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Sample records for nagasaki city japan

  1. The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

  2. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to observe the incidence of multiple myeloma in the population of Nagasaki City from 1973 to 1982, and to assess any influence caused by A-bomb exposure, 85 cases of myeloma have been collected and analysed. Informatively, 48 cases of this number were A-bomb survivors. Among the middle-aged cases, the crude incidence rates of myeloma in the exposed group were found to be higher than those in the non-exposed group. Further, the relative risk of myeloma was higher in A-bomb survivors and this tendency become more pronounced in the those who were within 2 km of the epicenter of the blast. The age-adjusted relative risk in male and female A-bomb survivors was 1.59 and 1.68 respectively, but no significant differences were noted. (author)

  3. Multiprefectural Spread of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Attributable to a Single Genogroup II Norovirus Strain from a Tourist Restaurant in Nagasaki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirakata, Yoichi; Arisawa, Kokichi; Nishio, Osamu; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    A series of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NVs) among tourist groups from several prefectures was associated with eating a lunch prepared by a restaurant in Nagasaki City, Japan, on 18 and 19 November 2003. A retrospective cohort study was performed to estimate the magnitude of the outbreak and identify the source of infection. Epidemiological information was obtained through the local public health centers in the areas where the illness occurred. Stool and vomit specimens a...

  4. The cancer registry in Nagasaki City, with atomic bomb survivors data, 1973-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumor registry program in Nagasaki City was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population and a tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. According to the chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City, an increasing trend was shown in males for cancer of the colon, rectum, lung, urinary bladder, and for all sites combined, and, in females for cancer of the colon, pancreas, and breast. No decreasing trend was observed for any site in males, while a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. In comparison with age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in other prefectures and cities in 1979, the rates in Nagasaki City are high for both males and females. Sites with a tendency for high rates, in Nagasaki City, are, for males, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and lymphoid tissue, and for females, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, lung, breast, and lymphoid tissue. From these data, it is necessary to ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors than in nonexposed persons. According to the Nagasaki City tumor and tissue registry data for 1973 - 77, the crude incidence rate and relative risk for several cancers were higher in A-bomb survivors and well correlated with the radiation dose. However, the adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes. Histopathological difference between cancer tissue of A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons was not detected. In general, it is premature to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences of malignancy between A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons, although an increase in cancer incidence and mortality is a recognized late effect of exposure to A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  5. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on PM2.5 Concentrations in Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Ogawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) problem has attracted much scientific and public attention, due to its effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. There are three factors that have important effect on PM2.5 mass concentration: domestic pollutant emission sources, external sources outside of the country, and the meteorological conditions. Nagasaki is a coastal prefecture located at the westernmost part of Japan, which is an ideal location to study pollutants from long range transport and correlation between PM2.5 and meteorological conditions. In this paper, PM2.5 concentration data and meteorological data were obtained during 1 January 2013~31 December 2013. The spatial distribution depicts that the western part of the study area has the most serious PM2.5 pollution. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological data showed that temperature had a negative, and precipitation had a positive, correlation with PM2.5. There was a threshold in the correlations between humidity and wind speed and PM2.5. The correlation was positive or negative depending on the meteorological variable values, if these were lower or higher than the threshold. From the relationship with wind direction, it can be depicted that the west wind might bring the most pollutants to Nagasaki. PMID:26247953

  6. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on PM2.5 Concentrations in Nagasaki, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fine particulate matter (PM2.5 problem has attracted much scientific and public attention, due to its effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. There are three factors that have important effect on PM2.5 mass concentration: domestic pollutant emission sources, external sources outside of the country, and the meteorological conditions. Nagasaki is a coastal prefecture located at the westernmost part of Japan, which is an ideal location to study pollutants from long range transport and correlation between PM2.5 and meteorological conditions. In this paper, PM2.5 concentration data and meteorological data were obtained during 1 January 2013~31 December 2013. The spatial distribution depicts that the western part of the study area has the most serious PM2.5 pollution. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological data showed that temperature had a negative, and precipitation had a positive, correlation with PM2.5. There was a threshold in the correlations between humidity and wind speed and PM2.5. The correlation was positive or negative depending on the meteorological variable values, if these were lower or higher than the threshold. From the relationship with wind direction, it can be depicted that the west wind might bring the most pollutants to Nagasaki.

  7. The cancer registry in Nagasaki city with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the establishment of the tumor registry program in Nagasaki City; it was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population. The tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. Chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City are examined for various cancers in males; a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. From these data, the authors ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed persons. The adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes of the A-bomb survivors

  8. Groundwater chemistry in the nitrate contaminated area in Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nitrate from agricultural fields is a problem shared by many parts of the world. Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan is an important agricultural district experiencing this problem. In Shimabara, drinking water relies on the groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected at 40 locations such as residents and municipal waterworks wells, springs and rivers from August 2011 to November 2013. NO3-N concentration of 15 samples exceeded 10 mg L-1 (drinking water standard in Japan). Maximum NO3-N concentration was 26.6 mg L-1. Correlation coefficients were calculated between ion components of collected samples (n=277). NO3- had the highest positive correlation with Cl-(r =0.956) and had positive correlation with K+(r=0.679), SO42-(r=0.654) and Ca2+(r=0.593), respectively. The results revealed that Cl- and K+ related to livestock wastes, SO42- related to chemical fertilizers and Ca2+ related to calcareous materials. Main source of NO3- is from livestock wastes. To understand groundwater chemistry in detail, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were carried out. Result from the PCA, chemical characteristics of groundwater was summarized by the first principal component and the second principal component. Both of two principal components reflected nitrate contamination and ion dissolution from aquifer matrix during groundwater flows. Result from the cluster analysis, chemical characteristics of groundwater was classified into four clusters. Nitrate polluted samples into specific cluster and the rest samples were classified into other clusters depending on the original water quality.

  9. The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

  10. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time

  11. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study

  12. Changes in the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, K; Nakata, K; Tsutsumi, T; Tsuruta, S; Nakao, K; Kato, Y; Shima, M; Koji, T; Nagataki, S

    1993-06-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very closely associated with chronic liver disease. In the present study, the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as a causative role in the development of HCC was analysed in 253 patients with HCC, who were admitted to our hospital during 1976-90. Among these patients, 68 (27%) were positive for HBsAg but negative for anti-HCV antibody (group I); in contrast, 147 (58%) were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HCV antibody (group II), 19 (7.5%) were both positive (group III), and 19 (7.5%) were both negative (group IV). To evaluate the serial changes in the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody, changes in the number of patients were compared between group I and group II. The number of group I patients reached a peak during 1982-84 and was thereafter followed by a decreasing trend, whereas the number of group II patients steadily increased and reached a plateau over 6 recent years. These results suggest that HCV infection recently seems to play a more important role in the development of HCC than chronic HBV infection, even in the Nagasaki Prefecture, where the HBV carrier rate is higher than elsewhere in Japan. PMID:8395554

  13. Physique, body composition and maximum oxygen consumption of selected soccer players of Kunimi High School, Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Nakayama, Masao; Nakagaichi, Masaki; Komine, Tadatoshi; Kusano, Yosuke; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluates the physical and physiological ability of selected soccer players of Kunimi High School in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The Kunimi team is famous for its intensive training, and had won the championship of the All Japan High School Soccer Tournament six times by 2003. We measured physique, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake of 72 members aged between 16 and 18 years old between 1986 and 1994. They consisted of 66 outfield players (12 forward players, 23 midfielders, 31 defenders) and 6 goalkeepers. Body density was measured by the under-water weighing method, and Brozek's equation was applied to calculate percentage body fat (%Fat, %), fat-free mass (FFM, kg), FFM/height (FFM/Ht, kg.m(-1)), and FFM index (FFM/Ht(3), kg.m(-3)). The following results were obtained: 1. The average of 66 outfield players was 172.7 cm of height, 64.6 kg of weight, 54.0 cm of girth of thigh, and 90.0 cm of girth of hip, 9.3% of %Fat, 58.6 kg of FFM, 33.9 kg.m(-1) of FFM/Ht and 113.8 kg.m(-3) of FFM index. The mean vital capacity was 4.25 L and total lung capacity was 5.58 L. The mean maximal ventilation was 138.7 L.min(-1), VO(2)max was 3.95 L.min(-1), and VO(2)max/Wt was 61.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1). 2. Goalkeepers were taller and heavier than outfielders, and had a smaller mean value of VO(2)max/Wt than outfielders (pplayers measured twice with an interval of about one year, FFM increased and %Fat reduced significantly, while V(E)max, VO(2)max and VO(2)max/Wt did not change. Kunimi players of the present study had as large a VO(2)max/Wt as local players, and a similar or slightly smaller VO(2)max/Wt than national-level players. They had similar %Fat and a similar VO(2)max/Wt with professional soccer players in England (Davis et al., 1992) while they had much smaller physiques. PMID:16891759

  14. Radiocarbon ages of archeological remains related with the 13th century Mongol Invasion to Japan. Shell samples collected near Mongolian submerged wrecks located off Takashima, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shallow sea floor off Takashima, Matsuura, Nagasaki Prefecture, has been investigated archeologically as a potential site where many fragments of broken Mongolian warships may exist below the sea sediments. It is historically recorded that more than 4,000 Mongolian warships were destroyed by a typhoon during the Mongol Invasion to Japan in 1281. The underwater investigations have been performed since 1980, and a lot of archeological remains related with the invasion have been collected there. Recently a body of submerged wrecks most probably originated from Mongolian warship has been discovered in the 1m-deep horizon of the sea sediment off Takashima. During the survey of the newly discovered warship, shell samples were collected near the ship. Some shells were recognized to be hull-fouling species, which may have grown up on the bottom of Mongolian warship and preserved along with the broken ship in the sea sediment. We have conducted 14C dating for some shell samples and found out that shells belong to hull-fouling species showed 14C ages consistent with the time of Mongol Invasion. Some other shells not belonging to hull-fouling species showed younger or older dates as compared with the time of Mongol Invasion. (author)

  15. Epidemiology of lung cancer in Nagasaki City with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological study was conducted on 1057 cases (462 exposed and 595 nonexposed) of lung cancer resistered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence of lung cancer in either sex tended to be higher in A - bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, particulaly in older age, than in the nonexposed but not significantly different. By histological type, adenocarcinoma was the most frequent in both sexes and both the exposed and nonexposed, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. In A - bomb survivors, adenocarcinoma was more frequent in males compared with the nonexposed, but the difference in relative distribution by histologic type between the exposure and nonexposure groups was not significant. Further analysis of histologic type of lung cancer in the high dose and younger age radiation groups are necessary. (author)

  16. Japan's Four Major Smart Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

  17. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Blackard, W.G.; Sagan, L.A.; Ishida, Morihiro; Hamilton, H.B.

    1965-06-10

    Data have been presented on the finding of glycosuria and the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus during four years of a long-term study of the health of population samples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Diabetes and glycosuria are much more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki and in both cities these findings are more frequent in males than in females. The prevalence of diabetes appears to be increasing in Hiroshima males. Findings in diabetics were compared with nondiabetics. In general, Japanese diabetics are similar to diabetics in other countries concerning their increased risk of obesity, hypertension, proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diagnoses. This is of particular interest in the light of evidence that ketosis and severe abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism are rare in Japan as compared to Western countries. Despite a lower prevalance of diabetes in Japanese females than in males, the abnormalities associated with diabetes appear to occur more commonly in female diabetics than in male diabetics.

  18. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingestion of 210Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d-1, and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  19. The Miocene bending of Southwest Japan: new 39Ar/ 40Ar and microtectonic constraints from the Nagasaki schists (western Kyushu), an extension of the Sanbagawa high-pressure belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Michel; Fabbri, Olivier; Monie, Patrick

    1988-12-01

    In the westernmost part of Kyushu, the Nagasaki metamorphics (also observed in Amakusa) consist of oceanic sediments and fragments of ophiolite. These rocks underwent a high-pressure metamorphism followed by an increase in temperature up to the upper greenschist facies prior to the Late Cretaceous. Microtectonic and kinematic analyses indicate a synmetamorphic ductile shear from south to north. Dating of glaucophane, phengite and biotite by 39Ar/ 40Ar method suggests that the peak of metamorphism and the related deformation occurred approximately 90-95 Ma ago (i.e. Cenomanian), but a resetting by an Oligo-Miocene tectonic event is also evidenced. Due to discontinuous exposures, the metamorphic rocks of Kyushu cannot be continuously traced to the metamorphic belts of Honshu and Shikoku. Nonetheless the lithostratigraphy, metamorphic environment, radiometric data and deformation style strongly support a correlation of the Nagasaki metamorphics with the Green Schist nappe of Southwest Japan which underwent the Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous high-pressure Sanbagawa metamorphism. Such a correlation implies that (1) in the Amakusa area, the Nagasaki metamorphics form a window north of a meta-olistostrome that belongs to the Tanba-Ryoke zone; (2) the trend discrepancy of the stretching lineations between West Kyushu and Southwest Japan is in agreement with a clockwise rotation of the latter with respect to the former assumed to be fixed to Eurasia. Such a bending occurred after Paleogene times, probably during the opening of the Sea of Japan.

  20. Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war

  1. Types of city in Britain and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The contrast between Japanese and British cities and the link to industrialization is outlined. The contrast been industrial and industrious (hard working) civilizations is outlined by Alan Macfarlane.

  2. Imported dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever cases in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2011-01-01

    Several dengue outbreaks occurred in Japan from 1942 to 1945. Dengue fever emerged in Nagasaki in August 1942 and soon spread to other cities such as Sasebo, Hiroshima, Kobe and Osaka, recurring every summer until 1945 and constituting the greatest outbreak in the temperate zone. Domestic outbreaks have not been reported in Japan since then. However, the number of imported dengue cases has increased year by year: 868 imported cases were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2010 according to the...

  3. Clinical statistics in a four-year period (1971-1974) and incidence of malignant tumor in general patients and A-bomb exposed patients in the Japan Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical cases of the Japan Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital during the four-year period from 1971 to 1974 were analyzed statistically according to inpatient or outpatient, age, sex, disease and method of operation. Malignant tumor cases were divided into general patients and A-bomb exposed patients and in order to see if there was any significant difference in incidence of malignant tumor between these two groups, a total of 101 cases of malignant tumor during the 11-year period from 1964 to 1974 were studied statistically. A-bomb exposed patients consisted of 2547 outpatients and 370 inpatients. The male-female ratio was 1:1.04 in outpatients and 1:0.37 in inpatients. The rate of hospitalization was 17.0%. Aged patients over 70 years of age occupied 47.4% of the inpatients. During the 11 years from 1964 to 1974, there occurred 101 cases of malignant tumors and these cases were studied statistically to see the difference in incidence between the general patients group and the A-bomb exposed group. Prostatic cancer showed a significant difference between these two groups in outpatients with higher incidence for the A-bomb exposed group but no significant difference in inpatients. Other malignant tumors showed no significant difference. (auth.)

  4. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis

  5. Los Alamos, Hiroshima, Nagasaki - a personal recollection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, a physicist participating in the Manhattan Project, recalls his experiences and work in the laboratories at the time which marked the onset of the nuclear era, the construction of the first uranium and plutonium bombs in Los Alamos, and the hidious effects shown to the world by the nuclear bombing of Japan. His thoughts and memories presented 50 years after the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and now that the Cold War has ended, call for a global ban of nuclear weapons. (orig.)

  6. Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

  7. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  8. Study on Comparison of Citizens’ Environmental Awareness Among Four Cities in China and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Fujii, Masahiko; Yingchao LIN

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to compare governmental activities and citizens’ consciousness in environmental protection in China and Japan. The citizens’ environmental awareness and the relevant acts were examined by designing and distributing questionnaires to citizens in urban and rural cities in China and Japan. The results demonstrate that there are more differences between the two countries than between urban and rural cities inside the same country. Chinese people pay more attention to local severe ...

  9. Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m-3 and 40.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m-3 and 13.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

  10. Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concerned

  11. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  12. Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimatsu Satoko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 this year, the names of 5,501 hibakusha who had died during the past year were added to the Hiroshima Cenotaph, making the total number of deaths of Hiroshima's hibakusha 269,446. In Nagasaki on August 9, 3,114 names were added to make a total of 152,276. Adding the death tolls from both cities, the total of Hiroshima/Nagasaki deaths as of August, 2010 was 421,722. The total number of hibakusha, including the living and dead, is at least 649,287, and keeping in mind those unaccounted for, it is probably more. Simply put, approximately, one third of hibakusha survive, speaking and living on behalf of all.No matter how many years go by, the number of people who were in or under the fiery clouds from the explosion of the two atomic-bombs, the first to be used against people, will always be the same, whether alive or dead. It includes those who perished instantly at and near the hypocentres, as Maruki Iri and Maruki Toshi described above,4 without ever being able to speak or even comprehend their own experience. It is for those dead and living people that we younger generations are acting and speaking on behalf of, and from whom we learn. And having fewer, or even none, of those surviving people will in no way diminish the significance of our actions, our shared memories, and our knowledge, to be inherited by future generations, so that never again will nuclear weapons be used, in combat or in experiments.

  13. Survey of dental radiology among RERF, Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed to assess the frequency and type of dental radiography performed during 2-week periods from March through June 1976. Patients radiographed were categorized as members of the Adult Health Study (AHS), non-AHS (Extended Life Span Study other than AHS) sample and general populations, and also categorized as Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Handbook holders (the A-bomb exposed) and nonholders of the handbook (the nonexposed). All of these groups were variously compared. They were mainly exposed to conventional oral radiography, and to a much lesser extent(3%-5%) to orthopantomography. The exposure frequencies for oral radiography per caput per year in Hiroshima were 1.2 for AHS, 0.9 for non-AHS, and 0.9 for the general population. In Nagasaki, these were 0.9, 1.1, and 0.6, respectively. The oral radiography exposure rates for the A-bomb exposed were 0.6 in Hiroshima and 0.5 in Nagasaki. For the nonexposed, these were 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Thus, the exposure rates were about 1.5 times greater among the nonexposed than the exposed in both cities. The analysis of technical factors used revealed that, compared to a previous survey (1970), many dental radiographic machines were fitted with open-end cylindrical cones. Because of this a reduction in exposure dose can be inferred. Data obtained in the present investigation are essential for subsequent estimations of exposure doses of the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. (author)

  14. Value of systematic intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a regional Japanese city based on case detection rate and medical cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawara Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuichi Tawara,1 Hideaki Senjyu,1 Kenichiro Tanaka,1 Takako Tanaka,1 Masaharu Asai,1 Ryo Kozu,2 Mitsuru Tabusadani,3 Sumihisa Honda,1 Terumitsu Sawai1 1Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan; 3Center for Industry, University and Government Cooperation, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan Objective: We established a COPD taskforce for early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and intervention. We implemented a pilot intervention with a prospective and longitudinal design in a regional city. This study evaluates the usefulness of the COPD taskforce and intervention based on COPD case detection rate and per capita medical costs.Method: We distributed a questionnaire to all 8,878 inhabitants aged 50–89 years, resident in Matsuura, Nagasaki Prefecture in 2006. Potentially COPD-positive persons received a pulmonary function test and diagnosis. We implemented ongoing detection, examination, education, and treatment interventions, performed follow-up examinations or respiratory lessons yearly, and supported the health maintenance of each patient. We compared COPD medical costs in Matsuura and in the rest of Nagasaki Prefecture using data from 2004 to 2013 recorded by the association of Nagasaki National Health Insurance Organization, assessing 10-year means and annual change.Results: As of 2014, 256 people have received a definitive diagnosis of COPD; representing 31% of the estimated total number of COPD patients. Of the cases detected, 87.5% were mild or moderate in severity. COPD medical costs per patient in Matsuura were significantly lower than the rest of Nagasaki Prefecture, as was rate of increase in cost over time.Conclusion: The COPD program in Matsuura enabled early detection and treatment of COPD patients and helped to lower the associated burden of medical costs. The success of this program suggests that a similar program could reduce the economic and human costs of COPD morbidity throughout Japan. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systematic intervention, case detection rate, medical cost, longitudinal study 

  15. Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. The enormous difference in dose rates between the atomic bombings and the radiation sources used for calibration experiments may also have some effect on some dosimetric systems or on some biological systems. Although it may be difficult to quantify some of these uncertainties, it is extremely important to keep all these uncertain factors in mind when analysing the atomic bomb effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Japan, medical X-ray examination is compulsory in schools, factories and companies. With certain diseases such as tuberculosis and some diseases of the lung and digestive systems extensive X-ray examinations may be conducted and periodically repeated. Survivors with a relatively low dose of high dose rate atomic bomb radiation must also have received some relatively low dose of low dose rate medical X-ray radiation. In other words, they must have received both high dose rate radiation and low dose rate radiation. There is a possibility of non-probabilistic uncertainties involved in estimation of the relative proportion of the two types of radiation and even greater uncertainties would be involved in the estimation of the organ doses. In these uncertainties both randomness and fuzziness may be involved.Under such situation it may be important to consider application of fuzzy theory for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiations, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. Therefore, the possibility of the combined effects of all these direct factors and the indirect factors such as those mentioned above must be considered in interpreting the effect of the atomic b

  16. Geological distribution of plutonium isotopes of Nagasaki atomic bomb spread over Nagasaki and Kumamoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our precious studies, we measured 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in soils to determine the plutonium derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb. We found the atomic bomb plutonium was carried from the hypocenter toward the eastern area and also reached a part of the northern area in Kumamoto Prefecture. In this study, we measured atomic ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and concentrations of 239+240Pu in soil samples and determined the detailed distribution of the plutonium in Nagasaki Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture. The concentrations of 239+240Pu were comparable with the background level which was observed in soils collected at other prefectures in Japan. In consideration of the precious results, N1 samples collected at Nishiyama area (about 3 km east of hypocenter) was higher than those in other area. This means that the atomic bomb plutonium was deposited in Nishiyama area. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were between 0.12-0.21. With the results of the previous study, ratios of 0.03-0.15 were observed in the samples N1, N2, N5, N*, N6, K4, K*, P5 and P6. These values were relatively lower than global fallout value (0.176). It indicated that the atomic bomb plutonium was deposited between 2 km and about 100 km east from the hypocenter and about 30 km north and south wide. The area which the plutonium was deposited was consistent with area which a cloud of the atomic bomb passed over. This means the plutonium released from the atomic bomb was taken into the cloud and carried. Then a lot of the plutonium fell onto the Nishiyama area and a part of them was carried to Shimabara Peninsula and Kumamoto area. In Nagasaki Prefecture, area which the soil has low 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was not uniform distribution in the area which a cloud of the atomic bomb passed over. It is possibly that the plutonium was deposited with 'Black rain' and the deposition of the plutonium was affected by geographical features. (author)

  17. Discrimination of the plutonium due to atomic explosion in 1945 from global fallout plutonium in Nagasaki soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 238Pu, sup(239,240)Pu, 241Pu, 241Am and 137Cs were determined on the soils collected from the Nishiyama area in Nagasaki City where the heaviest fallout from Nagasaki Atomic Bomb had been detected. And, the contribution of the plutonium derived from Nagasaki Atomic Bomb to the measured total sup(239,240)Pu in each soil was estimated to be as much as 95--97% from the activity ratios of 241Pu/sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am/sup(239,240)Pu. (author)

  18. High-speed inter-city transport system in Japan: Past, present and the future

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of Shinkansen in 1964, a unique inter-city transport network in which high-speed railway and air transport developed simultaneously, emerged in Japan, and modal choice between them based on price and speed has been manifested. Looking ahead, the next generation high-speed transport, the Maglev, is on the horizon. In order to capture the full impacts of the Maglev technology, simulation analysis with a dynamic spatial nested logit model was conducted. From this, we identified a...

  19. Geographical shielding of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to collect data concerning the title in Old Nagasaki City for the future assessment of exposure effect on cancer mortality as there had been no such data in Nagasaki University. The City areas were classified in 237 regions shielded (45), partly shielded (41) and not-shielded (151) by hills surrounding the City along with the 5 steps of distances from <1.0 to 5 km or more from the hypocenter (503 m high) + Nishiyama region (shielded) with use of Using Arc View GIS (Geological Information System, USA). Cancer mortality in each region was studied on total 43,735 survivors directly exposed to A-bomb at the age of <30 y who had lived in the City on Jan. 1, 1970. Cancer death was studied on this cohort until Dec. 31, 2011 (during 42 years). Numbers of not-shielded people were estimated to be 8,779 (49.3%) males and 13,430 (51.8%) females. Curves vs time of their mortality per 100 thousands during the 42 years were found to have the peak of about 600 males exposed at 1.0-1.9 km from the hypocenter and about 350 females at <1.0 km. The higher was the mortality, the closer was the distance from the hypocenter. The correlation between the mortality and distance was thus found, but not in shielded people. The effect of this geographical shielding should be considered in assessment of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure. (T.T.)

  20. Investigation of circular asymmetry in cancer mortality of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry in cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method and controlling for age ATB, sex, followup year, distance from the hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that in Hiroshima cancer mortality was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer were higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki, only lung cancer exhibited circular asymmetry, and was significantly higher in the westerly direction. For various reasons, the results tend to support the possibility of an asymmetry in radiation dose in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. Also, possible asymmetry in nondose variables associated with cancer is suggested in both cities, particularly in variables associated with lung cancer. Indications for future work and implications for future dose-mortality investigations are discussed

  1. The current situation and future scope of radiation emergency medical care network in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the framework of the International Consortium for Medical Care of Hibakusha and Radiation Life Science (Nagasaki University 21st Century COE Program) and bearing in mind the unique history and responsibility of Nagasaki University, several projects on radiation emergency preparedness are in progress. The critical accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999 made us realize that nuclear emergencies happen anywhere radionuclides exist. In fact, nuclear accidents possibly take place in factories, research facilities, hospital and wherever radioactive materials are in transit. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective preparedness network system for potential radiation emergency that may occur in Nagasaki and nearby prefectures and to cooperate with other Japanese and worldwide networks. (author)

  2. Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m3 and 26.5 Bq/m3, respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

  3. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 1...

