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Nishino, Tomoya

2012-01-01

8

Current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors suffering from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors.

Mine, M.; Nakamura, T.; Mori, H.; Kondo, H.; Okajima, S. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-07-01

9

The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

1981-01-01

10

Statistical investigation of a-bomb survivors health examinations in Nagasaki City, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical investigation was made as to results of hematological examinations in male A-bomb survivors picked out from 60,000 A-bomb survivors (the total cases, 600,000) in Nagasaki city who received general health examinations from 1965 to 1979. With respect to the exposed who were young at the time of exposure (their age; under 12 years, the mean age at the time of exposure; 6.4 years, and the mean age at the time of examinations; 33.7 years), there was a significant difference in hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure between a short-distance group exposed within 1.8 km from the center of explosion and a long-distance group exposed over 2.4 km between the age 30 and 35 years. Systematic changes in erythrocyte count and white cell count were not found. With respect to the exposed who had grown up at the time of exposure (the age at the time of exposure; over 13 years, the mean age at the time of exposure; 29.7 years, and the mean age at the time of examinations; 57.0 years), erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and white cell count in both a short-distance group and a long-distance group tended to decrease in accordance with aging. Systolic blood pressure elevated in accordance with aging, but there was not a significant difference between both groups. (Tsunoda, M.)

1980-01-01

11

Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

1988-01-01

12

Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study

1990-01-01

13

Epidemiology of lung cancer in Nagasaki City with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted on 1057 cases (462 exposed and 595 nonexposed) of lung cancer resistered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence of lung cancer in either sex tended to be higher in A - bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, particulaly in older age, than in the nonexposed but not significantly different. By histological type, adenocarcinoma was the most frequent in both sexes and both the exposed and nonexposed, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. In A - bomb survivors, adenocarcinoma was more frequent in males compared with the nonexposed, but the difference in relative distribution by histologic type between the exposure and nonexposure groups was not significant. Further analysis of histologic type of lung cancer in the high dose and younger age radiation groups are necessary. (author)

1986-01-01

14

Strong association of fallout plutonium with humic and fulvic acid as compared to uranium and 137Cs in Nishiyama soils from Nagasaki, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the formation of mobile organic plutonium, the plutonium contents of the fulvic (FA) and humic (HA) acids were analyzed from the soil samples obtained at Nishiyama, Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of the plutonium bound strongly to HA and to FA vs. the total plutonium in the soil were 5-10% and 1%, respectively, at the depth of 0-0.1 m, much higher values than those of 137Cs and uranium. After being weathered for 51 years under a temperate climate, the initial highfired oxides of fallout plutonium have become as chemically reactive plutonium from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. (author)

1999-04-01

15

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among Atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in clinical laboratory findings before death were investigated based on the data in 621 patients (323 males and 298 females) extracted from the Scientific Data Center of Atomic-Bomb Disasters, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. A decrease in hemoglobin level and an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate began to occur 2 years before death in many of the patients with cancer, cerebrovascular disease or heart disease. (Namekawa, K.)

1984-01-01

16

Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

1989-02-01

17

Retrospective gamma dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation doses of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been a subject of great importance for several decades, whose estimated dose depends on it, and second to all the peoples of the world, because estimates of radiation cancer risks are based mainly on the studies of the survivors. The T65D (tentative 1965 dose) was built using the BREN (Bared Reactor Experiment Nevada) reactor by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At that time, in Japan, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) group determined neutron doses using the 60Co activities induced in iron bars in some concrete buildings. The Nara University of Education (NEU) and the NIRS independently estimated gamma doses within about 1 km from the hypocenter in both cities using a thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry technique of quartz samples prepared from building materials (bricks, tiles etc.) exposed to the atomic bombs. For neutrons and gamma rays, the Japanese data were considerably good agreement with the T65D. However, in 1980, Loewe and Mendelthsohn pointed out some differences between the T65D and their calculation data based on the recommended spectra by Preeg in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The US-Japan Joint Workshop for Reassessment of A-bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for shortly US-Japan Joint Workshop was established, and then the reassessment of the A-bomb radiation jointly conducted by Japan and the United States is fundamental issue of vital importance to many fields of science and has attracted much attention internationally. Fortunately, since around 1975, the TL apparatuses became commercially available in the world. In the field of archaeology, the TL dosimetry of quartz was mostly developed for the dating of potteries and others. So that, since 1980, various TL techniques such as the quartz inclusion and the predose techniques were available for the DS86 and DS02. In the DS86, the intercomparison of TL dosimetry was carried out among two British groups, one US group and two Japanese groups. On the DS86 and DS02, gamma doses (up to about 2km from the hypocenter) by the Japanese TL dosimetry were considerably good agreements with the calculated data by the US group. (author)

2006-07-01

18

Depositional records of plutonium and {sup 137}Cs released from Nagasaki atomic bomb in sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a sediment core of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki city, depth profiles of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotopic ratio, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs activities were determined. Sediments containing plutonium and {sup 137}Cs, which were deposited immediately after a detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb, were identified in the core. Observed below the sediments were macroscopic charcoals, providing evidence for initial deposit of the fallout of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. This is the first entire depositional records of plutonium and {sup 137}Cs released from the Nagasaki atomic bomb together with those from atmospheric nuclear tests.

Saito-Kokubu, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp; Yasuda, K.; Magara, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Sakurai, S.; Usuda, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamazaki, H. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yoshikawa, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nagaoka, S. [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Mitamura, M.; Inoue, J.; Murakami, A. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

2008-01-15

19

Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011. PMID:23920726

Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

2013-01-01

20

Increase of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among a total of 66,276 atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases of skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City; and they were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, age, sex, histology, and latent period. The results were as follows: 1. A high correlation was obsreved between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance. 2. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to the exposure distance.

Sadamori, Naoki; Hori, Makoto; Mine, Mariko and others

1989-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Temporomandibular disorders in the adult population of Okayama City, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to discover the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Japan, and the difference in the prevalence among various sex and age groups in the Japanese population, 672 individuals (304 males and 368 females, age range 20-92 years) were selected randomly in Okayama City, Japan, and were investigated by means of questionnaires and clinical examinations. The reported frequency of symptoms was: TMJ sounds 24%, facial-TMJ-jaw pain 11%, headache 27%, teeth clenching 30%, and grinding 34%. The percent frequency of the following signs was: impaired mouth opening 5%, clicking 46%, reciprocal clicking 20%, crepitus 19%, TMJ tenderness 6%, and masticatory muscle tenderness 21%. The subjects with TMJ clicking were more frequently females than males. TMD signs and symptoms were found to be common in all age groups, but they were fewer in the older than in the younger age group. The younger-aged subjects with clicking appeared with significant frequency, whereas crepitus was populated with significant frequency by the oldest age group. PMID:8949871

Matsuka, Y; Yatani, H; Kuboki, T; Yamashita, A

1996-04-01

22

Study on Comparison of Citizens’ Environmental Awareness Among Four Cities in China and Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to compare governmental activities and citizens’ consciousness in environmental protection in China and Japan. The citizens’ environmental awareness and the relevant acts were examined by designing and distributing questionnaires to citizens in urban and rural cities in China and Japan. The results demonstrate that there are more differences between the two countries than between urban and rural cities inside the same country. Chinese people pay more attention to local sev...

Lin, Yingchao; Fujii, Masahiko; Wang, Peng

2011-01-01

23

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis

1989-01-01

24

Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

2005-12-01

25

Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

2012-05-01

26

FURTHER MAPPING OF THE NATALITY CHRONOME IN TODA CITY (JAPAN) MATERNITY HOSPITAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate any circannual and/or circaseptan variations in birth incidence and birth weight in Toda City (Japan), data on 4,411 consecutive births were obtained from the city’s Maternity Hospital between 1 Jan 1999 and 31 Dec 2001. Data were analysed by cosinor separately for babies with birth weights in given ranges, and separately for boys and girls born at different gestational ages. A circannual rhythm was detected with statistical significance (P=0.047) for birth incidence...

Yamanaka, T.; Corne?lissen, G.; Kazuma, M.; Kazuma, N.; Murakami, S.; Otsuka, K.; Siegelova?, J.; Dus?ek, J.; Sosi?kova?, M.; Halberg, F.

2005-01-01

27

Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m-3 and 40.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m-3 and 13.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

1992-03-18

28

Learning cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to engage in cultural processes, community building and personal development as the new way of urban life. Learning was perceived to be a panacea to solve the social problems occurring in overwhelming processes of modernisation and industrialisation. The authors of this paper assert that the practice of and research on learning cities, especially in the East Asian region, need to go beyond the technical rationalities which are guiding government tools, and explain the realities to which they are meant to be applied. In order to do this, the authors investigated three separate but inter-connected scenes found in Japan, the Republic of Korea and China, revealing that the learning city is a phenomenon which reflects complex social dynamics and the interaction of many minds. While the cases in this region are distinctive, they do share some common characteristics. The authors place these within what they term a "community relations model", which they contrast with the "individual competence model" which is usually found in initiatives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and schemes implemented in the area of the European Union (EU).

Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

2013-09-01

29

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

1987-01-01

30

Survey of dental radiology among RERF, Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed to assess the frequency and type of dental radiography performed during 2-week periods from March through June 1976. Patients radiographed were categorized as members of the Adult Health Study (AHS), non-AHS (Extended Life Span Study other than AHS) sample and general populations, and also categorized as Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Handbook holders (the A-bomb exposed) and nonholders of the handbook (the nonexposed). All of these groups were variously compared. They were mainly exposed to conventional oral radiography, and to a much lesser extent(3%-5%) to orthopantomography. The exposure frequencies for oral radiography per caput per year in Hiroshima were 1.2 for AHS, 0.9 for non-AHS, and 0.9 for the general population. In Nagasaki, these were 0.9, 1.1, and 0.6, respectively. The oral radiography exposure rates for the A-bomb exposed were 0.6 in Hiroshima and 0.5 in Nagasaki. For the nonexposed, these were 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Thus, the exposure rates were about 1.5 times greater among the nonexposed than the exposed in both cities. The analysis of technical factors used revealed that, compared to a previous survey (1970), many dental radiographic machines were fitted with open-end cylindrical cones. Because of this a reduction in exposure dose can be inferred. Data obtained in the present investigation are essential for subsequent estimations of exposure doses of the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. (author)

1983-01-01

31

Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 this year, the names of 5,501 hibakusha who had died during the past year were added to the Hiroshima Cenotaph, making the total number of deaths of Hiroshima's hibakusha 269,446. In Nagasaki on August 9, 3,114 names were added to make a total of 152,276. Adding the death tolls from both cities, the total of Hiroshima/Nagasaki deaths as of August, 2010 was 421,722. The total number of hibakusha, including the living and dead, is at least 649,287, and keeping in mind those unaccounted for, it is probably more. Simply put, approximately, one third of hibakusha survive, speaking and living on behalf of all.No matter how many years go by, the number of people who were in or under the fiery clouds from the explosion of the two atomic-bombs, the first to be used against people, will always be the same, whether alive or dead. It includes those who perished instantly at and near the hypocentres, as Maruki Iri and Maruki Toshi described above,4 without ever being able to speak or even comprehend their own experience. It is for those dead and living people that we younger generations are acting and speaking on behalf of, and from whom we learn. And having fewer, or even none, of those surviving people will in no way diminish the significance of our actions, our shared memories, and our knowledge, to be inherited by future generations, so that never again will nuclear weapons be used, in combat or in experiments.

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-12-01

32

Japan'  

...Japan's #2 paper: Phase out nuclear, shift to renewable energy - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About ...MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2011 / July / 17 / Japan's #2 paper: Phase out nuclear, shift to renewable energy Posted on July 17, 2011 ...Japan's #2 paper: Phase out nuclear, shift to renewable energy “The government has no choice but to change its energy policy in the direction ...of reducing Japan’s dependence on nuclear power and expanding the use of renewable sources.” These editorials were published in the July 13 edition ...

33

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5; Characteristics of their skin cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

34

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4; Chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author).

Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro

1990-02-01

35

Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. The enormous difference in dose rates between the atomic bombings and the radiation sources used for calibration experiments may also have some effect on some dosimetric systems or on some biological systems. Although it may be difficult to quantify some of these uncertainties, it is extremely important to keep all these uncertain factors in mind when analysing the atomic bomb effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Japan, medical X-ray examination is compulsory in schools, factories and companies. With certain diseases such as tuberculosis and some diseases of the lung and digestive systems extensive X-ray examinations may be conducted and periodically repeated. Survivors with a relatively low dose of high dose rate atomic bomb radiation must also have received some relatively low dose of low dose rate medical X-ray radiation. In other words, they must have received both high dose rate radiation and low dose rate radiation. There is a possibility of non-probabilistic uncertainties involved in estimation of the relative proportion of the two types of radiation and even greater uncertainties would be involved in the estimation of the organ doses. In these uncertainties both randomness and fuzziness may be involved.Under such situation it may be important to consider application of fuzzy theory for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiations, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. Therefore, the possibility of the combined effects of all these direct factors and the indirect factors such as those mentioned above must be considered in interpreting the effect of the atomic b

1996-01-01

36

Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A measurement of indoor radon ([sup 222]Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ([sup 220]Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m[sup -3] and 40.6 Bq m[sup -3], respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m[sup -3] and 13.6 Bq m[sup -3], respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author).

Yonehara, Hidenori; Aoyama, Takashi (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)); Radford, E.P.; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu

1992-01-01

37

Sensitivity of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic inferences to dosimetric parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the influence that various possible values of physical dosimetric parameters can have on radiobiological interpretations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic data is analyzed. Neutron RBE's (relative biological effectiveness values) calculated from the resulting dose-response relationships are found to be most sensitive to variations in device yield, with a sensitivity ratio (SR) of 1.2 (12% change resulting from 10% parameter change). The RBE's are also very sensitive to neutron output alone (SR = 0.7) of the Hiroshima device. They are least sensitive to gamma-ray output (SR = 0.4) of the Hiroshima device. Gamma-ray risk coefficients, which depend only on Nagasaki data, are inversely proportional to the gamma-ray output (and device yield) of the Nagasaki device. On the basis of the assumption that neutrons could not have been protective, results from this analysis suggest limits on certain physical parameters - device yields and gamma-ray outputs for both cities. No such limits, however, are found for reasonable values of Hiroshima neutron output, and this parameter has the potential for strongly influencing inferences regarding neutron RBE

1981-09-16

38

Japan'  

...Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable Nuclear Crisis - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews ...MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2011 / March / 14 / Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable Nuclear Crisis Posted on March 14, 2011 Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable ... Nuclear Crisis Where the first two catastrophes were natural and unpredictable, a nuclear meltdown is entirely unnatural and entirely predictable. by Dr....Oil spill showed the inherent dangers of the oil economy, the current nuclear crisis in Japan shows that nuclear power is not a solution....

39

Geological distribution of plutonium isotopes of Nagasaki atomic bomb spread over Nagasaki and Kumamoto area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our precious studies, we measured 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in soils to determine the plutonium derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb. We found the atomic bomb plutonium was carried from the hypocenter toward the eastern area and also reached a part of the northern area in Kumamoto Prefecture. In this study, we measured atomic ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and concentrations of 239+240Pu in soil samples and determined the detailed distribution of the plutonium in Nagasaki Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture. The concentrations of 239+240Pu were comparable with the background level which was observed in soils collected at other prefectures in Japan. In consideration of the precious results, N1 samples collected at Nishiyama area (about 3 km east of hypocenter) was higher than those in other area. This means that the atomic bomb plutonium was deposited in Nishiyama area. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were between 0.12-0.21. With the results of the previous study, ratios of 0.03-0.15 were observed in the samples N1, N2, N5, N*, N6, K4, K*, P5 and P6. These values were relatively lower than global fallout value (0.176). It indicated that the atomic bomb plutonium was deposited between 2 km and about 100 km east from the hypocenter and about 30 km north and south wide. The area which the plutonium was deposited was consistent with area which a cloud of the atomic bomb passed over. This means the plutonium released from the atomic bomb was taken into the cloud and carried. Then a lot of the plutonium fell onto the Nishiyama area and a part of them was carried to Shimabara Peninsula and Kumamoto area. In Nagasaki Prefecture, area which the soil has low 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was not uniform distribution in the area which a cloud of the atomic bomb passed over. It is possibly that the plutonium was deposited with 'Black rain' and the deposition of the plutonium was affected by geographical features. (author)

2006-11-01

40

Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ({sup 220}Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m{sup 3} and 26.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author).

Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu

1993-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m3 and 26.5 Bq/m3, respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

1993-01-01

42

JAPAN  

Science.gov (United States)

DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-04

43

Malignant tumors and multiple primary malignant tumors of the atomic-bombed survivors in Nagasaki by autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of 10,674 bodies necropsied in Nagasaki district during 32 years period after World War II, 9,302 were selected, and their malignant tumors and multiple primary malignant tumors were discussed. They were divided into 4 groups, the group exposed within 1,000 m from the hypocenter, the group exposed within 2,000 m, the group exposed over 2,000 m + the group who entered the city after the explosion, and the non-exposed group who were born before the explosion. The percentage of cases of malignant tumors (4,784) was 51.4%, which was almost the same as the average in Japan. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors (112 cases of double cancer and 7 cases of triple cancer) was 2.48% of all malignant tumors, and it did not increase particularly. The incidence of malignant tumors and multiple malignant tumors tended to increase with the age. The incidence of malignant tumors was a little high in the group exposed within 1,000 m, and the incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer was high in the group exposed near the hypocenter in Nagasaki as same as in Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors was markedly high in the group exposed near the hypocenter. This tendency was also shown in Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple malignant tumors was also high in women. In the group exposed near the hypocenter, there were many cases of digestive cancer or thyroid cancer combined with cancers of other organs. Multiple malignant cancer combined with leukemia was found only in one case. There were many combinations of cancer with cancer, but there was not a relation between a-bomb exposure and cancer or sarcoma. The time of onset of multiple malignant tumors was different in many cases of the exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

1980-01-01

44

Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

1983-01-01

45

Statistical aspects of tumor registries, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical considerations are presented on the tumor registries established for purpose of studying radiation induced carcinoma in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by observing tumors developing in the survivors of these cities. In addition to describing the background and purpose of the tumor registries the report consists of two parts: (1) accuracy of reported tumor cases and (2) statistical aspects of the incidence of tumors based both on a current population and on a fixed sample. Under the heading background, discussion includes the difficulties in attaining complete registration; the various problems associated with the tumor registries; and the special characteristics of tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Beye's a posteriori probability formula was applied to the Type I and Type II errors in the autopsy data of Hiroshima ABCC. (Type I, diagnosis of what is not cancer as cancer; Type II, diagnosis of what is cancer as noncancer.) Finally, the report discussed the difficulties in estimating a current population of survivors; the advantages and disadvantages of analyses based on a fixed sample and on an estimated current population; the comparison of incidence rates based on these populations using the 20 months' data of the tumor registry in Hiroshima; and the sample size required for studying radiation induced carcinoma. 10 references, 1 figure, 8 tables.

Ishida, M.

1961-02-24

46

The present state of the medical record data base for the A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been 13 years since the operation of medical record data base for A-bomb survivors was started in the Scientific Data Center for Atomic Bomb Disaster at the Nagasaki University. This paper presents the basic data in handling the data base. The present data base consists of the following 6 items: (1) 'fundamental data' for approximately 120,000 A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors' handbook who have been living in Nagasaki City; (2) 'Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital's data', covering admission medical records in the ward of internal medicine; (3) 'pathological data', covering autopsy records in Nagasaki City; (4) 'household data reconstructed by the survey data'; (5) 'second generation A-bomb survivors data', including the results of mass screening since 1979, and (6) 'address data'. Based on the data, the number of A-bomb survivors, diagnosis records at the time of death, the number of A-bomb survivors' participants in health examination, tumor registration, records of admission to the internal ward in Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital, autopsy records, and household records are tabulated in relation to annual changes, age at the time of A-bombing, distance from the hypocenter, or sex. (N.K.).

Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1992-03-01

47

Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan: outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

Hayashi,Hoei

2005-04-01

48

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

Loewe, W.E.

1983-09-01

49

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

1983-09-13

50

Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

2000-03-01

51

Incidence of leukemia in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki October 1950 - December 1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present analysis of leukemia incidence is confined to 189 cases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The analysis again demonstrates that the risk of all types of leukemia has increased with dose in both cities except among individuals who received less than 100 rad in kerma total dose in Nagasaki. The shape of the dose-response curve is different in the two cities and between the two major types of leukemia (acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia), though the average marrow total dose is quite similar in each total kerma dose class in the two cities. The present findings are quite consistent with those described in the previous report. The excess risk among survivors who received 100 rad or more kerma total dose has gradually declined with years after exposure in both cities. It had disappeared among Nagasaki survivors by 1970 (25 years after exposure) but the risk was still high even after 1970 among exposed survivors in Hiroshima who were 30 years of age or older ATB. The leukemogenic effect of radiation differs in relation to dose, age ATB, and duration after exposure between Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The analysis has again supported previous observations that the leukemogenic effect of radiation in those individuals exposed at younger ages ATB was greater in the early postbomb period and declined more rapidly in subsequent years, while the effect in older individuals ATB appeared later and persisted longer. (author)

1982-01-01

52

Statement at Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, 15 December 2012, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When disaster struck at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the IAEA offered immediate assistance to the Plant operators and the Japanese authorities as they tried to regain control over the reactors. We began sharing verified information about the accident with the world and helped to channel international assistance to Japan. A high priority was to do everything we could to help ensure the safety of the people of Japan, especially those in Fukushima Prefecture who were most affected by the crisis. I went to Japan a few days after the accident to meet then Prime Minister Kan. I assured him that Japan could count on the support of the entire international community and stressed the need for full transparency. I sent a number of expert teams to assist in areas such as radiological monitoring, food safety, and analysis of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Plant. Four IAEA teams undertook measurements in the Fukushima region, both inside and outside the 20 km evacuation zone. An expert on marine monitoring programmes from the IAEA Environmental Laboratories helped to monitor seawater. Joint teams from the IAEA and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization advised local authorities on technical issues related to food safety and agricultural countermeasures. Some important environmental readings at key points in the unfolding crisis were taken by IAEA experts. Our presence helped to provide reassurance to the people of Japan at a very critical time. It is now one year and nine months since the accident. In that time, we have continued to work closely with Japan. Today, I will sign an important document with Governor Sato of Fukushima Prefecture on our cooperation in the coming years. The IAEA will work closely with the Prefecture in radiation monitoring and decontamination. We will also implement human health projects with Fukushima Medical University.

2012-12-15

53

Background levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City, and influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Vapor phase mercury concentration was determined daily for 1 year (Jan. 1996-Jan. 1997) in order to present the levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City and to estimate the influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan. The atmospheric mercury was collected on a porous gold collector at Kagoshima University and was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry; Kagoshima University of Kagoshima City is located approximately 11 km west of Sakurajima Volcano. The mercury concentration obtained was in the range 1.2-52.5 ng m(-3) (mean 10.8 ng m(-3), n = 169). The atmospheric concentration varied from season to season; the concentration was high in summer and lower in winter. A linear relation was obtained by plotting ln[Hg/ng m(-3)] vs. 1/T for the north, south and west winds with correlation coefficients of -0.76, -0.79 and -0.83, respectively, but no such dependency was found for the east wind (r = -0.035). When the wind is blowing from the east, Kagoshima City is on the leeward side of the volcano. The impact of the fumarolic activity of the volcano on ambient air in the city was evident in the disappearance of temperature dependency with the appearance of the east wind. Atmospheric mercury concentration except for the east wind was considered to be background levels of Kagoshima City. As background levels, 8.1 +/- 5.3 ng m(-3), 14.8 +/- 7.9 ng m(-3), 13.9 +/- 11.7 ng m(-3) and 4.4 +/- 1.6 ng m(-3) (mean +/- S.D.) were obtained for spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. PMID:11032152

Tomiyasu; Nagano; Sakamoto; Yonehara

2000-10-01

54

Circular asymmetry of cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry of cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method, and controlling for age at the time of the bomb, sex, follow-up year, distance from hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that cancer mortality in Hiroshima was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer was higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki also cancer mortality, notably lung cancer mortality, was significantly higher in the westerly direction. Discussed are possible sources of the asymmetry, particularly the possibilities of asymmetry of epidemiologic variables and of radiation exposure, and indications for future work. (author)

1983-01-01

55

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000-200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population

1986-01-01

56

The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester…

Orr, Thomas, Ed.

57

Collaborative modelling-based shelter planning analysis: a case study of the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study, based on a questionnaire survey and workshops, and with a focus on the impact of an earthquake on the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan, develops a collaborative model to assess the allocation of residents to shelters. The current official allocation plan is compared with three alternative allocations developed within the framework of this model. The collaborative model identifies accessibility, amenity, capacity, connectivity, continuity, security, and stability as the basic, necessary criteria for shelter planning. The three alternative allocations are very similar to the local residents' own choice of shelters, but they are quite different from the current official allocation plan, which is supposed to be followed but has achieved relatively low satisfaction among households. The proposed collaborative approach provides an effective tool to assess the officially determined allocation plan by taking into account the viewpoints of local residents, and the results are useful for enhancing community evacuation planning. PMID:24325242

Xu, Wei; Li, Ying; Okada, Norio; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Kajitani, Yoshio; Shi, Peijun

2014-01-01

58

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987). Non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leuk...

