WorldWideScience
1

The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

2

Incidence of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to observe the incidence of multiple myeloma in the population of Nagasaki City from 1973 to 1982, and to assess any influence caused by A-bomb exposure, 85 cases of myeloma have been collected and analysed. Informatively, 48 cases of this number were A-bomb survivors. Among the middle-aged cases, the crude incidence rates of myeloma in the exposed group were found to be higher than those in the non-exposed group. Further, the relative risk of myeloma was higher in A-bomb survivors and this tendency become more pronounced in the those who were within 2 km of the epicenter of the blast. The age-adjusted relative risk in male and female A-bomb survivors was 1.59 and 1.68 respectively, but no significant differences were noted. (author)

3

The cancer registry in Nagasaki City, with atomic bomb survivors data, 1973-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tumor registry program in Nagasaki City was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population and a tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. According to the chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City, an increasing trend was shown in males for cancer of the colon, rectum, lung, urinary bladder, and for all sites combined, and, in females for cancer of the colon, pancreas, and breast. No decreasing trend was observed for any site in males, while a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. In comparison with age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in other prefectures and cities in 1979, the rates in Nagasaki City are high for both males and females. Sites with a tendency for high rates, in Nagasaki City, are, for males, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and lymphoid tissue, and for females, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, lung, breast, and lymphoid tissue. From these data, it is necessary to ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors than in nonexposed persons. According to the Nagasaki City tumor and tissue registry data for 1973 - 77, the crude incidence rate and relative risk for several cancers were higher in A-bomb survivors and well correlated with the radiation dose. However, the adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only frelative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes. Histopathological difference between cancer tissue of A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons was not detected. In general, it is premature to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences of malignancy between A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons, although an increase in cancer incidence and mortality is a recognized late effect of exposure to A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

4

Soya foods and breast cancer risk: a prospective study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.  

OpenAIRE

The association between soya foods and breast cancer risk was investigated in a prospective study of 34 759 women in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Women completed dietary questionnaires in 1969–1970 and/or in 1979–1981 and were followed for incident breast cancer until 1993. The analysis involved 427 cases of primary breast cancer in 488 989 person-years of observation. The risk for breast cancer was not significantly associated with consumption of soya foods: for tofu, relative risks ad...

Key, Tj; Sharp, Gb; Appleby, Pn; Beral, V.; Goodman, Mt; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

1999-01-01

5

Antifungal Susceptibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus Clinical Isolates Obtained in Nagasaki, Japan  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the triazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin susceptibilities of 196 A. fumigatus clinical isolates in Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates for which MICs of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were above the ECV were 7.1%, 2.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. A G54 mutation in cyp51A was detected in 64.2% (9/14 isolates) and 100% (5/5 isolates) of non-WT isolates for itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs of ?2 ?g/...

Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi; Minematsu, Asuka; Hirano, Katsuji; Iwanaga, Naoki; Ide, Shotaro; Mihara, Tomo; Hosogaya, Naoki; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Kurihara, Shintaro; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Nishino, Tomoya

2012-01-01

6

Antifungal Susceptibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus Clinical Isolates Obtained in Nagasaki, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the triazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin susceptibilities of 196 A. fumigatus clinical isolates in Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates for which MICs of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were above the ECV were 7.1%, 2.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. A G54 mutation in cyp51A was detected in 64.2% (9/14 isolates) and 100% (5/5 isolates) of non-WT isolates for itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs of ?2 ?g/ml and micafungin minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of ?16 ?g/ml were recorded for two and one isolates, respectively. PMID:22024829

Tashiro, Masato; Minematsu, Asuka; Hirano, Katsuji; Iwanaga, Naoki; Ide, Shotaro; Mihara, Tomo; Hosogaya, Naoki; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Kurihara, Shintaro; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Nishino, Tomoya; Tsukamoto, Misuzu; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yasuoka, Akira; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru

2012-01-01

7

Fate of plutonium released from the Nagasaki A-bomb, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 15 kg of plutonium was used in the Nagasaki A-bomb, but only 1 kg was fissioned and the rest (14 kg) was released into the environment. The fate of this plutonium was investigated at the east side of Nagasaki city where the local fallout was deposited. The four objectives investigated concerning the unfissioned 239+240Pu were: (1) the geographical distribution up to 100 km from the hypocentre, (2) the vertical movement of the deposited plutonium within a soil core and a reservoir sediment core, (3) the ecological distribution, and (4) an estimation of the total mass deposited as local fallout. The highest concentration of 239+240Pu, 64.5 mBq/g, was found at a point 2.8 km from the hypocentre. The local fallout was observed over a limited area up to 18 km east from the hypocentre. Plutonium was mobile within the soils and reservoir sediments. For the former an amount of 10% moved downward during the last four decades and the rest (90%) remained within 10 cm from the surface. A considerable amount of plutonium was found in fish (0.0195 mBq/g dry), freshwater shellfish (0.0278 mBq/g dry), ginger root (0.0366 mBq/g dry), and sweet potato (0.0110 mBq/g dry). An estimation of plutonium deposited as local fallout from the A-bomb was 37.54 grams. (author)