  4. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese findings on the effects of nuclear weapons exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki have recently been published and are reviewed here. First, the physical events occurring immediately after the explosions are outlined; then, the short- and long-term effects upon the environment are described, as are the short-, intermediate- and long-term effects upon the populace. The findings are discussed in the light of the common wisdom that the major hazard which arises from nuclear weapons is that of radioactivity. It is pointed out that by far the greatest proportion of deaths and injuries arose from thermal effects; that about 10% of the short- and intermediate-term mortality was caused by the effects of massive doses of radiation; that the long-term effects are detectable above background, but have contributed little additional to the toll of human suffering; and that while the effects of fallout and induced radiation were initially apparent on close examination, no long-term effects has been identified, nor has there been any contribution to mortality or disease from this source. It is concluded that endeavours to resist nuclear weapons may be failing because of irrational attacts upon the long-term radiation effects of these weapons, rather than upon the chemical and biological effects which have already been found totally unacceptable when caused by other types of weapons

  5. Estimating deformation due to soil liquefaction in Urayasu city, Japan using permanent scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElGharbawi, Tamer; Tamura, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In Japan, several cities endured severe damage due to soil liquefaction phenomenon, which was developed in association with the massive shaking of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Measuring soil liquefaction deformations was not an easy task, mainly because of the total loss of signal coherence in the affected regions. In this paper, we present our approach to estimate the deformations associated with soil liquefaction using interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques. We use a stack of coseismic interferograms to identify the reliable pixels in the damaged areas using permanent scatterers technique. Then, we estimate and remove the preseismic mean velocity and DEM error components. Finally, we identify the liquefaction deformation component using least squares inversion and spatial phase filtering. We test the performance of the proposed approach using synthetic data, simulating the effects of soil liquefaction. The simulation results show a RMSE of the liquefaction deformation of 5.23 mm. After that, we estimate the deformation associated with soil liquefaction in Urayasu city, Japan, using ALOS-PALSAR data. The proposed approach allows a prompt estimation of the liquefaction deformation by utilizing the SAR images archives with only one postseismic SAR image.

  6. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

  7. Late health effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hiroshima-Nagasaki inter city differences in the dose-response are smaller for ORNL than that for T65D, but the risk is still higher for Hiroshima than for Nagasaki. The estimated risk coefficients for gamma rays based on a linear model for both gamma rays and neutrons are larger for ORNL than for T65D for each effect, and the ratios of coefficients (ORNL vs T65D) are in the range of 1.2 to 1.7. As the ORNL neutron dose becomes very small even in Hiroshima, estimates of risk coefficients for ORNL neutrons may not be warranted. However, similar estimates as for gamma rays suggest that the risk coefficients are larger for ORNL than for T65D and ORNL-T65D ratios are in the range of 4 to 6. The estimated relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for neutrons using ORNL dose and the linear model indicate that the RBE values for neutrons are larger for the ORNL dose than that for the T65D dose. (orig./HP)

  8. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research in Japan was restarted in 1952 after World War II. The legislation of the Atomic Energy Act in 1955 provided the basis nuclear development of the country. The nuclear engineering course was inaugurated in the Department of Applied Physics of Tokai University in 1956 as the first nuclear engineering department in Japanese Universities. Major organizations like the Science and Technology Agency (STA), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and others started around 1955. The first reactor, JRR-1 went critical in 1957 at JAERI. Since then, various research reactors including general research reactors, educational or training reactors, and test reactors have been constructed. Japan is the only country who has faced the devastating effects of nuclear weapons in World War II. Despite this terrible situation, Japan has embraced the peaceful use of nuclear technology to provide a substantial portion of its electricity. In 1966, its first commercial reactor started operation. Today, the country has 55 power reactors in operation, generating about 30% of the country's total electricity production. Japan plans to increase this to 41% in 2014. Needs for nuclear scientists and engineers are closely related to the national nuclear programmes. The current status of nuclear power generation in Japan has been given above. Following are the main nuclear activities that need a nuclear technical work force in the country: - Safe operation of current nuclear power plants; - Development of new power and research reactors; - Activities related to front end and back end sectors of fuel cycle; - Nuclear related activities as fusion power development. The public perception plays an important role in attracting talent towards this particular discipline of education. Unfortunately, since the Chernobyl incident, the nuclear community is facing negative public perception regarding the risks of a nuclear accident. Specifically, in Japan, a series of local incidents have been reported in mass media such as; the sodium leak in Monju in December 1995, fire at the asphalt solidification plant in March 1996, invention of inspection data of spent fuel transportation casks in October 1997, criticality accident at JCO in Tokaimura in September 1999. The latest one, the JCO accident, is extremely serious because it seems to suggest at present a deteriorating situation of Japanese technologies. These accidents affected the public perception of nuclear education which reinforced the decreasing trends of nuclear engineering in the universities. According to a CECD report in 2002, in Japan, there has been an imbalance between graduated students and recruitment i.e. the number of students graduated from a nuclear related master's course were almost 300 while the recruitment by nuclear engineering was about 70 every year. In order to prevent nuclear education from a serious downturn, during the 1990s, the government changed its policy for national universities having nuclear engineering departments and restructured nuclear education. Major changes are to emphasize education on a graduate school level. The department for undergraduate education has been renamed at most of the universities. Nuclear engineering departments have disappeared from national universities except for Hokkaido University. Instead, the key words for the new department names are energy, quantum system and science. The key words, nuclear or nuclear energy are retained in the names of the graduate courses. Engineering fundamentals have been emphasized in undergraduate education. Moreover, nuclear engineering was projected as a study to utilize nuclear reactions for the welfare of mankind. Major nuclear reactions are fission and fusion, but dealing with other nuclear reactions is within the category of nuclear engineering. Since April 2004, all national universities have been reformed

  9. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

  10. The present state of the medical record data base for the A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been 13 years since the operation of medical record data base for A-bomb survivors was started in the Scientific Data Center for Atomic Bomb Disaster at the Nagasaki University. This paper presents the basic data in handling the data base. The present data base consists of the following 6 items: (1) 'fundamental data' for approximately 120,000 A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors' handbook who have been living in Nagasaki City; (2) 'Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital's data', covering admission medical records in the ward of internal medicine; (3) 'pathological data', covering autopsy records in Nagasaki City; (4) 'household data reconstructed by the survey data'; (5) 'second generation A-bomb survivors data', including the results of mass screening since 1979, and (6) 'address data'. Based on the data, the number of A-bomb survivors, diagnosis records at the time of death, the number of A-bomb survivors' participants in health examination, tumor registration, records of admission to the internal ward in Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital, autopsy records, and household records are tabulated in relation to annual changes, age at the time of A-bombing, distance from the hypocenter, or sex. (N.K.)

  11. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG)

  12. New radiation dosimetry estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies of radiation dosimetry for atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki attributed differences in leukemia mortality rates between the two cities to corresponding differences in neutron dosage levels. A high value of estimated neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE, or level of biological damage caused by neutrons) was accordingly inferred. It now appears that the earlier dosimetry system produced estimates of neutron dose that are high by an order of magnitude. We have applied the new dose estimates to the leukemia data nd have found that the results do not support an inference of a large neutron RBE at low doses. Subsequent evidence, discussed here, tends to confirm our analysis within the prevailing uncertainties. As a result, the utility of data on atomic-bomb survivors in evaluating radiation safety standards is problematic

  13. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Unnecessary Dieting Intention and Behavior among Female Students in Naha City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Zay Yar; Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Nanishi, Keiko; Poudel, Krishna Chandra; Yasuoka, Junko; Miyagi, Masaya; Shinjo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Weight concerns and dieting are prevalent among female adolescents both in Western and Asian countries. They can result in negative psychological and physiological consequences. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of social and personal factors in the decision to diet among female adolescent students in Japan, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Data were collected from five junior high schools and three high schools in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture, in 2010, through self-administered questionnaires. The data of 756 female students were assessed. The independent variables included social factor variables (norms) and personal factor variables (attitude to dieting, perceived behavior control, body esteem, body-figure discrepancy and past dieting). The dependent variables were dieting intention and behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine three models: model 1 (age and obesity index), model 2 (social factor variables with age and obesity index) and model 3 (all variables). Although model 2 failed to explain a substantial proportion of the variance, model 3 explained approximately a half of the variance for intention (R(2) = 0.507) and more than one third of the variance for behavior (R(2) = 0.376). Past experience of dieting was the best predictor of both dieting intention and behavior. Body esteem was the second best predictor for dieting behavior. In conclusion, personal factors are more likely than social factors to drive the dieting decision. Diet education programs should consider targeting frequent dieters and those with poor body esteem. PMID:26161031

  15. Field monitoring of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in an industrial city in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly portable, sensitive, and selective passive air samplers were used to investigate ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) levels at multiple sampling sites in an industrial city, Fuji, Japan. We determined the spatial distributions of 27 species of VOCs in three campaigns: Mar (cold season), May (warm season), and Nov (mild season) of 2004. In all campaigns, toluene (geometric mean concentration, 14.0 ?g/m3) was the most abundant VOC, followed by acetaldehyde (4.76 ?g/m3), and formaldehyde (2.58 ?g/m3). The spatial distributions for certain VOCs showed characteristic patterns: high concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde were typically found along major roads, whereas high concentrations of toluene and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were usually found near factories. The spatial distribution of PCE observed was extremely consistent with the diffusion pattern calculated from Pollutant Release and Transfer Register data and meteorological data, indicated that passive air samplers are useful for determining the sources and distributions of ambient VOCs. - Passive air samplings with hood are useful for determining the identities, sources, and distributions of ambient VOC pollutants

  16. Environmental Factors and Seasonal Influenza Onset in Okayama City, Japan: Case-Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchihashi,Yuuki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza infection is a major challenge in public health. The term "seasonal influenza" refers to the typical increase in the number of influenza patients in the winter season in temperature zones. However, it is not clear how environmental factors within a single flu season affect influenza infection in a human population. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of temperature and humidity in the 2006-7 flu season on the onset of seasonal influenza using a case-crossover study. We targeted patients who attended one pediatric clinic in Okayama city, Japan and who were diagnosed as being infected with the seasonal influenza virus. Using 2 references (time-stratified and symmetric bidirectional design, we estimated the effects of average temperature and relative humidity from the onset day (lag0 to 10 days before (lag10. The total number of subjects was 419, and their onset days ranged from 26 December 2006 to 30 April 2007. While the onset was significantly associated with lower temperature, relative humidity was not related. In particular, temperatures before the 3-day incubation period had higher-magnitude odds ratios. For example, the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for average temperature at time lag 8 was 1.12 (1.08-1.17 per 1.0? decrease. Low environmental temperature significantly increased the risk of seasonal influenza onset within the 2006-7 winter season.

  17. Scholastic intercourse between Shogunal Astronomer Shibukawa Kagesuke and Nagasaki-based astronomer Mine Gensuke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Setsuko

    2004-04-01

    It is important to know how scholastic tradition of Tenmon-kata (Shogunal Astronomical Office) was transferred to local astronomers over the 19th century, since it is likely that modernization of Japan in science and technology after the Meiji-restoration (1868) has its root in the pre-Meiji period. In this report, as a case-study of such line-of-thoughts, I took up a local astronomer Mine Gensuke, from Omura-han (clan) of Nagasaki. Mine, at his age of 25 (1850), came to Edo and learned astronomy for six years under the supervision of Shibukawa Kagesuke, the top-ranking Shogunal astronomer at that time. After returning to Nagasaki, Mine was assigned to be the land-surveyer of Omura-han. In Mine's book-collection preserved at the Nagasaki Municipal Museum, I found several books and notebooks copied and annotated by Mine, whose original author was Shibukawa. Through a research to those materials, I discuss what and how Mine learned from Shibukawa.

  18. Circular asymmetry of cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry of cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method, and controlling for age at the time of the bomb, sex, follow-up year, distance from hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that cancer mortality in Hiroshima was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer was higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki also cancer mortality, notably lung cancer mortality, was significantly higher in the westerly direction. Discussed are possible sources of the asymmetry, particularly the possibilities of asymmetry of epidemiologic variables and of radiation exposure, and indications for future work. (author)

  19. Health effects on individuals and health services of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human injuries caused by the A-bomb can be categorized as the result of thermal rays, ionizing radiation, or blast. Many persons sustained injuries from more than one cause, any one of which could have been fatal. In addition to such direct injuries, indirect injuries were sustained, caused by fire or the fall of rubble from demolished buildings. The severity of early A-bomb injuries was directly proportional to distance from the hypocentre. Many hospitals and clinics throughout Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City were destroyed or damaged depending on their distance from the hypocentre and the extent to which they were shielded topographically

  20. Weighted stack of shallow seismic reflection line acquired in downtown Osaka City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Mohamed; Yamamoto, Eisaku; Mitamura, Muneki; Toda, Shigeru; Nishida, Tomohiko; Terada, Yuji; Uda, Hideo; Yokota, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Hiroo; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2002-06-01

    A 3.5-km-long shallow seismic reflection profile was acquired along Yodo riverbank across the active Uemachi fault, Osaka City, Japan. The study aimed to explore the subsurface geological structures in and around the Uemachi active fault system and to assess the feasibility of using reflection seismology to investigate subsurface structure in urban areas where large amount of cultural noise is expected to interfere with the seismic signal. Field recording parameters were adapted to the accessibility limitation and safety precautions in the study area. The quality of collected data was marginal and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio was considerably low. The data processing involved intensive frequency-wave number (f-k) filtering and summing adjacent common midpoints (CMPs) before stack as well as weighted stacking. The f-k filtering removed most of the ground roll and guided waves while summation of adjacent common midpoints increased the fold and enhanced the apparent signal to noise ratio of the final section. Trace weighting before stack was remarkably effective in increasing the identity and continuity of reflections. The visual and statistical comparison between weighted stack and the basic stack proved that weighted stacking produces significantly more coherent section. The interpretation of the final seismic section and the correlation with the borehole data in the vicinity confirmed the location of the Uemachi fault plane. The fault is shown in the seismic section as a reverse fault that dips to the east with an angle of about 75°. The seismic line also revealed the possibility of the presence of other two shallow faults on the hanging wall of the Uemachi fault. The two faults are dipping to the same dip direction of Uemachi fault with slightly larger dip angle.

  1. Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan: outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi,Hoei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

  2. Isotope dilution sector-field ICPMS combined with extraction chromatography for rapid determination of Am-241 in soils derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On August 9, 1945, a Pu atomic bomb was exploded over Nagasaki, Japan. In contrast to the comprehensive studies on Pu, a great knowledge gap exists on the concentration variation and the mobility of 241Am. We investigated the current status of 241Am and Pu isotope concentrations in surface soils of Nagasaki using isotope dilution sector-field ICPMS. We reconstructed the variation of 241Am in the past 6 decades. We found that 241Am has reached maximum activity in 2008, and 241Am/239+240Pu activity ratio, similar to 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio, was a useful fingerprint for environmental radioactivity study. (author)

  3. Initial field survey report of the 2011 East Japan Tsunami in Sendai, Natori and Iwanuma Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Fujino, Shigehiro; Goff, James; Jaffe, Bruce; Nishimura, Yuichi; Richmond, Bruce; Szczuci?ski, Witold; Tappin, David R.; Witter, Rob; Yulianto, Eko

    2011-01-01

    The East Japan Earthquake (Mw 9.0) and associated tsunami struck the Pacific coast of eastern Japan on March 11th, 2011 at 2:46 p.m. (Japan Standard Time). Maximum run-up heights reached about 40 m along the Sanriku region’s coast and around 10 m on the Sendai coastline. The coasts of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures in particular were badly damaged, and a considerable amount of time and money will be required to restore these areas. Tsunami inundation up to 5 km inland ...

  4. Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Ishii

    2011-01-01

    Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance w...

  5. Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

  6. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  7. Radiation transport calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and data used to calculate the Hiroshima and Nagasaki prompt and delayed radiation fluences for the DS02 study represent a considerable improvement over the methods and data used for the DS86 study. During the intervening sixteen years, enhancements were made in the radiation transport codes and the nuclear data that are used to describe the migration of the neutrons and gamma rays from the bomb location through the intervening air and into, out of and off the surface of the ground. Increased computational capability permits better descriptions of the weapon source spectra and their extension to higher neutron and photon energies. The weapon leakage spectra were generated in the same neutron and gamma-ray energy structures that were used in the transport calculations. No interpolation or fitting of the leakage spectra was necessary, assuring consistent and accurate representations of the data were used in the transport calculations. (J.P.N.)

  8. Epidemiological studies on gastric cancer in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One thousand-four hundred and twenty-four cases of gastric cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry between 1973 and 1977 were studied. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to be higher in persons exposed to the atomic bomb within 2.0 km from the hypocenter, especially in young persons, than in non-exposed individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with the nonexposed, the corrected relative risk of gastric cancer in persons exposed within 2.0 km from the hypocenter was 1.28 in males and 1.11 in females. In terms of histologic type or location, the incidence of gastric cancer showed no statistically significant difference between the exposed and nonexposed persons. (author)

  9. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of Electric Vehicle Society in Toyohashi City, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam, Shamsunnahar; Miyata, Yuzuru; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Since the industrialization, the appearance of cities has been enhancing great changes of people's lives by mass production and mass consumption. Because of the human society has been developing through industrialization and urbanization, many environmental problems, such as Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, waste generation have been occurring as well. Thus, city planners and urban policy makers look forward for designing a compact city to attain a sustainable urban system. Because the form o...

  10. Statement at Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, 15 December 2012, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When disaster struck at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the IAEA offered immediate assistance to the Plant operators and the Japanese authorities as they tried to regain control over the reactors. We began sharing verified information about the accident with the world and helped to channel international assistance to Japan. A high priority was to do everything we could to help ensure the safety of the people of Japan, especially those in Fukushima Prefecture who were most affected by the crisis. I went to Japan a few days after the accident to meet then Prime Minister Kan. I assured him that Japan could count on the support of the entire international community and stressed the need for full transparency. I sent a number of expert teams to assist in areas such as radiological monitoring, food safety, and analysis of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Plant. Four IAEA teams undertook measurements in the Fukushima region, both inside and outside the 20 km evacuation zone. An expert on marine monitoring programmes from the IAEA Environmental Laboratories helped to monitor seawater. Joint teams from the IAEA and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization advised local authorities on technical issues related to food safety and agricultural countermeasures. Some important environmental readings at key points in the unfolding crisis were taken by IAEA experts. Our presence helped to provide reassurance to the people of Japan at a very critical time. It is now one year and nine months since the accident. In that time, we have continued to work closely with Japan. Today, I will sign an important document with Governor Sato of Fukushima Prefecture on our cooperation in the coming years. The IAEA will work closely with the Prefecture in radiation monitoring and decontamination. We will also implement human health projects with Fukushima Medical University.

  11. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868. PMID:12234412

  12. Epidemiological studies. From experience in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)

  13. The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Thomas, Ed.

    The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester…

  14. School Science Achievement in Japan and Singapore: A Tale of Two Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Toh Kok; Riley, Joseph P.; Atputhasamy, Lourdusamy; Subramaniam, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts school science achievement between two top scoring nations, Japan and Singapore, on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments. The first part of the study is devoted to examining cross-national comparisons on selected background questions administered in the TIMSS survey, while the…

  15. Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical x-ray exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All large hospitals and 40% of the small hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed for the X-ray examinations they performed during a 2-week period in 1974. The frequency and type of X-ray examinations received by members of the RERF Adult Health Study (AHS) and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) extended, excluding AHS (Non-AHS), were compared with the general population in each city. Radiologic exposures of patients at hospitals and clinics were most frequent among the general populations. The number of patients, examinations, and exposures per caput per year in each population were estimated. Since the age distribution differed among the three populations, comparisons were made only after correcting for age. On a per caput per year basis exposure frequency was relatively high in the AHS and low in the general populations, a reflection of the greater number of patients in the AHS than in the general populations. Non-AHS males in Nagasaki had a higher X-ray examination rate than did the AHS subjects. The others in the Non-AHS did not differ appreciably from the general populations. There was no difference among these groups according to body sites examined. (author)

  16. Neutrons confirmed in Nagasaki and at the Army pulsed radiation Facility: Implications for Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports have clearly demonstrated that large discrepancies exist between neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and activation calculated using the current dosimetry system DS86. The reports confirmed previous results for cobalt activation in Hiroshoma that suggested problems, and this has spurred a joint U.S.-Japan effort to identify the source(s) of this discrepancy. Here, new results are presented that appear to eliminate both the measurements of neutron activation and the DS86 air-transport calculations are potential sources of the discrepancy in Hiroshima. Computer transport of DS86 fission neutrons through large distances of air was validated using concrete samples from Nagasaki and chloride detectors placed at selected distances from a bare uranium reactor. In both cases accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure thermal neutron activation via the reaction. 35Cl(n, ?)36Cl (half-life, 301,000 years). Good agreement was observed between measurements of neutron activation and DS86 calculations for Nagasaki, as well as for the reactor experiment. Thus the large discrepancy observed in Hiroshima appears not to be due to uncertainties in air-transport calculations or in the activation measurements; rather, the discrepancy appears to be due to uncertainties associated with the Hiroshima bomb itself. 15 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Medical and dental radiological trends in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearly trends in radiologic practice in Japan were estimated on the basis of annual dampling surveys of medical and dental examinations and treatments covered by Government-Managed Health Insurance, modified by (1) the ratio of all insurance-covered medical care to that covered by this insurance, and (2) the ratio of insured plus privately purchased medical care to insured medical care alone. All radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations, x-ray films consumed, radiation treatments, and dental x-ray examinations, increased during the 10 years prior to this study. In 1970, numbers of examinations or treatments per capita were 1.2 for radiography, 0.1 for fluoroscopy, 0.06 for radiation treatments, and 0.3 for dental radiography, respectively. The dental radiography data were interpolated to Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cities and compared with those submitted by institutions in both cities in October 1970. The Reports of Annual Medical Care Survey, the Fund Office's Annual Reports, and the Annual Reports of the National Health Insurance were main sources for this estimate and provided more than 90% of the necessary information. (auth.)

  19. Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

  20. Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    SOMEYA, Azusa; ITO, Ryuki; Maeda, Akihiko; IKENAGA, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefec...

  1. Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ishii

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance with the manual, the hospital disaster task force was established. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team coordinated medical support from organizations such as physicians associations, dental associations, self-defence forces medical teams, pharmacists associations, the Japanese Red Cross and relief teams from hospitals all over the country. In three days, the joint relief team directly visited all emergency shelters to make an initial assessment and to collect information about the number and state of health of evacuees, provision of food and drinking water and the availability of electricity, water and sewerage. Outcome: Initial assessment revealed that 35 emergency shelters lacked a sufficient food supply and that 100 shelters had unsanitary conditions. The joint relief team provided the Miyagi Prefecture government and the Ishinomaki municipal government with information about emergency shelters that did not have a sufficient food supply. As of 30 September, the activities of the joint relief teams were completed, and there was no outbreak of communicable diseases in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone. A total of 328 shelters with 46 480 evacuees were managed by the Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team.Discussion: Advanced preparation to quickly establish an initial response system, expertise, and decision-making ability and the ability to get things done are required for disaster response management.

  2. Kioto, la antigua capital del Japón y el modelo chino de la ciudad ideal / Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan and the Chinese model of the ideal city

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olimpia, Niglio.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Kioto fue fundada en el año 794 cuando el emperador Kanmu decidió construir la nueva capital del Japón y abandonar la ciudad de Nara. Esta contribución recorre la historia de la fundación de Kioto en relación con los principios ideales de la ciudad china. Este modelo de cuadricula const [...] ituyó por algunos siglos una referencia cultural importante para la construcción de nuevas ciudades en Japón. Hoy la ciudad de Kioto conserva la antigua estructura urbana reticular y esta contribución tiene como finalidad proponer una reflexión sobre la influencia de la cultura china en Japón desde el 550 d.C. (período Kofun) y evaluar el desarollo de esta cultura en el tiempo y su presencia actual en la forma urbana y en su arquitectura, sobre todo religiosa. El modelo ideal de la ciudad china después de 1200 años desde la fundación de Kioto se conserva y constituye una referencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la ciudad contemporánea en estrecha relación con el paisaje. Abstract in english The city of Kyoto was founded in 794 when Emperor Kanmu decided to build a new capital of Japan and to leave the city of Nara. This paper traces the history of the foundation of Kyoto in relation to the normative principles of the Chinese city. For centuries, this urban model, with orthogonal axes, [...] had constituted a major cultural reference for the construction of new cities in Japan. Today, the city of Kyoto preserves the old urban orthogonal structure and this contribution aims to propose a reflection on the influence of Chinese culture in Japan since 550 AD (Kofun period) and to consider the development of this culture over time and its current presence in urban form; especially religious architecture. The ideal model of the Chinese city, after 1200 years since the foundation of Kyoto, is preserved and constitutes a fundamental reference for the development of the contemporary city in strict relationship with the landscape.

  3. Childfood leukemia. Epidemiological investigation and effectiveness of treatment in Nagasaki over the past 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemiological investigation of childhood leukemia was performed in Nagasaki Prefecture. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the disease as a whole by studying the incidence classified by year, sex, area and disease type, age of onset, effectiveness of treatment, prognosis, and possible association with the atomic bombing in 1945. The annual incidence was 3.0 per 100000 children under 15 years of age, lower than the national average. There was no significant change in the annual incidence for 12 years. No increase in incidence was observed in Nagasaki City and its surrounding areas. There was no obvious difference in age of onset and incidence by sex from those previously reported. Acute lymphocytic leukemia accounted for a large part of childhood leukemia. There was no increase in the incidence of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, but its familial occurrence and accumulation were observed. The rate of first complete remission and the number of long-term survivors increased with the improvement of treatment for acute leukemia. The influence of the atomic bomb was not clear when the incidence of disease types was compared between areas. The comparison of the disease type ratio in patients of the second and third generations of atomic bomb victims with that of patients without a family history of atomic bomb exposure also did not show an obvious influence of the bomb. (author)

  4. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  5. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.7 contains tables of SMR for malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. (J.P.N.)

  6. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.6 contains tables of SMR for multiple myeloma. (J.P.N.)

  7. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.5 contains tables of SMR for non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL). (J.P.N.)

  8. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.3 contains tables of SMR for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  9. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No. 1 contains tables of SMR for all malignant neoplasms. (J.P.N.)