T. Iwasaki K. Fukuhisa K. Nishizawa M. Murata S. Kobayashi

1993-01-01

59

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

1982-01-01

60

Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance with the manual, the hospital disaster task force was established. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team coordinated medical support from organizations such as physicians associations, dental associations, self-defence forces medical teams, pharmacists associations, the Japanese Red Cross and relief teams from hospitals all over the country. In three days, the joint relief team directly visited all emergency shelters to make an initial assessment and to collect information about the number and state of health of evacuees, provision of food and drinking water and the availability of electricity, water and sewerage. Outcome: Initial assessment revealed that 35 emergency shelters lacked a sufficient food supply and that 100 shelters had unsanitary conditions. The joint relief team provided the Miyagi Prefecture government and the Ishinomaki municipal government with information about emergency shelters that did not have a sufficient food supply. As of 30 September, the activities of the joint relief teams were completed, and there was no outbreak of communicable diseases in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone. A total of 328 shelters with 46 480 evacuees were managed by the Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team.Discussion: Advanced preparation to quickly establish an initial response system, expertise, and decision-making ability and the ability to get things done are required for disaster response management.

Tadashi Ishii

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Regional characteristics of building supply in a newly developed city in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the author undertook a micro-level analysis of the relationship between landownershipchange and the growth process of Sapporo city. The most important questionsaddressed by this paper are: Why the process occurred?; When did it occur?; Where did ittake place?; Who was responsible?; and, How was it conducted? The author analyzed thelong-term process of building supply and revealed how many renovation cases were identifiedthat were brought about by newly advanced land purchasers, and how many cases werebrought about by original land-owners without land-ownership change.

Jun Tsutsumi

2004-01-01

62

Reevaluation of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry system currently used in analyzing the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data was developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their T65 system was called into question following a new study of the incidence of leukemia in the two cities. H.H. Rossi and C.W. Mays concluded that a worker continually exposed to neutrons at the maximum permissible level recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) stood a chance of developing leukemia that was several times higher than for the average unexposed person. Rossi and Mays recommended the NCRP reduce its permissible doses for neutrons by an order of magnitude. One of the reponses of the NCRP to this recommendation was to set up a Task Group on Atomic-Bomb Dosimetry, under the chairmanship of H.O. Wyckoff, to review the dosimetry for the data that had led to the Rossi-Mays conclusion. This paper reviews the work of this task group which has been divided into 5 areas: bomb spectra, fireball gamma rays, radiation transport, buildings, and depth dose

1982-12-01

63

Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

1989-01-01

64

Zircon fission-track ages of some pyroclastic flow deposits in the Kagoshima city area, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven new fission-track ages of zircons from pyroclastic flow deposits in the Kagoshima City area, southern Kyushu, have been determined by the external detector method. The ages of the deposits are as follows: Omine 1, 2.2 +- 0.4 (+-2 ) m.y.; Omine 3, 0.7 +- 0.2 m.y.; Omine 4, 0.5 +- 0.2 m.y.; Omine 5, 0.5 +- 0.2 m.y.; Kogashira 2, 0.7 +- 0.1 m.y.; Yoshino, 0.5 +- 0.2 m.y. and Mifune, 0.9 +- 0.2 m.y. These data were supplemented with previously determined fission-track ages for the Upper Kakuto, 0.3 +- 0.1 m.y., Lower Kakuto, 0.3 +- 0.1 m.y. and Giono, 2.0 +- 0.4 m.y. to provide time markers for future correlations. All the ages, except the Mifune rhyolite, are consistent with the stratigraphy in the Kagoshima City area. (author)

1983-01-01

65

Radiation transport calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods and data used to calculate the Hiroshima and Nagasaki prompt and delayed radiation fluences for the DS02 study represent a considerable improvement over the methods and data used for the DS86 study. During the intervening sixteen years, enhancements were made in the radiation transport codes and the nuclear data that are used to describe the migration of the neutrons and gamma rays from the bomb location through the intervening air and into, out of and off the surface of the ground. Increased computational capability permits better descriptions of the weapon source spectra and their extension to higher neutron and photon energies. The weapon leakage spectra were generated in the same neutron and gamma-ray energy structures that were used in the transport calculations. No interpolation or fitting of the leakage spectra was necessary, assuring consistent and accurate representations of the data were used in the transport calculations. (J.P.N.)

66

Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

1999-09-01

67

Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

2006-02-01

68

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.2 contains tables of SMR for leukemia. (J.P.N.)

1993-01-01

69

Kioto, la antigua capital del Japón y el modelo chino de la ciudad ideal / Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan and the Chinese model of the ideal city  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ciudad de Kioto fue fundada en el ańo 794 cuando el emperador Kanmu decidió construir la nueva capital del Japón y abandonar la ciudad de Nara. Esta contribución recorre la historia de la fundación de Kioto en relación con los principios ideales de la ciudad china. Este modelo de cuadricula const [...] ituyó por algunos siglos una referencia cultural importante para la construcción de nuevas ciudades en Japón. Hoy la ciudad de Kioto conserva la antigua estructura urbana reticular y esta contribución tiene como finalidad proponer una reflexión sobre la influencia de la cultura china en Japón desde el 550 d.C. (período Kofun) y evaluar el desarollo de esta cultura en el tiempo y su presencia actual en la forma urbana y en su arquitectura, sobre todo religiosa. El modelo ideal de la ciudad china después de 1200 ańos desde la fundación de Kioto se conserva y constituye una referencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la ciudad contemporánea en estrecha relación con el paisaje. Abstract in english The city of Kyoto was founded in 794 when Emperor Kanmu decided to build a new capital of Japan and to leave the city of Nara. This paper traces the history of the foundation of Kyoto in relation to the normative principles of the Chinese city. For centuries, this urban model, with orthogonal axes, [...] had constituted a major cultural reference for the construction of new cities in Japan. Today, the city of Kyoto preserves the old urban orthogonal structure and this contribution aims to propose a reflection on the influence of Chinese culture in Japan since 550 AD (Kofun period) and to consider the development of this culture over time and its current presence in urban form; especially religious architecture. The ideal model of the Chinese city, after 1200 years since the foundation of Kyoto, is preserved and constitutes a fundamental reference for the development of the contemporary city in strict relationship with the landscape.

Olimpia, Niglio.

70

Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

1979-01-01

71

Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

1983-01-01

72

Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

2012-05-01

73

Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

Seo, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

74

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

2003-01-01

75

Stable isotopic reconstructions of adult diets and infant feeding practices during urbanization of the city of Edo in 17th century Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urbanization of the city of Edo, the capital of premodern Japan, has been assumed to be not as a result of natural increase but that of in-migration although this assumption has never been verified. To obtain information on natural fertility in Edo, we analyzed stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 46 adult and 84 subadult human skeletons excavated from the Hitotsubashi site (1657-1683 AD: the early Edo period), Tokyo, Japan and reconstructed their breastfeeding period, one of the most important determinants of fertility. Adult females are significantly more depleted in (15) N by 0.7‰ than adult males, suggesting a dietary differentiation between sexes and/or the effect of pregnancy. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that supplementary foods were introduced around the age of 0.2 years and weaning ended around 3.1 years, which agrees with descriptions in various historical documents of the period. The duration of breastfeeding in the Hitotsubashi population was relatively longer than those in modern industrial and traditional societies and four previously reported populations in medieval and in the industrial England. As later weaning closely associates with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, our data suggest a lower natural fertility for the Hitotsubashi population. Assuming that the proportion of married people was also lower in the major cities of the earlier Edo period, our results support the assumption that Edo developed and increased its population by attracting immigrants during urbanization. PMID:24374954

Tsutaya, Takumi; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

2014-04-01

76

Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

1983-01-01

77

Japan Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.

78

The development of the urban system and the hierarchy of cities in newly opened regions: Hokkaido, Japan and South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the pattern and process of distribution of cities in the newlyopened regions by tracing the historical changes of the urban system in Hokkaido, Japanand in the Republic of South Africa. The history of colonization is not so long in the newlyopened regions. This means that we can study the genesis and development process ofcities from the beginning of colonization. These frontier cities often have the gateway functioninfluencing over the wide surrounding region. The main concern of this study is to findout how urban functions and the urban system change from their beginning in the newlyopened region. This study examines the relation between the hierarchy of cities and thelocational characteristics of branch offices for the analysis of the postwar urban system inHokkaido. We can discern the three stages in the development of the urban system in newlyopened regions. First stage is the formative period: coastal regions were the centers of theexploitation and port cities were dominant. Second stage is the growth period: the exploitationmade great progress in inland regions and the coastal cities and inland cities werein conflict with each other. Third stage is the reorganization period: the economical centersmove towards inland regions and the inland capital gets dominant.

Ryoji Teraya

2004-01-01

79

Back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: epidemiological study for 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There have been a few studies regarding detail of back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) as prevalence, location, and severity. The condition of back pain in adolescents with IS was clarified based on a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey, targeting a total of 43,630 pupils, including all elementary school pupils from the fourth to sixth grade (21,893 pupils) and all junior high pupils from the first to third year (21,737 pupils) in Niigata City (population of ...

Sato, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Toru; Ito, Takui; Morita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Ren; Endo, Naoto; Tanabe, Naohito

2011-01-01

80

[Summary of research works on viruses in the Vietnam Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University].  

Science.gov (United States)

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University (NEKKEN) and National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vietnam (NIHE) jointly conducted a project from 2006 on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (ERID) granted by the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. Fifteen independent researches have been carried out by 7 scientists who stationed in the Vietnam Research Station (VRS), and by approximately 60 visiting scientists. A wide variety of viruses have been studied in the research activities in the VRS, of those, topics of'' Nipah virus infection in bats in Vietnam'', ''Nam Dinh virus, a newly discovered insect nidovirus'', and'' Risk factors of dengue fever in southern Vietnam'' were summarized. It is important to develop a mechanism to facilitate young scientists to use the VRS in their research works, and then a scope to establish the VRS as a gateway to a successful career path for young scientists in the field of the infectious diseases would be realized. PMID:24769580

Yamashiro, Tetsu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

2008-12-01

82

Evaluation of river pollution of neonicotinoids in Osaka City (Japan) by LC/MS with dopant-assisted photoionisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) source for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was applied to determine neonicotinoid pesticides in the aquatic environment. Dopant-assisted APPI was very effective in the ionisation of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids generated protonated molecules in APPI with high sensitivity, while adduct ions, such as sodiated molecules, were predominantly generated in conventional electrospray ionisation. The ionisation of neonicotinoids was confirmed by ultra-high-resolution MS. An analytical method coupled with solid phase extraction was developed for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam. Method detection limits were 0.47 to 2.1 ng L(-1) for six neonicotinoids. Dinotefuran was the most frequent and highest among the neonicotinoids examined in the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan. The maximum concentration of dinotefuran was 220 ng L(-1). Given the toxicity of neonicotinoids for aquatic creatures, the concentrations observed here were substantially low. The change in concentrations was temporally coincident with the period of the neonicotinoid application. Although rapid photodegradation and some degradation products have been elucidated, the degradation products in the aquatic environment were not identified in the present study. PMID:22767100

Yamamoto, Atsushi; Terao, Tomoko; Hisatomi, Hirotaka; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

2012-08-01

83

Seasonal variation in the environmental background level of cosmic-ray-produced 22Na at Fukui City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly deposition rate of cosmogenic 22Na was observed at Fukui City (36oN, 136oE). The deposition rate varied widely, being one order of magnitude smaller in summer than in winter. The annual deposition rate of 22Na was 0.42 Bq m-2 year-1, which was four orders of magnitude lower than that of 7Be. This value was smaller than those observed during the first half of the 1960s. The high levels in the 1960s resulted from artificial 22Na produced by the frequent atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The 7Be/22Na activity ratio showed a seasonal variation that was induced by the downward transport of stratospheric air into the troposphere with different residence times between seasons. (author)

1998-01-01

84

Impact of Tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake on groundwater usage and quality in Asahi-city, Chiba Prefecture Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake on March 11, 2011 was followed by massive Tsunami which had a devastating effect on the coastal area of eastern Japan. The impact of the Tsunami on groundwater usage and quality in Asahi-city, Chiba prefecture was investigated. The maximum height of the Tsunami reached Asahi-city was estimated to be 7.6 m. All wells that covered by the Tsunami higher than human knee level lost their groundwater usage due to electric pump failure. Only 3 out of 67 wells investigated were collapsed by the Tsunami. Many wells and pumps were repaired/replaced within one week after the Tsunami and all wells are in use 2 month after the Tsunami. This suggests that groundwater could be obtained through the wells right after the Tsunami if proper pumping measure would have been implemented. Most groundwater affected by the Tsunami showed high electric conductivity (EC) of more than 1,000?S/cm, indicating broad area of groundwater contamination by seawater. The seawater entered into the shallow aquifer by infiltrating through the ground surface during the inundation, and also by flowing downward along/through the wells. The large variation in EC was observed among the affected wells. The EC value was, however, correlated with height of the Tsunami reached, topography and also with post-tsunami groundwater pumping. The post-tsunami pumping is effective in reducing salt concentration in the groundwater. The groundwater quality should recover naturally in the long term. It was, however, suggested that removing salt containing deposits on the ground surface to avoid further salt infiltration, and groundwater pumping with careful monitoring to remove contaminated groundwater from the aquifer would be effective for faster recovery of the groundwater quality.

Sugita, Fumi

85

Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied.Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination.Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012.Results: Approximately 20% of the city's population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks.Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587-593;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306848. PMID:24633072

Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

2014-06-01

86

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are radiobiologically examined for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are changed very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

1982-04-02

87

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

1982-04-02

88

Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

1980-01-01

89

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987). Non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.5 contains tables of SMR for non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL). (J.P.N.).

Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi

1993-01-01

90

Measurement of Nagasaki Pu global transport rates, comparing with SO2 from historic volcanic eruptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An artificial single dose contaminant was released at Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, detonating plutonium (10-15 kg) atomic bomb. A portion, 1,2 kg of 239Pu was fissioned releasing 21 kt TNT energy along with various fission products. The rest of the unexpended fissile material, 239+240Pu, 13.8 kg (3.49 x 1013 Bq), was dispersed into the atmosphere along with a fission product, 137Cs, 23.4 g (7.44 x 1013 Bq). The fate of 239+240Pu and 137Cs was investigated by analysing both local and global fallout. The highest concentration of 239+240Pu was 64.5 mBq/g (181 mBq/cm2) while it was 188 mBq/g (526 mBq/cm2) for 137Cs both at 2.8 km east from the hypocentre. The total amount of deposition in the local fallout region of 264 km2 was 37.5 g (9.48 x 1010Bq) for 239+240Pu and 3.14 mg (5.88 x 1010Bq) for 137Cs. The ratio of the local fallout against the total amount of the radionuclides released was 0.27 % for 239+240Pu and 0.134% for 137Cs. Recent advancements in analytical technology made it possible for artificial radionuclides released from the Nagasaki explosion to be detected in the Arctic ice core layer of 1945. The 239+240Pu and the 137Cs, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition was 0.16 ?Bq/cm2 for 239+240Pu and 20 ?Bq/cm2 for 137Cs. During the atmospheric testing, the deposition of 239+240Pu and 137Cs varied more than 100 times with the highest peaks of over 50 ?Bq/cm2 for 239+240Pu and over 800 ?Bq/cm2 for 137Cs both occurred in 1962. Analyzing Arctic data, there are many new information for long global transport, the history of nuclear weapons development etc. (author)

2002-11-01

91

Outline of labor accidents in city gas enterprises in Japan; Zenkoku toshi gas rodo saigai no gaiyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questionnaires are conducted to arrange the status of labor accidents in city gas enterprises for preparing fundamental data for safety activity. The classified total for 1995 is reported. 1995 was the best year in every aspect. The number of accident cases was 197 which was less than 200 for the first time in the preceding seven years. As regards disasters requiring day-off, no case of death accident was included. The number of accidents with more than 4 days-off were 58 which was less than that of the preceding year by 12, and that with 1 to 3 days-off was 6 which was less by 9 cases as compared with the preceding year. 181 enterprises comprising 79.5% of the total enterprises had no case of accident. As to the enterprises where accidents occurred, enterprises with the scale from 51 to 100 employees occupied higher ratio. 51% of the accidents were experienced in business departments, and particularly `traffic accidents on roads` occupied 58% of the total accidents. The ratio of accidents of persons of middle or advanced age increased year by year, and the day-off period tended to become longer. The tendency was distinguished particularly with women of 40 and older years. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

NONE

1996-04-10

92

Earthquake induced rapid landslide in Nikawa, Nishinomiya-city, Japan; Nishinomiyashi Nikawa de hasseishita jishinji kosoku jisuberi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A landslide occurred in the Nikawa area of Nishinomiya-city when the Southern Hyogo Earthquake shook on the 17th of January, 1995 was estimated to affect 110,000-120,000m{sup 3} in soil volume, not so much in scale, but became a big disaster in which 11 houses were smashed and 34 people were killed. Regarding the landslide of this area, its moving speed was estimated to be several m/sec in average, although the exact figure is unknown. Kyoto University photographed from the air the landslide site of the Nikawa area on the 21st of January and also collected various kinds of earth clods at the landslide site. The sampled soil was a bluish gray sandy soil mixed with clay and is distributed widely in the landslide area. The collected samples were tested with a ring shearing tester filled with the water after saturating the samples. The discovered causes of the landslide are that the gradient of the slope was about 20{degree} and its safety factor was high, nevertheless due to the earthquake force, the slope soil layers showed shearing fractures, the saturated water basin layers existed in the slope soil layers despite the dry season, and the decrease of strength of the earth and soil of Nikawa was big when saturated. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Sassa, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

1996-02-01

93

Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2006-01-01

94

Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers who were trained at Narashino Chemical School were assigned, at least one, to each unit (brigade and higher) of the Japanese Army. Chemical Weapons Control unit was organised at the headquarters in the centre of Hiroshima. After atomic bombing some vessels of mustard gas stored underground were found cracked and leaked. Judging from these findings it may be possible that some chemical weapons were released to the environment from the military facilities on ground at the time they were destroyed by the atomic bombing and the survivors were exposed to poison gases to a smaller or larger extent. There was no drinking water and they had to drink rain water which fell heavily soon after the atomic bombing. It is highly possible that the rainwater was also contaminated by various toxic substances including chemical weapons. These effects combined with the irradiation by atomic radiation are difficult to quantify accurately at present, many years after atomic bombings. But if all these adverse effects were ascribed solely to the ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation may be overestimated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data for establishing radiation safety standard in peaceful uses of atomic energy, we should keep these possibilities of overestimation in mind. At the Bikini accident, where Japanese fishing boat was showered by strongly radioactive ash due to thermonuclear test on March 1, 1954 in the Pacific, some crew tested the ash to see what it is. The amount of intake is uncertain. Depending on the assumption, a widely different result would be obtained. (author)

Nishiwaki, Y. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Kawai, H. [Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shono, N. [Hiroshima Jogakuin Univ., Hiroshima (Japan); Fujita, S. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsuoka, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Earth Simulator Research and Development Center, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Hosoda, T. [Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

2000-05-01

95

Comparison of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan, during 2005-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (TSP) in the ambient air in an urban area in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan was carried out from 2005 to 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental levels, emission sources, seasonal variations and health risk of eleven PAHs in the two cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City where air pollution is becoming a serious concern. The results showed that the concentrations of TSP and total PAHs were significantly higher in Ho Chi Minh City than levels in Osaka. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring PAHs (BeP, BbF, BkF, BaP, BghiP and InP) were much higher in TSP samples in Ho Chi Minh City than in Osaka, accounting for 82% and 51% of total PAHs, respectively. These PAHs are known to be highly carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. Vehicular emission is suggested as one of the main pollution sources of PAHs in both cities. Motorcycles and gasoline automobiles are suggested as the main emission sources of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, whereas diesel automobiles are the primary source in Osaka. Seasonal variations of PAHs were observed in this study; higher concentrations of PAHs were found in the rainy season (May-December) and lower concentrations corresponded to the dry season (February-April) in Ho Chi Minh City, while higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the winter (November-January) in Osaka. The number of sunshine hours was an important meteorological factor affecting seasonal variations of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, while the temperature was a main factor causing the variations of PAHs in Osaka. The high BaP equivalent concentration of 5- and 6-ring PAHs even in the ambient air is an alarming signal for harmfulness to human health and environmental quality in Ho Chi Minh City. (author)

Hien, To Thi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Natural Sciences, Vietnam National University of Ho Chi Minh City, No. 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, 5 District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nam, Pham Phuong [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Natural Sciences, Vietnam National University of Ho Chi Minh City, No. 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, 5 District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Yasuhiro, Sadanaga; Takayuki, Kameda; Norimichi, Takenaka; Hiroshi, Bandow [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

2007-08-15

96

Comparison of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan, during 2005-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (TSP) in the ambient air in an urban area in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan was carried out from 2005 to 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental levels, emission sources, seasonal variations and health risk of eleven PAHs in the two cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City where air pollution is becoming a serious concern. The results showed that the concentrations of TSP and total PAHs were significantly higher in Ho Chi Minh City than levels in Osaka. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring PAHs (BeP, BbF, BkF, BaP, BghiP and InP) were much higher in TSP samples in Ho Chi Minh City than in Osaka, accounting for 82% and 51% of total PAHs, respectively. These PAHs are known to be highly carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. Vehicular emission is suggested as one of the main pollution sources of PAHs in both cities. Motorcycles and gasoline automobiles are suggested as the main emission sources of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, whereas diesel automobiles are the primary source in Osaka. Seasonal variations of PAHs were observed in this study; higher concentrations of PAHs were found in the rainy season (May-December) and lower concentrations corresponded to the dry season (February-April) in Ho Chi Minh City, while higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the winter (November-January) in Osaka. The number of sunshine hours was an important meteorological factor affecting seasonal variations of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, while the temperature was a main factor causing the variations of PAHs in Osaka. The high BaP equivalent concentration of 5- and 6-ring PAHs even in the ambient air is an alarming signal for harmfulness to human health and environmental quality in Ho Chi Minh City. PMID:17532027

Hien, To Thi; Nam, Pham Phuong; Yasuhiro, Sadanaga; Takayuki, Kameda; Norimichi, Takenaka; Hiroshi, Bandow

2007-08-15

97

Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in several districts in the western part of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of indoor radon ("2"2"2Rn) concentrations in 365 locations of several districts in the western part of Japan were carried out with more than 6 month exposures of CR-39 bare track detectors. The arithmetic mean value of all measurements was 29.9 Bq/m"3, the standard deviation was 36.1 Bq/m"3, the geometric mean was 19.1 Bq/m"3 and the median was 18.1 Bq/m"3. The geometric means of the distributions for Hiroshima city, Nagasaki city, Mihama town, Misasa town, and Shiga prefecture were 26.2, 9.9, 32.4, 27.7, and 21.0 Bq/m"3, respectively. Correlations between the concentration and various factors were analyzed from the results of the measurements. The factors analyzed were regional differences, construction materials, purpose of the room, age of the house, number of floors, etc. From the results of the studies, the regional differences and construction materials were found to have apparent correlations. Personal monitoring was also carryied out on 25 persons living in Misasa. The median value of the radon concentrations obtained from the personal monitoring approximately agreed with that obtained from the measurements in the dwellings. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between the individual values obtained from the personal monitoring and the measurement in the dwellings. (author)

1989-03-01

98

Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

1958-07-01

99

A legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki : risk estimates for radiation induced cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago ended the war in the Pacific and set the world agog at the prospect of new and frightening weapons for the future. Many residents of these cities, exposed to lesser than lethal amounts of radiation, survived to constitute the most remarkable radioepidemiological study of late radiation effects any of us could have imagined. These survivors and those relatively few among them who died of cancers attributable to radiation, provide us with our primary source of risk estimates for radiation induced cancer. As cancer is the principal low dose radiation effect these estimates are today at the core of our radiation protection system for workers and the public. In 1977 it was the risk estimates mainly from the LSS (Lifespan Study of the A-bomb survivors) estimated at about 1%/Sv that enabled ICRP to confirm the existing worker limit of 50mSv/y. In 1987, NCRP introduced a new and more restrictive occupational guideline because risk estimates from the LSS were known to be 'going up'. Continued surveillance of radioepidemiological studies and especially the LSS is a vital part of the scientific background of radiation protection. (author)

1995-11-20

100

Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

102

Comparison of the townscape of the regional city between Japan and Germany for the promotion of identity of Japanese cities. ; In the case of Morioka and Darmstadt. Nippon no toshi no kosei soshutsu no tame no Nichidoku chiho toshi no toshi keikan no hikaku kenkyu. ; Morioka to Darmstadt wo taisho to shite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Castle towns originated in the early modern times have been said typical to Japanese cities in their structure, and north European cities originated in the Middle Ages are the ideological cities in Europe. This study takes up the city of Morioka, as one of the castle towns in Japan, and the city of Darmstadt in Germany, induces the conception of human brain functions into the landscape engineerings to expand the landscape theory to make the townscape theory more definite, and compares and considers the townscape characteristics to describe the individualities of Japanese cities. The city of Morioka is evaluated most highly for its biological environment, followed by the landscapes for cultural phenomena and those for psychological phenomena, and least as an infrastructurally functional space. The city of Darmstadt resembles Morioka in that it is most highly evaluated for its biological environment, followed by that for cultural phenomena, but differs from Morioka in that the evaluation for infrastructurally functional space spreads largely from the highest evaluation to the lowest. 18 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

Ando, A.; Akatani, R. (Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Igarashi, H. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Retzko, H.