  10. Radiation-driven migration: the case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

  11. Acoustical design of the Tokyo Opera City (TOC) concert hall, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka; Beranek; Masuda; Nishihara; Okano

    2000-01-01

    The Tokyo Opera City concert hall seats 1632, volume 15 300 m3, and reverberation time, with audience and orchestra, 1.95 s. As part of the design process, measurements on CAD computer and 1:10 wooden models of the hall and full-sized materials samples were conducted over a 5-yr. period. The hall in plan is rectangular. The ceiling is a distorted pyramid, with its peak 28 m above the main floor and nearer the stage than the rear of the hall. This unique shape was analyzed on the models so that all interior surfaces combine to distribute sources on the stage uniformly over the seating areas and to yield optimum values for reverberation time (RT), early decay time (EDT), interaural cross-correlation coefficient (IACCE3), bass ratio (BR), initial-time-delay gap (ITDG), strength (G), and sound diffusion index (SDI) [for definitions see L. Beranek, Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Woodbury, NY, 1996)]. On the long ceiling facing the stage, Schroeder QRD diffusers provide diffusion, eliminate a possible echo, and strengthen lateral reflections. Performers and critics judge the acoustics excellent. PMID:10641644

  12. Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

  13. Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

  14. Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

  15. Characterization of atmospheric particulate during the RICE straw burning period in a midsize city in northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected from three areas (commercial, residential and agricultural) in and near Akita City in northern Japan, October 1996 (rice straw burning period), over three days with a one-hour sampling interval for each area. The elemental composition and particle shape of TSP samples were determined and/or observed by PIXE and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In the hourly TSP samples collected during the rice straw burning period, values of 24 elements were determined for each area, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca and Fe were the major components. Comparing the arithmetic means of elemental concentrations in TSP for the rice straw burning and non-snow-clad period (May - June 1996), in the residential and agricultural areas the Si concentration in the rice straw burning period was approximately two times that in the non-snow-clad period, and K and Ca concentrations in the rice straw burning period were a little higher than those in the non-snow-clad period. In the residential and agricultural areas, change in SPM concentration and change in Si, K and Ca concentrations were in relative agreement during the hours that smoke from rice straw burning was present in the atmospheric space. With the aid of SEM- EDX analysis, many cubic particles were observed for almost all hourly TSP samples. The cubic particles were of the silicon-rich type, and their morphology was rice straw fragments or aggregation of fragments. (author)

  16. Value of systematic intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a regional Japanese city based on case detection rate and medical cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuichi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Kozu, Ryo; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Honda, Sumihisa; Sawai, Terumitsu

    2015-01-01

    Objective We established a COPD taskforce for early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and intervention. We implemented a pilot intervention with a prospective and longitudinal design in a regional city. This study evaluates the usefulness of the COPD taskforce and intervention based on COPD case detection rate and per capita medical costs. Method We distributed a questionnaire to all 8,878 inhabitants aged 50–89 years, resident in Matsuura, Nagasaki Prefecture in 2006. Potentially COPD-positive persons received a pulmonary function test and diagnosis. We implemented ongoing detection, examination, education, and treatment interventions, performed follow-up examinations or respiratory lessons yearly, and supported the health maintenance of each patient. We compared COPD medical costs in Matsuura and in the rest of Nagasaki Prefecture using data from 2004 to 2013 recorded by the association of Nagasaki National Health Insurance Organization, assessing 10-year means and annual change. Results As of 2014, 256 people have received a definitive diagnosis of COPD; representing 31% of the estimated total number of COPD patients. Of the cases detected, 87.5% were mild or moderate in severity. COPD medical costs per patient in Matsuura were significantly lower than the rest of Nagasaki Prefecture, as was rate of increase in cost over time. Conclusion The COPD program in Matsuura enabled early detection and treatment of COPD patients and helped to lower the associated burden of medical costs. The success of this program suggests that a similar program could reduce the economic and human costs of COPD morbidity throughout Japan. PMID:26347397

  17. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 30 years ago, population-based tumor registries were established in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report, the first of a series of papers on cancer incidence, describes methodological aspects of the tumor registries and discusses issues of data quality in the context of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, the major atomic bomb survivor population. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are characterized by active case ascertainment based on abstraction of medical records at area hospitals, augmented by tissue registries operational in the area and a number of clinical and pathological programs undertaken over the years among the atomic bomb survivors. Using conventional measures of quality, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries have a death certificate-only (DCO) rate of less than 9%, a mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio of about 50%, and a histological verification (HV) rate in excess of 70%, which place these registries among the best in Japan and comparable to many established registries worldwide. All tumor registry data pertaining to the LSS population were assembled, reviewed and handled with special attention given to the quality and uniformity of data based on standardized procedures. Special studies and monitoring programs were also introduced to evaluate the quality of the tumor incidence data in the LSS. Analyses were performed to examine the quality of incidence data overall and across various substrata used for risk assessment such as age, time and radiation dose groups. No significant associations were found between radiation dose and data quality as measured by various indices. These findings warrant the use of the present tumor registry-based data for studies of cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  18. The effects of terrain shielding on cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills in environs around the hypocenter in Nagasaki City are suggested to have shielded (S) the resident in the hill back from A-bomb radiation (terrain shielding). The effect of this S on cancer mortality risk was analyzed by comparison with the risk in residents in non-shielded (NS) areas. An S area was selected at 2-3 km afar from the hypocenter and NS areas, at 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 km (NS I, II, III, respectively). The subject cohorts were 1,579 residents in the S area, 1,504, 5,062 and 5,540 in the NS I, II and III areas, respectively; and were analyzed for their cancer death during 40 years from Jan. 1970 to Dec. 2009 by Cox proportional hazard model with covariates of the area, sex, age at exposure and death age. Cancer death was seen in 8.7% of the resident in S; and 11.9, 8.6 and 7.7% in NS I, NS II, and NS III, respectively. The hazard ratios of cancer mortality were 0.78 between areas S/NS I, 0.74 between N II/N I and 0.77 between N III/N I, which were all statistically significant. Thus reducing effect of S on cancer mortality was 22% as compared with that of residents in NS I, suggesting that the terrain shielding effect should be taken in consideration for evaluation of health hazard in Nagasaki. (T.T.)

  19. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  20. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  1. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  2. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for free-in-air tissue kerma due to initial radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty estimates and cross correlations by range/survivor have been calculated for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki free-in-air (FIA) tissue kerma obtained from two-dimensional air/ground transport calculations. The uncertainties due to modeling parameter and basic nuclear transport data uncertainties were calculated for 700-, 1000-, and 1500-m ground ranges. Only the FIA tissue kerma due to initial radiation was treated in the analysis; the uncertainties associated with terrain and building shielding and phantom attenuation were not considered in this study. Uncertainties of --20% were obtained for the prompt neutron and secondary gamma kerma and 30% for the prompt gamma kerma at both cities. The uncertainties on the total prompt kerma at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are --18 and 15%, respectively. The estimated uncertainties vary only slightly by ground range and are fairly highly correlated. The total prompt kerma uncertainties are dominated by the secondary gamma uncertainties, which in turn are dominated by the modeling parameter uncertainties, particularly those associated with the weapon yield and radiation sources

  3. Physical destruction in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 1 ''physical destruction'', the following matters are described: dropping of the atomic bombs, atomic bombs and heat rays, blast due to atomic bombing, damages due to heat rays, blast and fire, radiation from the atomic bombings, and weather on the days of atomic bombings. (J.P.N.)

  4. Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

  5. Revision of dose estimates for bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commenting mainly on Dr W.E. Loewe's figures, the author presents a brief note discussing the potential repercussions of revised Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates, and possible impacts on the bases of risk estimates. (U.K.)

  6. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number observed in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture has been known by that the black rain fell after dropping atomic bomb. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number was measured in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture after dropping atomic bomb. This phenomenon differs from the general knowledge that the leukocyte number decreases by the radiation exposure. This has been noticed as a rare record confirmed by the residual radiation effect to the human body using the group data. (M.H.)

  7. Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

  8. Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  10. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  11. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  12. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were to small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable

  13. Cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors with epilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the association between epilation and cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, cancer mortality was determined for a total of 9,356 survivors (3,591 males and 5,765 females) from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1997. The subjects included individuals other than those in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of the Atomic Bomb Causality Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). Information on acute injury was obtained from a survey that was conducted at the time of application for a health handbook. The association between epilation and cancer mortality was evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model, including factors such as gender, age at the time of the bombing, attained age, radiation dose and epilation. Epilation was found in 81 (2.3%) males and 148 (2.6%) females. No significant difference in the frequency of epilation was observed by gender or age at the time of the bombing. The hazard ratio of cancer mortality in those with epilation compared to those without epilation was 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-1.54). Similar to the study of the LSS cohort, no significant effects of epilation on cancer mortality were observed in the present study. The results indicated that the cancer mortality was significantly higher in those exposed to atomic bombing younger as was reported by LSS studies. However, the effects of radiation dose on cancer mortality have not been observed in the present study. (author)

  14. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents the 36Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35Cl(n,?)36Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39K(n,?)36Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ? 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for 36Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima

  15. Radiation and health. Lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the late health effects of ionizing radiation among the atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1947 by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), which is as follows; (1) The effects for which a clear increase has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A suggestive increase has been found in several sites of cancer and immunological abnormalities. (3) No difference has been observed between the exposed and the non-exposed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects. Because of the aging of atomic bomb survivors, it is becoming more and more difficult to separate the effects of radiation from those of other factors, and health effects that are still unknown may appear with aging phenomena. Further, since those exposed at younger ages are now reaching the cancer ages, more precise techniques such as DNA analysis should also be applied to confirm the results obtained so far about genetic effects. The epidemiological method for assessing the health risks of radiation exposure is to identify a numerator of those with health abnormalities among a denominator population defined by exposure dose. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the identification of the denominator was delayed because of the confusion after the war, but a greater delay has occurred in Chernobyl and, so far, only the numerator has been emphasized. Every effort should therefore be made in Chernobyl to provide an appropriate denominator as soon as possible. (J.P.N.)

  16. Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

  17. Historical changes in diabetes therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, K; Akanuma, Y

    1994-10-01

    The origins of many aspects of ancient Japanese culture lie in knowledge brought from China, and medicine was no exception. Subsequently, however, in the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced Western medicine to Japan along with Christianity. They were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century, who introduced Western culture while carrying on commerce at their Dejima outpost in Nagasaki. This was called the Dutch school in Japan, and although there was thus contact with Western culture and the Japanese eagerly studied Western medicine, it was not until after the establishment of the Meiji Reform government in the middle of the 19th century that there was aggressive incorporation and acceptance of modern Western medicine in Japan. The University of Tokyo was the first university in Japan. Preserved in the library of the Third Department of Internal Medicine are old records of hospitalized cases in Japan, and those documents form the basis of this review of the history of the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Japan. PMID:7859609

  18. Characterization of soluble and insoluble components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions of airborne particulate matter in Kofu city, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyotani, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    A systematic method combining water and diluted-acid extractions has been developed for the manifold evaluation of soluble and insoluble fractions in ambient aerosol. The pre-washed regenerated cellulose membrane filter was used as a collection medium of a low-volume air sampler. The collection time of 7-14 days was required to obtain the sample amounts enough for the systematic analysis. Simple and efficient extraction procedures using the filtration of water and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid were recommended in order to obtain the information about the dissolution behaviors of various elements in the aerosol. Soluble components in both the extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography (IC). These extraction procedures were also preferred to prepare thin-layer specimens suitable to the succeeding X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for insoluble components. Elemental compositions of the extraction residues were conveniently determined by the XRF calibrated with thin-layer standard specimens prepared with activated carbon. The determination of the 17 representative elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb) in these three fractions from an aerosol sample was performed rapidly within 4 h. The proposed systematic method was applied to PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosol samples collected in Kofu City, Central Japan, and the enrichment behaviors of various elements and their source apportionment such as soil, anthropogenic substances and vehicle exhaust particulates could be demonstrated by the present method.

  19. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Tominaga

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  20. Critical requirements for a posteriori track recorder neutron dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International programs have been carried out over the last four decades to quantify the exposure of atom bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unfortunately, the quest for accurate gamma-ray and neutron exposure doses of atom bomb survivors has proven illusive. In the most recent of these programs, designated as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), a serious and persistent discrepancy has arisen between neutron transport calculations and radiometric (RM) neutron dosimetry for the Hiroshima site, which has been called the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. A recently completed in-depth analysis demonstrates that a simple single factor panacea does not exist to explain the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. Careful treatment of a number of specific experimental and calculational effects is required before any progress can be achieved. Within this perspective, the applicability of solid state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites is examined as an independent alternative to radiometric (RM) neutron dosimetry. The utility of the SSTR method for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites is analyzed in light of: (i) the current status of the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma; and (ii) SSTR characteristics that are specifically germane to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites. On this basis, critical SSTR requirements are identified, recommended ways of meeting these critical requirements are advanced and the domain of applicability of SSTR neutron dosimetry at the Hiroshima site is estimated. (author)

  1. Epidemiology of stomach cancer in Nagasaki city, with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological study was conducted to ascertain whether or not the incidence of stomach cancer is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed populations. There were 2894 cases (1152 exposed and 1752 nonexposed) of stomach cancer registered during the ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The incidence of stomach cancer tend to be higher in male of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, and the incidence rate and relative risk showed a dose-dependent relationship, but no significant differences were noted. Comparison of the incidence rate between the earlier and later five years of the period examined revealed an increasing trend of incidence in male younger group (less than 59 years old) of atomic bomb survivors, despite the other groups in exposed and nonexposed population showed a decreasing trend. Analysis of histological type showed that, in female, the cancer of intestinal type (Lauren's type A) was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed people, but not significantly different. Further analysis of histological type of stomach cancer, high dose group and younger age exposed group are necessary. (author)

  2. Investigation for effects of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki. ?-ray measurements by Neher electrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neher electrometer, invented as an equipment to investigate the relationship of cosmic ray and terrestrial magnetism in 1930s, had excellent properties as an equipment to measure ?-ray outdoor and thus was used for measurement of radiation exposure after A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Nagasaki, measurement with this equipment enabled to locate the bombing center where the monument is standing now in the A-bomb Park. Measurement also revealed that the circular earth surface of 2000 m diameter had the induced radioactivity by neutron and that outside the area, the ?-ray intensity was virtually similar to the background level. Ash composing of Pu and other fission products moved over Konpira-san on the west wind, most of which came down with rainfall onto around Nishiyama reservoir. In the A-bomb movies, there is a scene that Neher electrometer was working for ?-ray measurement. (K.H.)

  3. Cross Sections and Source Spectrum for Nagasaki Dose Reconstruction for Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, DB

    2001-09-14

    A new broad-group cross-section library with the DABL69 energy group structure and based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3 data has been created. This new library was prepared using the standard weighting function in the VITAMIN-B6 fine-group cross-section library. The new broad-group library was prepared as a requisite for a project in which various factors in estimated doses to surviving Nagasaki factory workers are being investigated. This report documents the procedure used in creating the new library and provides specifications and limitations of the data which determine the usefulness of the library for problem-specific applications. The published neutron and photon source terms for the Nagasaki calculations have been interpolated to the energy group structure of the new library and are also presented within this report.

  4. Cross Sections and Source Spectrum for Nagasaki Dose Reconstruction for Risk Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new broad-group cross-section library with the DABL69 energy group structure and based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3 data has been created. This new library was prepared using the standard weighting function in the VITAMIN-B6 fine-group cross-section library. The new broad-group library was prepared as a requisite for a project in which various factors in estimated doses to surviving Nagasaki factory workers are being investigated. This report documents the procedure used in creating the new library and provides specifications and limitations of the data which determine the usefulness of the library for problem-specific applications. The published neutron and photon source terms for the Nagasaki calculations have been interpolated to the energy group structure of the new library and are also presented within this report

  5. Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer incidence among Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of thyroid cancer incidence on radiation exposure level is examined with the use of tumor registry follow-up data on a life-span cohort of 98,610 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. The sample includes 112 clinically evident thyroid cancer cases: 62 in Hiroshima and 50 in Nagasaki. A clear, predominantly linear, increase in thyroid cancer incidence corresponds to increasing levels of gamma radiation to the thyroid gland, whereas neutron exposure could not be shown to contribute further to thyroid cancer risk. The relative risk associated with gamma ray exposure is particularly high among persons who were less than 30 years old at the time of radiation exposure. Limitations on the incidence and dosimetry data are discussed, as well as the ability of the Cox regression method to accommodate some of these limitations

  6. Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

  7. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10-4 per gamete per generation. (author)

  8.  Smart Shrinking Sado: Development Strategies in Shrinking Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Rapid urbanisation has resulted in shrinking cities around the world, and Japan is no exception. This thesis endeavours to understand the causes and consequences of, and prospects for, shrinking cities in Japan through a case study: the city of Sado. Sado faces the shrinking city phenomenon following deindustrialisation, deagriculturalisation and Japan‘s structure of high concentration. Within Sado, suburbanisation and peripherization is observed, draining the younger generation from the cent...

  9. The Influence of the Climate Change on Landslide Disasters in Western Japan -Hiroshima's case-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Aditian, Aril

    2015-04-01

    In last year 2014 and 2012, tremendous landslides due to heavy rainfalls occurred in western Japan. Especially in August 2014, serious landslide disasters induced by the extremely heavy rainfall caused over 70 people's death in Hiroshima. Most of them were caused by debris flows from shallow landslides on granite forest slopes on August 20. In Hiroshima, long-term increase in rainfalls was not obvious, while this trend was found in other area such as Kyushu district. However, in western Japan, the influence of climate change emerged in the increase of vapor concentration caused by rising water surface temperature in East China Sea and that brought the extreme rainfall. The landslide (debris flow) disasters in Hiroshima have distinctive characteristics in terms of followings: (1) the source of debris flows (directly flowing down from mostly shallow landslides), (2) their usual equivalent friction coefficient "Mf" i.e. relative travel distance for Granite (values between 0.174 and 0.554). (3) the peculiar meteorological condition of frontogenesis with vapor convergence on the stationary front and around the Pacific high pressure that can generate the heavy precipitation (above 101 mm/hr, total 256 mm). (4) Contrary to Mf values above, they caused heavy disaster at downstream area with the urban development on hillside slopes. We found that the Mf becomes bigger (relatively short travel distance) as the return period of disasters"Tr"becomes shorter as evaluating in the next formula: Mf = 0.278 Tr^(-3.32). If the return period becomes shorter due to climate change (it is possible), Mf may become bigger. However, the cities such as Hiroshima, Kobe or Nagasaki in western Japan which have the urban area at hillside will be more prone to severe debris flow disasters. (5) Also, theoretically, we may have more slope failures and debris flows per area "N/A" if the rainfall increment "dR" increases. The "increasing ratio in N/A" is given by next equation: (N/A)/(N0/A)=((R0 + dR) / R0)^(7.58). N0: landslide or debris flow frequency (event number) before the rainfall increased. Considering "the increasing rate of effective maximum rainfall"in western Japan (in Kyushu: 7.28 mm/day/year), landslide or debris flow frequency may increase at most 6.67 times than present situation, after a decade, in Hiroshima. In this perspective, we should prepare against the sediment related disasters or landslide disasters cautiously, especially in the area such as Hiroshima.

  10. Japan’s Economic Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Kalim Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not have any lon...

  11. Prediction of Land use change in urbanization control districts using neural network - A Case Study of Regional Hub City in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kajita, Yoshitaka; Toi, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Land use is changeable in the urban area, depending upon the economical mechanism of market. The controlled urbanization area is made a region where the urbanization should be controlled by the city planning and zoning act. However, in the zone, there are also many areas where form regulation of the building is looser than the urbanization zone which should form a city area. Therefore disorderly development acts, such as location of the large-scale commercial institution and leisure facilitie...

  12. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive {sup 36}Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for {sup 36}Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima.

  13. Cytogenetic study of A-bomb survivors and their children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome studies were performed on the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors and their children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to evaluate both somatic and genetic effects of A-bomb irradiation. Radiation-induced chromosome exchanges, particularly symmetric types, have persisted in the somatic cells of survivors, and a dose-aberration relationship is present more than two decades after A-bomb exposure. Among the children of the exposed, the frequencies of cases with sex chromosome aneuploidy or structural rearrangements appeared to be slightly higher in the children of the exposed parents than in the controls, though the differences between the two groups of children are not statistically significant

  14. Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

  15. Change of blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors were surveyed from 1973 to 1982. Systolic hypertension tended to decrease, while diastolic hypertension tended to increase in younger male survivors. The incidence of hypertension tended to decrease or be constant. According to the WHO classification of hypertension, the type of H, in which both diastolic and systolic blood pressures were high, and the type of SH, in which only systolic blood pressure was high, tended to decrease, while the type of DH, in which only diastolic blood pressure was high, tended to increase. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  17. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed 137Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m-2, which corresponds to 0.3 - 5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The 137Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukushima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of 137Cs occurred on the soil minerals. (author)

  18. Open Source Introducing Policy and Promotion of Regional Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Tetsuo; Tansho, Terutaka

    2010-01-01

    The development style of open source has a possibility to create new business markets for Regional IT industries. Some local governments are trying to promote their regional IT industries by adopting an open source in their electronic government systems. In this paper, we analyze the data of open source application policy of the Japanese government and case studies of promotion policy of local industries by local governments; for example, Nagasaki Prefecture and Matsue City. And it aims to ex...

  19. Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture. A remote teleradiology and helicopter transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The time required to transport the patients to a specialized hospital can influence the prognosis. In the isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture, there is no medical institution which can offer emergent neurosurgical intervention. We reviewed the cases of HICH in this region from January 2006 to September 2010, who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by a helicopter after consultation via teleradiology. Eighty four cases (23%) were transferred via helicopter to our institution from isolated islands. In three of them (4%), re-hemorrhage was demonstrated on computed tomography after helicopter transportation, and one of three had been administered an anti-coagulant agent. Only one case (1%) has deteriorated during helicopter transportation because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The outcome at discharge was as follows: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) I: 3 cases (4%), II: 5 cases (6%), III: 3 cases (4%), IV: 30 cases (36%), V: 31 cases (37%), VI: 12 cases (14%), 43 cases (51%) showed poor outcome (mRS V, VI). For medical management in isolated islands, a remote teleradiology system is indispensable to decide a strategy of treatment rapidly, and a helicopter transportation system is very useful in cases requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention, particular in cases of impending cerebral herniation or acute hydrocephalus. However, we may need to expand logistical supporting hospitals or secure other transportation facilities because many of the patients with poor outcome can not return to their home islands. (author)

  20. [Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in isolated islands in Nagasaki Prefecture: a remote teleradiology and helicopter transportation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Motokawa, Tetsufumi; Umeno, Tetsuya; Morofuji, Yoichi; Takahata, Hideaki; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Masahiro; Takayama, Hayato

    2011-10-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The time required to transport the patients to a specialized hospital can influence the prognosis. In the isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture, there is no medical institution which can offer emergent neurosurgical intervention. We reviewed the cases of HICH in this region from January 2006 to September 2010, who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by a helicopter after consultation via teleradiology. Eighty four cases (23%) were transferred via helicopter to our institution from isolated islands. In three of them (4%), re-hemorrhage was demonstrated on computed tomography after helicopter transportation, and one of three had been administered an anti-coagulant agent. Only one case (1%) has deteriorated during helicopter transportation because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The outcome at discharge was as follows: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) I: 3 cases (4%), II: 5 cases (6%), III: 3 cases (4%), IV: 30 cases (36%), V: 31 cases (37%), VI: 12 cases (14%), 43 cases (51%) showed poor outcome (mRS V, VI). For medical management in isolated islands, a remote teleradiology system is indispensable to decide a strategy of treatment rapidly, and a helicopter transportation system is very useful in cases requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention, particular in cases of impending cerebral herniation or acute hydrocephalus. However, we may need to expand logistical supporting hospitals or secure other transportation facilities because many of the patients with poor outcome can not return to their home islands. PMID:21972185

  1. Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion contamination for a river passing through an agricultural and urban area in Higashi Hiroshima City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-15

    A study was conducted on the pesticides Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion in Kurose River water, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan for a period of one year to assess the contribution of agriculture and urban activities on pesticide pollution of the river. Samples were analysed by a reverse phase HPLC system. The maximum pesticide concentrations were; 4620 ng/L, 50 ng/L and 370 ng/L for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. While Diuron and Fenitrothion were detected at all sites, Irgarol 1051 was only present at Izumi, a high density urban and industrial area which also registered the highest concentrations of the pesticides. The pattern showed by Diuron and Fenitrothion was linked to farming activities. Also, Diuron and Fenitrothion concentration correlated with pesticide utilization data for Hiroshima Prefecture. Irgarol 1051 showed a different pattern to that of Diuron and Fenitrothion and its source was attributed to paint. It was noted that 78% and 42% of water samples at Izumi sampling site exceeded the European Union (EU) guidelines for Diuron and Fenitrothion, respectively. PMID:25777951

  2. Historical review of radiation research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outline of the history of radiation research in Japan is written in connection with the names of researchers. Yoshio Nishina was a pioneer, who derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering of hard X-ray by free electrons. In 1935, the first nuclear experiment laboratory was constructed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Two cyclotrons, 26 in and 60 in pole face diameter, and a high voltage Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator were installed. Irradiation of insects and plants with fast neutrons was attempted to examine the biological effect. In August, 1945, atomic bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1950, radioisotopes were available. In early March, 1954, Bikini accident occurred. One fishing vessel was contaminated by radioactive fallout, and to investigate the effect of radioactivity, a committee consisted of investigators of physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, fisheries and geophysics was organized. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in June, 1956. Several institutions for the peaceful use of atomic energy were established. The hybrid spark chamber to image the distribution of ?-emitting isotopes on a plane surface was constructed in Nagoya University. As for the national project on food irradiation, one laboratory has played the role in irradiation techniques. Researches on radiation chemistry in universities, governmental and commercial organizations have been progressing steadily, and the machines for nanosecond to picosecond pulse radiolysis are working. (Yamashita, S.)

  3. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  4. Detection and genetic characterization of human enteric viruses in oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks between 2001 and 2012 in Osaka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kaida, Atsushi; Abe, Niichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Sekiguchi, Jun-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Goto, Kaoru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru

    2014-12-01

    Enteric viruses are an important cause of viral food-borne disease. Shellfish, especially oysters, are well recognized as a source of food-borne diseases, and oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks have on occasion become international occurrences. In this study, 286 fecal specimens from 88 oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were examined for the presence of 10 human enteric viruses using antigenic or genetic detection methods in order to determine the prevalence of these infections. All virus-positive patients were over 18 years old. The most common enteric virus in outbreaks (96.6%) and fecal specimens (68.9%) was norovirus (NoV), indicating a high prevalence of NoV infection associated with the consumption of raw or under-cooked oysters. Five other enteric viruses, aichiviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses (EVs), and rotavirus A, were detected in 30.7% of outbreaks. EV strains were characterized into three rare genotypes, coxsackievirus (CV) A1, A19, and EV76. No reports of CVA19 or EV76 have been made since 1981 in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report by the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center, Japan. Their detection suggested that rare types of EVs are circulating in human populations inconspicuously and one of their transmission modes could be the consumption of contaminated oysters. Rapid identification of pathogens is important for the development of means for control and prevention. The results of the present study will be useful to establish an efficient approach for the identification of viral pathogens in oyster-associated gastroenteritis in adults. PMID:24415518

  5. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Jacquelard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  6. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  7. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  8. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

  9. Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  10. Radioactive Cs accumulations in wildlife (some species of birds and mammals). Collected from eastern part of Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive Cs (134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations were measured in various organs and tissues of wild animals (Four species of mammals and 3 species of birds) collected from eastern part of Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture, during 2011 to 2013. Muscular concentrations of radioactive Cs were higher than the other organs and tissues such as liver and kidney. However, the tissues which has important role such as brain and reproductive gland showed comparative concentrations of radioactive Cs. Decreasing trends of radioactive Cs in body of wildlife were observed from in April of 2011 to end of 2013. In the other hand, species inhabiting in forest tended to keep relatively high levels of radioactive Cs. Concentrations of radioactive Cs in great cover of birds were higher than those in other parts of feather such as breast feathers. Clearly high concentrations were observed in vane of feather when comparing with those of shaft. These findings suggest that feather samples of birds are effective parts as indicator of exterior pollution of their habitat and also suggest that air pollution of radioactive Cs still continued during on 2012 and 2013. Relative higher concentrations of radioactive Cs were detected in the body of piglets than those of mother of Japanese wild boar and comparative concentrations were observed in the egg albumen and yolk of spot-billed duck. These were suggested that radioactive Cs can transfer to fetus and eggs from mother's body and pollution may continue through generations. Therefore, the continual monitoring using wildlife is require strongly for evaluation of ecological risks and human health. (author)

  11. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo - Upcoming City of Cyclists Japan is often hit by natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis and heavy rain- and snowfall. Earthquakes often causes break downs in electricity and communication lines and makes public transportation come to a halt. Stations are shut down and passengers stranded. This was the case in many Japanese cities after the fatal earthquake hit the country on March 11th2011. But more and more people are choosing to cycle to work. Should an earthquake hit...

  12. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Masazumi Akahoshi; Saeko Fujiwara; Kei Nakachi; Yoichiro Kusonoki; Thomas Seed; Yoshiaki Kodama; Eiji Nakashima; Naoko Kamada; Sachiyo Funamoto; Yoshimi Tatsukawa; Miles, Edward F.; Kazuo Neriishi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Result...

  13. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  14. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  15. The general investigation on A-bomb sufferers in Nagasaki, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    861 subjects in Nagasaki were studied from April 1977 to June 1977 and from August 1977 to November 1977. The results were compared with those of a 1975 study by the Ministry of Public Welfare. The number of persons requiring detailed examinations in this study was 21.7% higher than that in the Ministry's investigation. There was a correlation between the latest health conditions and the number of persons requiring detailed examinations. Some persons not studied were weak and were already receiving medical treatment. From the data, the rate of abnormality was estimated to be 18.7% or 22.17% (13.7% in the Ministry's investigation). To increase the number of patients undergoing examinations and to improve the quality, examinations at institutions with conveniencies for the physically handicapped and notifing all persons undergoing examinations is desirable, as is promotion of a wide range of examinations for clarifying the relation between disease and exposure to the a-bomb. In the future, health control and detailed explanation of treatment should be carried out. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Twelve cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki (especially seven atomic bombing casualty cases). [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M.; Yasuhi, S.; Ouchuru, S.

    1963-12-01

    Since 1958, there have been 12 cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki, and among them were 7 cases representing atomic bombing casualties, with 3 cases being with 2 km distance from the hypocenter. The age of onset was between 51 and 69 years, and the sex ratio was 8:4, it occurring mostly in males. Symptoms were predominantly low back pain and chest pain caused by the bone changes in 8 cases. Two cases complained of general malaise and palpitation which resulted from anemia. One developed persistent epistaris, and another complained of diplopia caused by the paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. Peripheral blood in all cases showed anemia, 9 with hyperchromic and 3 with normochromic or hypochromic anemia. Low platelet counts were seen in 3 cases. All showed leukopenia. All cases showed typical ..gamma..-globulin change with a myeloma peak, and in 4 cases showed an increase of ..beta..-globulin. Bence-Jones proteinuria was present in 5 cases. Average course was 1 year 4 months. Among complications, myeloma nephrosis, aplastic anemia, and pneumonia were the most important ones.

  17. Reassessment of gamma ray dose estimates from thermoluminescent yields in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-in-air gamma ray doses as a function of distance from the hypocenter were estimated using thermoluminescent (TL) measurements of bricks and ornamental tiles collected from buildings exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In collecting the samples of bricks and tiles, it was confirmed that no fire had broken out in or around the buildings since the bomb or since the original firing of the pottery. The samples were reduced to small pieces by gentle crushing. At the same time unwanted material of grain sizes less than 105 ?m and 210 ?m was sifted out. A magnetic separation technique was applied to remove the unwanted clay matrix material. The TL yields from the samples in the 105 ?m to 210 ?m grain size range were measured with a TL detector. The background dose experienced by the samples comes from radiation emitted by the natural radioactive substances of uranium, thorium, and potassium contained within the brick and tile and from surrounding environmental radiations. The background was measured with a MSO (Mg2SiO4) TL dosimeter. The gamma ray dose from the A-bomb is the difference between the total dose determined by the pre-dose technique and the background dose. Some dosimetric parameters required for the present dose estimation are described. (author)

  18. Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. A study on double cancer of the atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, by autopsy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double cancer was observed in 49 of the 1,998 autopsy cases in Nagasaki Atomic-bomb Memorial Hospital for the past 25 years. It was the most frequent in atomic-bomb exposed groups in their sixties and seventies and in non-exposed group in their fifties and sixties. Males were more common than females with the ratio of 2 to 1 in the non-exposed group, while in exposed groups the ratio was 1 (males) to 2 (females). The frequency of malignant tumors was 3.1% in the non-exposed group, 4.6% in the exposed group over 2 km, and 6.7% in the exposed group within 2 km. Double cancer consisted mostly of epithelial tumors. Gastric cancer was the most frequent in both main and second primary cancer (18 cases). The incidence of latent thyroid cancer and prostatic cancer was also relatively high. Gastric cancer observed in many cases was Borrmann's II or III type. The incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to be high as the histological type of gastric cancer in exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. “Unseeing” Chinese Students in Japan: Understanding Educationally Channelled Migrant Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Coates; Waseda University

    2015-01-01

    Chinese migrants are currently the largest group of non-Japanese nationals living in Japan. This growth is largely the result of educational migration, positioning many Chinese in Japan as student-migrants. Based on 20 months’ ethnographic fieldwork in Ikebukuro, Tokyo’s unofficial Chinatown, this paper explores the ways in which the phenomenology of the city informs the desire for integration amongst young Chinese living in Japan. Discussions of migrant integration and representation often a...

  1. Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the annual health examination records were investigated and classified by cause of death. In males with cancer, there was noted an increased incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and traces of urinary proteins 1 year to 3 years before death. However, the incidence of urinary protein traces was low compared with that in other diseases. In males with cerebral vascular diseases, there was a high incidence of hypertension. Urinary protein traces appeared from 4 years to 5 years before death. In females with cardiovascular diseases including hypertensive diseases and valvular diseases, the incidence of urinary protein traces increased from 4 years to 5 years prior to their death. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was generally high in these cases. In males with liver cirrhosis, urinary urobilinogen amount was generally more than that in other diseases. This tendency also appeared in females with liver cirrhosis 6 years before death. The incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in males with liver cirrhosis, and that of abnormal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in females with liver corrhosis. (Ueda, J.)

  2. Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, H.; Nakamura, T.; Mine, M.; Kondo, H.; Okajima, S. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-11-01

    Changes in the annual health examination records were investigated and classified by cause of death. In males with cancer, there was noted an increased incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and traces of urinary proteins 1 year to 3 years before death. However, the incidence of urinary protein traces was low compared with that in other diseases. In males with cerebral vascular diseases, there was a high incidence of hypertension. Urinary protein traces appeared from 4 years to 5 years before death. In females with cardiovascular diseases including hypertensive diseases and valvular diseases, the incidence of urinary protein traces increased from 4 years to 5 years prior to their death. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was generally high in these cases. In males with liver cirrhosis, urinary urobilinogen amount was generally more than that in other diseases. This tendency also appeared in females with liver cirrhosis 6 years before death. The incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in males with liver cirrhosis, and that of abnormal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in females with liver corrhosis.

  3. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation sickness and subsequent cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an analysis of data obtained from the Life Span Study, a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of a linear dose response between the estimated dose of ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (p 0.2) by the presence of epilation. The results for leukemia were not modified by age or sex and were consistent in both cities. These observations suggest that those individuals who experienced early effects of radiation were more likely to die of leukemia during the follow-up period than individuals who were exposed to the same level of A-bomb radiation but did not develop epilation. The robustness of this finding on the interaction of two difficult but important problems was investigated. These were the validity of a linear dose-response model for leukemia, and the level of assumed precision of the radiation dosimetry system used for assignment of dose estimates to individual survivors. Assuming 35 % random dose errors and a dose-response function cubic in dose, the excess relative risk for leukemia was still estimated to be 1.89 times higher for the group with epilation, and the p-value for a test of association between leukemia and epilation remained significant at the 0.10 level. If 50 % random dosimetry errors are assumed using the same cubic model, the dose response in the epilation group is estimated to be 1.58 times higher than the others, but is not significant (p < 0.3). (author)

  4. Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

  5. Antithrombin III Nagasaki (Ser116-Pro): a heterozygous variant with defective heparin binding associated with thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, K; Abe, H; Maeda, S; Motomura, M; Tsujihata, M; Nagataki, S; Okabe, H; Takatsuki, K

    1993-03-01

    A novel variant of antithrombin III (AT III) that lacks affinity for heparin was found in a 33-year-old man who suffered from recurrent cerebral infarction. The propositus had a history of recurrent ischemic attacks from the age of 28. He was obese and had a smoking habit (30 to 40 cigarettes/day), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a mild glucose intolerance as the possible risk factors for thrombosis. No family history of thromboembolic episodes was observed. Coagulation studies found low heparin cofactor activity (55%) of AT III, with a normal immunoreactive level (109.7%) and progressive antithrombin activity (117%). Other factors capable of predisposing him to hereditary thrombophilia were within normal ranges. Analysis by crossed immunoelectrophoresis in the presence of heparin and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose demonstrated that the propositus' AT III was composed of two populations, one having no affinity for heparin and the other binding heparin normally. Nucleotide sequencing of 7 exons of the propositus' AT III gene using polymerase chain reaction and subcloning disclosed a transition of thymine to cytosine in exon 3a (codon 116) of the AT III gene leading to a Ser116-Pro conversion. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization procedures confirmed the presence of the mutation in the propositus' genomic DNA. Using the same technique, the mutation was also found in his father's genomic DNA, but not in that of his mother. These findings indicate that Ser116 is an important amino acid residue in heparin binding and that the propositus is heterozygous for the abnormality. Furthermore, the fact that the propositus suffered from recurrent cerebral infarction suggested that being heterozygous for a heparin-binding defect would lead to a predisposition to thrombosis when associated with various risk factors. The name AT III Nagasaki is proposed for this variant AT III containing a novel Ser116-Pro mutation. PMID:8443391

  6. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  7. Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

  8. Statement by IAEA Director General on the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: No one who has seen the victims, the film footage or photographs of the aftermath of the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II can fail to be horrified by the devastation that was wrought by the use of nuclear weapons. To date, Hiroshima and Nagasaki thankfully remain the only instances in which nuclear weapons have been used, and while it is difficult to speak of any good coming out of such ruin, it has always been hoped that the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand as constant reminders of why preventing the further use and proliferation of such weapons - and why nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear-weapon-free world - is of utmost importance for the survival of humankind and planet Earth. The International Atomic Energy Agency born out of President Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, came at a time when the horrifying consequences and images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh. Through its safeguards and verification system in support of the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other similar non-proliferation agreements, the IAEA has done a great deal of work to help stem the tide of nuclear proliferation, while ensuring that the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are made available to all those who want them. While the Agency can effectively verify compliance with non-proliferation undertakings, the value of these efforts can be better realized if they are reinforced by all other components of the nuclear non-proliferation and arms control regime, and accompanied by the political will and dialogue among concerned States to address underlying issues of security and confidence building with a view to achieving a system of collective security that no longer relies on nuclear weapons. A world without nuclear weapons remains a far-off goal and the world continues to be burdened with nearly thirty thousand nuclear warheads. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has not entered into force and the negotiation of a global treaty on the verified production ban on fissile material for nuclear weapons has not started. Despite these continuing challenges, there are symbols of hope and indicators of the path to follow - the NPT is almost universal, and nuclear-weapon-free zones cover all of the landmass of the southern hemisphere. We should remain humbled by what we have learned from the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We cannot allow sixty years to soften our memories of how devastating such weapons are. Let us instead ensure that the memories of what happened sixty years ago are once again a catalyst for a new way of thinking. The best protection against nuclear weapons, and the only way to prevent future Hiroshimas and Nagasakis, is to bring about an end to all nuclear weapons. Let us renew today - on the 60th anniversary of the first use of nuclear weapons - the promise to the peoples of the world to spare no effort to work collectively to reduce and eliminate nuclear weapons. (IAEA)

  9. The dawn of surgery in Japan, with special reference to the German society for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    During Japan's period of isolation, Philipp Franz von Siebold came to Nagasaki as a doctor with a Dutch trading company in 1823. He used many kinds of apparatus to examine patients and taught practices such as paracentesis and tumor resection. After the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government elected to establish a medical educational system based on the German system, and to invite two prominent German doctors to teach in 1869. In 1881, Julius Karl Scriba came to Japan as a teacher. He worked at the University of Tokyo for 25 years. He was the clinical coordinator and trained many surgeons who later became leaders in modern Japanese surgery. In 1898, Sankichi Sato and Tsugishige Kondo founded the Japan Surgical Society. The foundation of the Japan Surgical Society and the government's centralization of the University of Tokyo were major milestones, because from then on, graduates of the university led the way in surgery in Japan. The University of Tokyo has since contributed enormously not only to the development of surgery but to the foundation of surgery-related fields. PMID:16633743

  10. Local Public Finance in Japan; Urban Affairs Paper No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Ursula

    The three largest cities in Japan--Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya--are used to examine the financial situation of Japanese urban areas. The 1949 Shoup Mission findings and recommendations are reviewed. Demographic data and information on the administrative and the fiscal organization of Japanese cities during the past three decades are presented. Details…

  11. Relation of radiation of gastric carcinoma obserbed in autopsy cases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between exposure dose and the occurrence of stomach cancer, especially the histological type of the cancer was studied in 535 autopsy cases which has died of stomach cancer from 1961 to 1974 in the Radiation Effect Research Foundation. The incidence of stomach cancer tended to be higher in the group with high exposure dose in Hiroshima, and only in the group with 300 - 399 rads in Nagasaki. The relationship between the incidence of stomach cancer by age at the exposure and the exposure dose was studied by the relative risk (200-499 rads/ 0 rads) of the incidence of stomach cancer by age. The relative risk was 1.56 in the group which had been more than 50 years old at exposure in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The risk of stomach cancer was higher in more aged persons at the exposure. From the aspect of the relationship between histological type of stomach cancer and exposure dose, the incidence of intestinal type or diffuse type tended to be higher in the persons who had much more doses. Because there were small number of cases, there was no statistically significant differences between the incidence of stomach cancer and the exposure dose. (Serizawa, K.)

  12. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  13. Octants and Sextants before the 1860s Preserved in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2012-09-01

    The octant was invented in 1731 independently in the UK and US, and the sextant by John Campbell around 1757. Octants were brought to Japan in the 1770s by ships of the Dutch East India Company. A Dutch booklet manual on octants ``Beschryvinge van het Octant en deszelfs Gebruik" (Description of the octant and its usage) written in 1749 by Cornelis Douwes was translated into Japanese at Nagasaki in the 1780s--90s. This translation triggered serious attention of Japanese astronomers to octants. Because those instruments had no chance to be used in ocean navigation due to the strict seclusion policy forced by the then Shogunal government, the Japanese instead devised methods to use octants and sextants for land surveying. Sextants specially designed for the ground measurements were made, and even precursor instruments of the modern range finder were also produced. In this paper we report results of our recent survey investigation of octants and sextants preserved in Japan, which were imported or home-made before the 1860s. About ten objects were identified. We describe their characteristics in terms of originality and influence from overseas products. We also plan to report on accurate measurements of some of domestic products of the 19th century using a modern standard scale, in an attempt to infer how the Japanese artisans at that time could inscribe the graduation without such as a Ramsden's dividing machine.

  14. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  15. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  16. Neurological deficit among the survivors exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A reassessment and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive epidemiological and experimental literature records the deleterious effects on the embryonic and fetal central nervous system of exposure to ionizing radiation; much of the human evidence stems from studies of the in utero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (orig./MG)

  17. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  18. Teacher Belief, Teacher Action: Connecting Research and the Classroom. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning and Educational Materials Expo (25th, Maebashi City, Japan, October 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David, Ed.; Robbins, Jill, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

    Forty papers presented at the Japanese Association for Language Teaching (JALT) conference were selected for inclusion in this volume. JALT is a nonprofit professional organization of language teachers dedicated to the improvement of language learning and teaching in Japan. JALT's publications and events serve as vehicles for the exchange of new…

  19. Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in a fixed population, Hiroshima and nagasaki 1961 - 74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

  20. Energy security for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security for Japan is expounded about the current state of energy utilization in Japan, world energy situation and the position of Japan, the thought for the energy security in Japan, the basic direction of the energy security policy of Japan, and the role of nuclear power for energy security. The problem is tackled in long and short term viewpoints. As the long term viewpoint, conditions must be set to rectify the world unbalanced energy supply situation by finding the new means of energy supply, and as the short term viewpoint, measures must be taken to prevent energy crisis circumstances. Accordingly, Japan should promote the energy security policy based on nuclear power development and coal utilization. The development of energy resources is to be promoted centering on nuclear power, at the same time extending technological aid to developing countries. Internationally, the effort of nuclear safeguards must be strengthened. (J.P.N.)

  1. Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

  2. Depleted uranium in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, depleted uranium ammunition is regarded as nuclear weapons and meets with fierce opposition. The fact that US Marines mistakenly fired bullets containing depleted uranium on an island off Okinawa during training exercises in December 1995 and January 1996, also contributes. The overall situation in this area in Japan is outlined. (P.A.)

  3. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors, report 7. Part III. incidence of cancer in 1959-1978, based on the tumor registry, Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of malignant tumors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry was investigated for the period 1959-1978. (1) No bias in exposure status in data collection was revealed. Neither method of diagnosis nor reporting hospitals nor the frequency of doubtful cases differ by exposure dose. (2) The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancers of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancers of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, no increase is seen for cancer of the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, uterus, ovary, or salivary gland or for malignant lymphoma. (3) In general, the relative risks based on incidence, that is, on the tumor registry data, are either the same or somewhat higher than those based on mortality in the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates [excess cancer per 10(6) Person Year Rad (PYR)] are far higher. (4) Since A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki consisted essentially of gamma rays, the present report provides a good opportunity to examine the shape of the dose-response curve for gamma exposures. Unfortunately, statistically one cannot actually distinguish one model from another among a simple linear, a quadratic, or a linear quadratic response. Further data are obviously necessary

  4. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  5. Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

  6. Energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the seventies, Japan could reduce its general dependence on imports of crude oil for the entire power supply in the country. Simultaneously, Japan could diversify the imports of energy from the Middle East to a certain extent and concerning to new sources of energy. The regional dependence on imported resources of energy was regionally concentrated to a substantial extent. Important changes of the regional dependence of imports were observed in certain periods of time. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the energy policy of Japan. Especially, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Challenges in the 21st century concerning to the national energy security; (b) Uncertainties with the future nuclear energy option and the regional distrust into of Japan civilian nuclear activities; (c) Japan's oil diplomacy and gas diplomacy. Despite the decrease of the dependence on crude oil by diversification into other sources of energy, the energy security of Japan is still threatened. So the dependence on imports of crude oil from the Middle East is still raised and could rise between the years 2010 and 2020. However, the greatest uncertainties exist in connection with the future of the own nuclear industry. Over the medium-term, Japan depends on the development of the nuclear energy if a stable power supply should be ensured

  7. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  8. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

  9. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

  10. Methodology of detecting internal radiation on paraffin embedded materials of Nagasaki atomic bomb casualties and DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose to establish a methodology in the title, expression of 53BP1, a tumor suppressing p53 related-DNA checkpoint protein, was examined in paraffin embedded specimens of the liver and spleen of a thorotrast (T) patient, 7 Nagasaki A-bomb exposed casualties and 2 non-exposed subjects. The 53BP1 protein was detected by immuno-fluorescent staining. Focal 53BP1 was seen in cells around T granules in liver, epithelium of bile duct and spleen of the patient. It was also observed in cells of liver and bile duct epithelium of casualties and the expression was particularly high in those outdoor-exposed at 0.5 km distance from the hypocenter and with shortest surviving period. 53BP1 foci were reported to be the indicator of genome instability in A-bomb casualties. The foci were found to be formed by T in this study, suggesting that DNA double strand had been broken by internal radiation exposure and its repair mechanism had been operated. Thus 53BP1 can be an indicator of internal exposure. (T.T.)

  11. Space communications in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  12. State of research and perspective on adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a review article entitled ''Physical Benefits from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,'' published in Health Physics in December of 1982, Professor T.D. Luckey of the University of Missouri, asserted the ''radiation hormesis'' with 200 references. This resulted in the first International Symposium on Radiation Hormesis in Oakland, California (August 1985). CRIEPI consulted many specialists about Luckey's paper and studied many other papers such as Lorenz, 1954; Luckey, 1980, Liu et al., 1985. Radiation hormesis research in Japan has been based on the rationale that if Luckey's claim were to be true, radiation management in Japan has been extremely erroneous. CRIEPI organized a Hormesis Research Steering Committee composed of leading specialists in the field concerned, and began research in cooperation with a number of universities, as well as the National Cancer Research Institute, and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After obtaining interesting results in various experiments on the health effects of exposure to low doses of radiation, we have proceeded on an expanded program, which involves fourteen universities and two research institutes throughout Japan. The interesting results we obtained can be categorized in five groups. 1. Enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes and suppression of cancer, 2. Radio-adaptive response relating to the activation of DNA repair and adoptosis, 3. Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 4. Radiation effect on neuro-transmitting system through increase of key enzymes, 5. Others, including the therapy of adult-disease such as diabetes and hypertension. We are now carrying out experimental activities on the effects of low-dose radiation on mammals. After several years of research activities, we are recognizing Luckey's claim. Some basic surveys including Hiroshima Nagasaki and animal experiments in Japan have brought us valuable informations on the health effects of low-dose radiation. The followings are some topical research informations obtained across Japan. (author)

  13. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worth, R.M.; Kato, H.; Rhoads, G.G.; Kagan, A.; Syme, S.L.

    1974-01-01

    Stroke, coronary heart desease (CHD), and total mortality are evaluated from death certificates in enumerated cohorts of 45 to 64 year-old Japanese men in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1965--1970), in Honolulu (1966--1970), and in the San Francisco area (1968--1972). Total mortality is highest in Japan with no consistent differences between Japanese Americans in Honolulu and San Francisco. Age-specific CHD death rates are markedly lower in all three Japanese groups than in American whites. The CHD rates are consistently and significantly lower in Japan than in American Japanese. Stroke death rates for American Japanese men appear equivalent to figures for U.S. white men of the same age, but are significantly lower than in the Japan cohort for the 60 to 64 year old group. The number of stroke deaths below that age are too few as yet for analysis. Validation of mortality ascertainment and of the accuracy of death certification has been carried out in Japan and in Hawaii. The international differences in mortality do not appear to be entirely due to certification or other methodologic artifact. (auth)

  14. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did not differ between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women under 10 years of age at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any time during the first four decades of life, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. An unresolved question is whether breast cancer risk is increased by radiation exposure at ages older than 40

  15. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

  16. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  17. Japan’s energy security predicament post-Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If energy security is defined as the availability of energy at all times in various forms, in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices, without unacceptable or irreversible impact on the economy and the environment, Japan is facing an energy security predicament. For a country that was already uneasy about energy security, the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which caused a nuclear catastrophe in TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, turned this unease into outright anxiety. With the temporary and/or permanent closure of many nuclear reactors Japan has had to replace lost power. Tokyo has had no choice but to secure additional fossil fuels, a strategy that has negatively affected Japan’s economy due to rising fuel costs. The increase in Japan’s fossil fuel consumption has also caused a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions, and affected Tokyo’s commitment to Kyoto targets. This paper analyzes the consequences of the 2011 nuclear disaster for Japan’s energy security. Recognizing that Japan’s future energy policy choices are constrained and path dependent, the paper outlines energy policy recommendations for Japan’s government. - Highlights: ? Analysis of Japan’s energy security situation post-Fukushima. ? Energy transition is path dependant and slow. ? Government is facing significant challenges in terms of future energy policy.

  18. Association between mortality and residual radiation in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors exposed at long-distance from the hypocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at 3 km or longer distance from the hypocenter was compared with that of those who were additionally exposed to residual radiation because of their entrance in the area at 1 km or closer to the center within 24 hr post explosion. The latter survivors (group I), 2,357 men with average age of 28.4 y and 2,618 women of 26.5 y at the exposure, were alive at 1970, and the former (group II, without exposure to residual radiation) was selected to match their numbers in sex, exposed distance, ages at exposure and at start of the follow-up study to those of group I. Follow-up was conducted from 1970 to 2007, and their total, malignant, cerebrovascular, cardiac and pneumonic deaths were observed. Cox proportional hazard model was used for estimation of mortality risk with covariates of sex and age at start of the study. The risk in group II was defined to be standard. Ages at start of the study were 53.3 and 51.4 y in men and women, respectively. Crude mortality tended to be higher in men of group I at ages of 40-49 and 50-59 y at start of the study. Hazard ratios of total and malignant tumor deaths in group I were 0.965 and 1.092, respectively, without statistic significance from group II and of other deaths, 0.982-0.999, also of statistic insignificance. Thus increased mortality due to residual radiation was not observed. (T.T.)