1991-07-15

103

Adult stature in relation to childhood exposure to the atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Height and weight measurements were obtained for adults who were under age 18 at the time of the atomic explosions of 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Adult height was found to be significantly lowered among Hiroshima survivors. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

104

Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-69  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pathological features of 161 cases of breast cancer --7% noninfiltrating carcinoma, 47% nonspecific infiltrating duct carcinoma, 21% nonfiltrating papillary duct carcinoma, 7% comedo carcinoma, 6% medullary carcinoma, 6% colloid carcinoma, 4% lobular carcinoma, and 2% sarcoma-- were investigated and their relation to irradiation dosage due to the atomic bomb was studied. Irradiation dosage was estimated from T65 dosage, the total dosage of ?-rays and neutrons in unshielded tissue. However, there was no relation between the dosage and any specific tissue type. Breast cancers were classified as either type I, type II, or type III according to the histological grade, and each grade was divided according to the degree of differentiation, multiplicity, and mitiotic activity. The pathological characteristics, lymphatic infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, localization, calcification, and vascular, perineurial, muscular, and dermal invasion were investigated in each case. The histological grade and the incidence of localized invasion, necrosis, localization, and calcification were lower in the patients who were irradiated with more than 50 rad than in those who were not irradiated. The absolute risk rate for breast cancer was estimated to increase by 1.9 cases/100,000 rad from 1950 to 1969. This increase was much smaller than that estimated from x-ray irradiation during medical treatment in North America. The dose response curves at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and fitted well with a linear model, suggesting that the effect of ?-rays was analogous to that of neutrons in inducing cancer. The problems involved in the histological classification of breast cancer and the histological differences between cancer patients in Japan and in the U.S.A. were discussed. (Nakanishi, T.)

1981-01-01

105

Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. Design Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. Setting Atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants 86?611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received <0.2 Gy). Main outcome measures Mortality from stroke or heart disease as the underlying cause of death and dose-response relations with atomic bomb radiation. Results About 9600 participants died of stroke and 8400 died of heart disease between 1950 and 2003. For stroke, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 9% (95% confidence interval 1% to 17%, P=0.02) on the basis of a linear dose-response model, but an indication of possible upward curvature suggested relatively little risk at low doses. For heart disease, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 14% (6% to 23%, P<0.001); a linear model provided the best fit, suggesting excess risk even at lower doses. However, the dose-response effect over the restricted dose range of 0 to 0.5 Gy was not significant. Prospective data on smoking, alcohol intake, education, occupation, obesity, and diabetes had almost no impact on the radiation risk estimates for either stroke or heart disease, and misdiagnosis of cancers as circulatory diseases could not account for the associations seen. Conclusion Doses above 0.5 Gy are associated with an elevated risk of both stroke and heart disease, but the degree of risk at lower doses is unclear. Stroke and heart disease together account for about one third as many radiation associated excess deaths as do cancers among atomic bomb survivors.

2010-01-01

106

Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-69. Pathologic features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pathological features of 161 cases of breast cancer --7% noninfiltrating carcinoma, 47% nonspecific infiltrating duct carcinoma, 21% nonfiltrating papillary duct carcinoma, 7% comedo carcinoma, 6% medullary carcinoma, 6% colloid carcinoma, 4% lobular carcinoma, and 2% sarcoma-- were investigated and their relation to irradiation dosage due to the atomic bomb was studied. Irradiation dosage was estimated from T65 dosage, the total dosage of ..gamma..-rays and neutrons in unshielded tissue. However, there was no relation between the dosage and any specific tissue type. Breast cancers were classified as either type I, type II, or type III according to the histological grade, and each grade was divided according to the degree of differentiation, multiplicity, and mitiotic activity. The pathological characteristics, lymphatic infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, localization, calcification, and vascular, perineurial, muscular, and dermal invasion were investigated in each case. The histological grade and the incidence of localized invasion, necrosis, localization, and calcification were lower in the patients who were irradiated with more than 50 rad than in those who were not irradiated. The absolute risk rate for breast cancer was estimated to increase by 1.9 cases/100,000 rad from 1950 to 1969. This increase was much smaller than that estimated from x-ray irradiation during medical treatment in North America. The dose response curves at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and fitted well with a linear model, suggesting that the effect of ..gamma..-rays was analogous to that of neutrons in inducing cancer. The problems involved in the histological classification of breast cancer and the histological differences between cancer patients in Japan and in the U.S.A. were discussed.

McGregor, D.H. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Kansas (USA)); Land, C.E.; Choi, K.; Tokuoka, S.; Liu, P.I.

1981-01-01

107

Leukaemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors from 1945 through 1959*  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of the Nagasaki leukaemia experience during a period of 14 years after the detonation of the atomic bomb, together with comparisons with data from Hiroshima and from other series of post-radiation leukaemia cases, again demonstrates beyond reasonable doubt the leukaemogenic effect on man of ionizing radiation. An increased risk of leukaemia following doses probably as low as 100 rads (air-entry dose) of whole-body radiation is demonstrated on the basis of the available estimates of atomic bomb radiation doses. At doses above this level the increase in leukaemia incidence may be linearly related to the radiation dose. The data are too limited to allow of an evaluation of the risk represented by doses at the lower levels of radiation; but it seems clear that, if a threshold dose for leukaemia induction exists, it is lower than the threshold dose for the clinical expression of acute radiation syndrome. The sex and age distribution of radiation-induced leukaemia and the types of leukaemia observed are also discussed.

Tomonaga, Masanobu

1962-01-01

108

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-03-01

109

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs

1989-01-01

110

Cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors with epilation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate the association between epilation and cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, cancer mortality was determined for a total of 9,356 survivors (3,591 males and 5,765 females) from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1997. The subjects included individuals other than those in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of the Atomic Bomb Causality Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). Information on acute injury was obtained from a survey that was conducted at the time of application for a health handbook. The association between epilation and cancer mortality was evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model, including factors such as gender, age at the time of the bombing, attained age, radiation dose and epilation. Epilation was found in 81 (2.3%) males and 148 (2.6%) females. No significant difference in the frequency of epilation was observed by gender or age at the time of the bombing. The hazard ratio of cancer mortality in those with epilation compared to those without epilation was 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-1.54). Similar to the study of the LSS cohort, no significant effects of epilation on cancer mortality were observed in the present study. The results indicated that the cancer mortality was significantly higher in those exposed to atomic bombing younger as was reported by LSS studies. However, the effects of radiation dose on cancer mortality have not been observed in the present study. (author)

2005-06-01

111

Urban and spatial planning in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

Marin Tominaga

2011-12-01

112

Japan Japan Japón  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive, das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften in Japan. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153

Kazujo Suzuki

2000-01-01

113

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

NONE

1996-12-10

114

Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

1988-01-01

115

Measurement of Nagasaki Pu global transport rates, comparing with SO{sub 2} from historic volcanic eruptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An artificial single dose contaminant was released at Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, detonating plutonium (10-15 kg) atomic bomb. A portion, 1,2 kg of {sup 239}Pu was fissioned releasing 21 kt TNT energy along with various fission products. The rest of the unexpended fissile material, {sup 239+240}Pu, 13.8 kg (3.49 x 10{sup 13} Bq), was dispersed into the atmosphere along with a fission product, {sup 137}Cs, 23.4 g (7.44 x 10{sup 13} Bq). The fate of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs was investigated by analysing both local and global fallout. The highest concentration of {sup 239+240}Pu was 64.5 mBq/g (181 mBq/cm{sup 2}) while it was 188 mBq/g (526 mBq/cm{sup 2}) for {sup 137}Cs both at 2.8 km east from the hypocentre. The total amount of deposition in the local fallout region of 264 km{sup 2} was 37.5 g (9.48 x 10{sup 10}Bq) for {sup 239+240}Pu and 3.14 mg (5.88 x 10{sup 10}Bq) for {sup 137}Cs. The ratio of the local fallout against the total amount of the radionuclides released was 0.27 % for {sup 239+240}Pu and 0.134% for {sup 137}Cs. Recent advancements in analytical technology made it possible for artificial radionuclides released from the Nagasaki explosion to be detected in the Arctic ice core layer of 1945. The {sup 239+240}Pu and the {sup 137}Cs, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition was 0.16 {mu}Bq/cm{sup 2} for {sup 239+240}Pu and 20 {mu}Bq/cm{sup 2} for {sup 137}Cs. During the atmospheric testing, the deposition of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs varied more than 100 times with the highest peaks of over 50 {mu}Bq/cm{sup 2} for {sup 239+240}Pu and over 800 {mu}Bq/cm{sup 2} for {sup 137}Cs both occurred in 1962. Analyzing Arctic data, there are many new information for long global transport, the history of nuclear weapons development etc. (author)

Kudo, A.; Kubota, T.; Sasaki, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Zheng, J. [Natural Resources of Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Kauri, T. [National Research Council of Canada, ICPET, Ottawa (Canada); Miyahara, S. [Nagasaki Univ., Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki (Japan)

2002-11-01

116

Present status of the reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been going on by the American committee (chairman; Dr. F. Seitz) and the Japanese committee (chairman; Dr. E. Tajima). Here, the status of these committees is written and some discussions are done about their problems. (author)

1984-03-01

117

6 cases of M-proteinemia in the atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six cases with M-proteinemia including two cases with multiple myeloma in a-bomb survivors were seen at the private clinic in Nagasaki, 1976 through 1980. Clinical pictures and laboratory findings with a case report were presented. There was no evidence that the incidence of M-proteinemia had been increased in the a-bomb survivors. (Nakanishi, T.)

1980-01-01

118

Medical irradiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the radiological examinations, particularly X-ray diagnostic examinations go on increasing in frequency. The aim of medical and dental radiology being to provide maximum benefit to the population served, any increase in frequency of radiological examinations must be justified. With increasing emphasis in recent year on the somatic effects of radiations, somatic risks to an individual and the population from medical irradiations were estimated using risk factors determined from the data on excess deaths due to leukemia and malignant diseases for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki, leukemia and malignancy significant factors determined taking into consideration the latent periods of these diseases after radiation exposures and the life expectancies of persons received medical irradiations, and organ or tissue doses related to the diseases. On the other hand, the benefits to the population were defined as life-saving rates of patients expected from X-ray diagnoses. As an example of results of risk-benefit assessments for X-ray diagnoses, it was recognized that both chest and stomach mass screenings cannot be justified for persons less than 30 years old. The stochastic risks to the whole population of Japaneses were estimated using the population doses such as the genetically significant dose and risks from radiological procedures. The results showed that about 340 persons for genetic effects, about 300 persons for leukemia and about 1,260 persons for malignant diseases will annually receive some fatal risks from diagnostic X-ray examinations, respectively. In order to reduce patient exposures as low as reasonably achievable, the physical and biological studies were made on the possibility of dose reduction in the specific X-ray diagnoses. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

119

Japan’s Economic Recession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not ...

2009-01-01

120

Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer incidence among Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dependence of thyroid cancer incidence on radiation exposure level is examined with the use of tumor registry follow-up data on a life-span cohort of 98,610 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. The sample includes 112 clinically evident thyroid cancer cases: 62 in Hiroshima and 50 in Nagasaki. A clear, predominantly linear, increase in thyroid cancer incidence corresponds to increasing levels of gamma radiation to the thyroid gland, whereas neutron exposure could not be shown to contribute further to thyroid cancer risk. The relative risk associated with gamma ray exposure is particularly high among persons who were less than 30 years old at the time of radiation exposure. Limitations on the incidence and dosimetry data are discussed, as well as the ability of the Cox regression method to accommodate some of these limitations

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Investigation for effects of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki. {gamma}-ray measurements by Neher electrometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neher electrometer, invented as an equipment to investigate the relationship of cosmic ray and terrestrial magnetism in 1930s, had excellent properties as an equipment to measure {gamma}-ray outdoor and thus was used for measurement of radiation exposure after A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Nagasaki, measurement with this equipment enabled to locate the bombing center where the monument is standing now in the A-bomb Park. Measurement also revealed that the circular earth surface of 2000 m diameter had the induced radioactivity by neutron and that outside the area, the {gamma}-ray intensity was virtually similar to the background level. Ash composing of Pu and other fission products moved over Konpira-san on the west wind, most of which came down with rainfall onto around Nishiyama reservoir. In the A-bomb movies, there is a scene that Neher electrometer was working for {gamma}-ray measurement. (K.H.)

Nakane, Ryohei [Nishina Memorial Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)

2000-07-01

122

Comparative proteome analysis of the extracellular proteins of two Haemophilus parasuis strains Nagasaki and SW114.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a comparative proteomics approach to distinguish between the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles of extracellular proteins in Nagasaki and SW114. Protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ten proteins unique to Nagasaki were putative adhesin AidA protein, putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (771aa), putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (780aa), protective surface antigen D15, 30S ribosomal protein S2, periplasmic serine protease do/hhoA-like protein, acid phosphatase, membrane protein, protein-disulfide isomerase, and iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Meanwhile, the two proteins unique to SW114 were C4-dicarboxylate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein and peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze the mRNA transcript levels of three randomly selected proteins. The afuA, AidA, and ompD15 genes encoding iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putative adhesin AidA protein and protective surface antigen D15 respectively demonstrated significantly higher mRNA transcript levels (39.606, 3.924, and 36.668, respectively) in Nagasaki than in SW114. These observations suggest the levels of differentially expressed proteins were directly proportional to their cellular mRNA levels. Three virulence-related proteins, namely, putative adhesin AidA protein, putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (771aa) and putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (780aa) were identified in Nagasaki. PMID:24657264

Wei, Xingliang; Cao, Sanjie; Zhang, Luhua; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qigui

2014-04-18

123

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinically and environmentally isolated Cryptococcus neoformans in Nagasaki.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined clinical (pulmonary cryptococcosis and cryptococcal meningitis) and environmental (pigeon excreta) isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype A) in the southern Japanese prefecture of Nagasaki. The random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles obtained by using three primers revealed six patterns among 21 clinical isolates and three patterns among 8 environmental isolates. Pattern I was the most common (18 of 29 isolates) and was found among isolates obtained throug...

Yamamoto, Y.; Kohno, S.; Koga, H.; Kakeya, H.; Tomono, K.; Kaku, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Arisawa, M.; Hara, K.

1995-01-01

124

Delineation and interpretation of spatial coseismic response of groundwater levels in shallow and deep parts of an alluvial plain to different earthquakes: A case study of the Kumamoto City area, southwest Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Coseismic changes in groundwater levels have been investigated throughout the world, but most studies have focused on the effects of one large earthquake. The aim of this study was to elucidate the spatial patterns of level changes in response to several earthquakes, and the relationship of the patterns to shallow and deep groundwater in the same area. We selected the Kumamoto City area in southwest Japan, a region with one of the richest groundwater resources in Japan, as our study site. Data from hourly measurements of groundwater levels in 54 wells were used to characterize the coseismic responses to four earthquakes that occurred in 2000, 2001, 2005, and 2008. Although the distance to the hypocenter (12-2573 km), and seismic energy (Mw = 5.0-8.0) of these earthquakes varied, systematic groundwater level changes were observed in the range of 0.01-0.67 m. Spatial patters of the level changes were clarified by interpolating the point data by a spline method. The zones where coseismic rises were observed were generally wider for deep groundwater than for shallow groundwater, probably as a result of an increase in compressive stress. General trends in the changes in groundwater levels, and calculated pressure changes, were clarified to be consistent in the deep groundwater, but the coseismic increases or decreases in compressive stress in the shallow groundwater were variable, depending on the distance to the earthquake epicenter. We developed a conceptual model of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon by assuming permeability enhancement induced by elastic strain and pore-pressure change over the depth range. In addition, the importance of local geology was identified, because levels in the area of Togawa lava (a porous andesite) tended to change more in magnitude, and more quickly, with a shorter recovery time, than levels measured in the area outside the lava.

Parvin, M.; Tadakuma, N.; Asaue, H.; Koike, K.

2014-04-01

125

Fuel combustion in thermal power plants in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The position of black coal in the energy balance of Japan is discussed. About 75% of electric energy is produced by thermal power plants. Eighty-five per cent of electricity is produced by power plants fired with liquid fuels and 3% by coal fired plants. Coal production in Japan, the forecast coal import to the country by 1990 (132 Mt/year), proportion of coal imported from various countries, chemical and physical properties of coal from Australia, China and Japan are discussed. Coal classification used in Japan is evaluated. The following topics associated with coal combustion in fossil-fuel power plants in Japan are discussed: coal grindability, types of pulverizing systems, slagging properties of boiler fuel in Japan, systems for slag removal, main types of steam boilers and coal fired furnaces, burner arrangement and design, air pollution control from fly ash, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, utilization of fly ash for cement production, methods for removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas using ammonia and catalysts or ammonia without catalysts, efficiency of nitrogen oxide control, abatement of nitrogen oxide emission from boilers by flue gas recirculation and reducing combustion temperatures. The results of research into air pollution control carried out by the Nagasaki Technical Institute are reviewed.

Kotler, V.R.

1983-11-01

126

Japan’s Economic Recession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not have any long term effect on the growth.In many respects Japan remains very unique among the developed countries. The country’s economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s has encouraged debate among the scholars to the significance of Japan’s economic past. It is widely seen as due to different model of development in areas such as industrial organisation, the role of the state, social institutions and history. Her appeal lies in the dramatic growth rates and economic transformation. Japan was first Asian country to break the western monopoly of modern industrialisation. Less than a generation ago, Japan was viewed an exemplary success story in terms of rapid economic growth and a model to be emulated by other developed and developing countries. Here I will argue that the Japanese economy suffers from severe problems that are not cyclical but structural in nature. Such structural problems are the most serious impediments to economic dynamism and the future long-run economic success of the country.

Kalim Siddiqui

2009-08-01

127

Study of adolescents exposed in utero: clinical and laboratory data 1958 to 1959, Nagasaki. Report 1. General aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intensive two-year study of 286 Nagasaki adolescents, ages 13 to 14, was conducted as part of a long term program to determine possible differences in growth and development which might be attributed to in utero exposure to the atomic bomb. Three comparison groups were studied: Group I whose mothers were 0 to 1999 m from the hypocenter; Group II whose mothers were 3000 to 4999 m from the hypocenter; Group III whose mothers were not in the city at the time of the bomb. A significantly higher frequency of mental retardation and minor congenital malformations were found in Group I males but not in the females. Although Group I females who were in the 1st trimester of gestation at the time of the bomb and whose mothers experienced the acute radiation syndrome had poorer visual acuity than comparable children of asymptomatic mothers, the small number of observations requires caution in interpretation of this finding. Parasitic infestation occurred in about one third of the subjects, and Group I had significantly greater infestation than did the other comparison groups. Trichocephalus and Ascaris infestation accounted for the higher prevalence in Group I. Hookworm occurred less frequently. It was suggested that these findings probably are associated with differences in dietary and living habits. No cases of leukemia or malignancy were found, but the sample was not large enough to detect even a 10-fold increase in incidence. No consistent significant differences attributable to a radiation effect were noted among the comparison groups in regard to radial pulse, blood pressure, hematologic or urologic examinations. 43 references, 1 figure, 17 tables.

Burrow, G.N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Hrubec, Z.; Amamoto, K.; Matsunaga, F.; Brill, A.B.

1963-10-01

128

Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

2014-02-01

129

Geographical distribution of plutonium derived from the atomic bomb in the eastern area of Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb occurred on August 9, 1945. A large amount of unfissioned plutonium was dispersed into Nagasaki area. In our previous study, we measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios as well as 239+240Pu concentrations in sediment collected at Nishiyama reservoir in the center of Nishiyama area, where 'lack rain' was precipitated, and found that trace amount of the atomic-bomb plutonium has flown into the reservoir even now. A further study on soil samples collected within 10 km from the hypocenter including the basin of the reservoir elucidated the geological distribution of the atomic-bomb plutonium, which was locally deposited at Nishiyama area. In addition, the ratios of 0.13±0.01, which was lower than the value (0.176) of global fallout, were found in samples taken about 8 km east from the hypocenter, while the concentrations were comparable with back ground level. This means a possibility that the plutonium was deposited farther in eastern area. For this reason, we expanded the search area to the eastern area of Nagasaki for determining the deposition of the atomic-bomb plutonium from view point of 240Pu/239Pu ratio. Until now, we collected eight soil samples within 100 km north eastward of the hypocenter. As preliminary results of 2 samples collected at about 25 km east and 45 km from the hypocenter, the 240Pu/239Pu ratios were 0.154±0.017 and 0.111±0.004, which were lower than the value of global fallout indicating the existence of the atomic-bomb plutonium. In the presentation, we will report the details and other results in soils collected in farther area and discuss about deposit area of the atomic-bomb plutonium.

2005-10-17

130

Residual radioactivity measurement in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the evaluation of DS86 neutron fluence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residual {sup 152}Eu activity produced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured in seven mineral samples located up to 1142 m from the epicenter. Europium was chemically separated from the sample and gamma-ray measurement was carried out with a well-type Ge detector. Deduced specific activities were compared with previous measurements and with activation calculation based on the DS86 neutron fluence. Present results are slightly higher than the calculation at far distances. However, systematic discrepancy as has been observed in Hiroshima is not clear. Further measurements for samples beyond 1000 m from the hypocenter are necessary to ensure the discrepancy problem. (author)

Shizuma, K.; Endo, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima Univ., Kasumi, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

2000-05-01

131

Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

2005-03-01

132

Change of blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors were surveyed from 1973 to 1982. Systolic hypertension tended to decrease, while diastolic hypertension tended to increase in younger male survivors. The incidence of hypertension tended to decrease or be constant. According to the WHO classification of hypertension, the type of H, in which both diastolic and systolic blood pressures were high, and the type of SH, in which only systolic blood pressure was high, tended to decrease, while the type of DH, in which only diastolic blood pressure was high, tended to increase. (Namekawa, K.)

1984-01-01

133

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2011-04-01

134

Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested. (ERB)

Whalen, P.P.

1981-09-01

135

Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture. A remote teleradiology and helicopter transportation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The time required to transport the patients to a specialized hospital can influence the prognosis. In the isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture, there is no medical institution which can offer emergent neurosurgical intervention. We reviewed the cases of HICH in this region from January 2006 to September 2010, who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by a helicopter after consultation via teleradiology. Eighty four cases (23%) were transferred via helicopter to our institution from isolated islands. In three of them (4%), re-hemorrhage was demonstrated on computed tomography after helicopter transportation, and one of three had been administered an anti-coagulant agent. Only one case (1%) has deteriorated during helicopter transportation because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The outcome at discharge was as follows: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) I: 3 cases (4%), II: 5 cases (6%), III: 3 cases (4%), IV: 30 cases (36%), V: 31 cases (37%), VI: 12 cases (14%), 43 cases (51%) showed poor outcome (mRS V, VI). For medical management in isolated islands, a remote teleradiology system is indispensable to decide a strategy of treatment rapidly, and a helicopter transportation system is very useful in cases requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention, particular in cases of impending cerebral herniation or acute hydrocephalus. However, we may need to expand logistical supporting hospitals or secure other transportation facilities because many of the patients with poor outcome can not return to their home islands. (author)

2011-10-01

136

Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. When 140 A-bomb survivors, collected from 31 medical facilities in Nagasaki and its surrounding areas, were analyzed using logistic regression model based on the data of 66,276 A-bomb survivors, the incidence of skin cancer was found to be significantly lower in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter. This was also noted when confining to either men or women. Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors, available using DS85 dosimetry system, in the RERF-Life Span Study sample and RERF-Adult Health Study sample (1958-1985), 47 A-bomb survivors were found to have skin cancer. For them, higher incidence of skin cancer was associated with larger radiation doses. Dose-response relationship for skin cancer was linear. Twenty five of the 47 A-bomb survivors (53%) histologically had basal cell carcinoma. Since 1975, an increased rate in the incidence of skin cancer has been noticeable in A-bomb survivors exposed at [<=]2,500 m than those exposed at [>=]3,000 m. The number of excess cases of skin cancer was found to have been steadily increased since 1958. (N.K.).