  19. Measurements of europium-152 depth profile of stone embankments exposed the Nagasaki atomic bomb for neutron spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative measurement of neutron-induced radionuclide of 152Eu in rocks near the hypocenter (ground center of the atomic bomb explosion) in Nagasaki was performed to obtain the depth profiles and calculate the neutron energy spectrum. Core samples were drilled and taken from the stone embankments on both sides of river within a radius of 500 m from the hypocenter. After cutting each core into about 27 mm-thick sections, each section was measured its gamma-ray spectrum with a pure germanium semiconductor detector and analyzed a content of natural europium by the activation method. The highest value 8.0 x 10-2 Bq/?g of 152Eu at the time of the blast was obtained from the surface plates of rock cores collected near the hypocenter. The surface activity of cores was reduced with increasing the slant distances from the hypocenter. The slopes of the depth profiles were similar among samples taken from the same location. In order to analyze the depth profile of 152Eu activity in rock andesite, experiments using a fast neutron reactor and thermal neutron reactor were carried out. Comparing the measurements on the A-bomb exposure rock with the simulated results at the reactors, among the experiments, the depth profile using the neutron moderator of 10 mm polyethylene was closed to that obtained from the A-bomb exposed samples. The experiment of thermal neutron incidence only could not reproduce the profiles from the A-bomb exposed samples. This fact indicates that the depth profiles of 152Eu in rock exposed to the A-bomb include valuable information concerning the neutron spectrum and intensity. (author)

  20. Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

  1. Japan's advanced medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform. PMID:24241175

  2. Japan's nuclear juggernaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of nuclear energy in Japan is presented. Nuclear energy provides 17% of Japan's electricity but could provide much more. 25 more reactors (to add to the existing 27) are planned by 1995. The cooperation between Japanese government and industry and the economic assistance in building new plants means that these are not likely to be cancelled. Public acceptance of new plants has often been obtained by large cash employment inducements. Now, however, there is growing disillusionment when short-term well paid employment building the reactors is followed by unemployment when the reactor is in operation. Also there is a growing opposition to the storage of the nuclear waste. To maintain the growth of its nuclear industry Japan needs to export to provide a steady flow of big orders. (U.K.)

  3. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi,Hirokuni

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  4. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry-Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible radiation exposures to beta particles and to determine their significance plus the extent of the various residual radiation areas at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other suggestions for future residual radiation studies are included in this workshop report. PMID:26509626

  5. Japan attempts energy autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a programme for the construction of nuclear power plants, Japan intends to reduce its dependence on fuel imports, especially petroleum imports. However, even if 10% of the energy demand were met by nuclear power (1980), at least 60% must be met by imported oil and coal. Japan does not have domestic uranium reserves; for this reason, fast breeder development and a special fuel cycle technology are particularly important. The most important strategy on the nuclear sector will be the change from LWR reactors and advanced thermal reactors to fast breeder reactors. Research has been going on in this field for more than 10 years new. (orig.)

  6. FY 1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Thermal environment of cities I; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Toshi no netsu kankyo 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, K. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    In D-40, a study was made of the effect of the outdoor thermal environment around house on the cooling use energy consumption amount. It was reported that in the hill area for survey, the more marked decrease in energy consumption was recognized than in the city area next to the hill area. In D-41, taking an advantage of the high density residence area, a proposal was made of a model of the environmental load reduction type high density residence area which minimizes the fault of the high density residence area. There was a question-and-answer session about objects of the model, and there was an opinion that there may be another proposal of making use of the present situation even in the existing high density area of wooden houses of no more than two stories. D-42 and 43 described especially the result of the study of the difference in the thermal environment relaxation effect between the grassy land and trees using the three-dimensional tree model. In the case of displaying trees, however, the thermal environment changed for the worse by the decreased wind velocity and increased humidity. It was pointed out that it is necessary to study the appropriate density and the display. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Japan and Zhongdong Railway Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    It has been for quite some time the conspiracy that Japan invaded China and seized the Northeast. In the process of its implementation of the conspiracy, there had a vehement interest conflict between Japan and Soviet Russia. After the Japan-Russia War, Northeast China became a sphere of influence between Russia and Japan, but they fought against each other continually for Zhongdong Railway issue. After the September 18 Incident, situation of Zhongdong Railway was in depression, together with...

  8. Overview of recent trans-institutional health network projects in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhr, Maren; Haux, Reinhold; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide populations are aging and countries have to prepare for the effects of demographic change in health care. Health information exchange (HIE), which is the process of moving patient information across health care providers electronically, can help overcome health data fragmentation and open opportunities to improve patient care in terms of quality, economy and efficiency. Since Japan and Germany are among the first countries strongly impacted by demographic changes of aging populations, we report on current developments about health information systems carrying out HIE based on case studies in both countries. Four projects that address the improvement of HIE within a defined region have been selected and investigated: the German project of the Lower Saxony Bank of Health and the Japanese projects Chiba ITnet, Nagasaki AjisaiNet and the National Disaster and Backup System of Japan. The project descriptions are based on relevant English publications, on-site visits and interviews with developers and users. The projects are introduced in terms of their basic architecture and implementation, their present status and future objectives. The projects' developments are still in progress and all have to cope with significant challenges before they will be able to provide a fully working trans-institutional health network solution. PMID:25732082

  9. Fusion research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fusion power to Japan is perhaps the greatest among nations of the world. The scarcity of other energy resources such as oil, coal, and even solar energy (as the land is small) makes it almost imperative to depend on nuclear power for her primary energy need in the future. A high population density means that the radiation hazard problems are very much greater than in other nations such as the USA. Earthquakes and unstable geological features pose a rather difficult problem in storing radioactive wastes which tend to be produced more from ordinary fission reactors, including breeders, rather than from fusion reactors, if the latter are practicable. Japan has two research groups actively engaged in fusion research, one is under the direction of Japan Atomic Energy Commission, and the other is under the direction of Ministry of Education. Work covers both reactor core plasmas and reactor technology. Japan is presently making a five-year plan to do scientific feasibility experiments in the scale comparable to the so-called D-T burner (USA) or JET

  10. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  11. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  12. Japan's "Cram Schools."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Larry

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, after-school schools prepare students for admittance to "right" colleges. Japanese families spend about $240/month per child for supplementary instruction five days a week and half-days on Sunday. Cram-school teacher salaries range from abysmal to over $400,000 a year. Only few universities are considered first-rate by employers, who are…

  13. National Astronomical Observatory, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) was founded in 1988, integrating the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, the International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and the solar radio group of the Research Institute of Atmospherics, Nagoya University. It is an inter-university research institute for astronomy under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Educatio...

  14. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansman, Grant S.; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

  15. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  16. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  17. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

  18. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

  19. ADS National Programmes: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the research and development (R&D) activities on partitioning and transmutation (P&T) technology had been promoted under the OMEGA programme since 1988. The main institutes involved in these activities were the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Among these institutes, JAERI had mainly conducted the R&D on ADS. In 1999 and 2000, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan implemented the check and review (C&R) on the P&T technology, and the ADS was considered as one of candidates for transmutation systems together with fast reactors. In 2005, JAERI and JNC were merged and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established. In JAEA, the R&D activities on both ADS and fast reactors have been continued. In August, 2008, the AEC of Japan launched the Technical Subcommittee on P&T Technology under the Advisory Committee on R&D, and conducted the discussion about the current state of the art concerning P&T technology in Japan and the future R&D programme. The Subcommittee issued the final report in April, 2009. The final report covered the impact of the P&T technology, the state of the art of the technology, evaluation on the progress of the R&D, and the recommendations of the future R&D. As the basic policy on the P&T technology, the report stated that the R&D should not aim at only the improvement of the P&T performance, but at the achievement of the requirements for whole performance of nuclear power generation. This means that the performance of the Double strata fuel cycle concept should be evaluated from viewpoints of safety, economy, environmental friendliness, saving resource, and non-proliferation of the first stratum as well as those of the second stratum. The Double strata concept, therefore, should be studied as a part of the whole nuclear system both in the transient phase of LWR to FBR and the equilibrium state of FBR. R&D of FBR and ADS should be coordinated strongly and their periodic evaluation was required. Regarding the ADS, the report appreciated the significant progress in the design study, accelerator development, LBE technology including a spallation target, etc. It was, however, pointed out that the ADS was still in the fundamental stage as a whole and that further accumulation of basic data was necessary to step up to the next stage to verify the engineering feasibility

  20. King City

    OpenAIRE

    Stålhandske, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    King City is a new citycenter in the expanding Kungens Kurva area in the southern part of Stockholm that combines shopping, service, dwellings and workplaces into a coherent urban environment. The project deals with the expanding city of Stockholm, where areas that before where seen as external, now form the basis of a polycentric city where the divide between innercity and suburbia is disolving.The Kungens Kurva area is today the result of “laissez-faire” planing principles that have allowed...

  1. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correl...

  2. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / ?Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / ?Dn--96.5 / ?Dn. (author)

  3. Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

  4. Spent fuel management strategy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has consistently based its policy on its nuclear fuel cycle option with only peaceful purposes, in order to ensure a stable and reliable energy supply and to minimize environmental loads. Since the start of operation of the first commercial nuclear power plant in 1966, nuclear power generation in Japan has steadily increased. At present, 52 commercial nuclear power plants are in operation. Nearly 1,000 tU of spent fuel is discharged annually by these plants. JNFL is constructing the RRP, planned to be commissioned in July 2005. The reprocessing capacity is 800 tU/year. Therefore, more than 200 tU of surplus spent fuel will accumulate every year. Building up the interim storage capability outside of nuclear plant sites is now a focal point for the flexible, practical, and safe management of the surplus amount of spent fuel predicted to arise over the next several decades. In February 1997, a Cabinet decision on 'Policy to Promote Nuclear Fuel Cycle' was made and the need to build more AFR interim storage capacity was acknowledged. A law concerning interim storage was enacted in 1999. Thus, the spent fuel storage business has legally become possible in Japan. Since then, the utilities have been endeavouring to site ARF storage facilities, with the goal of commencing operation around 2010. TEPCO is now preparing for the first AFR in Japan, Mutsu Recycle Fuel Storage Center, located at Sekinehama in Mutsu City. In April 2003, TEPCO released a report on the site feasibility investigation, which verified the suitability of the site for the AFR storage facility and also announced the framework of this project. (author)

  5. Fires in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Until recently Japanese cities were constantly afflicted with fires. Alan Mafarlane explains some of the causes and consequences of these fires against the background of an old preserved building in Osaka.

  6. Cogeneration in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of providing a basis for comparison of Italian efforts in the promotion, on a national scale through incentives incorporated in the National Energy Plan, of the use of cogeneration systems, this paper reports the results of a survey conducted by the Cogeneration Research Society of Japan to determine the extent of cogeneration usage in Japan. Overall, the survey indicated 800 and 120 MW installed cogenerated electric power in the industrial and civil sectors respectively, with a numerical predominance in the use of diesel engine units (over a hundred at 3,500 kW each) and a significant use of gas turbines (over 40 units at about 9 MW each) in the industrial sector. The survey findings evidenced a tendency to decentralize the use of this form of energy production over the national territory. The paper also reports on the promotional and research activities of the Society

  7. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  8. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling. PMID:26394523

  9. Disability Evaluation in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    To examine the current state and social ramifications of disability evaluation in Japan, public data from Annual Reports on Health and Welfare 1998-1999 were investigated. All data were analyzed based on the classification of disabilities and the effects of age-appropriate welfare services, which have been developed through a half-century of legislative efforts to support disability evaluation. These data suggest that disability evaluation, while essentially affected by age and impairment fac...

  10. Japan's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that more than any other industrial country, Japan is staking its industrial future on nuclear power. Its 39 commercial reactors generate more than 31,000 megawatts of electricity-supplying more than a quarter of Japan's electricity. By early in the next century, reactors now planned or under construction will bring that figure to near 45,000 megawatts, and half of Japan's electricity will have nuclear origin. These reactors perform as reliably as any in the world: since 1982 Japanese nuclear plants have, on average, operated at above 70 percent of their maximum capacity. Such success with nuclear power is hardly surprising for a technologically advanced country that has virtually no domestic coal or oil. Nuclear power has been Japan's ticket to energy independence. But these glowing statistics may be obscured by a growing cloud. Not only have recent accidents marred a previously excellent safety record and diminished public confidence, but the Japanese nuclear program's guiding vision-the establishment of an indigenous nuclear power supply using breeder reactors and recycled plutonium fuel-is threatened. Many countries -including the United States-made breeders a key part of their nuclear energy strategy in the early 1970s. But most nations have scaled back their breeder plans, for two reasons. First, the fuel they breed in plutonium, which can be directly used to make a nuclear bomb. Second, the economics that once made breeders seem a prudent energy strategy have changed dramatically. With uranium supplies ample and demand slack, the material's cost has dropped and its availability risen; meanwhile, the cost of extracting plutonium from spent fuel has skyrocketed

  11. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  12. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. ?????????????????? Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japanese education by using moral education as a case. Moral education, known as sh?shin before World War II, has been prominent in Japanese education since its formalization in Meiji times. From Meiji on shû...

  13. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan. Current issues with historical review and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, 131I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of ''radiophobia ''. There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. (author)

  14. Japan’s Supreme Court Discourse and Lifetime Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Sato, Toyoko

    2012-01-01

    Our study explores cultural cognition in comparative U.S. – Japan employment relations through interdisciplinary analysis of Japanese Supreme Court regulation of the post-World War II lifetime employment system and the latest data available on Japan's collective bargaining-based approach to employee participation in managerial prerogative. The comparative social policy aim is to examine and account for observed employment relations variance in the U.S. and Japan, given their similar labor legisl...

  15. Japan’s foreign aid sanctions policy toward African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward African countries since new guidelines for Japanese ODA were introduced. There were three cases of positive reinforcement in Africa, i.e. in Madagascar, Zambia) and Guinea. Also, the Japanese government implemented nine negative reinforcements in the region, i.e. in Kenya, Zaire, Malawi, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Togo, Nigeria and Gambia. Although Japan applied positive reinforcement and provided additional foreign aid to assist the p...

  16. Future-Proofing Japan’s Interests in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    In May 2013 the Arctic states convened in Kiruna, Sweden, in part to decide on whether six new states should be admitted as observers to the Arctic Council. Japan’s application was accepted along with those of China,India, Italy, Singapore, and South Korea. At a glance, one might ask what credentials Japan has to be involved in the leading Arctic forum. However, a closer look at its engagement in the Arctic indicates that Japan has genuine interests in political, economic, and environmental deve...

  17. Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Shiba; Hiroaki Shimokawa

    2008-01-01

    Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the preval...

  18. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.

    2007-01-01

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships.

  19. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  20. Whether Increases in Ambulance Transports is Stratified by Heat Stroke in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan in 2011?

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Miyatake; Noriko Sakano; Shoko Murakami; Tomohiro Hirao

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the link between heat stroke and high air temperature from July to September in 2010 in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. Daily data of ambulance transports stratified by heat stroke and the highest air temperature were obtained. Heat stroke was significantly correlated with the highest temperature. The 9.0 magnitude earthquake and following tsunami on March 11, 2011, destroyed many cities in the northwestern part of Japan. Taken together, heat stroke may dramatically increase in F...

  1. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urb...

  2. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  3. Japan country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production (Under construction): BWR: 1 unit, PWR: 1 unit. - Electricity production (Preparing for construction): BWR: 9 units, PWR: 2 units. - Research: FBR: 1 unit. Nuclear waste management: NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established as the implementing organization for a high-level waste disposal project in October 2000. Operations are slated to start in the 2030's. NUMO will select the site through the following three-step process. 1- Selection of preliminary investigation areas by documentary studies; 2- Selection of areas for detailed investigation by borehole programs, etc.; 3- Selection of the site for repository construction by test programs in underground exploration facilities. NUMO is recruiting voluntary candidates for documentary studies. Some municipalities have interested in the project, however, they have not let NUMO to do documentary studies. The mayor of the town of Toyo in Kochi prefecture applied for a documentary study in January 2007. It was the first application in Japan, and NUMO was authorized to implement a documentary study there by the national government in March 2007. But NUMO withdrew its application in April 2007 because of opposition from prefecture governors, stakeholders and general public in the town. To improve this situation, the government strengthened its efforts to start documentary studies. For example, they changed the rule so that the government could propose some suitable towns as candidates for documentary studies, in addition to accepting voluntary applications. Other nuclear activities: Implementation of a new inspection system (after FY 2008) instead of the current uniform inspection, change to a plant-by-plant approach. Inspection also during operation. Analyzing the root causes of abnormal occurrences and accidents. This new system improves not only measures against aging facilities but also the reliability of inspection activities by individual plants and the quality of work by equalizing the volume of work. Nuclear competencies (Needs, education and training): It's serious subject how the Japanese nuclear industries m

  4. Gems of Japanized English

    CERN Document Server

    Kenrick, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as "a Specialist in the Decease of Children"; eggs were sold as "extract of fowl" ; and a notice advised that "Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water. " Fortunately, things are improving, but very slowly. A m

  5. Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Shiba

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the prevalence and mortality of CHF used to be relatively low in Japan, the disorder has been markedly increasing due to the rapid aging of the society and the Westernization of lifestyle that facilitates the development of coronary artery disease. The Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART-1 study was one of the largest cohorts in Japan. The study has clarified the characteristics and prognosis of Japanese patients with CHF, demonstrating that their prognosis was similarly poor compared with those in Western countries. However, we still need evidence for the prevention and treatment of CHF based on the large cohort studies or randomized treatment trials in the Japanese population. Since the strategy for CHF management is now changing from treatment to prevention, a larger-size prospective cohort, called the CHART-2 study, has been initiated to evaluate the risk factors of CHF in Japan. This review summarizes the current status of CHF studies in Japan and discusses their future perspectives.Keywords: heart failure, aging, Japanese

  6. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  7. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  8. Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

  9. Role of Nuclear Energy in Japan Post–Fukushima : Alternatives and their Impact on Japan’s GHG Emission Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi, Zarrar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, “Role of Nuclear Energy in Japan Post – Fukushima: Alternatives and their Impact onJapan’s GHG Emission Targets”, is to emphasize that Japan’s expected new energy policy must be in accordancewith its existing environmental targets with regards to GHG emissions. The main research question is how Japan cancontinue to meet its emissions targets in the aftermath of the Fukushima crisis, where public opinion—gaugedthrough newspaper articles—in Japan has now become outrig...

  10. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  11. Food Irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, “kamaboko” (fish-paste products), “Vienna” sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given “unconditional acceptance” for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  12. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  13. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  14. Two Human Cases Infected by the Horsehair Worm, Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae), in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Abe, Niichiro; Urabe, Misako

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to describe 2 human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp., in Japan. Two gordiid worms were collected in the vomit and excreta of an 80-year-old woman in November 2009 in Kyoto city, and in the mouth of 1-year-old boy in December 2009 in Nara city, Japan, respectively. Both worms were males having bifurcated posterior ends and male gonads in cross sectional specimens. They were identified as Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) based ...

  15. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  16. Nuclear nonproliferation and Japan's stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is now forced to adapt toward the international fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE); there is some fear in this connection whether Japan's stand is definitely expressed. It has been examined how the current nuclear nonproliferation arguments influence the research and development of nuclear power in Japan by interviewing those people engaged in the filed. In this way, the points to be chosen by Japan were to be indicated. That is, investigation was made on the effects of nuclear nonproliferation propositions upon the fuel supply efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. As the result, it was found that multi-national management and international centers would be greatly inhibitive to fuel supply. The above matters are expounded, as follows: policy of the United States, stand of non-nuclear power nations, stand of Japan, problems around fuel reprocessing (No. 1 and 2 reprocessing plants, safeguards and multi-national management), and uranium enrichment. (Mori, K.)

  17. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  18. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".

  19. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  20. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

  1. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  2. Japan: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is a developed country in the Asian region with very little or no population below the poverty line. The food intake pattern of the Japanese population is believed to be quite uniform and hence it was possible to use duplicate diets to study dietary intakes of trace elements by country's adult population. Duplicate diet samples were collected from nine different regions spread over the entire country considering the comparatively homogeneous socio-economic status of the Japanese population. These samples covered diets consumed on three consecutive days from nine subjects in the age range of 20-50 a. In addition, food materials were also collected to develop the Typical Japanese Diet RM (see section 6 on QA/QC)

  3. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  4. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  5. Group cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi A; Watanabe N; Nakano Y; Ogawa S; Suzuki M; Kondo M; Furukawa TA; Akechi T

    2013-01-01

    Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Norio Watanabe,1 Yumi Nakano,2 Sei Ogawa,1 Masako Suzuki,1 Masaki Kondo,1 Toshi A Furukawa,3 Tatsuo Akechi11Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Sugiyama Jogakuen University School of Human Sciences, Nisshin, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Social anxiety dis...

  6. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  7. Transboundary secondary organic aerosol in western Japan: An observed limitation of the f44 oxidation indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irei, Satoshi; Takami, Akinori; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-11-01

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long-range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (?13C) of low-volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental-analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for ?13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the estimated photochemical age by the NOx/NOy ratio revealed that the random distribution of f44 values near 0.2 is likely an indication of saturation already. Such f44 values were significantly lower than the observed f44 (?0.3) at Hedo in the previous study. These findings imply that the saturation point of f44, and the use of f44 as an oxidation indicator, is case dependent.

  8. History of R and D on environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for tokai reprocessing facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's basic policy of utilization of atomic energy is strongly limited only for the peaceful use under the statutory control, reflecting the catastrophic experience of twice atomic bomb detonation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. To attain a sustainable prosperous happy life of people, the energy resource is one of indispensable factor which ranks with foods and environment. Japan has started peaceful atomic energy development program since 1955, the program contained power reactor, uranium exploration, plutonium utilization including reprocessing of spent fuel and MOX fuel and so on. Tokai Reprocessing plant for spent fuel was constructed from 1970 and has been operated since 1977. At the start of the operation, to protect the vicinity people and the environment from radiation hazard which might be occurred by the discharged radioactivity from the plant a total environmental monitoring program was set by the implementing organization. Prior to the operation, environmental monitoring technique had to be developed. This presentation will introduce the history of R and D on low level environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for Tokai Reprocessing Facility in Japan. (authors)

  9. The Japan’s Award for PPIM UIN Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Thaha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PPIM UIN Jakarta acted as an advisor for the Visiting Program for Pesantren Leaders held by the government of Japan. PPIM UIN Jakarta has a network with many pesantrens in Indonesia. Since 2002, PPIM is deliberately asked by the government of Japan's to select about 12 to15 kyais, nyais, religious teacher (ustad from various modern, traditional, and salafi pesantrens in Indonesia to be sent to Japan. Until now, at least there are 90 kyais, nyais, and religious leaders who have been participated in the program. This year, PPIM recommends 17 names of pesantren leaders and religious teachers to the Embassy of Japan in Jakarta to be selected to participate in the program.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v18i3.431

  10. Japan?s Financial Markets: The Lost Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Reszat, Beate

    2003-01-01

    Recent debates about the state of Japan's financial system focus on the weakness of Japanese banks. But, in the complex financial relations of an advanced economy bank finance cannot be seen separate from other forms of financial intermediation. Despite the reform efforts under the Big Bang program, financial markets in Japan show severe signs of malfunctioning, distortion and backwardness. The paper gives an overview of the current state of markets for money, bonds, equities and derivatives ...

  11. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    2013-01-01

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But what is it that is driving these urban transformations? Clearly, there are many probable answers to this complex question and in what follows we will focus on one particular catalyst of change – urban de...

  12. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highli...

  13. Decision-making tools and procedures for City Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Muñuzuri, Jesus; Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Urban logistics research set off in Europe some fifteen years ago, supported by the funding efforts of the European Commission. The special morphology of European cities, with narrow streets and historical centres which had to be preserved in many cases as world heritage sites, contributed to this interest. However, the problems of urban deliveries also had to be faced in other lively and congested cities around the globe, from Japan to America or Australia. Therefore, several researchers and...

  14. Nuclear fission industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the nuclear fission industry in Japan is described. Japanese nuclear policy, vision, goals, and supporting organizational structures are reviewed. The facilities of the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel development Corporation (PNC), and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) are illustrated and described. Nuclear power statistics and power generation costs by power source are shown for Japan. Photographic details and technical descriptions are presented for Japan's: nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), light water reactor (LWR), advanced thermal reactor (ATR), fast breeder reactor (FBR), gas centrifuge uranium enrichment, LWR spent fuel reprocessing, ATR and FBR spent fuel uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel (MOX) co-conversion process, high level nuclear waste management (NWM) policy, reactor operation safety, newly developed decommissioning and dismantling policy for obsolete nuclear facilities, and new future technology

  15. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

  16. An updated report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan, 1958-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Hattori, Masakazu; Soda, Midori; Ioka, Akiko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of cancer trends in Japan requires periodic updating. Herein, we present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using recent population-based data. National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2013 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2010 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4, -1.3). During the most recent 10 years, over 60% of the decrease in cancer mortality was accounted for by a decrease in stomach and liver cancers (63% for males and 66% for females). The long-term increase in female breast cancer mortality, beginning in the 1960s, plateaued in 2008. All-cancer incidence continuously increased, with annual percent changes of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) between 1985 and 2005, and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6, 2.9) between 2005 and 2010. During the most recent 10 years, almost half of the increase in cancer incidence was accounted for by an increase in prostate cancer (60%) in males and breast cancer (46%) in females. The cancer registry quality indices also began to increase from ?2005. Decreases in stomach and liver cancers observed for incidence and mortality reflect the reduced attribution of infection-related factors (i.e. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis virus). However, it should be noted that cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates began to increase from ?1990. PMID:25637502

  17. Toshiba viste os Japans svaghed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance (selskabsledelse, red.) er blevet moderne i Japan som led i Shinzo Abe-regeringens forsøg på at revitalisere landets økonomi. Krav om øget rentabilitet gjorde det endnu sværere at indrømme problemerne. Direktøren tager skyldenI en dansk eller amerikansk virksomhed ville en ny direktør givetvis straks have afskrevet så meget som muligt af forgængernes fejltagelser, men den går ikke i Japan, hvor den afgåede direktør sidder med ved bordet, og den tiltrædende direktør måske har...

  18. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  19. Typology of Cities Based on City Biodiversity Index: Exploring Biodiversity Potentials and Possible Collaborations among Japanese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Uchiyama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A City Biodiversity Index (CBI has been proposed and applied at the international level to enable local municipalities and cities to manage biodiversity and ecosystem services in a sustainable manner. CBI databases are being constructed as global platforms, though the available dataset is limited. The land-use dataset is one of the datasets that can be utilized to apply the CBI on the national level in countries including Japan. To demonstrate the importance and potential of the CBI under the limitation of the available dataset, we attempted to apply the CBI to the 791 Japanese cities by using available land-use indicators, and categorized the cities based on the indicators. The focus of the CBI is self-assessment, but we propose that grouping of cities with similar profiles is possible and can serve as a basis for potential collaboration. Coordinating policies on various scales is necessary in order to enhance biodiversity on a global scale; one option is to increase collaboration among cities. As a result, we found three groups with similar characteristics amongst cities with forests, paddies, and croplands as major compositions in terms of biodiversity. These findings will contribute to policy formation and efficient information sharing for ecosystem services management.

  20. Developing a Public Health Training and Research Partnership between Japan and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Van, Nguyen Thi Tu; Phuc, Trinh Huu; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Yasumura, Seiji; Khue, Nguyen Thi

    2007-01-01

    Development of academic partnerships between developing and developed countries is a sustainable approach to build research capacity in the developing world. International collaboration between the Department of Public Health of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine in Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City

  1. Japan's Quasi-Zenith Communication and Position Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solari?

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Japan decided to set up their satellite communication and positioning system, called "Quasi-Zenith Satellite System" (abbreviated QZSS or in Japanese "Jun-Ten-Cho". In order to get QZSS satellite on the horizon above the elevation angle of 70° for ten hours, apparent orbits of 24-hour satellites in circular and elliptical trajectories have been tested. Thereby three QZSS satellites have been scheduled for alternate substitution during zenith in Japan. Position determining by GPS and QZSS satellites will be enhanced in the cities where the horizons are screened by high buildings. Besides, QZSS satellites will help mobile communications and broad casting without repeaters on the Earth surface or other electronic devices.Klju?ne rije?i

  2. Nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  3. Mutation breeding in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

  5. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120.000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F1) of 77 000. The LSS and F1 studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F1 Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures. (authors)

  6. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban...

  7. A geographical study of the international urban system between China and Japan in terms of Japanese affiliated entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Du

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese-affiliated enterprises in China are considered to have played important rolesfor economic development of both two countries. Looking at cities with Japanese-affiliatedenterprises, this research investigates the changes in the international urban system betweenChina and Japan. We selected 5084 direct investments items from Japan to China and investigatedthe spatial structure of the international urban system in 4 periods.

  8. A geographical study of the international urban system between China and Japan in terms of Japanese affiliated entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Du

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese-affiliated enterprises in China are considered to have played important roles for economic development of both two countries. Looking at cities with Japanese-affiliated enterprises, this research investigates the changes in the international urban system between China and Japan. We selected 5084 direct investments items from Japan to China and inve-stigated the spatial structure of the international urban system in 4 periods.

  9. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2010-01-01

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes ca...

  10. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

  11. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma) and those at sea level takes the value of about 0.1. It is drawn from the above facts that the influence of inbound aerosols to total one is really high in western part of Japan.

  12. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  13. Toshiba viste os Japans svaghed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance (selskabsledelse, red.) er blevet moderne i Japan som led i Shinzo Abe-regeringens forsøg på at revitalisere landets økonomi. Krav om øget rentabilitet gjorde det endnu sværere at indrømme problemerne. Direktøren tager skyldenI en dansk eller amerikansk virksomhed ville en ny direktør givetvis straks have afskrevet så meget som muligt af forgængernes fejltagelser, men den går ikke i Japan, hvor den afgåede direktør sidder med ved bordet, og den tiltrædende direktør måske har været med i beslutningerne. Umiddelbart virker de japanske corporate governance-reformer utilstræk- kelige til at kickstarte aktiemarkedet og den økonomiske vækst.

  14. Estimation of daily uranium ingestion by urban residents in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125 types of food were collected mainly from Yokohama City which is one of the typical urban cities in Japan. The samples, were divided into the 18 food categories in the report of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS),1 were analysed for uranium by ?-spectrometry after chemical separation. Concentrations of 238U in individual types of food ranged from 9.85 * 10-5 Bq * kg-1 in grain vinegar to 5.90 Bq * kg-1 in boiled and dried hijiki. The median value of 238U was found to be 4.83 * 10-3 Bq * kg-1 on a raw weight basis. The daily intake of 238U per person by ingestion was estimated to be approximately 14 mBq with more than 50% of it coming from marine products. (author)

  15. Needs Assessment of an Ethnic Chinese Community in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Mei Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a needs assessment of ethnic Chinese older adults in Japan. The Delphi method was applied to identify the needs addressed by the focus groups. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model guided the examination of the community’s political, economic and social environment in satisfying the needs of older community members. The needs were matched with a city’s Health, Welfare, and Long-term Care Insurance Program Plan seeking to identify differences between ethnic Chinese and Japanese community members. Most of the needs were similar to those of the Japanese citizens, but there were a few issues related to financial and cultural needs that were unique to the ethnic Chinese group.

  16. Japan's lost decade: Lessons for other economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Japan has suffered from sluggish economic growth and recession since the 1990s, a phenomenon dubbed "Japan's Lost Decade." The People's Republic of China, many countries in the eurozone, and the United States may face similar problems in future and they have been concerned by Japan's long-term recession. This paper will address why Japan's economy has stagnated since the bursting of its economic bubble. Our empirical analysis challenges the beliefs of some western economists, such as Paul Kru...

  17. MEDICAL DEVICE APPROVAL PROCESS IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Devesh Sharma

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW or Koseirodosho in Japanese) is in charge of the pharmaceutical regulatory affairs in Japan. Formal approvals and licenses are required to marketing drugs in Japan which are obtained from the MHLW.  Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) has set itself the challenging task of expediting patient access to novel therapies while ensuring these meet international standards of safety, efficacy and quality. One of the biggest hurdles...

  18. Japan's plutonium policy and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International criticism and concern about Japan's use of plutonium increased since 1992, when plutonium was returned across the sea from France to Japan. Criticism is related to the risk of environmental pollution, and the risk of Japan's nuclear armament. Nuclear disarmament has wide public support in Japan, due to the suffering of people from atomic bombs. In this paper some problems related to Japanese program on using plutonium are discussed in connection with the proliferation

  19. Banking crises and "Japanization": Origins and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masahiro; Morgan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Japan's "two lost decades" perhaps represent an extreme example of a weak recovery from a financial crisis, and are now referred to as "Japanization." More recently, widespread stagnation in advanced economies in the wake of the global financial crisis led to fears that Japanization might spread to other countries. This study examines the dimensions of Japanization - including low trend growth, debt deleveraging, deflation, and massive increases in government debt - and analyzes their possibl...

  20. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  1. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  2. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D? - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D? - 0.06)>0, where D? is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

  3. Dose-response relationship of neutrons and ? rays to leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by type of leukemia, 1950--1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950 to 1971 in a fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was analyzed as a function of neutron and ? kerma and marrow doses. Two dose-response models were tested for acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that the leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of separate risks imposed by ? and neutron doses. In Model I the risk from both types of radiation is assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that whereas the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from ? rays is proportional to dose-squared. The analysis demonstrated that the dose-response of the two types of leukemia differed by type of radiation. The data suggested that the response of acute leukemia was best explained by Model II, while the response of chronic granulocytic leukemia depended almost linearly upon neutron dose alone, because the regression coefficients associated with ? radiation for both Models I and II were not significant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in relation to ? rays for incidence of acute leukemia was estimated to be approximately 30/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 17/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 54/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for kerma and 32/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 18/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 58/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for marrow dose (Dn = neutron dose). If acute and chronic granulocytic leukemias are considered together as all types of leukemia, Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither model is statistically rejected by the data

  4. Fusion technology program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fusion reactor development program in Japan is an on-going national project, which is advancing as planned. Major near-term objectives are to demonstrate reactor grade plasmas in tokamak confinement and to develop a system of fusion reactor engineering with a focus on the next step after the demonstration in a large tokamak, JT-60

  5. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  6. The March 2011 Japan tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Tappin, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The March 11th 2011 Tohoku-iki earthquake was the fifth largest on Earth in the last 50 years, it created one of the most devastating tsunamis in history. Dave Tappin describes the background to the tsunami and its impact based on his research on tsunamis and visits to Japan over the past three months.

  7. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrial...

  8. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  9. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following five-year reviews by the Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') and... imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (64 FR 47765, September 1, 1999). Following second five-year... antidumping duty finding on imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (70 FR 44893). The Commission is...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as...

  11. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Makoto; TAJIMA, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; HARASAWA, MAKIKO; ISOGAI, EMIKO; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.

  12. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  13. Fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study fallout 3H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The 3H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average 3H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of 3H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound 3H. Total 3H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of 3H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City

  14. Comparative study on indoor air quality in Japan and China: Characteristics of residential indoor and outdoor VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi; Shen, Xueyou; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Lizhong

    2009-12-01

    We conducted a comparative study on the indoor air quality for Japan and China to investigate aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor microenvironments (living room, bedroom, and kitchen) and outdoors in summer and winter during 2006-2007. Samples were taken from Shizuoka in Japan and Hangzhou in China, which are urban cities with similar latitudes. Throughout the samplings, the indoor and outdoor concentrations of many of the targeted VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes) in China were significantly higher than those in Japan. The indoor concentrations of VOCs in Japan were somewhat consistent with those outdoors, whereas those in China tended to be higher than those outdoors. Here, we investigated the differences in VOC concentrations between Japan and China. Compositional analysis of indoor and outdoor VOCs showed bilateral differences; the contribution of benzene in China was remarkably higher than that in Japan. Significant correlations ( p indoor microenvironments and between the outdoors and living rooms or kitchens in Japan. In China, however, significant correlations were observed only between living rooms and bedrooms. These findings suggest differences in strengths of indoor VOC emissions between Japan and China. The source characterizations were also investigated using principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores. It was found that outdoor sources including vehicle emission and industrial sources, and human activity could be significant sources of indoor VOC pollution in Japan and China respectively. In addition, the lifetime cancer risks estimated from unit risks and geometric mean indoor concentrations of carcinogenic VOCs were 2.3 × 10 -5 in Japan and 21 × 10 -5 in China, indicating that the exposure risks in China were approximately 10 times higher than those in Japan.

  15. Further study on fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study fallout 3H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food-group samples were collected from Akita City in northern Japan during early summer and late autumn in 1986. Furthermore, total diet samples which are duplicate composite food samples consumed by five or six persons for a period of 1 d were also obtained in Akita City. The 3H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. Seasonal changes of 3H concentration in the food samples and the total diet samples were not found clearly. The average 3H concentration in the free water including tap water was 1.6 Bq L-1. The mean ratio of specific activity of tissue-bound 3H to that of 3H in free water was found to be 1.2. The average total 3H ingestion was estimated to be 4.0 Bq d-1, while the proportion of tissue-bound form 3H ingestion to total 3H ingestion was 11%. Cereal was the greatest contributing food group to ingestion of tissue-bound 3H. These findings were consistent with our previous results for food samples collected in 1985

  16. Aging, saving, and public pensions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horioka, Charles Yuji; Suzuki, Wataru; Hatta, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of population aging on Japan's household saving rate and on its public pension system and the impact of that system on Japan's household saving rate and obtain the following results: first, the age structure of Japan's population can explain the level of, and past and future trends in, its household saving rate; second, the rapid aging of Japan's population is causing Japan's household saving rate to decline and this decline can be expected to continue; third, the pay-as...

  17. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  18. Change in and Long-Term Investigation of Neuro-Otologic Disorders in Disaster-Stricken Fukushima Prefecture: Retrospective Cohort Study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Jun; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Obara, Taku; Hashimoto, Ken; Tateda, Yutaka; Okumura, Yuri; KOBAYASHI, TOSHIMITSU; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan’s northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department d...

  19. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance measures have been adopted to assist in managing transport policy challenges, including the application of experimentation, monitoring and evaluation of plans, policies and institutions. The paper looks at two cases of policy management within Japanese transportation: The first is the performance evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance measurement is outlined, the actual application is presented, and the results in terms of how the indicators contribute to promote sustainable transport will be reviewed. A finding is that indicators in both programs seem to have limited positive influence on sustainability, with the most and visible effects in the latter one. The institutional context seems important for the strength of influence.

  20. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2009-01-01

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas

  1. Inequalities in Noncommunicable Disease Mortality in the Ten Largest Japanese Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Megumi; Hotta, Miyuki; Prasad, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases and social inequalities in health among urban populations is becoming a common problem around the world. This phenomenon is further compounded by population aging. Japan faces the task of maintaining its high level of population health while dealing with these challenges. This study focused on the ten largest cities in Japan and, using publicly available administrative data, analyzed standardized mortality ratios to examine inequalities in relative morta...

  2. Household and Community Disaster Preparedness in Japanese Provincial City: A Population-Based Household Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Tomio; Hajime Sato; Yuji Matsuda; Toshie Koga; Hiroko Mizumura

    2014-01-01

    Household- and community-level preparedness have been re-emphasized after recent major earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan. The paper examines the prevalence and the determinants of disaster preparedness among the residents of a provincial city in Japan at both levels. Furthermore, it seeks to uncover the associations between household- and community-level preparedness activities to test the hypothesis that a complementary relationship exists between them. We used a su...

  3. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  4. Power generation technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cumulated power generating capacity in Japan as per March 1992 amounted to 204 GW, of which 150 GW (77%) was contributed by the utilities, 27 GW (13%) by regional suppliers, and 20 GW (10%) by industrial producers. Of the 204 GW capacity 63% was in fossil fired power plants, 17% in nuclear power plants, and 20% in hydroelectric stations. The fossil fuels used in energy generation break down into oil (47%), liquefied natural gas (38%), and coal (15%). Electricity generation in Japan totals 789 TWh, of which 61% is produced from fossil fuels, 27% from nuclear fuels, and 12% from water power. Major areas of interest in nuclear power generation are the development of the advanced light water reactor line, the commercialization of the faster breeder, and the establishment of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. (orig.)

  5. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the Indian IT industry could position itself in the Japanese market. But in order to accomplish this, it is necessary to identify the key challenges and opportunities the Indian IT industry faces in the Japanese market. The opportunities for India, as well as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preference...

  6. Air pollutants in Osaka (Japan)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2015-01-01

    Increasing emission of anthropogenic particles is causing heavy air pollution. This work intends to analyze the air pollution in Osaka. PM is usually used as an indicator of air quality, because high PM concentrations can degrade air quality. Osaka is the second largest metropolitan region of Japan and its air is significantly polluted by anthropogenic particles emitted from vehicles and industry. In this study, seasonal variation of air pollutants in Osaka is investigated using ground observ...

  7. Conceptions of CSR in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese companies in terms of social employee issues and concerns. A strong relationship between companies and employees has always been an advantage of the Japanese economy, and this strength was developed further ...

  8. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the Nordic region of Asia’s increased interest in the Arctic region and Arctic affairs, including in relation to Greenland. However, with the possible exception of China, there has been little Western scholarly work to analyze exactly why Asian countries are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with ...

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. and Japan reached agreement in 1977 on the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel of U.S. origin at a facility in Japan. Under the agreement, a plant at Tokai-mura will process up to 99 tons of spent fuel, extracting plutonium from the irradiated fuel assemblies of a demonstration reactor and power reactors. The extracted Pu will be stored for an initial period of two years, rather than converted to reactor fuel. Japan agreed to postponing conversion because it shares with the United States the view ''that Pu poses a serious proliferation danger, that its recycling in light water reactors is not ready at present for commercial use, and that its premature commercialization should be avoided.'' Japan also made concessions on conducting studies on co-processing of U and Pu. The fundamental problem remains unresolved. The result of the negotiations indicates some flexibility on the part of the U.S. This could also be expected when the deliberations in the U.S. Congress on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (export control legislation) are studied. The legislation was originally intended for nothing but export control, but the White House requested some modification to leave room for international negotiations. The clause that would have banned exports immediately or after a certain period of time was taken out, and the final bill did not demand a prior pledge not to engage in reprocessing or in uranium enrichment. The U.S. is beginning to take into consideration the differing circumstances and policies of other countries. The U.S., in giving first priority to nuclear non-proliferation, is trying to curb Pu recycling as much as possible, whereas other countries regard Pu recycling as one key to future energy supplies

  10. Conceptions of CSR in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese companies in terms of social employee issues and concerns. A strong relationship between companies and employees has always been an advantage of the Japanese economy, and this strength was developed further by the integration of CSR into management systems and strategies. But increasing environmental concerns have raised crucial questions about environmental issues with regards to CSR. How do Japanese companies incorporate environmental issues into their CSR aims and achievements? What is the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan? This paper will analyze the conceptualization of CSR in TEPCO documents and the political discussions following the Fukushima accident. Drawing on rhetorical theory, especially on the importance of metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; 1999) and how this applies to the field of strategic management (Audebrand, 2010), Thus, the paper interrogates CSR as a site of conceptual and metaphorical "struggle" regarding how to conceive the social responsibilities of companies. It identifies three main conceptions of CSR; a narrow economic conception, a broad economic conception and a systemic conception of CSR. They represent different taken-for-granted conceptual frameworks used to understand CSR and the strategic challenges for CSR in Japan. Such a conceptual analysis provides important insight into how Japanese companies conceive of environmental issues and incorporate these into their CSR aims and achievements. As such, this paper will argue, part of the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan is to deal with the preconceptions about the nature of business activities amongst managers, politicians, and other CSR agents.

  11. Reactor physics activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during June, 1991 - July, 1992. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal and intermediate reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes and national programs. The main references were taken from journals published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

  12. Job displacement penalties in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Bognanno, Michael; Delgado, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The costs of job displacement are examined on a sample of Japanese workers successfully provided job placement services from 2000 to 2003, a period of economic stagnation and structural change in Japan. We find that displaced workers suffer a loss of approximately $1,100 for each additional year of age. Workers also incur a large penalty when they change industries after being displaced. The age-earnings loss relationship is consistent with the operation of a delayed compensation scheme in la...

  13. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and...

  14. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  15. Retirement memorial lecture. Review of studies on assessment of radiation exposed dose-exposure dose estimation in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are following author's experiences about studies of dosimetry performed in such fields as in the title and concomitant thoughts of the health effect of radiation. The author expresses the degree of radiation risk, when simplified, with the equation, health effect/dose. The effect is either deterministic like alopecia/leucopenia or stochastic like carcinogenesis. DS02 (Dosimetry System 2002) leading to about 10% increase of the risk in the equation above is established with investigation of 120 thousands exposed people by Japanese and American reassessment study of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where neutron dose has been problematic but solved. Exposed dose 4000 mGy of Dolon village 110 km afar from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site has been said to be the highest among its nearest regions. However, the external exposure dose is estimated to be 400 mGy by dosimetry of bricks and other materials and factors concerned in radiation spread like soil Cs-137, Pu-239/240 against the reported dose above by old Soviet Union. Radioactive contamination in wide areas and in local spots is observed following the hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12-15, 2011) in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and decontamination is in progress with a measure of Cs-137. As for Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, following respective matters are different: the number of evacuated people of 400 thousands vs 85 thousands; 145 thousands people involved in contaminated area of >37 kBq/km2 vs 8 thousands in >30 thousands kBq/km2; areas subjected to forced evacuation of 13 thousands km2 vs areas to planned evacuation of 8 hundreds km2; and released radioactivity of 5200 thousands TBq vs 770 thousands TBq. In Fukushima, there are additional problems of contamination of sea and of waste of the Plant rubbles. The author thinks that all of information and standard criteria about contamination should be more easily disclosed to public for their self judgment and decision. (T.T.)

  16. Global transport rates of 137Cs and 239+240Pu originating from the Nagasaki A-bomb in 1945 as determined from analysis of Canadian Arctic ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advancements in analytical technology make it possible for artificial radionuclides released from nuclear explosions to be detected in Arctic ice core layers. The fission product, 137Cs, and the unexpended fission material, 239+240Pu, originating from the Nagasaki A-bomb of August 1945, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition rates were 0·020 mBq cm-2 for 137Cs and 0·0016 mBq cm-2 for 239+240Pu, originating from Nagasaki. Assuming the radionuclides, excluding the amount fissioned from the explosion and deposited as local fallout, are deposited evenly throughout the Northern Hemisphere, 67% of the expected amount of 137Cs reached the Arctic while 1·1% of 239+240Pu reached the Arctic. The results suggest that different transport mechanisms exist for various contaminants in the global transport system. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5oC, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

  18. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  19. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Newman; Timothy Beatley

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also ...

  20. Low back pain in childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional study in Niigata City

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Takui; Hirano, Toru; Morita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Ren; Endo, Naoto; Tanabe, Naohito

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study targeted a total of 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan was performed. The objective was to clarify the present incidence of low back pain (LBP) in childhood and adolescence in Japan. It has recently been recognized that LBP in childhood and adolescence is also as common a problem as that for adults and most of these studies have been conducted in Europe, however, none have so far been made in Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted using 43,630 pupils, including ...

  1. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself. PMID:19914991

  2. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  3. [Discussion on collateral puncture therapy in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ken; Li, Zhong-Zheng; Li, Xi-Zhong; Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Chao; Guo, Yi

    2011-02-01

    The history of collateral puncture therapy in Japan was traced, the current status and characteristics of collateral puncture therapy in Japan were introduced in this paper. Originated in China, the collateral puncture therapy in Japan combined Japanese knowledge of acupuncture with the theory and practice of bloodletting of Portugal Medicine and Netherlands Medicine. The discussion on the theory and technique of the collateral puncture therapy by Kudo Kunsei became the standard of the collateral puncture therapy in Japan in modern times. Based on this discussion, Tetuo Asami proposed a new theory of the collateral puncture therapy which improved the collateral puncture therapy in Japan. Currently, as a part of Japanese health care system, the collateral puncture therapy with Japanese characteristics is gradually accepted by the medical profession in Japan. PMID:21442826

  4. Relationship between recurrent liquefaction-induced damage and subsurface conditions in Midorigaoka, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorigaoka, Kushiro City, northeast Japan, suffered liquefaction-induced ground failures during four successive earthquakes in the past thirty years. This paper presents the ground failures and their effects to structures observed in Midorigaoka during the earthquakes, and examines the relationships between recurrent liquefaction-induced damage and subsurface conditions. As a result, thick liquefiable fill, slope of the ground surface, and subsurface water conditions, which resulted primarily from filling a marshy valley, are found to be responsible on the damage

  5. CaringTV® value creation for elderly people in Sendai, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Japan is expected to be the country with the highest percentage of elderly people in the world in 2025. In order to ensure quality care services for elderly people, Tohoku Fukushi University (TFU), Helsinki School of Economics, Laurea University of Applied Sciences and the cities Espoo, Vantaa and Sendai have established the research collaboration “Active Project”. Within this project, TFU aims at transferring the Finnish CaringTV® concept to Sendai. CaringTV is a service for secure broadcast...

  6. Relationship between Vegetation Composition and Dissolved Nitrogen in Wetlands of Higashi-Hiroshima, West Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Haidary Miandoab, Azam; Kaneyuki Nakane

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four wetlands located in Higashi-Hiroshima City in West Japan were selected for this studyin order to investigate both the relationship between aquatic plant composition and environmental conditions; andthe relationship between changing land use patterns in the catchments and the concentration of different formsof nitrogen in the wetlands. The dominant and subdominant species which comprised the principal vegetationwere determined based on a vegetation census conducted in each wetland ...

  7. [Mental health care management after the 2011 tsunami disaster in Higashi-Matsushima, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Ando, Syuntaro; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Tokyo University continues to support mental health care in Higashi-Matsushima City, Miyagi, Japan. We participate in mental care from the acute to the chronic phase. We also provide mental care for children. In this paper, we summarize our activities during the two years since the disaster. We also state our views on management in disaster care. PMID:24783440

  8. The City at Stake:

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Esmann Andersen; Anne Ellerup Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing...

  9. Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshida H; Kadota Y; Suto C; Ohta T.; Murakami A

    2012-01-01

    Hiroshi Toshida1,2, Yoshiaki Kadota3, Chikako Suto2, Toshihiko Ohta1, Akira Murakami21Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Shizuoka, 2Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, 3Bausch & Lomb Japan Co, Ltd, Research and Development, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan.Methods: The subjects were 1000 men and ...

  10. Book review: Precarious Japan by Anne Allison

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    "Precarious Japan." Anne Allison. Duke University Press. 2013. --- In an era of irregular labour, nagging recession, nuclear contamination, and a shrinking population, Japan is facing precarious times. How the Japanese experience insecurity in their daily and social lives is the subject of Precarious Japan. Moving between the structural conditions of socioeconomic life and the ways people are making do, or not, Anne Allison chronicles the loss of home affecting many Japanese, not only in the ...

  11. Structural design of a continuum of reinforced concrete elements - Realization of "Rias- Hall", Ofunato public hall & library in Japan -

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMOKUBO, Wataru; IMAGAWA, Norihide; SUEMATSU, shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    "Ofunato" is a Japanese local city faced with Pacific Ocean and representative ria-coastline in Japan. This small city is known for its picturesque scenery of a nature rock named "Anatoosi-iso" (at Goisi-kaigan) formed of slate rock and which is a symbol of this city. Architect Chiaki Arai designed a new landmark architecture named "Rias-Hall" in Ofunato (Fig.1&2), and the motif of this archtecture is "Anatoosi-iso". The main structural material of "Rias-Hall" is reinforced concrete (RC) a...

  12. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  13. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

  14. Bone marrow transplantation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

  15. Public information activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find new ways of increasing effectiveness and to examined carefully the proposals made at this conference

  16. Cells and batteries in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, research programs are done jointly or independently by three organization types: private firms, universities and national institutes. This paper presents cells and batteries production in three chapters: the first one is dealing with the 'MOONLIGHT' project (advanced batteries, fuel cells and electric-powered vehicle), the second one with general purpose cells and batteries (Ni/Cd, Ni/Metal Hydride, Pb/PbO2 and lithium batteries), the last chapter gives a list and a precise description of the different organizations visited. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  17. Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

  18. Reactor physics activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

  19. Nitride fuel development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitride fuel for ADS has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under a double strata fuel cycle concept. In this case the nitride fuel contains MA elements as a principal component and is diluted by inert materials in place of U, which is totally different from the fuel for power reactors. So the fuel fabrication manner, fuel properties and irradiation behaviour have to be investigated in detail as well as the treatment of spent fuel. Through the experimental R&D, technical feasibility of nitride fuel cycle for the transmutation of MA will be demonstrated

  20. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason ?nanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuz? and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  1. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  2. Present status and future development of cogeneration using city gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, city gas was adopted for the first time for the cogeneration in the national stadium, as of March, 1992, the cogeneration using city gas reached nearly 750 MW. Meanwhile the positioning of cogeneration changed largely for city gas enterprises and the national energy policy and environment policy, and its importance has continued to increase. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. paid attention to this system early, and based on the long term perspective, it promoted the technical development and the introduction into markets, and realized the utilization in various fields now. According to Japan Gas Association, as of the end of March, 1992, the cogeneration using gas engines, gas turbines and diesel engines has been installed in Japan by about 2.6 million kW, and those using city gas takes about 30%. In cogeneration, at the same time with electric power generation, its waste heat is effectively utilized, therefore, the overall efficiency of 70-80% and the energy conservation of 20-30% as compared with conventional method are attained. The positioning of cogeneration related to environment policy and city planning, the efforts exerted by gas enterprises, the relaxation of regulation and the development of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  3. A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamura Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW, Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including typical depressive states. Suffocations/hangings are the most common methods used to commit suicide by both sexes. Utilities and interactions among these several components were considered, as well as a perspective of suicidal behavior. Conclusion. In order to prevent suicide and avoid the worst tragedy for a family, it is an essential requirement to collect and analyze any information concerning suicide victims.