Sadamori, Naoki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo

1994-03-01

137

The new radiation dose estimation for people exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABS93D (Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose) which being a method established in Atomic Bomb-Radiation Medical Institute of Hiroshima University for estimating the atomic-bomb radiation dose based on DS86 (Dosimetry System 1986), was applied for people exposed to Nagasaki atomic bomb radiation who had been registered in the Database Center for Atomic Bomb Radiation, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University. It was possible to estimate the dose for 10,022 people who had been present at the known distance from the explosion site and had been either exposed ``unshielded`` in the open-air or exposed ``shielded`` outdoors by a wooden construction or trees and indoors in a wooden construction. The population exposed at <0.005 Gy was calculated to be 19.1%, 0.005-1 Gy, 71.4%, and {>=}1 Gy, 9.5%. Comparison of this ABS93D dose with the dose on T65D (Tentative 1965 Dose) in the same individuals revealed that the dose on ABS93D was lower than T65D dose. The method and parameters to calculate the free-air kerma, shield kerma and organ kerma based on ABS93D were presented in the appendix. (K.H.)

Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Disease Inst.; Okumura, Yutaka; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hayakawa, Norihiko

1997-03-01

138

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

1986-01-01

139

The new radiation dose estimation for people exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ABS93D (Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose) which being a method established in Atomic Bomb-Radiation Medical Institute of Hiroshima University for estimating the atomic-bomb radiation dose based on DS86 (Dosimetry System 1986), was applied for people exposed to Nagasaki atomic bomb radiation who had been registered in the Database Center for Atomic Bomb Radiation, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University. It was possible to estimate the dose for 10,022 people who had been present at the known distance from the explosion site and had been either exposed ''unshielded'' in the open-air or exposed ''shielded'' outdoors by a wooden construction or trees and indoors in a wooden construction. The population exposed at <0.005 Gy was calculated to be 19.1%, 0.005-1 Gy, 71.4%, and ?1 Gy, 9.5%. Comparison of this ABS93D dose with the dose on T65D (Tentative 1965 Dose) in the same individuals revealed that the dose on ABS93D was lower than T65D dose. The method and parameters to calculate the free-air kerma, shield kerma and organ kerma based on ABS93D were presented in the appendix. (K.H.)

1997-03-01

140

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki.

Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

1982-04-30

 
 
 
 
141

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are radiobiologically examined for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are changed very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki.

Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

1982-03-25

142

Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (?2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. PMID:23859763

Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

2013-10-01

143

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

1986-01-01

144

Okinawa, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

1991-01-01

145

Statistical analysis of the late effect in the a-bomb survivors from the inpatient records of the internal department of Nagasaki A-Bomb Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical analysis was made as to inpatient records of internal department of Nagasaki A-bomb Hospital for 5 years between 1971 and 1975. It was not proved whether these records represented original A-bomb survivors precisely or not, because these records were not those of all A-bomb survivors. To investigate the total admission period according to age, the exposed and controls were divided into the 4 age groups: the age between 35 and 44 years, 45 and 54 years, 55 and 69 years, and over 70 years. As a result, the total admission period was significantly long in male A-bomb survivors over the age of 55 years. To investigate the total admission period according to exposure distance, the subjects were divided into 5 age groups starting from the age of 30 years every 10 years. The frequency of admission was significantly higher in male and female A-bomb survivors of middle and old ages exposed within 1.9 km than that in a long-distance group who were exposed over 2 km or entered the city after the explosion. (Tsunoda, M.)

1980-01-01

146

Japan earthquake: Footage of moment tsunami hit  

Science.gov (United States)

This video footage shows the force at which the tsunami struck Japan's coast. In the fishing port of Miyako, in Iwate prefecture, boats were overturned, while video from Kamaishi city shows cars being dragged down city streets by the water. The tsunami that followed the 8.9-magnitude earthquake wreaked havoc along a huge stretch of Japan's north-east coast, sweeping far inland and devastating a number of towns and villages. Powerful aftershocks are continuing to hit the region. Footage courtesy of TV Asahi and TBS

Bbc

147

Individualized and institutionalized residential place-based discrimination and self-rated health: a cross-sectional study of the working-age general population in Osaka city, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Several studies have reported that individualized residential place-based discrimination (PBD) affects residents’ health. However, studies exploring the association between institutionalized PBD and health are scarce, especially in Asian countries including Japan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with random two-stage sampling of 6191 adults aged 25–64 years in 100 census tracts across Osaka city in 2011. Of 3244 respondents (response rate 52.4%), 2963 were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression to examine the association of both individualized and institutionalized PBD with self-rated health (SRH) after adjustment for individual-level factors such as socioeconomic status (SES). An area-level PBD indicator was created by aggregating individual-level PBD responses in each tract, representing a proxy for institutionalized PBD, i.e., the concept that living in a stigmatized neighborhood affects neighborhood health. 100 tracts were divided into quartiles in order. The health impact of area-level PBD was compared with that of area-level SES indicators (quartile) such as deprivation. Results After adjustment for individual-level PBD, the highest and third area-level PBD quartiles showed odds ratio (OR) 1.57 (95% credible interval: 1.13-2.18) and 1.38 (0.99-1.92), respectively, for poor SRH compared with the lowest area-level PBD quartile. In a further SES-adjusted model, ORs of area-level PBD (highest and third quartile) were attenuated to 1.32 and 1.31, respectively, but remained marginally significant, although those of the highest area-level not-home-owner (census-based indicator) and deprivation index quartiles were attenuated to 1.26 and 1.21, respectively, and not significant. Individual-level PBD showed significant OR 1.89 (1.33-2.81) for poor SRH in an age, sex, PBD and SES-adjusted model. Conclusion Institutionalized PBD may be a more important environmental determinant of SRH than other area-level SES indicators such as deprivation. Although it may have a smaller health impact than individualized PBD, attention should be paid to invisible and unconscious aspects of institutionalized PBD to improve residents’ health.

2014-01-01

148

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical X-ray exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical factors used during radiological examinations performed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki medical institutions were analyzed. The most frequently performed examination was chest radiography, followed by upper GI series. More than half the radiographic exposures were from upper GI series due to the many spot films made during fluoroscopy. Comparison of the present survey results with those of a previous one showed that relatively high kVp, low mAs and mA, and smaller field sizes are now more widely used. Though there have been decreased in fluoroscopy times and tube currents over the past 10 years, the numbers of spot films used have increased. Based on these technical factors, tables of organ doses from fluoroscopic examinations were compiled. (author)

1987-01-01

149

A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

1993-10-18

150

Revised estimates of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the summer of 1980, Loewe and Mendelsohn of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) released details of a complete but preliminary new free-field dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which was then finalized in the fall of 1980. This dosimetry was shown to have a major impact on the apparent relationship between leukemia incidence and radiation dose. The steps taken toward developing the LLNL dosimetry are discussed. These are (1) assessment of yields and computed bomb leakage spectra; (2) assumption of atmospheric conditions; (3) application of validation procedure to transport; (4) computation of prompt doses (source neutrons and source and secondary gammas); (5) evaluation and use of delayed (fission-product) gamma dose model; (6) comparison with in situ measurements; evaluation and reinterpretation of neutron activation dosimetry; (7) identification of origins of disagreement with T65 dosimetry; and (8) estimation of uncertainties

1981-09-16

151

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

1987-01-01

152

Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

1986-01-00

153

Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

1958-04-01

154

Malignant tumors in people exposed as children to atomic bomb in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine both the conditions under which malignant tumors occurred and the pathological specificity of those tumors in people exposed as children (at the age of 0-9) to the atomic bomb in Nagasaki, a comparative study was made of malignant tumors (including brain tumor but excluding leukemia) in 88 exposed cases taken from the data of the committee for the statistical analysis of tumors in Nagasaki and from other literature, and in unexposed cases of malignancy. The following items were analyzed; the distance from the bombed area (doses), the age at the time that the disease occurred, the latent period, the annual incidence of disease, the site of tumor, and the type of tissue. The results are summarized as follows, although they are inconclusive because of the small number of cases. The incidence of malignant lymphoma, cancer of the tyroid gland, brain tumor, sarcoma, and cancer of the ovary had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. From the standpoint of sex, there was a tendency that cancer of the stomach and malignant lymphoma occurred more often in females than in males. On the other hand, sarcoma and brain tumor were seen more often in males. From the standpoint of the relationships among these factors: the distance from the bombed area, the latent period, and the type of tumor, it was suggested that cancer of the thyroid gland, brain tumor and cancer of the stomach were observed especially in cases which had been exposed as children. In addition, it was considered that the influence of not only a short distance from the bombed area but also a middle distance from that area can not be neglected. (Namekawa, K.)

1976-01-01

155

Wind Energy Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-06-15

156

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the annual health examination records were investigated and classified by cause of death. In males with cancer, there was noted an increased incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and traces of urinary proteins 1 year to 3 years before death. However, the incidence of urinary protein traces was low compared with that in other diseases. In males with cerebral vascular diseases, there was a high incidence of hypertension. Urinary protein traces appeared from 4 years to 5 years before death. In females with cardiovascular diseases including hypertensive diseases and valvular diseases, the incidence of urinary protein traces increased from 4 years to 5 years prior to their death. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was generally high in these cases. In males with liver cirrhosis, urinary urobilinogen amount was generally more than that in other diseases. This tendency also appeared in females with liver cirrhosis 6 years before death. The incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in males with liver cirrhosis, and that of abnormal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in females with liver corrhosis. (Ueda, J.)

1980-01-01

157

The Strategic Bombing of German Cities during World War II and its Impact on City Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We construct a unique data set to analyze whether or not a large temporary shock had an impact on German city growth and city size distribution. Following recent work by Davis and Weinstein (2001) on Japan, we take the strategic bombing of German cities during WWII as our example of such a shock. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of this shock on German city-growth and the resulting city-size distribution. If city-growth follows a random walk this would imply that the war shock ...

2002-01-01

158

Twelve cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki (especially seven atomic bombing casualty cases). [In Japanese  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1958, there have been 12 cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki, and among them were 7 cases representing atomic bombing casualties, with 3 cases being with 2 km distance from the hypocenter. The age of onset was between 51 and 69 years, and the sex ratio was 8:4, it occurring mostly in males. Symptoms were predominantly low back pain and chest pain caused by the bone changes in 8 cases. Two cases complained of general malaise and palpitation which resulted from anemia. One developed persistent epistaris, and another complained of diplopia caused by the paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. Peripheral blood in all cases showed anemia, 9 with hyperchromic and 3 with normochromic or hypochromic anemia. Low platelet counts were seen in 3 cases. All showed leukopenia. All cases showed typical ..gamma..-globulin change with a myeloma peak, and in 4 cases showed an increase of ..beta..-globulin. Bence-Jones proteinuria was present in 5 cases. Average course was 1 year 4 months. Among complications, myeloma nephrosis, aplastic anemia, and pneumonia were the most important ones.

Ichimaru, M.; Yasuhi, S.; Ouchuru, S.

1963-12-01

159

Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

1983-01-01

160

Myelodysplastic syndromes in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. A preliminary analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous hematological group characterized by an ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in a variety of cytopenias, morphological abnormalities of blood cells, chromosomal aberrations, and an increases risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. Despite of its nature of close relation to leukemia, MDS has been not well investigated in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with over 80,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki to assess the incidence of MDS and its relation with A-bomb exposure status. In a preliminary analysis, we confirmed 162 MDS cases during 1980 to 2004. The median age at diagnosis was 71 years old. The incidence rate was higher in men than women, and an inverse relationship was observed between incidence of MDS and the distance from the hypocenter. We suggest that A-bomb radiation may affect the occurrence of MDS in A-bomb survivors even more than 50 years passed after the explosion. Further detail analyses are necessary to confirm these results. (author)

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Relationship between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation exposure is a possible predisposing factor for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), but the association has been uncertain. We investigated the relationship between radiation exposure and MGUS prevalence by using data from the M-protein screening for Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors between 1988 and 2004. Radiation exposure was assessed by exposure distance from the hypocenter and exposure radiation dose. We computed prevalence ratios (PRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for exposure age and sex. A total of 1082 cases of MGUS were identified from 52 525 participants. MGUS prevalence was significantly higher in people exposed at distance within 1.5 km than beyond 3.0 km (PR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) among those exposed at age 20 years or younger, but it was not found among those exposed at age 20 years or older. MGUS prevalence was also significantly higher in people exposed to more than 0.1 Gy than those exposed to less than 0.01 Gy (PR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8) among those exposed at age 20 years or younger. Thus, people exposed at younger age exhibited a significantly high risk of MGUS when exposed to a high radiation dose. There was no clear association between radiation exposure and the malignant progression of MGUS. Further detailed analysis is needed. PMID:18849487

Iwanaga, Masako; Tagawa, Masuko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Yokota, Ken-ichi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Fukushima, Takuya; Hata, Tomoko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Momita, Sabro; Kamihira, Shimeru; Tomonaga, Masao

2009-02-19

162

Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

1978-01-01

163

Improved Accuracy in the Measurement of {sup 152}Eu Induced by Atomic Bomb Neutrons in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 152}Eu activities induced by the atomic explosion in Nagasaki, have been experimentally estimated in two roof tiles in order to improve the accuracy of the former data about positions distant from the epicentre (at 1100 m) as the slant distance. Several aspects causing estimation errors have been discussed in more detail: i.e. influence of the natural background nuclides such as {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 212}Bi and {sup 138}La, and half-life selection of {sup 152}Eu. As a result, the value of {sup 152}Eu/Eu (i.e. ratio of the {sup 152}Eu activity to total Eu) has been estimated to be 0.336 {+-} 0.032 (Sample A) and 0.491 {+-} 0.040 (Sample B) Bq.mg{sup -1} as the values at the time of the bombing. In a comparison between the experimental values and the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) calculation, the ratio between DS86 calculations and the present work is estimated to be 0.40-0.58. More detailed discussion on the dose estimation of thermal neutrons might be needed for the improvement of the DS86 system. (author)

Iimoto, T.; Kosako, T.; Shida, K.; Eguchi, H

1999-07-01

164

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific radioactivities of residual europium (Eu)-152 were measured in six roof tile samples exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at two locations. The ground distances of the two locations from the hypocenter are 1020 m and 1060 m. In order to obtain reliable data, Eu-enriched samples (from 207 to 855 mg) were prepared by separating Eu from each roof tile sample (from 1 to 2 kg). For the major aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, residual radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu was measured using a low-energy photon spectrometer. For the minor aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, Eu content was determined by neutron activation analysis. Results of the specific radioactivity ({sup 152}Eu/Eu, Bq mg{sup -1}) corrected to the time of bombing were in a range from 0.080 to 0.446. Although the measured values showed some scattering, they are moderately consistent with the calculated values by the DS86 methodology, i.e. the average ratio of the calculated to measured values is 1.3{+-}0.8. (author)

Nakanishi, Takashi; Miwa, Kentaroh; Ohki, Rika [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

1998-12-01

165

Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

1978-01-01

166

The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation sickness and subsequent cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an analysis of data obtained from the Life Span Study, a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of a linear dose response between the estimated dose of ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (p 0.2) by the presence of epilation. The results for leukemia were not modified by age or sex and were consistent in both cities. These observations suggest that those individuals who experienced early effects of radiation were more likely to die of leukemia during the follow-up period than individuals who were exposed to the same level of A-bomb radiation but did not develop epilation. The robustness of this finding on the interaction of two difficult but important problems was investigated. These were the validity of a linear dose-response model for leukemia, and the level of assumed precision of the radiation dosimetry system used for assignment of dose estimates to individual survivors. Assuming 35 % random dose errors and a dose-response function cubic in dose, the excess relative risk for leukemia was still estimated to be 1.89 times higher for the group with epilation, and the p-value for a test of association between leukemia and epilation remained significant at the 0.10 level. If 50 % random dosimetry errors are assumed using the same cubic model, the dose response in the epilation group is estimated to be 1.58 times higher than the others, but is not significant (p < 0.3). (author)

1990-01-01

167

Landslides in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This internet site, published by The Japan Landslide Society, focues on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan.

2008-09-29

168

FAQs: Japan Nuclear Concerns  

Science.gov (United States)

... Donor centre Global network Global Health Cluster FAQs: Japan nuclear concerns September 2011 Current risk What is ... current risk of radiation-related health problems in Japan for those residing near the reactor in comparison ...

169

Japan's Polar Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Title : INT9403 Japan's Polar Research Type : International Document NSF Org: SBE / INT Date : April ... int9403 JAPAN'S POLAR RESEARCH This report summarizes Japanese polar research activities and budgets ...

170

Breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950--1969  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the period 1950-69, 231 cases of breast cancer were identified among 63,275 female atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls; 187 were among survivors for whom dose estimates were available. The estimated absolute risk per rad was 1.9 excess cases per 106 person-years at risk over this period for women who were 10 years old or older at the time of bombing (ATB), substantially less than published estimates largely based on X-ray and fluoroscopy data from smaller samples of younger North American women. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose-response curves were similar, which suggested approximate equivalence of neutron and gamma radiations in their carcinogenic effect on breast tissue, and were consistent with a linear model. An identifiable radiation effect was evident before 1955. For women of comparable ages ATB, the time from 1945 to diagnosis did not vary by dose, nor was there evidence that radiation caused breast cancer to develop in these women at earlier ages than usual. No breast cancers were found up to 1969 among atomic bomb survivors under age 10 ATB, nor were any substantial numbers observed until 1960 in those 10-19 years old ATB. By 1965-69, however, the cohort 10-19 years old ATB exposed to high or medium doses was experiencing a much greater excess of breast cancer than was observed in women 35 years old or older ATB who were exposed to any dose level. This suggests that the breast tissues of adolescent females may be more sensitive than those of older women to the effects of ionizing radiation. Finally, for each age-ATB interval (10-19, 20-34, 35-49, and 50+ yr), women exposed to 100+ rads had, by 1969, already approximated or exceeded their lifetime expectations (after 1950) of breast cancer as calculated from Japanese cancer registry data

171

Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

1983-01-01

172

Incidence of multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Association with radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPC), we analyzed the association between the incidence of second primary cancers in survivors of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, and exposure distance. The incidence rate (IR) of a second primary cancer was calculated and stratified by the distance from the hypocenter and age at the time of bombing for the years 1968 through 1999. The IR of the first primary cancer was also calculated and compared with the second primary cancer to determine whether atomic bomb radiation was associated with the multiplicity of tumors. There were 511 confirmed cases of MPC in the 7572 cancer-bearing survivors. The crude IR was 27.6 per 100000 person-years. The IR of second primaries decreased significantly with increasing distance from the hypocenter: relative risk, 0.89 per 1.0 km; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.94. A significant decrease was also noted for those of older ages at the time of the bombing, based on the attained age of the second primary cancer: relative risk, 0.91 per 1 year; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.92. These findings suggest that the radiation has affected the incidence of MPC. Furthermore, when compared with the first primary cancer, a stronger distance effect was suggested on the occurrence of a second primary cancer in the survivors. The present study suggests the significance of atomic bomb radiation on MPC in the survivors. These results on the incidence of MPC in the tumor-bearing survivors and its correlations with the atomic bombing of 62 years ago are described for the first time in this report. (author)

2008-01-01

173

Structure of the capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from Haemophilus parasuis strains ER-6P (serovar 15) and Nagasaki (serovar 5).  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium from the family Pasteurellaceae and a swine pathogen. H. parasuis is found in the upper respiratory tract of piglets and produces Glässer's disease, an invasive disease characterized by polyserositis. H. parasuis contains a short lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) reported to play a partial role in interaction with host cells. The presence of capsule has been phenotypically demonstrated in certain H. parasuis strains and its role in virulence has been suggested, but the chemical structure of the surface polysaccharides of this bacterium was unknown. The structure of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and LOS from virulent strains ER-6P and Nagasaki was studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. CPS from both strains had the same main chain with disaccharide repeating unit, substituted with ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-GalNAc-(1-P-(strain ER-6P) or ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-Gal-(1-P-strain Nagasaki) side chains, where R is the N-acetyl or N-glycolyl group. Glycolyl-neuraminic acid is widely found in animal glycoproteins, but it apparently has not been found in bacteria before, and might be important for the biology of this microorganism. Ac and Gc were present in equal amounts in the strain ER-6P but Nagasaki contained only about 20% of Gc substituent. Both strains produced the same LPS of a rough type with a single phosphorylated Kdo linking core and lipid A parts. LOS structure was similar to some strains of H. influenzae and contained a globotetraose terminal sequence. PMID:23664728

Perry, Malcolm B; MacLean, Leann L; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Aragon, Virginia; Vinogradov, Evgeny

2013-08-30

174

Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

175

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agreement with traditional values. The new discrete ordinates software appears to have potential application to conventional radiation transport calculations as well. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1988-09-12

176

Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1983-01-01

177

RBE of neutrons in cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-78  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in cancer mortality in the period 1950-78 in a fixed cohort of 109,000 individuals is reported. The RBE of neutrons has been estimated by fitting several models to the dose-response curves in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for leukemia, lung, breast, and stomach cancers where the dose-response relationship has been confirmed and for cancers of all sites other than leukemia. A simple additive model was used because two other models where mortality is assumed to level off in the high dose group due to cell killing fit closely resembling the simple additive model. Thus, primarily, the L-L model where mortality is assumed to increase linearly with gamma and neutron doses and the Q-L model where mortality increases proportionally to the square of the gamma dose and linearly with the neutron dose were used. Since the observations on cancers of all sites fit both the L-L and Q-L models, the RBE was estimated for both. The RBE based on the kerma dose (and tissue dose) is leukemia 7.3 (14.7), stomach cancer 3.0 (7.4), lung cancer 2.2 (4.7), and breast cancer 4.6 (6.5) using the L-L model. Under the Q-L model, the RBE is dose dependent and decreases with increasing dose. At 100 rad it is 5.1 (5.5), 3.1 (3.4), 8.3 (9.2), and 11.6 (12.7), respectively. The L-Q-L model where mortality increases with the gamma dose and its square, and linearly with the neutron dose, fits better than either the L-L model or the Q-L model for the data on cancer other than leukemia. However, one or the other of the two estimated coefficients associated with the gamma dose are negative. (author)

1983-01-01

178

Historic Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

179

Sin City?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correl...

Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

2007-01-01

180

Energy security for Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy security for Japan is expounded about the current state of energy utilization in Japan, world energy situation and the position of Japan, the thought for the energy security in Japan, the basic direction of the energy security policy of Japan, and the role of nuclear power for energy security. The problem is tackled in long and short term viewpoints. As the long term viewpoint, conditions must be set to rectify the world unbalanced energy supply situation by finding the new means of energy supply, and as the short term viewpoint, measures must be taken to prevent energy crisis circumstances. Accordingly, Japan should promote the energy security policy based on nuclear power development and coal utilization. The development of energy resources is to be promoted centering on nuclear power, at the same time extending technological aid to developing countries. Internationally, the effort of nuclear safeguards must be strengthened. (J.P.N.)

1981-03-12

 
 
 
 
181

Analysis of tooth decay data in Japan using asymmetric statistical models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kouji Yamamoto,1 Sadao Tomizawa21Department of Medical Innovation, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda City, Chiba, JapanBackground: The aim of the present paper was to develop two new asymmetry probability models to analyze data for tooth decay from 363 women and 349 men aged 18–39 years who visited a dental clinic in Sapporo City, Japan, from 2001 to 2005.Methods: We analyzed the pr...

Yamamoto K; Tomizawa S

2012-01-01

182

Japan`s steam coal demand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japanese steam coal demand in the electric power industry has been rapidly growing, in the future demand is likely to grow more rapidly than in the past. The electric power industry development plan envisages growth in power generation from nuclear power, LNG and coal. All projects must be approved by the Electric Power Development Coordination Council. Japan imports coal considerably on the basis of quality, although the clean use of subbituminous coal is being researched. Japan intends buying most of its coal on long term contracts, to ensure security of supply, but some spot trade coal may be bought.

Morita, K. [Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan). Coal & Gas Group

1995-12-31

183

Japan's Beef Market.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan imports large amounts of beef, primarily from Oceania and North America, and its consumers are willing to pay a premium for heavily marbled, grain-fed beef. As a result, Japan's import of certain beef cuts and offal raise the value of U.S. cattle. T...

J. Dyck K. Obara M. McConnell

2010-01-01

184

Transport in an air-over-ground environment of prompt neutrons and gammas from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the work on radiation shielding in the last two decades has been aimed at developing adequate data on transport methods and cross sections to describe the numerous prompt-neutron and the prompt and secondary gamma-ray interactions through the various materials. When adequate experimental data are available, the calculational results can be benchmarked. In the absence of such test data, however, one must rely on results obtained from the particle-transport calculations. The two most accurate methods for these calculations are the discrete-ordinates S/sub n/ method and the Monte Carlo method. This paper is concerned with the application of the S/sub n/ method for approximating a solution to the Boltzmann transport equation in an air-over-ground two-dimensional, cylindrical geometry as applied to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki environments

1981-09-16

185

Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

2011-11-01

186

Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

1979-01-01

187

Sin City?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships.

Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.