  4. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive animal studies are carried out at the national Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) to investigate biokinetics and biological effects of radionuclides, especially transuranic elements. The Institute has a staff of 90 plus 60 regular contractors who are allowed to work in the research facility. These people are counted twice a year. Another several dozen seasonal workers are counted at the beginning and the end of each contract. NIRS is also responsible for medical preparedness for radiation accident. If a patient seriously contaminated with plutonium is taken to NIRS, the lung monitor is used for the assessment of contamination level. Intercomparison Measurements: The measurements were conducted in the shielded whole body counter. The counting room is 2.3 m wide, 1.5 m deep and 1.6 m high. The shielding is provided by a graded liner of iron (200 mm), lead (3 mm), copper (1 mm) and plastic (3 mm). The room air is filtered with a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) air supply. Counting is performed using two sodium iodide, cesium iodide phoswich detectors, 125 mm in diameter. The entrance window is 75?m thick aluminum. Resolution in the plutonium L X ray region is 35% (Apparent), and 16% in the gamma-ray region of 241Am. The normal background is 0.10 counts per minute in the L X ray region and 0.13 counts per minute for ?-ray region of 241Am. The minimum detectable activity for 241Am is 30Bq. Data processing is conducted using a 16bit, 20MHz Personal Computer. Spectrum analysis software is used, and dose calculations are based on the ICRP 30 model. Results: The measured 238Pu (13.6 keV + 17.1 keV + 20.3 keV) counting efficiency for the Asian (JAERI) phantom is shown together with the measured efficiencies for the Western (Livermore) phantom. It shows close agreement between the Asian and Western phantoms with 100% muscle overlays. The comparison when the 50% adipose and 87% adipose overlays are used illustrates the effect of tissue composition at these low energies. The separate counting efficiencies for the right and left lungs indicate a significant difference in the relative contribution of the two sides for these phantoms. It is likely that this results in large part from shielding of the left lung in the Western phantom by the heart, which is acknowledged to be enlarged. There is a systematic difference of about 25%. Because the Western phantom has been used for some time and may be considered well characterized, this suggests that this difference may be due, in part, to an error in the assay of the 241Am content of this lung set

  5. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  6. Ülemiste City kutsub gümnasiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ülemiste City pakutavast võimalusest gümnaasiuminoortele alates sügisest tulla linnakusse ekskursioonidele, et tutvuda kaasaegsete IT-ettevõtete töötingimustega. Sellega soovib Ülemiste City olla toeks Eesti Infotehnoloogia ja Telekommunikatsiooni Liidu IKT-sektori populariseerimise projektile

  7. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

  8. Japan's post-Fukushima reconstruction: A case study for implementation of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following World War II, Japan miraculously developed into an economic powerhouse and a model of energy efficiency among developed countries. This lasted more than 65 years until the Northeastern Japan earthquake and tsunami induced nuclear crisis of March 2011 brought Japan to an existential crossroads. Instead of implementing its plans to increase nuclear power generation capacity from thirty percent to fifty percent, Japan shut-down all fifty-four nuclear reactors for safety checks and stress-checks (two have since been restarted), resulting in reduced power generation during the summer of 2012. The reconstruction of Northeastern Japan approaches at a time when the world is grappling with a transition to sustainable energy technologies—one that will require substantial investment but one that would result in fundamental changes in infrastructure and energy efficiency. Certain reconstruction methods can be inappropriate in the social, cultural and climatic context of disaster affected areas. Thus, how can practitioners employ sustainable reconstructions which better respond to local housing needs and availability of natural energy resources without a framework in place? This paper aims at sensitizing policy-makers and stakeholders involved in post disaster reconstruction by recognizing advantages of deploying sustainable energy technologies, to reduce dependence of vulnerable communities on external markets. - Highlights: • We examine the energy challenges faced by Japan in the aftermath of Fukushima. • We identify policy measures for the use of energy technologies applicable to disaster prone nations. • We evaluate the potential for renewable energy to support reduced reliance on nuclear energy in Japan. • We model scenarios for eco-towns and smart-cities in post-disaster reconstruction. • We assess the role of culture in formulating energy policy in post-disaster reconstruction

  9. Book review: City cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Grous, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    "City Cycling." John Pucher and Ralph Buehler. MIT Press. November 2012. --- Cycling in cities is booming, for many reasons: health and environmental benefits, time and cost savings, more and better bike lanes and paths, and innovative bike sharing programs. City Cycling offers reports on cycling trends and policies in cities in North America, Europe, and Australia. The authors offer detailed examinations and illustrations of cycling conditions in different urban environments: from small ...

  10. Food Irradiation Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology-Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected, to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  11. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  12. Food irradiation development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  13. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  14. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  15. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

  16. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  17. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

  18. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  19. Understanding earthquake design criteria used in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the current earthquake design criteria used in Japan for nuclear power plants. Information is presented on the codes and standards and seismic requirements for reactor buildings and containment structures. The most interesting features of the earthquake design criteria used in Japan, in the light of those used in the United States, are summarized

  20. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... parties did not participate in this sunset review * * *.'' (75 FR 51981). Accordingly, pursuant to section... Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of... revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead...

  1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum–infected Ticks, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Norio; Inayoshi, Megumi; Kitamura, Kayoko; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kawaguchi, Daizoh; Nishimura, Yuusaku; Naitou, Hirotaka; Hiroi, Midori; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We report Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus ticks in Japan. Unique p44/msp2 paralogs (and/or 16S rRNA genes) were detected in tick tissues, salivary glands, and spleens of experimentally infected mice. These findings indicate the public health threat of anaplasmosis in Japan.

  2. The Role of German in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  3. Japan, a journey in irradiated lands. Japan changes its fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article describes the situation in terms of radioactivity, contamination and decontamination, of living conditions and of issues in the immediate surroundings of the Fukushima power station and in places located at different distances of the Fukushima power station: 10 km away, in a village 20 km away, in a farming and agriculture area 50 km away from the station, and in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (the greatest nuclear power station in the world, 220 km away from Fukushima). The article also evokes works performed in these places, sometimes with the help of French companies, to manage the wastes or decontamination purposes. The second article comments the perspectives of development of new energy sources, with a strong trend of investments in renewable energies. The author indicates that Japan not always possesses the required technologies. In this respect, the article outlines that there could be opportunities for French companies in the field of offshore wind energy

  4. Penicillin and the reconstruction of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores postwar American strategies regarding penicillin in Japan. Perceived as both an American gift and a symbol of reconstruction, penicillin played a singular role in Washington's postwar policies towards Europe and Japan. Washington encouraged US pharmaceutical companies to penetrate Europe but sought to protect intra-European trade. In Japan, however, importing penicillin from the US or establishing private American factories was forbidden. Jackson W. Foster implemented a smaller-scale, military-directed version of the US's wartime penicillin project. In this paper, it is argued that the MacArthur administration aimed to boost Japanese penicillin production and transfer American industrial culture to Japan. This was initially a major success. However, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry failed to break down barriers to market entry established by first movers and, consequently, was uncompetitive throughout the twentieth century. This paper regards the American penicillin project in Japan as a factor in the weakness of the postwar Japanese pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26054211

  5. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum'') on February 18-19...

  6. The geomorphic history of the Ainoura plain, Kyushu, Japan, based on excavation of the Monzen ruins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hirotsugu, Mori; Shoichi, Shimoyama; Kazuaki, Soejima.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La compleja línea de costa en la región noroccidental de Kyushu, Japón, está compuesta por acantilados, ensenadas de laderas inclinadas y archipiélagos, y es producto de la subsidencia de un cinturón montañoso. Los valles aluviales y las estrechas llanuras de inundación de esta región se encuentran [...] densamente pobladas y están sujetas a continuos movimientos en masa. Ainoura es un ejemplo de esta llanura de inundación. La excavación de Monzen Ruin realizada por -Nagasaki Prefectural Board of Education- en la llanura de inundación Ainoura revela la historia geomorfológica; la depositación de gravas, arenas y lodos en los últimos milenios. En la sucesión aluvial, los primeros en llenar el canal fueron los depósitos de lodos y arenas, probablemente como resultado de la transgresión del óptimo climático que ocurrió durante el Holoceno. Consecutivamente, los depósitos de grava empezaron a reemplazar las capas de arena y lodo mediante la erosión y depositación sucesiva, elevando el lecho del río. Nosotros corroboramos que el conglomerado de la llanura de inundación Ainoura proviene del deslizamiento de tierras de la zona interior de Hokusho, ya que la Llanura de inundación Hino, ubicada al sureste de Ainoura, no contiene capas de conglomerados. El lecho del río Ainoura muestra que el Monzen Ruin se localiza en la abrupta reducción del gradiente, lo cual explica el material clástico grueso en esta área. Adicionalmente, nosotros reportamos la paleo-línea de costa de la llanura de inundación de Ainoura durante el optimo climático que ocurrió durante el Holoceno. La paleolínea de costa no se movió significativamente hasta que la población empezó a recuperar tierra. Por consiguiente, nosotros predecimos que el mismo proceso de depositación podría ocurrir en la llanura de inundación de Ainoura al interior de la línea de costa. Abstract in english The complex coastline of north-western Kyushu, Japan, consisting of cliffs, steep-sided inlets and archipelagos, has resulted from subsidence in mountainous terrain; the region’s populated river valleys, having narrow alluvial plains, often suffer rock avalanches. The Ainoura plain is one such alluv [...] ial plain. Excavation of the Monzen ruins on the Ainoura Plain by the Nagasaki Prefectural Board of Education has revealed the plain’s geomorphic history regarding how the gravels and associated muds and sands were deposited during the last several thousand years. Regarding alluvial succession, mud and sand first filled in the trough, possibly as part of the transgression caused by the Holocene climatic optimum, and gravel later began to replace parts of the sand and mud layers by successive erosion and sedimentation, thereby raising riverbed level. It was confirmed that such conglomerate from the Ainoura plain was derived from the Hokusho landslide area in the hinterland because there is no conglomerate layer in the Hino plain (a small plain southeast of the Ainoura plain). The Ainoura River’s thalweg shows that the Monzen ruins are located at a sudden reduction in its gradient, thereby accounting for the thickness of coarse clastic material in that area. The reconstructed Ainoura plain’s paleoshoreline during the Holocene climatic optimum is also reported. The paleoshoreline did not move much until people began to reclaim land; it would thus be expected that the similar deposition would happened on the Ainoura plain inside this paleoshoreline.

  7. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  8. Application of EB in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  9. Fukushima, Into the Forbidden Zone - A Trip through Hell and High Water in Post-earthquake Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just weeks after earthquake and tsunami struck Japan, the author ventured into the nuclear hot zone of the Fukushima Daiichi plant, outfitted only with rubber gloves, a cloth face-mask, and armed with a capricious dosimeter. He emerged with a haunting report on daily life in a now-ravaged Japan, a country he has known and loved for many years. He stopped to interview people in the cities and towns hit hardest by the earthquake, the tsunami, and the radioactive contamination. The answers he could get are sometimes surprising, in particular regarding the kindness and enduring spirit of the people he encountered and considering what was going on in their lives

  10. Elevated risk from estrogens in the Yodo River basin (Japan) in winter and ozonation as a management option

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vimal; Hanamoto, Seiya; Johnson, Andrew C.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Nakada, Norihide; Tanaka,Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A simple model was set up to predict estrogen concentrations and endocrine disruption risk in the Yodo River, Japan. This catchment spans the conurbations of Kyoto and Osaka and is the main source of drinking water for Osaka City, Japan. From the river survey data (5 separate occasions between 2005 and 2008), a maximum of 32 g per day estrone (E1) load was observed in the most downstream site of the river. Predicted E1 concentrations were in reasonable agreement with the measurements taken at...

  11. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  12. MEDICAL DEVICE APPROVAL PROCESS IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW or Koseirodosho in Japanese is in charge of the pharmaceutical regulatory affairs in Japan. Formal approvals and licenses are required to marketing drugs in Japan which are obtained from the MHLW.  Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA has set itself the challenging task of expediting patient access to novel therapies while ensuring these meet international standards of safety, efficacy and quality. One of the biggest hurdles for the government is the “drug lag” problem, whereby many new innovative medicinal drugs do not reach the Japanese market until several years after the United States (US and Europe (EU. This delay is caused due to the obligation to perform clinical bridging studies in Japan hand since clinical data obtained in non-Japanese trials such as EU and US studies cannot solely be used to obtain market approval in Japan. Japan provides a public medical insurance system, which is carried on as a social insurance system covering all citizens. Through this insurance system, about 30% of the nation’s medical expenses are covered by public funds, and all prices for medicine, including medical compensation for doctors and prices for new drugs are substantially controlled by the Japanese government.

  13. Japan's new energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  14. Pollution and city size: can cities be too small?

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald; Tabuchi, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium size of cities in a monocentric city model with environmental pollution. Pollution is related to city size through the effect of population on production, commuting, and housing consumption. If pollution is local, we find that equilibrium cities are too large, mirroring standard results in the theory of city systems. When pollution is global and per capita pollution declines with city size, however, equilibrium cities may be too small.

  15. Natural processes in cities

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayed, Kinda

    2013-01-01

    In their physical form, cities embody humans’ collective minds, in that they are shaped by humans’ sensory-motor mechanisms. On aggregate, human actions plot invariant patterns that characterize urban structures. In search for natural processes that mark these structures, we outline cross-cultural invariants that cities share in their growth patterns. These invariants are particularly visible in the way cities imitate natural growth in response to large-scale human interventions. Positive fee...

  16. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The...

  17. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the allophones (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the language...

  18. Communication externalities in cities

    OpenAIRE

    Charlot, Sylvie; Duranton, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    To identify communication externalities in French cities, we exploit a unique survey recording workplace communication of individual workers. Our hypothesis is that in larger and/or more educated cities, workers should communicate more. In turn, more communication should have a positive effect on individual wages. By estimating both an earnings and a communication equation, we find evidence of communication externalities. Being in a larger and more educated city makes workers communicate more...

  19. Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  20. Cities, terrorism and development

    OpenAIRE

    Beall, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This article interrogates the relationship between terrorism and development through the lens of cities, arguing that despite the post 9/11 hype in relation to cities of the global North, the impact of terrorism on cities of the global South should not be ignored. Defining terrorism in terms of acts of terror, it is suggested that cities are more susceptible to this form of political violence than rural areas because of the likelihood of greater impact and visibility and the incidence and imp...

  1. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  2. Theme city or gated community - images of future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Helenius-Mäki, Leena

    2002-01-01

    The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar "hope to be city". The form and type of the better city has depended from creators of those future city images. The creators have had their future city im...

  3. Lung cancer at autopsy in A-bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961--1970. II. Smoking, occupation and A-bomb exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent effect of ionizing radiation on lung cancer in A-bomb survivors has not been large enough to still doubts as to its validity. It has seemed essential to determine whether the apparent radiation effect could have resulted from a confounding of heavy smoking and high radiation dose, or if the occupational exposure of high-dose subjects with lung cancer was suggestive of the influence of environmental hazards other than radiation. The available series consists of 204 subjects with lung cancer verified by autopsy, 61 of whom were low-dose (less than 1 rad) and 13 high-dose (200+ rads) subjects. No evidence could be found that the influence of either smoking or occupational exposure upon lung cancer was exerted so as to suggest that the apparent radiation effect is other than real. The study also provides additional evidence of the relationship between lung cancer and smoking in Japan

  4. University Teacher Training in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación del profesorado universitario en Japón ha sido promovida en el marco del “Desarrollo profesional docente (FD”. La formación del profesorado se convirtió en un "deber sustancial» para los profesores de los centros de pregrado por una orden ministerial en 2008 (en 2007 para los centros de posgrado. Sin embargo, el contenido de la Capacitación Docente queda a la discreción de cada organización, y el marco legal no impone como obligatoria la participación de todo el personal académico en la formación del profesorado. En la década de 2000, las universidades japonesas empezaron a moverse de acuerdo con presiones externas, como las inspecciones para garantizar la calidad, la obtención de fondos externos, y la publicación de datos acerca de sus estudiantes. Estas circunstancias han promovido los movimientos de la Capacitación Docente aplicada a las actividades de educación en las instituciones, y entendidas según el concepto del KAIZEN (proceso de mejora colectiva que sigue el ciclo planificación-acción-verificación. Sin embargo, la formación del profesorado basada en las habilidades de enseñanza todavía no es una prioridad en Japón.ABSTRACTUniversity teacher training in Japan has been promoted as a part of ‘Faculty Development (FD’. Teacher training became a ‘substantial duty’ to faculties for of undergraduate schools by a ministerial ordinance in 2008 (graduate schools in 2007. However, contents of the Faculty Development are left to each organisation’s discretion, and the ordinance does not have the legal right to mandate the participation of all academic staff in teacher training. In the 2000s, Japanese universities were under the external pressures such as quality assurance inspections, acquisition of external funds, and the exposure of data about their students. These circumstances have promoted the movements of the Faculty Development as KAIZEN (collective improvement by means of the plan-do-check-action cycle activities of education at institutions. However, a few institutions offer a systematised programme of teaching and learning for academic staff. The teacher training for enhancement of teaching skills is still not a priority in Japan.

  5. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  6. Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

  7. Japan's Educational System: Emphasis on Uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costiniuk, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of Japan's educational system, covering such topics as its examination system, curriculum, extracurricular activities, and typical school day schedule. Includes information on the role of the family in education, teacher training, and teaching conditions. (GEA)

  8. Why Does Zipf's Law Break Down in Rank-Size Distribution of Cities?

    CERN Document Server

    Kuninaka, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    We study rank-size distribution of cities in Japan on the basis of data analysis. From the census data after World War II, we find that the rank-size distribution of cities is composed of two parts, each of which has independent power exponent. In addition, the power exponent of the head part of the distribution changes in time and Zipf's law holds only in a restricted period. We show that Zipf's law broke down due to both of Showa and Heisei great mergers and recovered due to population growth in middle-sized cities after the great Showa merger.

  9. Green Japan : managing the intersection of national politics and global environmentalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holroyd, C. [Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    Since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, Japan has endeavoured to align its national policies and citizens' behaviour with global priorities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper reviewed Japanese initiatives implemented as a result of the Kyoto Protocol. A detailed evaluation of government programs implemented to combat global warming was provided, as well as outlines of low emission technologies, recycling laws, and Japanese eco-towns. Japan was used as an example of how governments can interpret and apply the principles of the Kyoto Protocol by bringing its objectives and principles into the daily lives of communities, corporations, and government agencies. The study demonstrated how Japanese authorities have shown national leadership and a commitment to public engagement regarding the development of a sustainable environment. Japan's shift to reliance on clean energy has cleared the skies over major cities and resulted in the initiation of a number of major reclamation projects and conservation measures. Corporate environmentalism in Japan is also increasing. A series of government guidance papers has resulted in a surge of interest in environmental reporting. The government has also developed Cool Earth 50, a major initiative designed to reduce global warming by 2050. Other programs have also been established to reduce the use of air conditioners, reduce water consumption, and prohibit car idling. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  10. The Best of AI in Japan — Prologue

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Toyoaki; Kyoto University

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first report in the best of AI in Japan series. This series will focus on the prominent accomplishments made in the AI field, not only the research and development but also the AI-related events in society. As the first in the forthcoming series, this opening article features a historical background and the contemporary AI-research activities in Japan. It then highlights some recent prominent results from the industry. Finally, a future perspective is given.

  11. Von Japan lernen? Wissensmanagement im Fernen Osten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Haghirian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Schon seit den 80-Jahren wird Japan als Vorreiter im Wissensmanagement gesehen. Japanische Unternehmen scheinen Wissen scheinbar mühelos zu managen, obwohl sie sich in hohem Ausmass auf implizites Wissen und nicht auf Datenbanken verlassen; der Wissensaustausch in japanischen Unternehmen funktioniert ohne Barrieren und neue und innovative Produktideen werden in der Gruppe entwickelt. Es stellt sich also die Frage, wie wird in Japan Wissen gemanagt und was können wir von japanischen Unternehmen lernen?

  12. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaoka, M.; K. Oshita; N. Takeda; Morisawa, S

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targete...

  13. The disappointments for nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several dysfunctions are reported in this paper: A reactor (Onagawa) closed after a nitrogen leakage; a small leakage of radioactive water in the nuclear power plant of Mihama assessment raised to five deaths, the operator stops its nuclear power plants for inspection, the Japan face to its ageing nuclear power plants, the truth about the cost of M.O.X., the seven reactors of Japan closed for inspection after cracks and leaks hidden to authorities, Tokai MURA accident. (N.C.)

  14. Plans for super-beams in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, as the first experiment utilizes J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) neutrino facility, T2K (Tokai to Kamioka Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) starts operation. T2K is supposed to give critical information, which guides the future direction of the neutrino physics. Possible new generation discovery experiment based on T2K outcome is discussed. Especially, description of J-PARC neutrino beam upgrade plan and discussion on far detector options to max...

  15. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Furue, Masutaka; Chiba, Takahito; TAKEUCHI, SATOSHI

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have in...

  16. Status of historical seismology in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Japan's combination of high seismicity and a long history has produced copious written records of historical earthquakes. Systematic collection and investigation of such historical documents began late in the 19th century. Now, almost all of Japan's known historical materials on earthquakes have been transcribed into 25 printed volumes. The collections include records of about 400 destructive earthquakes from A.D. 599 to 1872. Epicentral coordinates and magnitudes have been estimated for abou...

  17. Palaeoparasitology in Japan: discovery of toilet features

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui Akira; Kanehara Masaaki; Kanehara Masako

    2003-01-01

    The development of palaeoparasitology in Japan has occurred in recent decades. Despite the fact that archaeology in Japan has been slow to develop techniques for excavating ancient toilets, important information about the development of sanitation has been derived from the analysis of a few sites. This shows that the earliest people had very simple methods of sanitation. As populations increased, sanitation became more complex. Ditches surrounding early towns were used for excrement disposal....

  18. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Acht, J. van; Stam, J.; Thurik, A.R.; Verheul, I.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is hardly an outlier when using a simple model of the relationship between unemployment and the rate of business ownership. The model is calibrated using recent data of 23 OECD countries. It shows a minor underestimat...

  19. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Sprague, John

    1993-01-01

    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  20. Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Raymo, James M.; Iwasawa, Miho; BUMPASS, LARRY

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demons...

  1. Update on Japan's Contribution to the ISW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Obara, T.; Watari, S.; Stpp Sub-Committee Of Japan

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting three initiatives in Japan, in order to accomplish the ISWI objectives. The first is an instrument array program to deploy new and existing observation networks. The second is data coordination to develop predictive models using ISWI data. And the third is training, education (that is capacity building), and public outreach programs, such as the ISWI Newsletter. An update on Japan's Contribution to the ISWI in 2010 will be summarized in the present paper.

  2. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  3. From the Jura to Japan...

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

  4. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  5. [Legislations on radiation in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Act was the first law for the prevention of radiation damage in Japan, and was enforced in 1955. The law focused on the research, development and promotion of the use of atomic energy. With an increase in the importing of radioactive isotopes from foreign countries, the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes was established under the jurisdiction of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957 and enforced in 1958. The Nuclear Regulation Authority began as an extra-ministerial committee of the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 and has jurisdiction in the area of ionizing radiations regulations.Substantial regulation has been provided by the Labor Standards Act, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards was established as the eleventh ordinance of the Ministry of Labor in 1959. There have been many revisions to the Ordinance, including revisions following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. This paper explains the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes, the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards, and workmen's accident authorization. PMID:24107339

  6. ASYLUM SEEKERS IN JAPAN: A HARD ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Japan has ratified the 1951 Convention regarding the status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees since 1981 and 1982, yet Japan only accepted an exceptionally low number of refugees in the course 30 years since it ratified the Convention. Japan needs to closely revise and align its national policies with international agreements that it is signatory to. The main framework with which Japan’s government still tackles the issue of refugees is tightly restrained by its overall controlling immigration policies in an attempt to remain a homogenous nation. Japan has a long way to go in order to fully comply with the spirit of the Convention, the Protocol, and international instruments relating to the Status of Refugees. Jepang telah meratifikasi Konvensi Mengenai Status Pengungsi 1951 dan Protokol tentang Kedudukan Pengungsi 1967 sejak tahun 1981 dan 1982, namun Jepang hanya menerima sejumlah kecil pengungsi dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun sejak diratifikasinya konvensi tersebut. Jepang harus meninjau kembali dan memastikan bahwa kebijakan-kebijakan nasional negaranya telah sesuai dengan perjanjian internasional yang telah ditandatangani Jepang. Kerangka kerja pemerintah Jepang dalam menangani isu pengungsi sangat dibatasi oleh berbagai pengetatan kebijakan imigrasi yang dikeluarkan dalam semangat mempertahankan homogenitas bangsa. Jepang memiliki banyak pekerjaan rumah yang harus dilakukan agar dapat memenuhi semangat konvensi, protokol, dan berbagai instrumen internasional terkait status pengungsi.

  7. Images of Japan and its people in Australian media

    OpenAIRE

    Windsor, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In the popular Australian imagination, Japan is often considered a mysterious, distant land beyond our ability to easily comprehend. Despite remaining a popular tourist destination for Australians (until 2011’s earthquake & tsunami disaster), the ‘far East’ image of Japan prevents Australians from meaningfully engaging with Japan and its culture. This paper examines the construction of the ‘far East’ image of Japan in Australian media since the beginnings of Australian contact with Japan in t...

  8. WWOOF Volunteers in Japan – Development of Hotani Nature Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Sajó-Emília, Anna Liliána

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the tourism aspects of volunteering, especially in Japan. Therefore this thesis also deals with the elements of Japanese tourism, Japan as tourist destination and a specific volunteer mediating organization in Japan: the Japanese branch of Wold Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF Japan). In the Case Study this thesis deals with Hotani Nature Farm, a Japanese organic farm. The farm is a member of WWOOF Japan since 2009. The case study researches the development...

  9. Analysis of body surface radiological contamination for inbound people from Japan to China during the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiological contamination of body surface for inbound people from Japan to China during Fukushima nuclear accident. Methods: According to The guidance for radiological contamination management for body surface issued by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for people evacuated from Japan, the body surface monitoring of radiological contamination was performed by the related agencies in main provinces and cities in China. The monitoring data were collected, analyzed and reported to Ministry of Health. Results: A total of 432 persons were checked. The monitoring results of 429 cases were close to the background level, while those of three persons were higher than the background level. Conclusions: In general,the detected results were as low as the background level. The radiological contamination monitoring of body surface for people from Japan could provide scientific data to relax the horror and panic among them. (authors)

  10. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid classifying removed materials that do not warrant special radiation protection measures as ''radioactive waste''; - Japan is advised to consider explaining to the public the importance of focusing on radiation doses that may actually be received by people rather than on data indicating contamination levels; and - Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts. In doing so, Japan is encouraged to take into account the advice provided by the Mission. The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it considers new and appropriate criteria for such activities. The authorities and local residents in Japan fully assisted the IAEA international team in its endeavor to conclude its mission successfully. ''The team also appreciates the openness with which our discussions were conducted and the high level of cooperation and access we were granted by Japan,'' says Mr. Lentijo. ''This was an invaluable opportunity for us to learn from this important decontamination initiative. We would like to continue our support to Japan in this very challenging task. We look forward to sharing our findings with the international community.'' The final report of the mission will be presented to the Government of Japan in the next month. Background. The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA organized an International Fact Finding Expert Mission of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Following The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which took place between 24 May and 2 June 2011. The mission concluded today is a follow-up to the fact-finding mission held earlier in the year and an essential component of the IAEA's Nuclear Safety Action Plan, approved by the IAEA Board of Governors on 13 September and endorsed by all 151 Member States at the recent IAEA General Conference in September 2011. The Action Plan defines a programme of work to strengthen the global nucl

  11. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset.

  12. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  13. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  14. Effects of super-light-duty gasoline and LPG-fueled cars on 16 ambient hydrocarbons at roadsides in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masanobu; Warashina, Munehiro; Itano, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Yuji [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Wakamatsu, Shinji [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba City (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In Japan, five types of vehicles, light-duty gasoline [(LDG) 550 cccity areas, which have not been explained sufficiently. In this study, we investigated the ambient 16 hydrocarbon components at two roadsides in commercial and industrial areas of Osaka City along with the traffic densities of five types of vehicles to propose the significant effects of emissions from SLD and LPG cars besides that of LDG car through a comparison of the ambient [ethylene]/[acetylene] and [i-, n-pentanes]/[i-, n-butanes] ratios with those of the source profiles published in Japan. (author)

  15. Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: View width 15 km ( 9.2 miles); view distance 12 km (7.3 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

  16. Japan Nuclear Technology Institute activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Introduction of JANTI Japan Nuclear Technology Institute (JANTI) was established in April, 2005 by consent of Japanese nuclear industries such as electric utilities, manufacturers, subcontractors etc., and its members consist of 114 companies. JANTI has two major purposes. One is to support industrial initiatives for safety operation on the model of INPO. The other is to improve regulatory practices to agree with the state of the art nuclear technology based on operation data. JANTI promotes three core stones such as Operating Experience Analysis, Nuclear Safety Network and Codes and Standards. Our activities are based on knowledge management by gathering, evaluating the operation experiences from domestic and overseas nuclear power plants, promoting safety culture and industrial standards for safety operation by reflecting on lessons learned from operation experiences. 2. The out line of activities JANTI took over and enhanced information-gathering / delivery / utilization operations of the Nuclear Information Center, which was established in 1983 under the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry to incorporate lessons learned from the TMI (Three Mile Island) nuclear accident. The following items are implemented: (1) Sharing operational experiences from nuclear energy facilities (nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited) to issue recommendations based on event analysis. (2) Conducting trend analysis of operation information to provide feedback on plant operation and maintenance work by exploring a database to counter issues associated with facility aging. (3) Utilizing operation information and equipment reliability data, data for probabilistic safety assessment and drawing up the guidelines for reliability centered maintenance / condition-based maintenance. 2.2 Promoting safety culture JANTI took over and evolved the rules of Nuclear Safety Net, which was established to incorporate lessons learned from the JCO nuclear accident in 1999. Efforts were made to optimize NS Net operations based on its past activities, while maintaining the positive aspects of the Peer Review mechanism. The following items are implemented: (1) Performing Peer Review with the help of INPO and establishing JANTI Peer Review. (2) Promoting safety culture 2.3 Developing voluntary consensus standards As Japanese laws begin to incorporate performance oriented standards, there is a need for developing voluntary consensus standards. (1) Grasping industry needs and drawing up a roadmap for them. (2) Supporting the development of voluntary consensus standards 3. Summary The capacity of the nuclear industry has been amassed to establish JANTI as an institute for developing the industry's technological foundation, promoting industrial initiatives for safety operation and contributing to the revitalization of the nuclear industry itself. Its basic policies are to use scientific, rational data and knowledge to contribute to enhancing industrial initiatives for safety operation. Especially, as the recent topic, Japanese utility revealed the critical event by inadvertent rod withdrawal which happened in 1999. It enhanced JANTI to improve our activities furthermore. Its outline and the countermeasures will be explained at the meeting. (author)

  17. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  18. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam

  19. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  20. Mortality and life expectancy of Yokkaichi Asthma patients, Japan: Late effects of air pollution in 1960–70s

    OpenAIRE

    Suenaga Masami; Yokoyama Kazuhito; Guo Peng; Kida Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma began increasing in early 1960s in the population of Yokkaichi-city (Mie Prefecture, Japan). The cause of the disease was sulfur oxide air pollution, and it is known as Yokkaichi Asthma. The pollution markedly decreased by the end of 1970s; no new cases have been reported since 1988. This study aimed at examining the late effects of air pollution on the health of Yokkaichi Asthma patients. M...

  1. Internal Structure of the Sambongi Fan - Towada Volcano, Japan: Putting the Theory to the Test, using an Extensive GPR Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Christopher; Kyoko, Kataoka

    2011-01-01

    The Towada Caldera Volcano is located in Aomori Prefecture - Northern Honshu Island, Japan. The caldera, today filled by a lake, has produced 15,000 years ago a complex eruption emplacing an Ignimbrite deposit topped by the lake outburst flood deposit, through which the present Oirase River cuts. This deposit has shaped the geomorphologic feature named Sambongi fan, on which Towada City extends. Based on outcrops, a few coring and radiocarbon dating, Kataoka (2011) has developed a theory tyin...

  2. Great cities look small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  3. The Firebombing of Tokyo: Views from the Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Cary Karacas; Bret Fisk

    2011-01-01

    More than sixty-five years after the Great Tokyo Air Raid of March 10, 1945, and the subsequent firebombing and destruction of Japan's cities by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II, the issues remain little known and less studied. In stark contrast to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, however, historians and other scholars working in the English language have paid little attention to the tremendous societal impact - both immediate and long-lasting - of the destructi...

  4. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20821877

  5. AMS 14C dating of wooden anchors and planks excavated from submerged wrecks located at Takashima in Imari Bay, Nagasaki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to folklore the fleet that was dispatched to Japan for the second Mongol invasion of 1281 encountered a fierce typhoon at Takashima. Radiocarbon (14C) ages of wooden anchors and planks excavated from the submerged site at Takashima were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The 14C ages are 745±20 BP for bamboo and 770±20 BP for wood from the intact wooden anchor, and 840±20 / 865±20 BP for the planks, respectively. The calibrated bamboo age of 1268-1284 cal AD and the slightly older age of 1257-1279 cal AD for wood suggest that the wooden anchor was manufactured just before the invasion. The age range of planks (1191-1236 and 1163-1215 cal AD) is consistent with an idea that they are likely to be derived from contemporaneous ships. The high-precision AMS 14C dating confirms that the wooden anchors and planks are remains of wrecked Mongolian warships that were involved in the second Mongol invasion. (author)

  6. AMS {sup 14}C dating of wooden anchors and planks excavated from submerged wrecks located at Takashima in Imari Bay, Nagasaki prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotaka; Niu, Etsuko; Ikeda, Akiko; Nakamura, Toshio [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ogawa, Mitsuhiko [Ryukyus Univ., Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Course of Regional Cultural Studies, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan); Matsuo, Akiko [Takashima-town Archeological Center, Takashima, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    According to folklore the fleet that was dispatched to Japan for the second Mongol invasion of 1281 encountered a fierce typhoon at Takashima. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) ages of wooden anchors and planks excavated from the submerged site at Takashima were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The {sup 14}C ages are 745{+-}20 BP for bamboo and 770{+-}20 BP for wood from the intact wooden anchor, and 840{+-}20 / 865{+-}20 BP for the planks, respectively. The calibrated bamboo age of 1268-1284 cal AD and the slightly older age of 1257-1279 cal AD for wood suggest that the wooden anchor was manufactured just before the invasion. The age range of planks (1191-1236 and 1163-1215 cal AD) is consistent with an idea that they are likely to be derived from contemporaneous ships. The high-precision AMS {sup 14}C dating confirms that the wooden anchors and planks are remains of wrecked Mongolian warships that were involved in the second Mongol invasion. (author)

  7. Monitoring of PCDD/F in ambient air of the city of Ostrava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsej, T.; Grabic, R.; Tomsejova, S.; Miturova, H.; Ocelka, T. [Ostrava Inst. of Public Health, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The city of Ostrava in the Czech Republic is heavily polluted due to the coal mining, metallurgy and chemical production activities that have taken place in the region. This paper provided the results of a long-term study of dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) contaminants in the ambient atmosphere of the city. A polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler was used to obtain samples from January to July 2003, as well as from March to April 2004. Analyses of the samples were performed using high resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) and gas chromatography (GC). Results showed that PCDD/F levels in Ostrava were comparable with the levels found in industrial cities in Germany, Japan, and Korea. Correlations between PCDD/F concentrations and total suspended particulates (TSP) in the city center were estimated at 0.87. It was concluded that PCDD/F concentrations were related to TSP levels in the city. 2 figs.

  8. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  9. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event number and spatial distribution. Due to the multiple rounds of the experiment, we are now understanding the stability of models, robustness of model selection and earthquake predictability in each region beyond stochastic fluctuations of seismicity. We plan to use the results for design of 3 dimensional earthquake forecasting model in Kanto region, which is supported by the special project for reducing vulnerability for urban mega earthquake disasters from Ministy of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology of Japan.

  10. Perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in surface water in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norimitsu; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Koizumi, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are synthetic surfactants used in Japan. An epidemiological study of workers exposed to PFOA revealed a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality. A cross-sectional study of PFOA-exposed workers showed that PFOA perturbs sex hormone homeostasis. We analyzed their concentrations in surface water samples collected from all over Japan by LC/MS with a solid phase extraction method. The lowest limits of detection (LOD) (ng/L) were 0.06 for PFOA and 0.04 for PFOS. The lowest limits of quantification (LOQ) (ng/L) were 0.1 for both analytes. The levels [geometric mean (GM); geometric standard deviation (GS)] (ng/L) of PFOA and PFOS in the surface waters were GM (GS): 0.97 (3.06) and 1.19 (2.44) for Hokkaido-Tohoku (n=16); 2.84(3.56) and 3.69 (3.93) for Kanto (n=14); 2.50 (2.23) and 1.07 (2.36) for Chubu (n=17); 21.5 (2.28) and 5.73 (3.61) for Kinki (n=8); 1.51 (2.28) and 1.00 (3.42) for Chugoku (n=9); 1.93 (2.40) and 0.89 (3.09) for Kyushu-Shikoku (n=15). The GM of PFOA in Kinki was significantly higher than in other areas (ANOVA pYodo and Kanzaki Rivers revealed two highly contaminated sites, a public-water-disposal site for PFOA and an airport for PFOS. The former was estimated to release 18 kg of PFOA/d. PFOA in drinking water in Osaka city [40 (1.07) ng/L] was significantly higher than in other areas. The present study confirms that recognizable amounts of PFOA are released in the Osaka area and that people are exposed to PFOA through drinking water ingestion. PMID:14960830

  11. Middle term prospects for Japan's safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has responded to IAEA requirements on reinforced safeguard regulations. The IAEA additional protocol entered in force in Japan on December 1999. Japan submitted a preliminary information report to IAEA on June 2000 after joint works with the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) of Japan. The first annual report was submitted to IAEA on May 2001. Another activity for the additional protocol is complementary accesses. The total 36 accesses to facilities have been done from November 2000 to September 2001. Procedures of access to managements are under discussion. MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been constructing the Rokkasho Safeguards On-Site Laboratory from 1997, and the Rokkasho Safeguards Center from 2000. The Design Information Verification (DIV) is now ongoing. Much more personal resources will be needed for future inspections. Therefore, the budget for safeguards is increasing in contrast to the flat base budget for the total atomic energy. As for future activity, a MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuels) fuel processing plant is one of the issues for discussion. The construction of the MOX processing plant is supposed to begin on around 2004. The conclusion of additional protocol will be given by IAEA until end of 2002. Shift to integrated safeguards are under discussions by MEXT, NMCC and utilities of Japan parallel with IAEA. Key issues of discussion are cost saving for safeguards, development of personal resources for inspectors and the role of NMCC. (Y. Tanaka)

  12. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  13. The great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  14. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami. An update and lessons from the past great earthquakes in Japan since 1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (?18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of ''Tsunami, ten-den-ko.'' This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11th tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (?105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters. (author)

  15. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  16. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksia&¸zdot; ek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  17. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  18. Creativity, cities and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Neil; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The creative industries have long been seen as an innovative sector. More recent research posits that creative occupations are also a fundamental, but overlooked, driver of innovation. Theory also suggests cities are important for both creative industries and occupations, with urban environments helping firms innovate. Yet little empirical work has considered the links between creative industries, occupations, cities and innovation at the firm level. This paper addresses this gap using a samp...

  19. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also at...

  20. Airport as city:

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the world today. In many cases, the resultant agglomeration resembles a city in terms of scale, ‘population’ (staff and travellers), infrastructural connectivity and spatial quality. As the world becomes m...

  1. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many other variables the...

  2. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  3. City centre violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine departments have often proved to be an important source of information concerning violence. These resulting studies of violence have not previously focused on city centre violence, but instead described violence from an entire casualty department or police district. Results from the Aarhus violence study of 1999-2000 revealed differences in characteristics of victims, place of assault and alcohol consumption when violence in the city was compared to violence elsewhere. The pre...

  4. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implication...

  5. A City Imagined

    OpenAIRE

    Matthysen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the re-conceptualization of Pretoria Central Business District (CBD), grounding the hypothesis within Paul Kruger Street. The author aims to provide a newfound approach to this historical connection, transforming the interpretative experience of the urban environment as a stage from where the city operates as a place of fantasy, covet, and imagination. The project will demonstrate how the inception of a Virtual Landscape can renew perceptions of the city and pave ...

  6. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  7. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos arkitektstuderende på de danske arkitektskoler eller for den sags skyld på universiteterne. De, der i en dansk kontekst søger mod arkitektfaget drages af bygningen og af at udleve drømmen om at være arkitekten, der...

  8. Ecological city planning

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-01-01

    A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the u...

  9. UK-Japan collaboration on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK-Japan collaboration on neutron scattering between KEK (Japan) and CCLRC (Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils, UK) started in 1987. MARI and MAPS had been built in ISIS facility of Rutherford and Appleton Organization. The following three research fields are using MAPS and good results obtained: incommensurate spin dynamics and local structure of magnetic substance and superconductors by intense pulse neutron, dynamic and local structure of new amorphous materials and dynamic and local structure of hydrogen in matter. This report includes an interim report in Fiscal 2001 and the transparencies used. The contents of UK-Japan collaboration, results of main researches, publication and attached papers are included. Outline of MAPS, a present state of the collaboration, change of experiment problems, adopted subjects from 1999 to 2001 and abstract of 21 papers are reported. (S.Y.)

  10. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan. PMID:23600266

  11. Environmental sample analysis program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is prepared establishment of environmental sample analysis capability in Japan in relation to the strengthened safeguards and to the CTBT verification since 1996. Such capability will be established, first, for safeguards and the installation of the clean chemistry Laboratory at existing buildings of JAERI will start from fiscal year 1998. It is specifically important to reflect experiences gained in other countries to save time and money and to establish reliable and cost-effective laboratory in Japan. To make this possible, international cooperation is extremely important. If an international level of environmental sample analysis techniques is attained in this laboratory, it would greatly contribute to the strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards because it can be used as one of the IAEA network laboratories

  12. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Andreeva.

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as w [...] ell as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  13. Japan's Ambivalent Diplomacy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan often pictures itself as an environmental leader. While many examples of Japan's actions against climate change are in line with global climate change norms, others can be in opposition to them. This study, based on first hand interviews with Japanese policy makers and actors from the private and civil society sector, gives an informed perspective on the process through which Japan came to integrate and implement, at the domestic level, the international objective of climate change prevention, pointing out the discrepancies, tensions or synergies that emerged. As the current governance on climate change, and particularly after the Copenhagen conference, tends to reassert the importance of the national level against the global one, the Japanese case can serve as an example of tools and strategies that fully integrate the domestic level

  14. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  15. Recentering the City: an anthropology of secondary cities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiman, Ann; De Boeck, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Theme 1 Session 1 Saturday 26 September 2009 The African City Centre in contemporary global context. -Keynote/moderator Dick van Gameren Refereed papers: - Filip De Boeck & Ann Cassiman (KULeuven): Recentering the City: An anthropology of Secondary Cities. - Gruffydd-jones (University of London): Cities Without Slums? Global and local architectures of power in the African city. - Gantner (unaffiliated, USA): The Urban Market: Social and spatial configurations in the African cit...

  16. Control of radiation sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report refers to the regulations for radioactive material in force in Japan, and to the organizations with responsibilities for regulating radiation sources. An outline of the law regulating the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials is provided, including its scope, types of radiation sources under control, exemptions and the system of notification, authorization and inspection. The experience of Japan with orphan sources is presented in three different cases, and the measures carried out to store the orphan sources in safe conditions. (author)

  17. Market Area Analysis of Ports in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews port cargo flow structure on hinterland/foreland (i.e. shippers' port use propensity) in Japan to examine port policy. Port service areas are analysed by conducting fuzzy clustering for 47 prefectures in Japan. Container cargo flow survey data from 1988 to 2008 at five-year intervals are used. Clusters of shippers' use of ports are discussed; that is, shippers' groups are determined using export/import handling cargo data on the basis of weight, cross section, and time seri...

  18. Microwave filters and circuits contributions from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio

    1970-01-01

    Microwave Filters and Circuits: Contributions from Japan covers ideas and novel circuits used to design microwave filter that have been developed in Japan, as well as network theory into the field of microwave transmission networks. The book discusses the general properties and synthesis of transmission-line networks; transmission-line filters on the image-parameter basis; and experimental results on a class of transmission-line filter constructed only with commensurate TEM lossless transmission lines. The text describes lines constants, approximation problems in transmission-line networks, as

  19. Operational experiences of INES in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has introduced IAEA's INES in August, 1992. As of September, 1997, the total number of domestic nuclear events which have evaluated by using the INES system has amounted 119. In Japan, when a nuclear event occurs at a nuclear power plant, a provisional evaluation is performed immediately by Nuclear Power Operation Administration Office, MITI. The final evaluation of events is implemented a few months after event occurrence by the Evaluation Committee on Incidents and Failures of Nuclear Power Plant which holds a neutral position. The results of the evaluation are transmitted to IAEA according to the INES reporting criteria

  20. "I Was There": A Young Sailor's Account of the Occupation of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelbein, Bob

    1990-01-01

    Reprints portions of a sailor's diary, kept for two-and-a-half years during World War II. The 21-year-old quartermaster writes about his life on the USS Grimes; hearing of the war's official end; his ship's peaceful landing in Tokyo Bay; and his experiences in Nagasaki in September 1945. (CH)

  1. Learning Cities on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  2. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. The discussions in this paper form the building blocks for a much-needed research agenda that aims to deliver a strategy to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas.

  3. Plutonium Fuel Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Japan is a small island with a large population, nuclear power should be developed as early and as much as possible. However, since it has very few uranium resources and has to import fuels, it is very important to import as little as possible and to use that fuel most effectively. JAEC has decided to develop the heavy-water-moderated, boiling light-water-cooled reactor system and the sodium-cooled fast breeder system, the details of which are being planned. The low-enriched uranium for light-water reactors (which will be the main nuclear plants in the near future) will be imported, while its fabrication and the reprocessing of spent fuels are to be done inside the country. The plutonium recycling in light-water reactors is therefore essential, as well as the development of fast reactor fuels. The development is to be done in collaboration by JAERI and AFC. both of which are government establishments. The former is conducting fundamental research and development and the latter is developing fuel fabrication and is responsible for the development of reprocessing of irradiated fuels. JAERI has a plutonium facility of 900 m2 , consisting of a chemical research, chemical analysis and ceramic research laboratory, and is constructing an alpha-gamma facility of five cells with nine boxes in each cell. AFC has a plutonium laboratory of 4450 m2 , which was completed in autumn 1966 with an expenditure of about $4 million. The test run of this facility using 5% and 20% PuO2 -UO2 pellets, co-precipitated and mechanically blended, was conducted during January-April 1966. The preparation of 40% PuO2-UO2 fuel specimens for the scheduled irradiation testing in the Enrico Fermi Reactor is now under way, following some mock-up tests and developmental operations. The irradiation programme includes low-density pellets, central-holed pellets and vibratory compacted fuel pins, all clad with Type 316 stainless steel. As for the development of plutonium fuels for recycling in light water reactors, fuel designs based on the criterion of the re-enrichment of discharged uranium with plutonium, which is produced in other reactors such as the Magnox-type Tokai Reactor, have been calculated. The vibratory compaction method and sol-gel processing to prepare suitable particles for VIPAC have been selected as promising economical fabrication techniques. The sol-gel processing on UO2 as the stand-in of UO2-PuO2 was well established, and several specimens were evaluated by their irradiation testing. UO2-PuO2 is being studied by the process, and a screening irradiation testing is to be done the spring of 1967. AFC-JAERI joint research work on the physical investigation of neutron fine structures inside the vibratory compacted fuel, and its simulation to the in-pile sintering of UO2 and UO2-PuO2 fuel rods, is being carried out in a light-water critical facility in JAERI. (author)

  4. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: February 8, 2001

  5. Heavy metal pollution in Ancient Nara, Japan, during the eighth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Yamashita, Shusuke; Yamaoka, Kyoko; Okai, Takashi; Shimoda, Gen; Imai, Noboru

    2014-12-01

    We quantitatively investigated the eighth century heavy metal pollution in Heijo-kyo (Ancient Nara), the first large, international city of Japan. In this metropolis, mercury, copper, and lead levels in soil were increased by urban activity and by the construction of the Great Buddha statue, Nara Daibutsu. Mercury and copper pollution associated with the construction of the statue was particularly high in the immediate vicinity of the statue, but markedly lower in the wider city environment. We therefore reject the hypothesis that extensive mercury pollution associated with the construction of the Nara Daibutsu made it necessary to abandon Ancient Nara, even though severe lead pollution was detected at several sites. The isotopic composition of the lead indicated that it originated mainly from the Naganobori mine in Yamaguchi, which was a major source of the copper for the Nara Daibutsu.

  6. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  7. Memento. Maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan represents the last of the 3 steps of transport of the nuclear fuel reprocessing-recycling program settled between ORC (Japan), BNFL (UK) and Cogema (France). This document summarizes the different aspects of this program: the companies concerned, the physical protection measures, the US-Japan agreements (accompanying warship), the in-depth safety, the handling of MOX fuels (containers and ships), and the Japan MOX fuel needs. (J.S.)

  8. The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    van Stel, André; Thurik, Roy; Verheul, Ingrid; Baljeu, Lendert

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of entrepreneurship on unemployment are not different when compared to other OECD countries. In the past, small firms in Japan benefited from the protective environment of the keiretsu structure. Thi...

  9. Legal Education and the Reproduction of the Elite in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Miyazawa; Hiroshi Otsuka

    2000-01-01

    Although it is debatable whether the upper members of Japan?s Diet, public bureaucracy, and business community truly ?command? Japanese society, it can be said that nothing important is decided without their participation. This article analyzes the relationship between legal education and the reproduction of those elite in Japan. A brief analysis of the historical development of the legal education in Japan, compared to the more recent landscape of Japanese politics, bureaucracy, and busine...

  10. With a Little Help from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  11. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Megastock'97 Kongres, Juni, 1997, Sapporo, Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Report on experiences, contacts and novelties in the technics of energy storage made at the Megastock'97 konference in Sapporo, Japan, seen from a Danish point of view.A number of methods and technics for energy storgare are discussed and recommendations to the Ministery of Environment and Energy are proposed.

  13. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  14. Cohabitation and family formation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Iwasawa, Miho; Bumpass, Larry

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  15. Safety regulations for power generation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plants in Japan are subject to legal regulations which are similar to those applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. air pollution abatement and atomic energy laws. The Japanese atomic energy law mainly intends to reduce emissions during normal operation, watch over safety measures, and ensure the selection of suitable sites. (DG)

  16. MHD simulation for magnetic confinement in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computations of the MHD behaviors of the tokamak and the stellarator plasmas in Japan are reviewed. Emphasis is put on the computations which are directly or indirectly related with the beta limits of the plasmas. The problems are discussed from the aspect of the large scale computations rather than physics implications. (author)

  17. APWR - Mitsubishi, Japan/Westinghouse, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generated by light water reactors accounts for approximately 1/3 of Japan's power supply. Development of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) was initiated by five PWR electric power companies (Hokkaido, Kansai, Shikoku, Kyushu and Japan Atomic Power), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Westinghouse, with a view to providing a nuclear power source to meet future energy demand in Japan. The APWR was developed based on the results of the Improvement and Standardization Program, promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with reconsideration of the needs of age, such as construction cost reduction, enhanced safety and increased reliability. One of the important concepts of the APWR is its large power rating that decreases the construction cost per unit of electric generation capacity. Though the electric output was lower at the early stage of basic design than it is now, uprating to approximately 1530 MW is achieved based on the results of design progress and high efficiency improvements to the steam turbine and reactor coolant pumps. Furthermore, the APWR remarkably enhances reliability, safety operability and maintainability by introducing new technologies that include a radial reflector and advanced accumulators. The first APWR is planned to be built at Tsuruga No. 3 and No. 4 by the Japan Atomic Power Company and will be the largest commercial operation plant in the early 21st century. (author)

  18. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  19. Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

  20. Activities toward PSA quality improvement in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSA of adequate quality is indispensable for expanding the field of risk-informed plant management. Activities to construct framework of improving PSA quality in Japan, such as arrangement of PSA standard, adopting parameters based on operational experience of Japanese NPPs, and implementation of PSA peer review, are in progress. (author)