2007-01-01

188

A study of plutonium fallout in japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly fall rate of _2_3_9"+_2_4_0Pu in Tokyo and Tsukuba Science City during January 1974 through December 1980 is given. The cumulative amount of plutonium fallout in Tokyo from the beginning of nuclear detonations to the end of 1980 is estimated to be about 1.2 m Ci/km_2. The ratio of _2_3_9"+_2_4_0Pu to _9_0Sr deposition during the same period was about 1.6 %. Samples collected at Akita, the Japan Sea side of Honshu Island, Japan, during 1963 to 1964 indicate that the fall rate of plutonium isotopes is about 2 times higher than that in Tokyo. After the removal of our Institution to Tsukuba Science City, about 60 km north of Tokyo, the sampling and analysis of plutonium isotopes were continued and it was confirmed that the amount of plutonium deposition in both cities are in good agreement with each other. (author)

1974-01-00

189

Vaccine Effectiveness against Medically Attended Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011–2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs), including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?60.5 to 44.1). The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were ?1.5% (95% CI, ?74.7 to 41) and 50% (95% CI, ?43.2 to 82.5), respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011–2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

Suzuki, Motoi; Minh, Le Nhat; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

2014-01-01

190

Japan's plutonium policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan is trying to match its economic power with political influence. Current Japanese nuclear policy is committed to expansion not only in fuel facilities but in electric power generation, from about 25% from nuclear now to 40% by the year 2000. Japan is building its own reprocessing plant, a uranium enrichment facility and a low level waste shallow burial facility. It also has nuclear exports in Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand. The purpose of Japan's stockpile of plutonium is not clear. Although officially the stocks will only be maintained at levels necessary for the future reactor programme, it is suggested that if North and South Korea join China as nuclear weapon states Japan would want to develop her own nuclear weapon capability. (UK)

1993-01-01

191

Space communications in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

Mori, T.

192

Paper making in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paper making factory in Japan where the traditional mulberry paper is still made. The various stage in the pulping, floating and using of paper are shown and some of the effects of the development of paper are discussed.

Macfarlane, Alan

2004-01-01

193

Superconducting Technology in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superconducting technology in Japan is in an advanced state and merits continuing attention by outside observers. The university research effort is strong but not unique, with a few exceptions. The real strength is in the industrial effort whose impetus i...

R. G. Brandt

1971-01-01

194

Value change in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the relationship between socioeconomic change and value change. The general assumptions of unidimensionality of modern and traditional values and their exclusive character is questioned on the basis of available datafrom surveys carried out in Japan and in the West. Traditional values in Japan obviously change in some respect, but remain stable in other aspects. The process of changing values seems to cause internal conflicts for certain subgroups such as women and adolesc...

Trommsdorff, Gisela

1983-01-01

195

FUN CITY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".

2007-01-01

196

State of research and perspective on adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a review article entitled ''Physical Benefits from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,'' published in Health Physics in December of 1982, Professor T.D. Luckey of the University of Missouri, asserted the ''radiation hormesis'' with 200 references. This resulted in the first International Symposium on Radiation Hormesis in Oakland, California (August 1985). CRIEPI consulted many specialists about Luckey's paper and studied many other papers such as Lorenz, 1954; Luckey, 1980, Liu et al., 1985. Radiation hormesis research in Japan has been based on the rationale that if Luckey's claim were to be true, radiation management in Japan has been extremely erroneous. CRIEPI organized a Hormesis Research Steering Committee composed of leading specialists in the field concerned, and began research in cooperation with a number of universities, as well as the National Cancer Research Institute, and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After obtaining interesting results in various experiments on the health effects of exposure to low doses of radiation, we have proceeded on an expanded program, which involves fourteen universities and two research institutes throughout Japan. The interesting results we obtained can be categorized in five groups. 1. Enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes and suppression of cancer, 2. Radio-adaptive response relating to the activation of DNA repair and adoptosis, 3. Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 4. Radiation effect on neuro-transmitting system through increase of key enzymes, 5. Others, including the therapy of adult-disease such as diabetes and hypertension. We are now carrying out experimental activities on the effects of low-dose radiation on mammals. After several years of research activities, we are recognizing Luckey's claim. Some basic surveys including Hiroshima Nagasaki and animal experiments in Japan have brought us valuable informations on the health effects of low-dose radiation. The followings are some topical research informations obtained across Japan. (author)

1997-11-01

197

Mineral aerosol particles collected in Dunhuang, China, and their comparison with chemically modified particles collected over Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Continental China has been recognized as one of the most important sources of atmospheric mineral dust particles (called Kosa in Japan, which literally means yellow sand). Many investigators have pointed out the importance of study of the long-range transport of mineral dust particles and their modifications in this process even during the nondust storm periods. Because of these modifications, particles can change their radiative properties and their ability to be a condensation nucleus. Therefore it is important to examine the composition of individual mineral particles in their source region and compare these particles with those after long-range transport. A number of investigations have been carried out on the subject; however, the amount of data is still insufficient. Samples of aerosol particles were collected in Dunhuang, China, in different seasons in 2001 and 2002 during the ACE-Asia campaign. The collected particles were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The particles in all the samples were mainly mineral particles. Similar types of mineral particles were found in the free troposphere over Japan. A number of differences were found between the particles collected in China and those collected over Japan, and these differences can be explained by chemical modifications that occurred in the particles during their transport from China to Japan. Approximately 40-45% of mineral particles mixed internally with sulphate during their transport in the troposphere. Also, the particles collected over Japan were found to be different from those obtained in ground-based measurements in Nagasaki, Nagoya, and Fukuoka, Japan (reported by other research groups). The portion of mineral particles that mixed internally with sea salt and sulphates was considerably smaller than for the samples obtained in Japan near the ground. It is important to take this fact into account while investigating the impact of mineral particles on the biogeochemical cycle and climate.

Trochkine, D.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Yamada, M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Nagatani, T.; Zhang, D.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.

2003-12-01

198

City 2020+  

Science.gov (United States)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

199

Jerusalem : holy city, embattled city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No Arab-Israeli peace process will succeed without a solution for Jerusalem. The author describes stages of the Jerusalem history as a holy city of the Jews, Christians and Muslims and analyses their religious and mental ties to the town. Also the division of Jerusalem was not able to stop the hatred. Jerusalem must be one city and the capital of both, Israel and Palestine. This was the core of the Oslo peace process, and it is still essential for a sustainable solution.

2004-01-01

200

Japan steel mill perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Just over a month ago, on July 1, Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries (JNFI) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Services (JNFS) merged to form the integrated nuclear fuel cycle company, Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (JNFL). The announcement in mid-January that the country's two major fuel cycle firms intended to merge had long been anticipated and represents one of the most significant restructuring events in Japan's nuclear industry. The merger forming JNFL was a logical progression in the evolution of Japan's fuel cycle, bringing complementary technologies together to encourage synergism, increased efficiency, and improved community relations. The main production facilities of both JNFI and JNFS were located near the village of Rokkashomura, on the northern end of the main island of Honshu, and their headquarters were in Tokyo. The former JNFS was responsible for spent fuel reprocessing and also was building a high-level waste (HLW) management facility. The former JNFI focused on uranium enrichment and low-level waste (LLW) disposal. It was operating the first stage of a centrifuge enrichment plant and continuing to construct additional capacity. These responsibilities and activities will be assumed by JNFL, which now will be responsible for all JNFI and JNFS operations, including those at Rokkashomura

1992-08-01

202

Behavior and redistribution of fallout 137Cs released by the Nagasaki A-bomb in environments of soil and sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

23.4 g 137Cs was produced by the Nagasaki A-bomb and a part of them was deposited in soil, tree and sediment cores of the Nishiyama reservoir at 3 km distance from the hypocenter. 137Cs was added as global fallout by nuclear tests since 1946, and amount of them was estimated as 50% of total cumulative radiation dose. 137Cs distribution was measured in soil, tree sediment cores and groundwater. Almost fallout 137Cs was distributed between ground surface and 40 cm depth. 95% of total amount of 137Cs was observed from surface of ground to 10 cm depth. 137Cs peak in 1945 was assumed as a simple peak and its distribution indicated to make possible estimate the particle-mixing coefficient (De) based on the Pu distribution in the local fallout peak stored at the depth of 0.22 to 0.34 m in the sediment core of the Nishiyama reservoir as De=0.08-0.12 cm2/y. The history of fallout was not clear by fallout 137Cs distribution in the rings of sugi. 137Cs concentration profile was the same as that of 40K. 40K and 137Cs concentration increased rapidly in the transition phase from sapwood to heartwood, and then approximated to the constant value. 40K seemed to be absorbed by root, but 137Cs by leaves and stem. (S.Y.)

1998-02-01

203

Residual neutron-induced radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks exposed to Nagasaki Atomic Bomb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks exposed by Nagasaki Atomic Bomb were determined. Samples were obtained from the surface to 2 cm in depth of rocks. Each sample was pulverized and placed in a plastic container, and gamma-ray spectrum was measured with a pure germanium semiconductor detector. To determine the amount of natural element of cobalt and europium contained in each sample, the neutron activation method was performed by the reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). The radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 were evaluated as per 1 mg natural element at the time of Atomic Bomb. The results show that the radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks were decreased with increasing slant distance. The Co-60 activity was 6.88{plus minus}2.13 Bq/mgCo and the Eu-152 activity was 75.9{plus minus}8.79 Bq/mgEu at 510 m from the epicenter. When we compared the activity of Eu-152 calculated by Loewe with our data, we found a divergence between them as the distance from the epicenter increases. (author).

Okumura, Yutaka; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masahiro (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Takada, Jitsuya

1989-01-01

204

Basic research report on regional new energy for Nagasaki Prefecture; Nagasakiken chiiki shin energy kiso chosa hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nagasaki prefecture has been engaged in the two tasks of new energy basic research and new energy vision formulation for two years or in fiscal 1998 and 1999. The estimated value (described in Gcal/year) of the amount in existence of renewable energy includes 5,595,683 from photovoltaic power; 20,628,033 from passive solar use; 178,688 to 818,002 from wind power; 419,040 from seawater temperature difference; 210,923 from geothermal energy and hot water; 939,109 from direct combustion of biomass; and 40,695 from small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power. As for recyclable type of energy, there is 162,281 to 186,222 from refuse fueled power; 373,247 from waste heat out of refuse treatment; 204,682 to 1,181,952 from digestion gas out of sewage treatment gas; and 342,223 to 1,071,497 from utilization of water after sewage treatment. The above are categorized into electric power, heat utilization, and direct use as fuel in the process of estimating the amount of energy in existence (Gcal/year in terms of calorific value). As the result, the amount obtained for each of the said three categories is 6,198,568 to 7,839093 from electric power; 21,973,466 to 22,702,740 from heat utilization; and 1,587,620 from direct use as fuel. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-01

205

Incidence of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors belonging to a fixed cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation was examined in relation to age at the time of the bomb (ATB), calendar time, and type of leukemia over the period 1950-71. Confirmed cases of leukemia in the Leukemia Registry, a fixed cohort of 109,000 subjects and the T65 dose calculations provided the basis for the analysis. Calendar time was divided into three periods, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-26 years after the bombs. The larger the exposure dose and the younger the age ATB, the greater was the effect in the early period and the more rapid was the decline in risk in subsequent years. In the oldest group, aged 45 or over ATB, the increase in risk appeared later and was sustained in the period 1960-71. Chronic granulocytic leukemia contributed substantially to the total leukemogenic effect initially but made little contribution after 1955. Sensitivity to the leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation not only depended on age ATB but its expression varied by type of leukemia and with time after exposure. Although the effect of atomic radiation on the incidence of leukemia in the atomic survivors is now greatly reduced and apparently on the wane, in the period 1966-71 the incidence was still greater than expected, especially in Hiroshima. In the Nagasaki sample, no case of leukemia was observed among the high-dose subjects from July 1966 to the end of 1971. (author)

1978-01-01

206

Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

1990-08-01

207

Lessons from Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most remarkable of Japan's many achievements in the past twenty years has been the relatively slow increase in its energy demand during a period when its economy has grown dramatically. Between 1973 and 1987 Japan's Gross National Product (GNP) expanded by 4% per annum in real terms while its total primary energy requirements rose by only 1% per annum. In other words by the end of this period Japan was using 34% less energy to produce the same amount of goods and services. This improvement in energy efficiency was at its most pronounced between 1979 and 1986, when the ratio of energy consumption to GNP fell by one fifth. (author).

Taylor, L.; Brown, I.; Boyle, S. (Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (UK))

1990-01-01

208

Energy savings in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress in fuel savings has to a significant degree aided in reducing electricity demand in Japan. The graph gives the change in the energy demand over the last 17 years, converted to raw oil figures: 1: overall consumption in Japan; 2: oil demand; 3: electricity demand; 4: coal demand, compared to the increase in the gross national product. The relative level of energy demand per gross national product unit dropped most sharply between 1979 and 1982. The primary factors behind this reduction include an active energy saving policy and the conversion to energy saving technologies in industry.

Iliyev, D.

1984-01-01

209

Tokyo and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Tokyo and Japan should be interesting and educational for people from junior-high students to adults. It provides an interactive experience as a virtual tourist on a trip to Tokyo. You can also 'Ask the Old Japan Hand' questions about Tokyo and what it's like to live there. There are also links to many Japanese sites that publish in English. The site is young, but growing. It's direction and speed of growth will be determined by the reactions of the visitors. Your input is encouraged.

210

Disaster in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2011-03-28

211

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

1985-01-01

212

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

1979-01-01

213

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did not differ between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women under 10 years of age at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any time during the first four decades of life, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. An unresolved question is whether breast cancer risk is increased by radiation exposure at ages older than 40

1987-01-01

214

1998 Monbusho Summer Program in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... Summer Program in Japan Twenty-four American graduate students arrived in Japan on Monday, 29 June ... homeland and Japan, accommodations, meals, and transportation expenses in Japan. Participants by ...

215

Educational Technology in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This overview of the current state of educational technology in Japan includes discussions of professional associations; academic and popular journals; diffusion of media and the budget in elementary and secondary schools; recent trends in government policies; educational technology research; a literature review; and suggestions of future trends.…

Sakamoto, Takashi

1987-01-01

216

Liquid hydrogen in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

2009-07-01

217

Globalization and Education in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

218

Japan and Zhongdong Railway Incident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been for quite some time the conspiracy that Japan invaded China and seized the Northeast. In the process of its implementation of the conspiracy, there had a vehement interest conflict between Japan and Soviet Russia. After the Japan-Russia War, Northeast China became a sphere of influence between Russia and Japan, but they fought against each other continually for Zhongdong Railway issue. After the September 18 Incident, situation of Zhongdong Railway was in depression, together with threat of Puppet Manchu, so in 1933, Soviet Union government transferred all its authority in Zhongdong Railway to “Manchuria Government” in a paid form. Japan eventually achieved its purpose.

Hongjun Zhang

2009-07-01

219

Physical dosimetry at Nagasaki; Europium-152 of stone embankment and electron spin resonance of teeth from atomic bomb survivors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma-rays from thermal neutron-induced radionuclide of {sup 152}Eu in rocks near the ground center of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) explosion (hypocenter) in Nagasaki were measured with a pure germanium semiconductor detector. Depth profiles of {sup 152}Eu activity were obtained for 22 core samples taken from stone embankments on both sides of two rivers (the River Shimono-kawa and the River Urakami-gawa) within 500 m of the hypocenter since the activity in the rocks has a history of incident neutron energy. Although the activities of the surface sections were varied from sample to sample, the slopes of depth profile in rock and the value of {sup 152}Eu activity in the depth of 240-280 mm were similar among the samples taken from the same location. On the other hand, neutron penetrating experiments using both a fast and a thermal neutron reactor were performed to obtain the relationship between the incident neutron energy spectra and the depth profiles of {sup 152}Eu activity in rock. The depth profiles in the bomb exposed samples were close to that obtained by using a 10 mm polyethylene moderator in the reactor experiments. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements from teeth of A-bomb survivors were carried out to estimate the individual gamma-ray dose of the survivors. The absorbed dose of ten tooth samples was estimated by ESR dosimetry. The results of ESR dosimetry were consistent with the calculations of tissue dose in air of A-bombs and irradiated shielding configuration of individuals. (author).

Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1991-03-01

220

Measurements of europium-152 depth profile of stone embankments exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb for neutron spectrum analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative measurement of neutron-induced radionuclide of {sup 152}Eu in rocks near the hypocenter (ground center of the atomic bomb explosion) in Nagasaki was performed to obtain the depth profiles and calculate the neutron energy spectrum. Core samples were drilled and taken from the stone embankments on both sides of river within a radius of 500 m from the hypocenter. After cutting each core into about 27 mm-thick sections, each section was measured its gamma-ray spectrum with a pure germanium semiconductor detector and analyzed a content of natural europium by the activation method. The highest value 8.0 x 10{sup -2} Bq/{mu}g of {sup 152}Eu at the time of the blast was obtained from the surface plates of rock cores collected near the hypocenter. The surface activity of cores was reduced with increasing the slant distances from the hypocenter. The slopes of the depth profiles were similar among samples taken from the same location. In order to analyze the depth profile of {sup 152}Eu activity in rock andesite, experiments using a fast neutron reactor and thermal neutron reactor were carried out. Comparing the measurements on the A-bomb exposure rock with the simulated results at the reactors, among the experiments, the depth profile using the neutron moderator of 10 mm polyethylene was closed to that obtained from the A-bomb exposed samples. The experiment of thermal neutron incidence only could not reproduce the profiles from the A-bomb exposed samples. This fact indicates that the depth profiles of {sup 152}Eu in rock exposed to the A-bomb include valuable information concerning the neutron spectrum and intensity. (author).

Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Okajima, Shunzo; Takada, Jitsuya; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Okumura, Yutaka; Nakazawa, Masaharu

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

1980-01-01

222

The relationship of gamma and neutron radiation to posterior lenticular opacities among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The occurrence of lenticular opacities among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki detected in 1963-1964 has been examined in reference to their ..gamma.. and neutron doses. A lenticular opacity in this context implies an ophthalmoscopic and slit lamp biomicroscopic defect in the axial posterior aspect of the lens which may or may not interfere measureably with visual acuity. Several different dose-response models were fitted to the data after the effects of age at time of bombing (ATB) were examined. Some postulate the existence of a threshold(s), others do not. All models assume a ''background'' exists, that is, that some number of posterior lenticular opacities are ascribable to events other than radiation exposure. Among these alternatives we can show that a simple linear ..gamma..-neutron relationship which assumes no threshold does not fit the data adequately under the T65 dosimetry, but does fit the recent Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore estimates. Other models which envisage quadratic terms in gamma and which may or may not assume a threshold are compatible with the data. The ''best'' fit, that is, the one with the smallest X/sup 2/ and largest tail probability, is with a ''linear gamma:linear neutron'' model which postulates a ..gamma.. threshold but no threshold for neutrons. It should be noted that the greatest difference in the dose-response models associated with the three different sets of doses involves the neutron component, as is, of course, to be expected. No effect of neutrons on the occurrence of lenticular opacities is demonstrable with either the Lawrence Livermore or Oak Ridge estimates.

Otake, M.; Schull, W.J.

1982-12-01

223

The relationship of gamma and neutron radiation to posterior lenticular opacities among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of lenticular opacities among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki detected in 1963-1964 has been examined in reference to their #betta# and neutron doses. A lenticular opacity in this context implies an ophthalmoscopic and slit lamp biomicroscopic defect in the axial posterior aspect of the lens which may or may not interfere measureably with visual acuity. Several different dose-response models were fitted to the data after the effects of age at time of bombing (ATB) were examined. Some postulate the existence of a threshold(s), others do not. All models assume a ''background'' exists, that is, that some number of posterior lenticular opacities are ascribable to events other than radiation exposure. Among these alternatives we can show that a simple linear #betta#-neutron relationship which assumes no threshold does not fit the data adequately under the T65 dosimetry, but does fit the recent Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore estimates. Other models which envisage quadratic terms in gamma and which may or may not assume a threshold are compatible with the data. The ''best'' fit, that is, the one with the smallest X_2 and largest tail probability, is with a ''linear gamma:linear neutron'' model which postulates a #betta# threshold but no threshold for neutrons. It should be noted that the greatest difference in the dose-response models associated with the three different sets of doses involves the neutron component, as is, of course, to be expected. No effect of neutrons on the occurrence of lenticular opacities is demonstrable with either the Lawrence Livermore or Oak Ridge estimates

1982-01-01

224

Source apportionment of PCBs in urban ambient air, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, source identification and apportionment for PCDDs/DFs and PCBs have come to be studied using statistical methods. For this purpose, it is desired that detailed congener specific concentration data should be used as input data. In this study, all the PCB congeners were measured in ambient air at Yokohama City, Japan and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) for source identification. Then the contributions from each source were estimated by multiple regression analysis (MRA).

Kim Kyoung-Soo [Inst. of Environmental Chemistry, Jeonju (Korea); Masunaga, S. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

2004-09-15

225

Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the preval...

Nobuyuki Shiba; Hiroaki Shimokawa

2008-01-01

226

Influence of smoking on postpartum depression in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To investigate the influence of smoking on postpartum depression. Methods: One thousand fifty-one women, in a rural city in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, prospectively fulfilled the selection criteria and completed self-reporting questionnaires on postnatal depression at 5-6 days, 1 month, 4 months, 7 months and 12 months after childbirth, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a life ...

Atsuko Satoh; Chiaki Kitamiya; Yukoh Yaegashi; Fujiko Ohse; Sangun Lee; Chikako Kishi; Kazuko Menzawa; Hidetada Sasaki

2013-01-01

227

Whether Increases in Ambulance Transports is Stratified by Heat Stroke in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan in 2011?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the link between heat stroke and high air temperature from July to September in 2010 in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. Daily data of ambulance transports stratified by heat stroke and the highest air temperature were obtained. Heat stroke was significantly correlated with the highest temperature. The 9.0 magnitude earthquake and following tsunami on March 11, 2011, destroyed many cities in the northwestern part of Japan. Taken together, heat stroke may dramatically increase in F...

Nobuyuki Miyatake; Noriko Sakano; Shoko Murakami; Tomohiro Hirao

2011-01-01

228

Cogeneration in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of providing a basis for comparison of Italian efforts in the promotion, on a national scale through incentives incorporated in the National Energy Plan, of the use of cogeneration systems, this paper reports the results of a survey conducted by the Cogeneration Research Society of Japan to determine the extent of cogeneration usage in Japan. Overall, the survey indicated 800 and 120 MW installed cogenerated electric power in the industrial and civil sectors respectively, with a numerical predominance in the use of diesel engine units (over a hundred at 3,500 kW each) and a significant use of gas turbines (over 40 units at about 9 MW each) in the industrial sector. The survey findings evidenced a tendency to decentralize the use of this form of energy production over the national territory. The paper also reports on the promotional and research activities of the Society

1991-01-01

229

Occupational exposure in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation workers. The date on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official publication of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers was estimated to be about 0.26 million. The annual collective dose equivalents were estimated to be about 22 person·Sv for medical workers, 84 person·Sv for workers in nuclear power station and 11 person·Sv for other workers. The population dose were calculated to be about 2.25 mSv/person/year. (author)

1995-10-01

230

Safeguards activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

1998-05-11

231

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

232

Nuclear situation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

233

Situation in Japan  

... The IAEA response team provides assistance and advice to governments and international organizations upon request. FAO is prepared to respond upon request ...safety facilitating international trade of foods, including agricultural produce Together with the IAEA, FAO is equipped to field specialized teams and provide analytical ...together to support Japan and the global community International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) World Health Organization World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Joint ...FAO/IAEA Programme: Emergency Preparedness & Response Country profile last updated: Friday, November 4, 2011 Contact us ...

234

C40 Cities &  

...C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and Siemens technical partnership and global competition to recognise innovations that address climate change C40 Cities & Siemens ...Publication Sustainable Cities Publication Products & Service Providers About Us News / C40 Cities & Siemens to collaborate on sustainability C40 Cities & Siemens to collaborate ...William Brittlebank |Carbon management, Cities & the Built Environment Related Articles C40 and Siemens award ten cities for urban sustainability Siemens Sustainable Cities Initiative achieves ...new UK wind projects The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) and Siemens have announced a technical partnership and a global prize competition to ...

235

Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan. Current issues with historical review and future perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine (RAI, 131I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of ''radiophobia ''. There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. (author)

2012-02-01

236

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

2008-02-01

237

City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasőbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

Sevtshuk, Andres

2008-01-01

238

The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.

1998-01-01

239

Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / ?Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / ?Dn--96.5 / ?Dn. (author)

1982-01-01

240

Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The finish. About the reasons and events leading to the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Der Endspurt. Zu den Hintergruenden der Entscheidung fuer den Bombenabwurf auf Hiroshima und Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bombing was decided not only for military reasons. For the Manhattan Project managers, and for General Groves in particular, it was a question of justification of their own work and commitment. The bomb may have actually prolonged the war. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Abwurf der Atombomben ueber Japan war nicht nur militaerisch begruendet. Es ging den Managern des Manhattan-Projekts, insbesondere General Groves, darum, ihre eigene Arbeit zu rechtfertigen. Die Bombe wirkte damit wahrscheinlich sogar kriegsverlaengernd. (orig.)

Goldberg, S.

1995-09-01

242

Japan country report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production (Under construction): BWR: 1 unit, PWR: 1 unit. - Electricity production (Preparing for construction): BWR: 9 units, PWR: 2 units. - Research: FBR: 1 unit. Nuclear waste management: NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established as the implementing organization for a high-level waste disposal project in October 2000. Operations are slated to start in the 2030's. NUMO will select the site through the following three-step process. 1- Selection of preliminary investigation areas by documentary studies; 2- Selection of areas for detailed investigation by borehole programs, etc.; 3- Selection of the site for repository construction by test programs in underground exploration facilities. NUMO is recruiting voluntary candidates for documentary studies. Some municipalities have interested in the project, however, they have not let NUMO to do documentary studies. The mayor of the town of Toyo in Kochi prefecture applied for a documentary study in January 2007. It was the first application in Japan, and NUMO was authorized to implement a documentary study there by the national government in March 2007. But NUMO withdrew its application in April 2007 because of opposition from prefecture governors, stakeholders and general public in the town. To improve this situation, the government strengthened its efforts to start documentary studies. For example, they changed the rule so that the government could propose some suitable towns as candidates for documentary studies, in addition to accepting voluntary applications. Other nuclear activities: Implementation of a new inspection system (after FY 2008) instead of the current uniform inspection, change to a plant-by-plant approach. Inspection also during operation. Analyzing the root causes of abnormal occurrences and accidents. This new system improves not only measures against aging facilities but also the reliability of inspection activities by individual plants and the quality of work by equalizing the volume of work. Nuclear competencies (Needs, education and training): It's serious subject how the Japanese nuclear industries m

2008-05-26

243

Japan’s Security Dilemma: Altering Article 9  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this M.A. thesis is to investigate whether it is in Japan’s interest to alter Article 9 of its constitution to allow for an official self-defense military, mainly as a defense against China and North Korea, but also to limit its military dependence on the USA.

2010-01-01

244

Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow induced a debris flow and it moved downstream for about 1 km.

Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

2012-04-01

245

Energy Statistics in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Integral Energy Statistics'' is well known as official energy statistics providing comprehensive and systematically arranged information about energy demand and supply in Japan and is widely used. However, this contains many problems. The ''Energy Balance Table'' issued by the Energy Economics Research Institute of Japan provides energy statistics which is almost free from the problems contained in the Integral Energy Statistics. Energy statistics in particular fields include electric power statistics, petroleum statistics, gas statistics, and coal statistics. Most of the statistics above reflect emphasis on the supply side. Statistics reflecting emphasis on the demand side include the ''Energy Consumption Structure Statistics''(retitled in 1983 ''Petroleum and Other Energy Consumption Structure Statistics'') and the ''Petroleum and Other Energy Consumption Trend Statistics'' issued by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Statistic data can be easily utilized if it is implemented in a database. There are some official databases which are available through computer communication. It would be beneficial to users if statistical data is available in floppy disks or similar media. (1 fig, 5 tabs, 35 refs)

Saito, Takeshi

1987-09-01

246

Food Irradiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, “kamaboko” (fish-paste products), “Vienna” sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given “unconditional acceptance” for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

1981-09-01

247

Perry Visits Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon opening this website, visitors will be treated to an image from an anonymous Japanese scroll which depicts a steam locomotive and several Japanese onlookers. It's an excellent way to start a digital collection dedicated to Commodore Matthew Perry's visit to Japan in 1854. The collection is part of Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives, and it was created as part of a project by Professor Susan Smulyan and her students. On the site, visitors can peruse three different sets of images, including those created by the American artist William Heine and a set of broadsides by anonymous Japanese creators. The subject matter is the same for all of these works (Commodore Perry's visit to Japan), and visitors can take a close look at each image, and also read accompanying essays by students. That's far from all, as visitors can also read accounts of the expeditions written by Commodore Perry and William Heine. The site is rounded out by a detailed bibliography containing scholarly works, journal articles, and web sources.

248

75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-07-01

249

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

250

Nuclear nonproliferation and Japan's stand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan is now forced to adapt toward the international fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE); there is some fear in this connection whether Japan's stand is definitely expressed. It has been examined how the current nuclear nonproliferation arguments influence the research and development of nuclear power in Japan by interviewing those people engaged in the filed. In this way, the points to be chosen by Japan were to be indicated. That is, investigation was made on the effects of nuclear nonproliferation propositions upon the fuel supply efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. As the result, it was found that multi-national management and international centers would be greatly inhibitive to fuel supply. The above matters are expounded, as follows: policy of the United States, stand of non-nuclear power nations, stand of Japan, problems around fuel reprocessing (No. 1 and 2 reprocessing plants, safeguards and multi-national management), and uranium enrichment. (Mori, K.)

1978-01-01

251

Japan and the global environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

1993-01-01

252

Superconductors: is Japan ahead  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In answer to the titles question if the US hopes to compete with Japan in commercializing superconductor technology, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), a research arm of Congress, recommends that American industry must intensify basic research and work on applications and potential manufacturing processes. Three possible strategies that policy-makers may face in trying to shape a sustained and coordinated superconductivity R and D program are: 1) DOE research should be carried out through the national laboratories; however, the success of this work would hinge on close ties with industry and universities; 2) a more aggressive course to increase support for NSF-funded research and to exhibit a working group involving industry, the university sector, and government agencies for commercialization of high-temperature superconductor research; and 3) alternatively, a federal technology agency for a cabinet-level department of science should be established by the government.

1988-07-08

253

Japan country report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production (Under construction): BWR: 1 unit, PWR: 1 unit. - Electricity production (Preparing for construction): BWR: 9 units, PWR: 2 units. - Research: FBR: 1 unit. Nuclear waste management: NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established as the implementing organization for a high-level waste disposal project in October 2000. Operations are slated to start in the 2030's. NUMO will select the site through the following three-step process. 1- Selection of preliminary investigation areas by documentary studies; 2- Selection of areas for detailed investigation by borehole programs, etc.; 3- Selection of the site for repository construction by test programs in underground exploration facilities. NUMO is recruiting voluntary candidates for documentary studies. Some municipalities have interested in the project, however, they have not let NUMO to do documentary studies. The mayor of the town of Toyo in Kochi prefecture applied for a documentary study in January 2007. It was the first application in Japan, and NUMO was authorized to implement a documentary study there by the national government in March 2007. But NUMO withdrew its application in April 2007 because of opposition from prefecture governors, stakeholders and general public in the town. To improve this situation, the government strengthened its efforts to start documentary studies. For example, they changed the rule so that the government could propose some suitable towns as candidates for documentary studies, in addition to accepting voluntary applications. Other nuclear activities: Implementation of a new inspection system (after FY 2008) instead of the current uniform inspection, change to a plant-by-plant approach. Inspection also during operation. Analyzing the root causes of abnormal occurrences and accidents. This new system improves not only measures against aging facilities but also the reliability of inspection activities by individual plants and the quality of work by equalizing the volume of work. Nuclear competencies (Needs, education and training): It's serious subject ho

Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

2008-07-01

254

A New Education Scheme for Japan: Importing Education PPP Structures from England and Scotland (Part 2)  

Science.gov (United States)

There are very few PFI projects in Japan that are specifically designed for education, but there are a few hybrid or complex PFIs that includes education in their facilities and services. In this article, the authors discuss the Ichikawa City Seventh District Junior High School building (an education PFI), which includes a school lunch room,…

Tachioka, Hiroshi; Campbell, Joel R.

2006-01-01

255

Developing a Public Health Training and Research Partnership between Japan and Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of academic partnerships between developing and developed countries is a sustainable approach to build research capacity in the developing world. International collaboration between the Department of Public Health of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine in Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City

Goto, Aya; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Van, Nguyen Thi Tu; Phuc, Trinh Huu; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Yasumura, Seiji; Khue, Nguyen Thi

2007-01-01

256

Worldwide cryogenics - Japan. Research and development at the Japanese National Research Institute for Metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research activities at the National Research Institute for Metals on high-field superconducting materials and the structure materials for cryogenic use are described. The superconducting materials research building equipped with a 17.5 T superconducting magnet, was recently constructed in Tsukuba New Science City of Japan to further progress in superconducting and cryogenic engineering. (author)

1979-01-01

257

National gas transmission pipelines - vital for greater gas use in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, unlike Europe and U.S.A., high-pressure transmission pipelines are confined to areas around the cities of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, because they primarily connect LNG receiving terminals with city pipelines. Building longer pipelines has been hampered by the difficulty of determining the routes and the high construction cost due to topographical complexity, concentrated population in the limited non-mountainous areas, and no established concept of right-of-way as in Europe and U.S.A., owing to a complicated pattern of land ownership. This underdeveloped transmission pipeline network has been a bottleneck for promoting natural gas distribution on a nation-wide basis, and construction of a national transmission pipeline running through the Japanese archipelagos is essential for natural gas to play an important role in the future primary energy supply in Japan. As major gas distribution companies, we wish to describe in this report the concept of national gas transmission pipelines in Japan

1992-05-25

258

Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

1978-01-01

259

Measurement of residual {sup 60}Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residual {sup 60}Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed {sup 60}Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present {sup 60}Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. (author)

Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine] [and others

2002-12-01

260

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki A-bomb at the point 1.6 km of explosion point  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 was measured in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki A-bomb at the point 1.6 km of the explosion point. Andesite separated from the concrete sample was pulverized and subjected to chemical separation of lanthanoide. To determine specific radioactivity of europium-152 (i.e., {sup 152}Eu/Eu) in the lanthanoide-enriched specimen, Eu was measured by neutron activation analysis, and residual {sup 152}Eu was measured by the use of a heavily shielded Ge gamma-ray detector connected to PHA. The result of {sup 152}Eu/Eu measurement is shown together with values obtained previously to the present work and calculated value by DS86 methodology. (author)

Hosotani, Risa [Kanazawa Univ., Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Nakanishi, Takashi [Kanazawa Univ., Faculty of Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

2001-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Science.gov (United States)

For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study.

Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

2014-01-01

262

Building good relationships with neighbors of Japan's oldest plant, Tsuruga  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its establishment in 1957 as a pioneer company of nuclear power development in Japan, the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has gained a great deal of experience with construction and operation of four nuclear power plants - one gas-cooled reactor, two boiling water reactors (BWRs), and one pressurized water reactor (PWR) - at two sites, Tsuruga and Tokai. To gain the understanding and cooperation of the local community, the Tsuruga station must keep running. Each employee is encouraged to make every possible effort not only to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the two units, but also to ensure conscientious coexistence and coprosperity within the local community. The Tsuruga office in the city and the Public Relations (PR) Pavilion (visitor's center) at the site work together as an open window of communication with the local community. Under these basic philosophies, various good neighbor activities are developed and carried out

1992-06-07

263

Biosimilar development and regulation in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Japan, biosimilars guidelines following the principles of the EU framework were established by Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in March 2009. The guidelines cover the manufacturing process, characterization of quality attributes, and clinical and non-clinical studies for biosimilars. In this paper, the requirements for regulatory approval of biosimilars in Japan are outlined.

GaBI Journal Editor

2013-12-01

264

Laser processing centers and their research projects in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Japan, R and D activities on laser materials processing are mainly conducted in universities, public research institutions, and technical centers in private enterprise. Among them the Welding Research institute and the Department of Welding and Production Engineering, both at Osaka University, have taken the initiative in conducting fundamental studies on laser materials processing as well as training experts and engineers in laser technology since the mid 1960s. In 1990, a new laser center called the Applied Laser Engineering Center (ALEC) was established in Nagaoka City in Niigata Prefecture by the investments of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Niigata Prefecture, City of Nagaoka, and many private companies in order to develop industrial applications of laser technologies. The Center has a wide variety of lasers covering wavelengths from infrared to ultraviolet, and many research projects are carried out under the sponsorship of the government, self-governing bodies, and private companies. Another new laser center, the Advanced Materials Processing Institute (AMPI), was recently established in Amagasaki City, a neighboring city to Osaka, under the sponsorship of the City of Amagasaki and many private enterprises, where a 50 kW CO{sub 2} laser and a 5 kW YAG laser (fiber combining two 2 kW CW lasers and a 1 kW pulsed laser) were installed in November 1994. Major targets of the R and D are the development of laser welding and cutting of thicker materials, laser surface modification, and hybrid plasma-laser thermal spraying.

Matsunawa, Akira [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.

1995-06-01

265

Nuclear fission industry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the nuclear fission industry in Japan is described. Japanese nuclear policy, vision, goals, and supporting organizational structures are reviewed. The facilities of the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel development Corporation (PNC), and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) are illustrated and described. Nuclear power statistics and power generation costs by power source are shown for Japan. Photographic details and technical descriptions are presented for Japan's: nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), light water reactor (LWR), advanced thermal reactor (ATR), fast breeder reactor (FBR), gas centrifuge uranium enrichment, LWR spent fuel reprocessing, ATR and FBR spent fuel uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel (MOX) co-conversion process, high level nuclear waste management (NWM) policy, reactor operation safety, newly developed decommissioning and dismantling policy for obsolete nuclear facilities, and new future technology

1990-08-12

266

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

267

The photovoltaic energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

268

Japan and the fifth generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan's efforts to develop artificial intelligence are intended to make computers that are very easy to use and can handle natural language. It may turn out that the big, powerful computer at the center of a network does not have to have such functions, that the personal computers in the network can perform those functions. There is no question that Japan's national economic plans rely on progress in computers.

Lemmons, P.

1983-11-01

269

Ülemiste City kutsub gümnasiste  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ülemiste City pakutavast vőimalusest gümnaasiuminoortele alates sügisest tulla linnakusse ekskursioonidele, et tutvuda kaasaegsete IT-ettevőtete töötingimustega. Sellega soovib Ülemiste City olla toeks Eesti Infotehnoloogia ja Telekommunikatsiooni Liidu IKT-sektori populariseerimise projektile

2007-01-01

270

Mumbai: Liquid city - RCUK  

Skills · Becoming a Researcher and Developing a Research Career · Funding ... '\\Liquid City: water, landscape and social formation in twenty-first century Mumbai' \\... and metaphorical dimensions to water and landscape in the city of Mumbai.

271

Marriage and the City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles...

Gautier, P. A.; Svarer, M.; Teulings, C. N.

2005-01-01

272

Marriage and the city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles...

Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

2005-01-01

273

\\(Nakano Seig\\bar{o}\\) and the Politics of Democracy, Empire and Fascism in Prewar and Wartime Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this dissertation is the life and career of \\(Nakano Seig\\bar{o}\\), a Japanese journalist and politician born in Fukuoka-city on the southwestern island of \\(Ky\\bar{u}sh\\bar{u}\\) in 1886. Initially a liberal and a democrat, Nakano became enamored with European-style fascist movements in the 1930s and tried to start a similar political mass movement in Japan. Advocating a hard-line \\(vis-\\grave{a}-vis\\) America and England, Nakano supported Japan’s entry into WW2. As early as ...

2011-01-01

274

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

1990-06-18

275

Intraoperative radiotherapy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IOR) which have been obtained in Japan were reviewed. In IOR of gastric cancer, a single dose of 2800-4000 rad was delivered. The 5-year survival rates of the patients treated by operation alone were 93.0% for Stage I, 54.5% for Stage II, 36.8% for Stage III and 0% for Stage IV, while those of patients treated by IOR were 88.1% for Stage I, 77.6% for Stage II, 44.6% for Stage III and 19.5% for Stage IV. In pancreatic cancer, long-term survivors could hardly be obtained because of the advanced stage of the disease. However about 80% who complained of severe abdominal pain experienced relief within a week after irradiation with more than 2000 rad. In colon cancer, a cancerocidal dose can be delivered safely, since normal intestine is shifted from the field. Five of 14 patients treated by IOR are alive and 2 of the five patients have survived more than 5 years. In patients with glioblastoma, it was demonstrated that those having received external irradiation, followed by a second craniotomy combined with necrotomy and IOR to the residual tumors, yield significantly better results than those having received conventional treatment. In prostatic cancer, satisfactory local control could be obtained by IOR with a single dose of more than 3300 rad without complications of rectovesical function. In mediastinal tumors, two of the 9 patients treated by IOR have survived more than 5 years with no sign of pulmonary fibrosis. In soft tissue sarcomas IOR has yielded a local control rate of 73.3% without affecting the skin overlying the tumor. (author)

1982-10-01

276

RIA Criteria in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the Reactivity Insertion Events, Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) formulated 'Evaluation Guide for Reactivity Insertion Events of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities' in 1984 based on the data from NSRR experiments. For the reactivity insertion accident (RIA), the following criteria are applied. (1) Peak fuel enthalpy must not exceed the prescribed limit of 230 cal/g. (2) Maximum pressure to the pressure boundary must be lower than 1.2 times of the design pressure. (3) Undue radiation exposure to the neighboring public must be avoided. Besides, the following additional criteria is applied. (4) The reactor pressure vessel must not be damaged due to shock wave and water hammer generated by waterlogged fuel rupture. To calculate the number of fuel failures related to criteria (3), the fuel failure thresholds due to high temperature rupture and PCMI failure are defined. Related to the criteria (4), mechanical energy generated by waterlogged fuel rupture is evaluated. The results of recent reactivity insertion accident (RIA) experiments with high burnup fuel performed in France (CABRI) and in Japan (NSRR) indicated that some fuel failed at the lower deposited energy in the fuel than was previously assumed. Taking it seriously, Japanese NSC had assessed the following high burnup issues based on the new data from CABRI and NSRR tests. (a) Decrease of fuel melting point due to burnup increase, addition of gadolinium, plutonium etc. (b) PCMI failure threshold (c) Mechanical energy generated by fuel particle dispersal at low energy PCMI failures (d) Coolability for debris due to fuel dispersal (e) Fission gas releases. The Japanese NSC revised the licensing criteria for RIA in 1998 based on the assessment of high burnup issues. The enthalpy limit to avoid fuel melting and PCMI failure threshold were revised for high burnup fuels. Also, the evaluation of mechanical energies generated by PCMI failure was added in the safety assessment of RIA to confirm the integrity of reactor pressure vessel. (author)

2003-04-30

277

Purification of europium for the determination of the specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the specific radioactivity of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to assess the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, the use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic bombs and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic bomb. This chemical procedure has been successful for materials exposed to the atomic bomb within a 1400 m slant distance from the explosion point over Hiroshima. At Nagasaki, materials exposed at distances greater than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, we have undertaken the determination of the specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at a place distant from the explosion point. However, because of radioactive decay during the ?60 years since 1945 and the great distance from the explosion point, the current specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?2x10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem in the measurement of ultra low-level 152Eu radioactivity arises due to interference from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y). Hence, our chemical procedure for preparing a Eu-enriched counting source must be improved, and much attention must be given to the removal of Ac from the sample. An approximately 19 kg concrete sample was obtained from the outer surface of a building exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at a distance of 1596 m from the explosion point. From the concrete sample, approximately 9.6 kg of andesite (used as osteodentin) and approximately 7.7 kg of mortar were separated. Because preliminary neutron activation analysis demonstrated that the Eu concentration in the andesite fraction (0.96 ppm) was higher than the concentration in the mortar fraction (0.41 ppm), approximately 7.8 kg aliquots of andesite were subjected to a chemical procedure to separate rare-earth elements (REEs) including Eu. After total decomposition of the pulverized andesite by fusion with sodium hydroxide, removal of major elements (such as Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, and Mg) was carried out by precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange column methods. A crude specimen obtained in this manner was subjected to preliminary measurement of Eu and radionuclides. The crude specimen, which was enriched in REEs, was then subjected to total decomposition and chemical procedures to obtain a purified specimen, which was virtually free of major elements and Ac. To remove Ac from the REEs, the major elements were first removed, then solvent extraction with 1M HDEHP-benzene was applied to the REE fraction in dilute nitric acid medium. Preliminary measurements of Eu and radionuclides in the crude specimen revealed that the content of 227Ac daughters in the specimen was too high to determine the low-level 152Eu radioactivity. A series of tracer experiments using 152Eu and 228Ac demonstrated that solvent extraction in a 1M HDEHP-benzene/dilute HNO3 system is an efficient method to remove Ac from Eu (Figs. 1 and 2). In the case of the actual crude specimen enriched in REEs, Eu and Ac were first extracted into 300 mL of 1M HDEHP-benzene from 300 mL of 0.1 M HNO3 solution. The organic phase was then washed with five 300 mL portions of 0.2 M HNO3. Some results of the enrichment and purification of Eu from the sample exposed to the atomic bomb are given in Table 1. Although the overall recovery of Eu in the purified specimen is only ?26%, the removal of Ac from Eu has finally enabled the

2004-10-01

278

Estimation of daily uranium ingestion by urban residents in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

125 types of food were collected mainly from Yokohama City which is one of the typical urban cities in Japan. The samples, were divided into the 18 food categories in the report of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS),1 were analysed for uranium by ?-spectrometry after chemical separation. Concentrations of 238U in individual types of food ranged from 9.85 * 10-5 Bq * kg-1 in grain vinegar to 5.90 Bq * kg-1 in boiled and dried hijiki. The median value of 238U was found to be 4.83 * 10-3 Bq * kg-1 on a raw weight basis. The daily intake of 238U per person by ingestion was estimated to be approximately 14 mBq with more than 50% of it coming from marine products. (author)

1997-01-01

279

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ?60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

2004-09-03

280

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

2012-05-14

 
 
 
 
281

Victory City: The City of the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

282

City and Technological Innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article follows a trajectory along a series of ideas with the objective of establishing relationships between city and technological innovation: concretely, those that refer to the impact of technological innovation on urban life; the effects that urban crowds have on the production of knowledge; and, the necessity for cities to center their attention on innovation as a fundamental element to guarantee balanced, continued development. The article analyzes, among other things, the great transformations that have evolved in the city over the past decades, the significant changes that have occurred in the concept “production of wealth”, and the change in the space-time logic. The city, as presented here, is now no longer a determined geometric space, rather it is a network of variable geometric spaces. The article also studies the relationships between city and territory, the new role of the State before the increasing role of the cities, and the access mechanisms that should be given to cities so that these reach an appropriate level of globality. For cities not world-wide known, there is no alternative other than to create the necessary conditions for those elements and services to thrive that enable the particular city to be a leader in a determined sector. The big problem facing large cities lays in determining the processes of “what I know how to do” and inidentifying which elements ensure them to be truly competitive.

Manuel de Forn

1999-10-01

283

HLW disposal program in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the year 2000, geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following enactment of the 'Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to all municipalities in Japan start of open solicitation of volunteer municipalities for selection of Preliminary Investigation Areas on December 19, 2002. This paper describes current status of the Japanese HLW disposal program, focusing on activities of NUMO

2003-04-01

284

Incidence of osteoporotic fractures in Sado, Japan in 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a survey of fracture incidences associated with senile osteoporosis in 2010 in Sado City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, including compression vertebral fractures, hip fractures, distal radius fractures, and fractures of the proximal end of the humerus. We previously conducted a similar survey from 2004-2006 in Sado City. The purpose of the current study was to determine the incidence of osteoporotic fractures in Sado City in 2010 and to examine changes over time. We calculated the incidence of each fracture per 100,000 person-years based on the population of Sado City. Hip and vertebral fractures showed marked increases from 2004-2006, but a similar increase was not found from 2006-2010. The average age at injury increased in 2010 compared to 2004, except for fractures of the radius. Among the subjects with hip fractures, 14 % had a history of contralateral hip fracture. The percentage of patients taking medication for osteoporosis before injury was higher in 2010 compared with 2004, but these percentages were still only 7 and 13 % for those with subsequent hip and vertebral fractures, respectively. PMID:23818063

Sakuma, Mayumi; Endo, Naoto; Oinuma, Takeo; Miyasaka, Dai; Oguma, Yujiro; Imao, Kanta; Koga, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Naohito

2014-03-01

285

Current status of the first interim spent fuel storage facility in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, storage of spent fuels outside nuclear power plants was enabled as a result of partial amendments to the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law in June 2000. Five months later, Mutsu City in Aomori Prefecture asked the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to conduct technical surveys on siting of the interim spent fuel storage facility (we call it 'Recyclable-Fuel Storage Center'). In April 2003, TEPCO submitted the report on siting feasibility examination, concluded that no improper engineering data for siting, construction of the facility will be possible from engineering viewpoint. Siting Activities for publicity and public acceptance have been continued since then. After these activities, Aomori Prefecture and Mutsu City approved siting of the Recyclable Fuel Storage Center in October 2005. Aomori Prefecture, Mutsu City, TEPCO and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) signed an agreement on the interim spent fuel storage Facility. A month later, TEPCO and JAPC established Recyclable-Fuel Storage Company (RFS) in Mutsu City through joint capital investment, specialized in the first interim spent fuel storage Facility in Japan. In May 2007, we made an application for establishment permit, following safety review by regulatory authorities. In March 2008, we started the preparatory construction. RFS will safely store of spent fuels of TEPCO and JAPC until they will be reprocessed. Final storage capacity will be 5,000 ton-U. First we will construct the storage building of 3,000 ton-U to be followed by second building. We aim to start operation by 2010. (author)

2008-10-13

286

Ecosystem appropriation by cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimated the ecological footprint of cities in Baltic Europe and globally. The 29 largest cities of Baltic Europe appropriate for their resource consumption and waste assimilation an area of forest, agricultural, marine, and wetland ecosystems that is at least 565-1130 times larger than the area of the cities themselves. Of the global human population, 20% (1.1 billion), living in 744 large cities worldwide, appropriate for their seafood consumption as much as 25% of the globally available area of productive marine ecosystems. The same cities` appropriation of forests for assimilation of CO{sub 2} emissions exceeds the full sink capacity of the world`s forests by more than 10%. If the goal as emphasized at the UN Habit II Conference, 1966, is sustainable human settlements, the increasingly limited capacity of ecosystems to sustain urban areas has to be explicitly accounted for in city planning and development. 57 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

Folke, C.; Jansson, Aasa; Larsson, Jonas [Beijer International Inst. of Ecological Economics, Stockholm (Sweden); Costanza, R. [Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Maryland International Inst. for Ecological Economics

1997-05-01

287

Marriage and the City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In citiessingles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are thereforeprepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, themarriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extendthe model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities)and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is thatsingles are m...

Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

2005-01-01

288

Assimilation in multilingual cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the allophones (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the language...

Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

2011-01-01

289

Growth in Cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent theories of economic growth, including those of Romer, Porter, and Jacobs, have stressed the role of technological spillovers in generating growth. Because such knowledge spillovers are particularly effective in cities, where communication between people is more extensive, data on the growth of industries in different cities allow us to test some of these theories. Using a new data set on the growth of large industries in 170 U.S. cities between 1956 and 1987, we find that local compet...

1992-01-01

290

75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION...the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

2010-09-23

291

NSF/Tokyo Report: 1997 Monbusho Summer Program in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... Summer Program in Japan Twenty-three American graduate students arrived in Japan on Sunday, 29 June ... in Japan but also the round-trip international airfare between participants' homeland and Japan ...

292

NSF Tokyo Report: 1997 Summer Institute in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... culture and language of Japan, and the research being conducted in Japan in their fields of ... For details, contact NSF's Japan and Korea Program as follows: Japan and Korea Program, Room 935 ...

293

NSF/Tokyo Report: 1998 Summer Institute Program in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... culture and language of Japan, and the research being conducted in Japan in their fields of ... Agency (STA) of Japan serve as implementing agencies, and Japan International Science and Technology ...

294

Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pőlvamaal Moostes mőtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

2001-01-01

295

MEDICAL DEVICE APPROVAL PROCESS IN JAPAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW or Koseirodosho in Japanese) is in charge of the pharmaceutical regulatory affairs in Japan. Formal approvals and licenses are required to marketing drugs in Japan which are obtained from the MHLW.  Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) has set itself the challenging task of expediting patient access to novel therapies while ensuring these meet international standards of safety, efficacy and quality. One ...

Devesh Sharma

2011-01-01

296

Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures. PMID:22908354

Okubo, Toshiteru

2012-10-01

297

Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

2011-03-01

298

Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what extent governance frameworks associated with â??new public managementâ?? reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of â??sustainabilityâ??, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance measures have been adopted to assist in managing transport policy challenges, including the application of experimentation, monitoring and evaluation of plans, policies and institutions. The paper looks at two cases of policy management within Japanese transportation: The first is the performance evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called â??Eco-modelâ?? cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance measurement is outlined, the actual application is presented, and the results in terms of how the indicators contribute to promote sustainable transport will be reviewed. A finding is that indicators in both programs seem to have limited positive influence on sustainability, with the most and visible effects in the latter one. The institutional context seems important for the strength of influence.

Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

299

City of Cambridge: CityViewer  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the best way to experience the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts? You could read a history of Harvard University, take a walking tour, or perhaps browse a topical website. But why not look at the Cambridge CityViewer for edification? This unique tool "allows the public to view, query, mark up, and print custom maps using only a web browser." Notedly, the viewer works best with Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Visitors can check out ten different topical overlays, including those dealing with city parks, construction projects, land parcels, sewers, zoning, and traffic. There are many ways to get started, such as performing a simple search, an advanced search, or even just by typing in a street name and number. For anyone with an interest in urban history, planning, and land use, this site is a rare treat.

300

BWR Stability Issues in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

Hideaki Ikeda

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

BWR Stability Issues in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR) stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

Hideaki Ikeda; Takanori Fukahori; Yuichiro Kubo; Hideo Soneda; Shinya Mizokami

2007-01-01

302

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

303

Japan's new basic energy plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: ? Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. ? Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. ? Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. ? Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

2011-06-01

304

Safeguards pact signed with Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia and Japan formally signed a joint nuclear safeguards agreement on 5 March 1982. It brought the number of Australian safeguards agreements concluded since 1977 to 10, covering 17 countries. The agreements are designed to facilitate international nuclear trade under strict non-proliferation conditions. Signing of the agreement means that shipments from the Ranger mine can proceed

1982-03-05

305

Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

2007-01-01

306

The City at Stake:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

Sophie Esmann Andersen

2009-12-01

307

Field Observations of Meteotsunami in Kami-koshiki Island, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Meteotsunami; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band, are known in Japan by the local term "abiki", literally meaning "net-dragging waves" in Japanese. Large abiki occur in bays and harbors along the west coast of Kyushu almost every year during winter and early spring. On 24-25 February, 2009, Urauchi Bay, located on west coast of Kami-Koshiki Island on the southeast coast of Kyushu, was subjected to a destructive meteotsunami. In this event, a maximum sea surface height of 3.1 m was observed at the inner part of the bay. At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. This event surpassed the previous record height for an abiki in Japan: 278 cm in Nagasaki Bay, also located west coast of Kyushu, in 1979. Generally, such an elongated inlet with narrow mouth as Urauchi bay provides calm water conditions even when offshore weather is stormy. Therefore, the area is regarded as a suitable place for the farming of large fish with a high market value. Possible damage to the extensive fish cage system as a result of meteotsunami events is of concern, especially because aquaculture is the main industry in the isolated islands. Forecasting of meteotsunami is a serious request from the local people. AIMS The objectives of the present study are to detect a meteotsunami event in Urauchi Bay and to clarify the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions related to its occurrence. This work attempts to observe the whole process of a meteotsunami event: generation offshore, resonance while it propagates, and finally amplification in the bay. Observations were conducted over a period of 82 days; 12 January to 4 April, 2010, aiming to record large secondary oscillations. A comprehensive measuring system for sea level, current and barometric pressure fluctuations was deployed covering not only inside and near Urauchi Bay but also further offshore in the vicinity of Mejima in the East China Sea. MAIN RESULTS 1) Large meteotsunami events with total height in excess of 150 cm were observed five times during the 82-day observation period. On 1 February, 2010, one such event coincided with the high water of a spring tide, which resulted in flooding. The present observations have revealed that meteotsunami events occur more frequently than previously estimated from existing records of flooding. Even if a meteotsunami event does not result in flooding (e.g., if it coincides with a low tide), attention should be paid to the seiche induced strong currents that may damage fishing boats or aquaculture installations. 2) Three dominant modes were found to exist in sea level fluctuation data in Urauchi Bay using spectra analysis, wavelet analysis and phase analysis of the extracted period band components. The node and anti-node structure for each node governs more energetic areas for sea level and the current velocity fluctuations. 3) Analyses of barometric pressure data show that abrupt pressure changes of 1-2 hPa are generated in the open sea area at Mejima when major meteotsunami events occur. The pressure waves propagated eastward or northeastward to reach Kami-Koshiki within 1-2 hours. The propagation speed was found to nearly coincide with ocean long waves over the East China Sea. This air-sea resonant coupling is considered to be a source mechanism of meteotsunami generation.

Asano, T.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishimura, N.

2012-12-01

308

Build a City.  

Science.gov (United States)

A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

Reynolds, Jean A.

1985-01-01

309

Marriage and the City  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset.

Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael

2005-01-01

310

Aging, saving, and public pensions in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the impact of population aging on Japan's household saving rate and on its public pension system and the impact of that system on Japan's household saving rate and obtain the following results: first, the age structure of Japan's population can explain the level of, and past and future trends in, its household saving rate; second, the rapid aging of Japan's population is causing Japan's household saving rate to decline and this decline can be expected to continue; third, the pay-as...

Horioka, Charles Yuji; Suzuki, Wataru; Hatta, Tatsuo

2007-01-01

311

Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-07-01

312

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

2012-05-14

313

Japan’s national tuberculosis control strategies with economic considerations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We made a bibliographic search for Japanese and non-Japanese literature on tuberculosis control programs to study the current public health policies for tuberculosis control in Japan especially in regard to cost-effectiveness. Then, we compared the Japanese, strategies for tuberculosis control with those in other countries including the United States, and those recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). The current trend of tuberculosis incidence in the Japanese community demonstrates ma...

Ghotbi, Nader; Nishimura, Shuzo; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi

2005-01-01

314

Relationship between Vegetation Composition and Dissolved Nitrogen in Wetlands of Higashi-Hiroshima, West Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-four wetlands located in Higashi-Hiroshima City in West Japan were selected for this studyin order to investigate both the relationship between aquatic plant composition and environmental conditions; andthe relationship between changing land use patterns in the catchments and the concentration of different formsof nitrogen in the wetlands. The dominant and subdominant species which comprised the principal vegetationwere determined based on a vegetation census conducted in each wetland ...

2007-01-01

315

Nuclear accident in Tokai, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear accident occurred in Japan that is rated 4 on the international scale of 0 to 7 developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. On 30 September at 10:35 am a critical accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd, a nuclear fuel processing company in Tokai, Japan. Supercriticality was reached at 10:35 am and the criticality then remained until the morning on 1 October. Three workers at the JCO were heavily exposed and transferred to Mito Hospital (a state-run hospital in Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture) by an ambulance. The symptoms of those three patients were severe and consequently they were transferred to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture by helicopter since NIRS is assigned to be the Third Stage Hospital in the case of a radiological emergency. (author)

1999-12-01

316

Eating Attitudes Test in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Japanese version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was developed and validated using a group of anorectics and Japanese female controls. Its sensitivity was considered to be low for anorectics, especially for the fasting type anorectics. A cross-cultural comparison of the EAT scores of anorectics showed some significant differences among those found in Japan, Canada and Germany. A survey of eating disorders among 286 Japanese female students was carried out with a Japanese EAT. Three cases of bulimia nervosa were identified in this survey, although no clear case of anorexia nervosa could be identified. The EAT seemed to be useful to screen cases of bulimia nervosa and sensitive to distinguish abnormal eating attitudes among the young females in Japan. PMID:7891418

Ujiie, T; Kono, M

1994-09-01

317

Power generation technologies in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cumulated power generating capacity in Japan as per March 1992 amounted to 204 GW, of which 150 GW (77%) was contributed by the utilities, 27 GW (13%) by regional suppliers, and 20 GW (10%) by industrial producers. Of the 204 GW capacity 63% was in fossil fired power plants, 17% in nuclear power plants, and 20% in hydroelectric stations. The fossil fuels used in energy generation break down into oil (47%), liquefied natural gas (38%), and coal (15%). Electricity generation in Japan totals 789 TWh, of which 61% is produced from fossil fuels, 27% from nuclear fuels, and 12% from water power. Major areas of interest in nuclear power generation are the development of the advanced light water reactor line, the commercialization of the faster breeder, and the establishment of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. (orig.)

1994-02-01

318

Biomedical materials research in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The state of research in biomedical materials, particularly biomedical polymers, in Japan as of July 1981 is summerized. Based on visits to approximately 30 universities, research institutes, and medical schools, this report does not cover every relevant research group in Japan. References to provide further information to readers in selected areas are included, including recent articles by Japanese scientists that are written in English or have an English abstract. R and D in the areas of artificial heart blood pumps, artificial organs, bioenergetics, polymers for pharmaceutical use, the biocompatibility and structure of hydrogels, and the synthesis of photosensitive materials is discussed. The authors note that the Japanese Ministry of Education published a major report, approx. 600 pages long and containing 80 separate reports, which dealt with various aspects of basis research on biomedical polymers from 1977 to 1980.

Anderson, J.M.

1982-09-01

319

The japan a nuclear power?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

2003-01-01

320

A Tourist's Album of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

If you are looking to explore Japan in the year 1909 via the eyes of an informed and thoughtful Western tourist, look no further. This engaging collection from the University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives brings together the photo album compiled by Katherine Wolcott and her uncle, Robert Hull Fleming. Fleming was a graduate of the University of Vermont and as part of a larger Asian trip, the two of them stopped in Japan and collected photos, postcards, and other printed ephemera. This collection contains nearly 40 leaves of collected items which depict daily life, landscapes, and pictures of the countryside. Visitors can browse the materials here by genre, topic, creator, format, or place. A good place to start here is with the photos of Mount Fuji, which are a real treat.

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Nuclear fusion technology in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a technological assessment of the status of nuclear fusion research and development technology in Japan. The Japanese nuclear policy, vision, goals, and supporting organizational structure are reviewed. The supporting facilities of the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are illustrated and described. Specific emphasis is placed on the JAERI Naka Fusion Research Establishment near Mito. New photographic details, technical description and fusion breakeven test results for the JT-60 Tokamak fusion device are included. The future research and development program steps are described and projected to the year 2030. Furthermore, as background to illustrate dedication and nuclear capability realized to date, commercial fission energy statistics and electric power generation costs by power generation source type are shown for Japan

1990-08-12

322

Reactor construction programme in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September last year, the Japanese Government requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply three tons of natural uranium for a research reactor, and the Agency has now arranged for its sale to Japan. The metal will be supplied in ingot form and after fabrication it will be used as fuel in a reactor of the natural uranium, heavy water type. The uranium will be obtained from Canada and sold to Japan by IAEA. The Agency had invited tenders for its supply, and after considering the tenders received, the Agency's Board of Governors decided that the Canadian offer to the Agency of three tons of natural uranium free of charge should be accepted and that the selling price to Japan should be US $35. 50 per kilogramme. The price takes into account Article XIV/E of the Agency's Statute which says that the Agency shall establish a scale of charges (including those for storage and handling) for materials furnished to Member States, and that the scale shall be designed to produce revenues to meet expenses in connexion with materials acquired by the Agency and costs of materials and services provided by it under agreements with one or more members. This is the first operation of its kind to be undertaken by the Agency, and the reactor for which the supply is being made will be the first in Japan to be constructed by Japanese scientists and technicians. IAEA's Board of Governors has given the necessary approval to the reactor project for which the Agency is providing assistance

1959-04-01

323

Nuclear fuel cycle in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. and Japan reached agreement in 1977 on the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel of U.S. origin at a facility in Japan. Under the agreement, a plant at Tokai-mura will process up to 99 tons of spent fuel, extracting plutonium from the irradiated fuel assemblies of a demonstration reactor and power reactors. The extracted Pu will be stored for an initial period of two years, rather than converted to reactor fuel. Japan agreed to postponing conversion because it shares with the United States the view ''that Pu poses a serious proliferation danger, that its recycling in light water reactors is not ready at present for commercial use, and that its premature commercialization should be avoided.'' Japan also made concessions on conducting studies on co-processing of U and Pu. The fundamental problem remains unresolved. The result of the negotiations indicates some flexibility on the part of the U.S. This could also be expected when the deliberations in the U.S. Congress on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (export control legislation) are studied. The legislation was originally intended for nothing but export control, but the White House requested some modification to leave room for international negotiations. The clause that would have banned exports immediately or after a certain period of time was taken out, and the final bill did not demand a prior pledge not to engage in reprocessing or in uranium enrichment. The U.S. is beginning to take into consideration the differing circumstances and policies of other countries. The U.S., in giving first priority to nuclear non-proliferation, is trying to curb Pu recycling as much as possible, whereas other countries regard Pu recycling as one key to future energy supplies

1978-01-01

324

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during June, 1991 - July, 1992. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal and intermediate reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes and national programs. The main references were taken from journals published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

1993-01-01

325

Venomous Snake Bites in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue. We verified statistics of snake bites (mamushi and habu bites) in Japan by using a currently available, nationally representative, hospital-based database. We identified 1,670 inpatients with snake bites from 404 hospitals during July 1–December 31 in 2007 and 2008. More than 60% ...

Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

2011-01-01

326

Polymer composites technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1992, the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a panel to assess advanced manufacturing technology for polymer composite structures in Japan. The panel was charged with comparing the levels of the technology and the industry in both the United States and Japan. The Panel on Advanced Polymer Composites Manufacturing Technology of the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center visited approximately twenty Japanese organizations over a ten-day period in December 1992. Their findings cover seven areas: aerospace, sporting goods, automotive, civil engineering, materials, manufacturing science, and product and process development methods. This report reflects the views of the authors, not necessarily those of the entire panel. The panel observed five emerging techno-paradigm shifts in Japan, previously identified by Kodama: Manufacturing companies; Business dynamics; R and D activities; Technology development; and Technology diffusion. Thus, what the panel observed in the specific area of advanced materials really reflects the overall Japanese approach to technology development. Their primary focus is on finding innovative new applications for existing materials, processes, and technologies, and on using these market opportunities to drive new development.

Karbhari, V.M.; Kukich, D.S. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Composite Materials)

1993-08-01

327

City fiiling / Triin Ojari  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

Ojari, Triin, 1974-

2006-01-01

328

Airport as city:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the world today. In many cases, the resultant agglomeration resembles a city in terms of scale, ‘population’ (staff and travellers), infrastructural connectivity and spatial quality. As the world becom...

Yin, M.

2011-01-01

329

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this {proportional_to}60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be {proportional_to}3 x 10{sup -4} Bq-{sup 152}Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of {sup 227}Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of {sup 152}Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

Hosotani, R.; Izumi, H.; Nomura, T.; Yokoyama, A.; Nakanishi, T. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology

2004-07-01

330

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

2001-11-02

331

A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW, Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including typical depressive states. Suffocations/hangings are the most common methods used to commit suicide by both sexes. Utilities and interactions among these several components were considered, as well as a perspective of suicidal behavior. Conclusion. In order to prevent suicide and avoid the worst tragedy for a family, it is an essential requirement to collect and analyze any information concerning suicide victims.

Yamamura Takehiko

2006-01-01

332

Bone marrow transplantation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

1989-01-01

333

Japan nuclear ship sea trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

1992-01-01

334

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

1994-01-01

335

DNA Data Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA Data Bank of Japan collects DNA sequence data and assigns internationally recognized accession numbers mainly from Japanese researchers. It is one of the International DNA Databases that shares data on a daily basis with the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); as a result, all three sources should provide the same information. Users can search for data in several different ways or use one of the various analysis tools. The site also provides information for researchers looking to submit data. Most information is presented in both English and Japanese.

2000-01-01

336

Japanese History, Post-Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jason ?nanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuz? and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

George Lazopoulos

2014-03-01

337

Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

2009-01-01

338

Network cities and externalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

Rafael Boix Domčnech

2004-01-01

339

Hamilton : the electric city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

2006-01-01

340

The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shrinking mining cities — once prosperous settlements servicing a mining site or a system of mining sites — are characterized by long-term population and/or economic decline. Many of these towns experience periods of growth and shrinkage, mirroring the ebbs and flows of international mineral markets which determine the fortunes of the dominant mining corporation upon which each of these towns heavily depends. This dependence on one main industry produces a parallel development in the fluctuations of both workforce and population. Thus, the strategies of the main company in these towns can, to a great extent, determine future developments and have a great impact on urban management plans. Climate conditions, knowledge, education and health services, as well as transportation links, are important factors that have impacted on lifestyles in mining cities, but it is the parallel development with the private sector operators (often a single corporation) that constitutes the distinctive feature of these cities and that ultimately defines their shrinkage. This article discusses shrinking mining cities in capitalist economies, the factors underpinning their development, and some of the planning and community challenges faced by these cities in Australia, Canada, Japan and Mexico. PMID:22518883

Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Wu, Chung-Tong; Schatz, Laura K; Taira, Nobuhisa; Vargas-Hernández, José G

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Fukushima, Into the Forbidden Zone - A Trip through Hell and High Water in Post-earthquake Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Just weeks after earthquake and tsunami struck Japan, the author ventured into the nuclear hot zone of the Fukushima Daiichi plant, outfitted only with rubber gloves, a cloth face-mask, and armed with a capricious dosimeter. He emerged with a haunting report on daily life in a now-ravaged Japan, a country he has known and loved for many years. He stopped to interview people in the cities and towns hit hardest by the earthquake, the tsunami, and the radioactive contamination. The answers he could get are sometimes surprising, in particular regarding the kindness and enduring spirit of the people he encountered and considering what was going on in their lives

2012-01-01

342

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

343

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

344

Food Irradiation Development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology-Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected, to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

1981-09-01

345

Global transport rates of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu originating from the Nagasaki A-bomb in 1945 as determined from analysis of Canadian Arctic ice cores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advancements in analytical technology make it possible for artificial radionuclides released from nuclear explosions to be detected in Arctic ice core layers. The fission product, {sup 137}Cs, and the unexpended fission material, {sup 239+240}Pu, originating from the Nagasaki A-bomb of August 1945, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition rates were 0{center_dot}020 mBq cm{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 0{center_dot}0016 mBq cm{sup -2} for {sup 239+240}Pu, originating from Nagasaki. Assuming the radionuclides, excluding the amount fissioned from the explosion and deposited as local fallout, are deposited evenly throughout the Northern Hemisphere, 67% of the expected amount of {sup 137}Cs reached the Arctic while 1{center_dot}1% of {sup 239+240}Pu reached the Arctic. The results suggest that different transport mechanisms exist for various contaminants in the global transport system. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Kudo, A.; Zheng, J. [Institute for Environmental Research and Technology, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Koerner, R.M.; Fisher, D.A. [Glaciology Section, Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Santry, D.C. [Institute of National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Mahara, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko-Shi, Chiba (Japan); Sugahara, M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Osaka Sangyo University, Daito-shi, Osaka-fu (Japan)

1998-09-01

346

Global transport rates of 137Cs and 239+240Pu originating from the Nagasaki A-bomb in 1945 as determined from analysis of Canadian Arctic ice cores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advancements in analytical technology make it possible for artificial radionuclides released from nuclear explosions to be detected in Arctic ice core layers. The fission product, 137Cs, and the unexpended fission material, 239+240Pu, originating from the Nagasaki A-bomb of August 1945, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition rates were 0·020 mBq cm-2 for 137Cs and 0·0016 mBq cm-2 for 239+240Pu, originating from Nagasaki. Assuming the radionuclides, excluding the amount fissioned from the explosion and deposited as local fallout, are deposited evenly throughout the Northern Hemisphere, 67% of the expected amount of 137Cs reached the Arctic while 1·1% of 239+240Pu reached the Arctic. The results suggest that different transport mechanisms exist for various contaminants in the global transport system. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-09-01

347

The Atlantic Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

What will the future of cities be like? It's a riveting question and one that excites the passions of the folks at The Atlantic Cities website. Their work here "explores the most innovative ideas and pressing issues facing today's global cities and neighborhoods." Visitors should browse through their newest articles, which might include "Why Our Kids Need Play" and "How Poverty Taxes the Brain." The site also has some neat features, including the Charts, Photos, and Urban Wonk areas. Geographers and artists will love the Maps section, which includes both scholarly and humorous offerings. First-time visitors should pay special attention here to "A Block-by-Block Map of Brooklyn, in Garbage" and "One Map, A World of Temperatures." Additionally, visitors can also sign up to receive their e-newsletter and other updates, including information about upcoming conferences and lectures sponsored by The Atlantic.

2013-09-23

348

The Unsustainable City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Make cities more sustainable” is an omnipresent slogan in architecture and urban planning. This article is a discussion on theoretical and practical boundaries of using the expression “sustainability” with respect to the scientific community, therefore avoiding sustainability becoming a euphemism for “doing good”. By definition, it can be concluded, cities developed as counterparts to the hinterland and, therefore, they axiomatically should be and are as a matter of fact unsustainable. Furthermore, sustainability is a binary, not a gradual concept. Something is either sustainable or not. Aiming to increase the sustainability is consequently a sham battle. It would be necessary to change our perception to acknowledge that cities should be unsustainable in order to become efficient, seen from a global perspective including the hinterland.

Matthias Berger

2014-01-01

349

75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

2010-11-01

350

NSF/Tokyo Report: The Science System in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Title: NSF/Tokyo Report: The Science System in Japan Date: February 2, 1998 The National Science ... and living in Japan. Specific Impressions and Thoughts on the Science System in Japan Because my ...

351

Sociogeographic Variation in the Effects of Heat and Cold on Daily Mortality in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Ambient temperature affects mortality in susceptible populations, but regional differences in this association remain unclear in Japan. We conducted a time-series study to examine the variation in the effects of ambient temperature on daily mortality across Japan. Methods A total of 731 558 all-age non-accidental deaths in 6 cities during 2002–2007 were analyzed. The association between daily mortality and ambient temperature was examined using distributed lag nonlinear models with Poisson distribution. City-specific estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Bivariate random-effects meta-regressions were used to examine the moderating effect of city characteristics. Results The effect of heat generally persisted for 1 to 2 days. In warmer communities, the effect of cold weather lasted for approximately 1 week. The combined increases in mortality risk due to heat (99th vs 90th percentile of city-specific temperature) and cold (first vs 10th percentile) were 2.21% (95% CI, 1.38%–3.04%) and 3.47% (1.75%–5.21%), respectively. City-specific effects based on absolute temperature changes were more heterogeneous than estimates based on relative changes, which suggests some degree of acclimatization. Northern populations with a cool climate appeared acclimatized to low temperature but were still vulnerable to extreme cold weather. Population density, average income, cost of property rental, and number of nurses appeared to influence variation in heat effect across cities. Conclusions We noted clear regional variation in temperature-related increases in mortality risk, which should be considered when planning preventive measures.

Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Takeuchi, Ayano; Nitta, Hiroshi; Konishi, Shoko; Bagrowicz, Rinako; Watanabe, Chiho; Takami, Akinori

2014-01-01

352

Development of clean coal technologies in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

2013-07-01

353

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

354

Understanding earthquake design criteria used in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the current earthquake design criteria used in Japan for nuclear power plants. Information is presented on the codes and standards and seismic requirements for reactor buildings and containment structures. The most interesting features of the earthquake design criteria used in Japan, in the light of those used in the United States, are summarized

1994-12-14

355

Research of geological hazards in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution is one the results of authors' cooperation on erosion and landslide hazards studies in two different geomorphologic areas of Japan. The physico-geographical and geological nature of the surveyed regions - typical for Japan - are described and examined from point of view of the intensity and causes of erosion and landslide events. (authors)

1996-01-01

356

Japan, a journey in irradiated lands. Japan changes its fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article describes the situation in terms of radioactivity, contamination and decontamination, of living conditions and of issues in the immediate surroundings of the Fukushima power station and in places located at different distances of the Fukushima power station: 10 km away, in a village 20 km away, in a farming and agriculture area 50 km away from the station, and in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (the greatest nuclear power station in the world, 220 km away from Fukushima). The article also evokes works performed in these places, sometimes with the help of French companies, to manage the wastes or decontamination purposes. The second article comments the perspectives of development of new energy sources, with a strong trend of investments in renewable energies. The author indicates that Japan not always possesses the required technologies. In this respect, the article outlines that there could be opportunities for French companies in the field of offshore wind energy

2014-03-06

357

Oral presentations on nuclear energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oral presentations on nuclear energy in conferences and meetings held in 1978 were surveyed. A total of 144 meetings contained 4,104 presentations on nuclear energy. Physics accounted for 44%, the highest of all presentations, followed by nuclear engineering and chemistry and materials in decreasing order. It is pointed out that, nuclear fusion comprised 21%, higher than nuclear engineering, and became an important portion of Japanese information. A further survey was then made particular with the conferences and meetings of such major societies as the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Physical Society of Japan, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Chemical Society of Japan and the Japan Health Physics Society. Also it was recognized that the oral presentations are considered as useful data sources for on-going research information. (author)

1981-12-01

358

78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International...Department of Energy, is organizing a Japan-United States Decommissioning...

2013-12-26

359

Japan's Future in East Asia and the Pacific  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan’s Future in East Asia and the Pacific takes a ’big-picture‘ approach to Japan’s economic place in East Asia alongside that of China. It analyses Japan’s successes and experiments in trade policy as well as its failures in macro-economic policy. Japan’s diplomatic and economic integration strategies are also examined for their impact on East Asia and on Australia. The collection assesses China’s growth and dynamism and questions the nature of the competition for economic in...

Pangestu, Mari; Song, Ligang

2007-01-01

360

Air pollution in cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem - especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is influenced by different factors. Emissions from motor traffic are a very important source group throughout the world. During transmission, air pollutants are dispersed, diluted and subjected to photochemical reactions. Ambient air pollution shows temporal and spatial variability. As an example of the temporal variability of urban air pollutants caused by motor traffic, typical average annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and O{sub x} are presented for an official urban air-quality station in Stuttgart, southern Germany. They are supplemented by weekly and diurnal cycles of selected percentile values of NO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}. Time series of these air pollutants give information on their trends. Results are discussed with regard to air pollution conditions in other cities. Possibilities for the assessment of air pollution in cities are shown. In addition, a qualitative overview of the air quality of the world's megacities is given. (author)

Mayer, H. [University of Freiburg (Germany). Meteorological Institute

1999-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Bug City: Bees [Videotape].  

Science.gov (United States)

"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

362

Cities and climate change actions : Comparison between five european cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last few years cities are taking the lead against climate change. Theyare aware of the big contribution they can make to mitigate the climate change, so theyare working actively in this field. This thesis’ aim is to study what cities are doing andthe chance they have to be successful. The cities selected for this thesis were Madrid,Barcelona, London, Manchester an Dublin. The method followed to active the aim wasto read all the information available from the selected cities’ Co...

La Torre Sebastia?n, Ane

2009-01-01

363

Sinking coastal cities  

Science.gov (United States)

In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent threat of subsidence. As subsidence is spatially different and can be caused by multi processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues), where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

2014-05-01

364

The gas industry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the residential sector is only one-fifth to one-quarter that of western countries due to differences in climate, structure of dwellings and lifestyle; the cost of laying underground gas pipe is high. The japanese gas distribution law, revised in April 1999 and in force since October 1999, has introduced strong competition on the Japanese gas market, thereby opening up an unregulated market which represents a potential of 40% of sales and providing scope for the negotiation of sales and TPA (third party access) conditions. However, third-party access is unlikely to develop rapidly as there are practically no interconnected networks. In addition, the application since March 2000 of the law on the power industry will deregulate the power market, giving rise to stronger competition between gas and electricity, for cogeneration and air conditioning in particular. (authors)

2000-01-01

365

Geothermal reinjection experience in japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The five liquid-dominated geothermal fields under production in Japan (Otake, Onuma, Onikobe, Hatchobaru, and Kakkonda) represent more than half the liquid-dominated fields now in production worldwide. All five have total liquid reinjection programs, and thus collectively represent a major fraction of all full-scale water reinjection operations in the world. The implications of the Japanese reinjection experience are therefore of extreme importance to future liquid-dominated geothermal development. The major impact of the experience in these fields is that, with the exception of Otake, the reinjection wells show a rapid interference with the production wells. In most cases, the reinjected water travels to the production zone within a very short time, and there is consequently a discernible thermal drawdown. 18 refs.

Horne, R.N.

1982-03-01

366

Application of EB in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

2003-02-01

367

Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects.

Kenzer, M.

2000-01-01

368

The geomorphic history of the Ainoura plain, Kyushu, Japan, based on excavation of the Monzen ruins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La compleja línea de costa en la región noroccidental de Kyushu, Japón, está compuesta por acantilados, ensenadas de laderas inclinadas y archipiélagos, y es producto de la subsidencia de un cinturón montańoso. Los valles aluviales y las estrechas llanuras de inundación de esta región se encuentran [...] densamente pobladas y están sujetas a continuos movimientos en masa. Ainoura es un ejemplo de esta llanura de inundación. La excavación de Monzen Ruin realizada por -Nagasaki Prefectural Board of Education- en la llanura de inundación Ainoura revela la historia geomorfológica; la depositación de gravas, arenas y lodos en los últimos milenios. En la sucesión aluvial, los primeros en llenar el canal fueron los depósitos de lodos y arenas, probablemente como resultado de la transgresión del óptimo climático que ocurrió durante el Holoceno. Consecutivamente, los depósitos de grava empezaron a reemplazar las capas de arena y lodo mediante la erosión y depositación sucesiva, elevando el lecho del río. Nosotros corroboramos que el conglomerado de la llanura de inundación Ainoura proviene del deslizamiento de tierras de la zona interior de Hokusho, ya que la Llanura de inundación Hino, ubicada al sureste de Ainoura, no contiene capas de conglomerados. El lecho del río Ainoura muestra que el Monzen Ruin se localiza en la abrupta reducción del gradiente, lo cual explica el material clástico grueso en esta área. Adicionalmente, nosotros reportamos la paleo-línea de costa de la llanura de inundación de Ainoura durante el optimo climático que ocurrió durante el Holoceno. La paleolínea de costa no se movió significativamente hasta que la población empezó a recuperar tierra. Por consiguiente, nosotros predecimos que el mismo proceso de depositación podría ocurrir en la llanura de inundación de Ainoura al interior de la línea de costa. Abstract in english The complex coastline of north-western Kyushu, Japan, consisting of cliffs, steep-sided inlets and archipelagos, has resulted from subsidence in mountainous terrain; the region’s populated river valleys, having narrow alluvial plains, often suffer rock avalanches. The Ainoura plain is one such alluv [...] ial plain. Excavation of the Monzen ruins on the Ainoura Plain by the Nagasaki Prefectural Board of Education has revealed the plain’s geomorphic history regarding how the gravels and associated muds and sands were deposited during the last several thousand years. Regarding alluvial succession, mud and sand first filled in the trough, possibly as part of the transgression caused by the Holocene climatic optimum, and gravel later began to replace parts of the sand and mud layers by successive erosion and sedimentation, thereby raising riverbed level. It was confirmed that such conglomerate from the Ainoura plain was derived from the Hokusho landslide area in the hinterland because there is no conglomerate layer in the Hino plain (a small plain southeast of the Ainoura plain). The Ainoura River’s thalweg shows that the Monzen ruins are located at a sudden reduction in its gradient, thereby accounting for the thickness of coarse clastic material in that area. The reconstructed Ainoura plain’s paleoshoreline during the Holocene climatic optimum is also reported. The paleoshoreline did not move much until people began to reclaim land; it would thus be expected that the similar deposition would happened on the Ainoura plain inside this paleoshoreline.

Hirotsugu, Mori; Shoichi, Shimoyama; Kazuaki, Soejima.

369

Forest medicine research in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

2014-01-01

370

City project and public space  

CERN Document Server

The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

2013-01-01

371

Bushehr as an Energic City  

Science.gov (United States)

Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow`s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem. For this purpose, we try to answer these questions: what is called as an energic city?; What are its main characteristics?; What are the aims of changing a city into an energic city? And what should be done to obtain the aims? For these purposes we offer a model which responds to the sustainability of Bushehr. This model uses 3 levels of activity that each level should respond to 5 significant characteristics of an energic city. For this purpose we present some applied ways in each category to obtain those characteristics.

Sabatsani, Nasser

372

Bushehr as an Energic City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow’s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem. For this purpose, we try to answer these questions: what is called as an energic city?; What are its main characteristics?; What are the aims of changing a city into an energic city? And what should be done to obtain the aims? For these purposes we offer a model which responds to the sustainability of Bushehr. This model uses 3 levels of activity that each level should respond to 5 significant characteristics of an energic city. For this purpose we present some applied ways in each category to obtain those characteristics.

Nasser Sabatsani

2007-01-01

373

Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

1993-01-01

374

MEDICAL DEVICE APPROVAL PROCESS IN JAPAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW or Koseirodosho in Japanese is in charge of the pharmaceutical regulatory affairs in Japan. Formal approvals and licenses are required to marketing drugs in Japan which are obtained from the MHLW.  Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA has set itself the challenging task of expediting patient access to novel therapies while ensuring these meet international standards of safety, efficacy and quality. One of the biggest hurdles for the government is the “drug lag” problem, whereby many new innovative medicinal drugs do not reach the Japanese market until several years after the United States (US and Europe (EU. This delay is caused due to the obligation to perform clinical bridging studies in Japan hand since clinical data obtained in non-Japanese trials such as EU and US studies cannot solely be used to obtain market approval in Japan. Japan provides a public medical insurance system, which is carried on as a social insurance system covering all citizens. Through this insurance system, about 30% of the nation’s medical expenses are covered by public funds, and all prices for medicine, including medical compensation for doctors and prices for new drugs are substantially controlled by the Japanese government.

Devesh Sharma

2011-12-01

375

MEDICAL DEVIC E APPROVAL PROCESS IN JAPAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW or Koseirodosho in Japanese is in charge of the pharmaceutical regulatory affairs in Japan. Formal approvals and licenses are required to marketing drugs in Japan which are obtained from the MHLW. Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA has set itself the challenging task of expediting patient access to novel therapies while ensuring these meet international standards of safety, efficacy and quality. One of the biggest hurdles for the government is the “drug lag” problem, whereby many new innovative medicinal drugs do not reach the Japanese market until several years after the United States (US and Europe (EU. This delay is caused due to the obligation to perform clinical bridging studies in Japan hand since clinical data obtained in non-Japanese trials such as EU and US studies cannot solely be used to obtain market approval in Japan. Japan provides a public medical insurance system, which is carried on as a social insurance system covering all citizens. Through this insurance system, about 30% of the nation’s medical expenses are covered by public funds, and all prices for medicine, including medical compensation for doctors and prices for new drugs are substantially controlled by the Japanese government.

Sharma Devesh

2011-12-01

376

Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

377

Non-specialized inpatient care provided by university hospitals in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shin-ichi ToyabeCrisis Management Office, Niigata University Hospital, Niigata City, JapanAbstract: In Japan, all citizens are covered by the national insurance system in which universal free access to healthcare services is promised to everybody. Even in tertiary care university hospitals, considerable numbers of secondary care inpatients are supposed to be treated. We studied the mixed state of secondary care and tertiary care in university hospitals in Japan and its year-to-year trend. Based on the results of a national survey, we could statistically classify Japanese case-mix classification into 821 groups that are supposed to need tertiary care (group A and 296 groups that are supposed to need secondary care (group B. Sixty percent of patients admitted to the university hospitals belonged to group A, and 25% belonged to group B. Despite of the implementation of government policies to differentiate functions of hospitals, there was no trend toward an increase in the rate of tertiary care and decrease in the rate of secondary care from 2003 to 2006. Patient behavior to seek tertiary care was simply influenced by distance from university hospital. However, behavior of patients to seek secondary care was significantly influenced by distance to adjacent general hospitals and seize of these hospitals.Keywords: inpatient care, Japan, university hospitals, patient behavior

Shin-ichi Toyabe

2008-11-01

378

Eccentricity cycles shown by early Pleistocene planktonic foraminifers of the Omma Formation, Sea of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a continuous record of planktonic foraminifers for oxygen isotope stages 50 to 26 (ca. 1.5-1.0 Ma) in the early Pleistocene Omma Formation near Kanazawa City, Central Japan, on the Sea of Japan coast. The warm-water species Globigerinoides ruber entered the Sea of Japan with the Tsushima Current during all interglacial periods and went locally extinct in the succeeding glacial periods. This implies that the marine climate of the Sea of Japan varied predominantly with the 41,000-year period of Earth's orbital obliquity. However, the relative abundances of G. ruber in marine isotope stages 47, 43 and 31 are significantly higher than those in other interglacial stages. These stages correspond to periods when eccentricity-modulated precession extremes were aligned with obliquity maxima. The Tsushima Current is a branch of the warm Kuroshio Current which is the strong northwestern component of the subtropical North Pacific Ocean gyre. Our data imply that the early Pleistocene climate in the northwestern Pacific was influenced not only by obliquity cycles but also by eccentricity cycles. This study also supports the climate model regarding eccentricity's role in the origin of low-frequency climate changes before the late Pleistocene ice ages.

Kitamura, Akihisa; Kimoto, Katsunori

2007-02-01

379

Raptors in the City  

Science.gov (United States)

This new Web site from the nonprofit educational program Raptors in the City was developed to enhance inner city kids' use of technology and connection with nature. Appropriate for all types of students, the site focuses on the Peregrine Falcon, a species previously on the brink of extinction, but, through population recovery efforts on many downtown skyscrapers, has become an endangered species success story. Students are able to navigate through the entire 2002 courtship and nesting story of a pair of falcons nesting on a skyscraper in Cleveland, Ohio, and view images of the birds in their nest. Additionally, the site includes a link to a live falcon cam and describes additional educational curricula that can be purchased from Mindfull Publishing.

380

City, ICT and Policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders? attitudinal and perceptional factors which govern ultimately decisions of the urban administration. Based on an extensive survey among urban policy-makers, the paper seeks to test the above hypothesis by offering a wide variety of empirical findings.

Galit Cohen

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The status of algae biomass in Japan; De status van algenbiomassa in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an inventory of the research on and applications of algal biomass in Japan. Japan has great potential for exploiting algae in the large oceanic areas surrounding this country. Japan also needs new alternative energy sources that can provide a solution for a sustainable, independent and environment-friendly energy system. The government, businesses and researchers are actively exploring the potential of algal biomass. [Dutch] Een inventarisatie van het onderzoek naar en toepassingen van algenbiomassa in Japan. Japan heeft veel potentie om algen- en wierenvelden te exploiteren in de uitgebreide oceanische gebieden die het land omringen. Japan heeft ook behoefte aan nieuwe alternatieve energiebronnen, die een oplossing kunnen aanreiken voor een duurzame, onafhankelijke en milieuvriendelijke energiehuishouding. Overheid, bedrijven en onderzoekers bestuderen de mogelijkheden met algenbiomassa dan ook actief.

Van Es, M.; Stroeks, R.

2010-01-15

382

Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass was observed in Lake Ikeda. On the other hand, the AO index was negative in December 1995 and January 1996. In addition, the WP (Western Pacific) index was also negative in the winter of 1995/96. When the WP index is negative, Japan experiences a cold winter (Koide and Kodera, 1999; Yasunaka and Hanawa, 2008). Therefore, the combination of the negative phase of AO and the negative phase of WP led to the occurrence of cold surges near Lake Ikeda, which in turn resulted in the high DO mass in February 1996. When DO concentration in the deep layer of the lake becomes higher caused winter mixing, we observe also a reduction in the DO concentration in the surface layer. The DO concentration in the surface layer sometimes decreased to 70%. In future, once Lake Ikeda will deep mixing during very cold winters, the DO concentration in the surface water might reduce largely.

Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

2010-12-01

383

City at night  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“The City at Night” is a collection of three paintings. The burgundy (ochre) colors and the rhythm of vertical and horizontal lines prevail in the collection. The technique applied is impasto. The final paper is comprised of the following two parts: a theoretical analysis and a creative practical part. The theoretical part is focused on the formation of an idea and an analysis of the topic in the historical context, abstract art, action painting, analogue search, analysis of works and pos...

2013-01-01

384

Internal Structure of the Sambongi Fan - Towada Volcano, Japan: Putting the Theory to the Test, using an Extensive GPR Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Towada Caldera Volcano is located in Aomori Prefecture - Northern Honshu Island, Japan. The caldera, today filled by a lake, has produced 15,000 years ago a complex eruption emplacing an Ignimbrite deposit topped by the lake outburst flood deposit, through which the present Oirase River cuts. This deposit has shaped the geomorphologic feature named Sambongi fan, on which Towada City extends. Based on outcrops, a few coring and radiocarbon dating, Kataoka (2011) has developed a theory tyin...

Gomez, Christopher; Kyoko, Kataoka

2011-01-01

385

Shakespeare translation in Japan: 1868—1998 Shakespeare translation in Japan: 1868—1998  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shakespeare was first introduced to Japan in the late nineteenth century, when the country opened its doors to other countries after the seclusion policy of over two hundred years. When the Meiji Restoration Government came into power in 1868, it decided to import the Western culture and technology in order to catch up with the developed countries. Japan’s overall contact with the Western world began. The country’s slogan then became “civilization and enlightenment”, which meant ...

Akiko Sano

2008-01-01

386

Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples around small intrusions of the Takamatsu crater, appears here in the hard copy. The following anomalous mixed materials are considered to be impact-induced origin: 1) Fe-Ni grains: Black glassy rocks at Jissojiyama (No. 15) contain irregularly Fe-Ni grains of 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. Chemical composition of the small Fe+Ni grains varies from ca. 18~90 atom. % mixed with the major granitic components. Atomic ratios of Fe/Ni are the same of kamacite as 3.4 to 68.7, but differ from those of awaruite (Fe/Ni<0.5) from the deep seated rock of the interior of the Earth [4]. The similar tiny Fe grains are found on the Wolf Creek and Ries impact craters. 2) Shocked quartz with high-density and shock lamellae: Anomalous quartz grains with undulatory anomalous extinction and shock lamellae are found at the Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6 in whitish fine rocks) and Jissoiiyama (No. 15 in black glass) as brecciated xenolith from the interior of crater sediments. Typical shocked quartz grain shows with two sets of shock lamellae along pi (102) crystallographic planes [5]. The main X-ray diffraction peaks of each Miller plane show high Bragg angle and X-ray density (Delta rho=+0.9+/-0.3%) and lower values (ca.- 0.4%) of each plane-distance of all shock-generated Plane deformation features (PDFs). The structural data of high density are the same of shocked quartz grains in terrestrial impact craters [6,7]. 3) Diaplectic feldspars: Shock-generated diaplectic feldspars with compositions of albite plagioclases with undulatory extinction are observed with dark or partly dark (i.e. diaplectic) glassy materials under cross-polarized microscope (Nos. 2,3,6,15). Crushed plagioclases with circular or ellipsoidal shape are also found at Hiyama (No. 6) and Hiraike (No. ll). Diffuse and irregular textures of feldspar fragments are different with other localities outside the crater [2,3]. 4) G1asses of potassium feldspar compositions: Many glassy fragments with flow texture are observed from fine-grained sediments around Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6), which have potassium feldspars compos

Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

1995-09-01

387

Integrated solid waste management in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatme...

1993-01-01

388

Japan Races to Avert Multiple Nuclear Meltdowns  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan's nuclear crisis intensified Sunday as authorities raced to combat the threat of multiple reactor meltdowns and more than 170,000 people evacuated the northeastern coast where fears spread over possible radioactive contamination. (March 13, 2011)

Press, Associated

389

Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

2011-01-01

390

Utilization of Educational Technology in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gives an overview of the development of educational technology in Japan evident in the increase of publications, the diffusion of technological innovations, and the organization of research pertaining to the field. (Author/MER)

Sakamoto, Takashi

1980-01-01

391

Nitrogen Oxide Abatement Technology in Japan, 1973.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents development, demonstration, and control now in progress in Japan on Japanese processes pertaining to NOx abatement from flue gases. It includes Japanese environmental emission and control standards, and measurement methods. It present...

J. Ando H. Tohata

1973-01-01

392

CityVille For Dummies  

CERN Document Server

Learn to build and play CityVille to its full potential! You don't have to move to the city?just build one! Free to play, CityVille is a real-time simulation game that is available on Facebook and is the latest online game craze. As the only how-to beginner guide for new and current players, this helpful book walks you through the process of building a city from the ground up while acting as the city leader. You'll learn how to clear land, assemble roads, construct buildings, ship and import goods, trade with others, interact with the city's residents, and visit neighboring cities. Vibrant ful

Orland, Kyle

2011-01-01

393

Towards what kind of city?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

Mario Coletta

2013-02-01

394

City-Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Against the background of economical and technological changes caused by the globalization and the integration process, cities in Europe face the challenge of combining competitiveness and sustainable urban development simultaneously. Very evidently, this challenge is likely to have an impact on issues of Urban Quality such as housing, economy, culture, social and environmental conditions. In this contribution the main focus does not lie on the leading European metropolises but on medium-sized cities and their perspectives for development. In research, focus tends to be on the larger, â??globalâ?ť metropolises, and as a result, less is known about the challenges mediumsized cities face. It appears that these are qualitatively different. They have to cope with competition from the larger metropolises on corresponding issues, but appear less well equipped in terms of critical mass, resources and often also organizing capacity. In order to make clear the position of medium-sized cities vis-Ă -vis other medium-sizedcities as well as larger cities, we present the preliminary results of a city-ranking and a benchmark of (a sample of) European cities. Particular emphasis will be on the value of city-ranking, benchmarking and international lesson drawing/policy transfer as tools to explore possible future development trajectories of European medium-sized cities. The advantages and disadvantages of city-ranking, benchmarking and international lesson drawing/policy transfer will be explored in detail.

Giffinger, Rudolf; Fertner, Christian

395

The disappointments for nuclear energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several dysfunctions are reported in this paper: A reactor (Onagawa) closed after a nitrogen leakage; a small leakage of radioactive water in the nuclear power plant of Mihama assessment raised to five deaths, the operator stops its nuclear power plants for inspection, the Japan face to its ageing nuclear power plants, the truth about the cost of M.O.X., the seven reactors of Japan closed for inspection after cracks and leaks hidden to authorities, Tokai MURA accident. (N.C.)

2004-01-01

396

Von Japan lernen? Wissensmanagement im Fernen Osten  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schon seit den 80-Jahren wird Japan als Vorreiter im Wissensmanagement gesehen. Japanische Unternehmen scheinen Wissen scheinbar mühelos zu managen, obwohl sie sich in hohem Ausmass auf implizites Wissen und nicht auf Datenbanken verlassen; der Wissensaustausch in japanischen Unternehmen funktioniert ohne Barrieren und neue und innovative Produktideen werden in der Gruppe entwickelt. Es stellt sich also die Frage, wie wird in Japan Wissen gemanagt und was können wir von japanischen Unternehmen lernen?

Parissa Haghirian

2010-03-01

397

Immigrants’ Experiences of Maternity Care in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women’s birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan’s highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South...

Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

398

Nuclear energy literature published in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supply by Japan to INIS in 1978 were of three thousand four hundred and thirteen items. The nuclear energy literatures published in Japan, 2821 items by excluding patents and laws, consisted of 2,252 journal papers and 505 technical reports. The former were picked up from 333 journals and the latter from 23 report series of 11 organizations. Journal ranking and report contributions are tabled and figures by fields, languages and author's organizations are given in this paper. (author)

1981-12-01

399

Mercury emission from crematories in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targete...

Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

2009-01-01

400

Mercury emission from crematories in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targete...

Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following c