8

[WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment. PMID:23718975

Yoshizawa, Kazuko

2013-01-01

9

Epidemiology of ovarian cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973?1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted on 151 cases (67 exposed and 84 nonexposed) of ovarian cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. Although the crude incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the exposed group was higher than in the nonexposed group, the age-adjusted relative risk was not significantly different. The relative risk of ovarian cancer incidence by age at the time of the A-bomb was high in the 10-19 group (puberty), and was low in the 40-49 group. It suggested the possibility that radiation carcinogenesis in the ovary was closely related to the secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones following radiation injury of the ovary. No significant different in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found. (author)

10

US-Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. DS86. Dosimetry System 1986. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1947 the US National Academy of Sciences established the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to commence this important research which ABCC continued until, in 1975, ABCC became the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a joint United States-Japan research organization. One of the most fundamental parameters in these studies is the individual radiation dose received by the A-bomb survivors. The estimation of radiation dose was difficult because of the paucity of detailed exposure data at the time. However, ABCC, the US Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences were involved in developing a dosimetry system called the Tentative 1965 Dose (T65D) for use in estimating individual doses. This system was formulated on the basis of data obtained at A-bomb tests in Nevada, the BREN experiment, and large-scale shielding experiments. The T65D estimates have been in use at ABCC and RERF in Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1965. However, criticism was raised regarding the precision of this computation system; consequently, dosimetry reassessment groups were established in 1981 in the United States and Japan. Working Groups were created in the United States and Japan, and each group with with a different assignment, expended their utmost efforts in research while mutually maintaining coordination with each other. In this endeavor a total of four joint workshops were held (two in Hiroshima and onekshops were held (two in Hiroshima and one each in Nagasaki and Pasadena) for an exchange of data and views. Thanks to the dedicated efforts of these groups, a new dosimetry system called Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was developed. Whereas T65D was based on experimental data, the new dosimetry system was based on the establishment of an appropriate model and on computation by the Monte Carlo method. To verify the validity of this model, various experimental data and results of new measurements as well as those made in the past in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were employed. The DS86 dose estimates which have been developed are regarded as the best possible that can be made in view of the present scientific state of the art. The results of this work will provide estimates of radiation risk that will meet the expectation of scientists of the world, including those of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Commission on Radiological Protection

11

Studies on the growth of the middle school children, whose parents were exposed to the atom bomb in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagasaki junior high school students were divided into Group E (children of the exposed) and Group O (children of the non-exposed). Their growth was compared according to the degree of exposure received by their parents. An interim result was reported. There was a big difference between the height and body weight of students who lived in the center of the city and those who lived in the suburbs. These values also differed greatly according to family occupations. When the difference in physique between Group E and Group O was considered, districts and occupations were restricted. A tendency of O>E only was observed in an investigation of all subjects in all districts. A significant difference between the groups was observed in regard to some grades when districts and occupations were restricted. A scattering analysis of physique values, regarded as independent variables, of the same students according to grade revealed a difference in O>E in height, especially in boys. (Tsunoda, M.)

12

Japan's Four Major Smart Cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

NONE

2012-11-15

13

Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data have been presented on the finding of glycosuria and the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus during four years of a long-term study of the health of population samples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Diabetes and glycosuria are much more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki and in both cities these findings are more frequent in males than in females. The prevalence of diabetes appears to be increasing in Hiroshima males. Findings in diabetics were compared with nondiabetics. In general, Japanese diabetics are similar to diabetics in other countries concerning their increased risk of obesity, hypertension, proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diagnoses. This is of particular interest in the light of evidence that ketosis and severe abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism are rare in Japan as compared to Western countries. Despite a lower prevalance of diabetes in Japanese females than in males, the abnormalities associated with diabetes appear to occur more commonly in female diabetics than in male diabetics.

Freedman, L.R.; Blackard, W.G.; Sagan, L.A.; Ishida, Morihiro; Hamilton, H.B.

1965-06-10

14

Imatinib provides durable molecular and cytogenetic responses in a practical setting for both newly diagnosed and previously treated chronic myelogenous leukemia: a study in nagasaki prefecture, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the efficacy of imatinib in a practical setting, we registered 43 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (group I) and 56 patients with previously diagnosed CML (group II) at 11 hematology centers in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, from December 2001 to July 2005 and analyzed the molecular responses. Cytopenia, fluid retention, and skin rash were major adverse events, along with elevation in creatine phosphokinase levels. With a follow-up of approximately 3.5 years, imatinib treatment led to 88.7% overall survival (OS) and 85.2% progression-free survival (PFS) rates for group I, and 79.8% OS and 76.6% PFS rates for group II; the rates were not significantly different despite a lower average imatinib dose in group II. The rates of complete cytogenetic response at 30 months and major molecular response at 24 months were 86.1% and 62.5%, respectively, in group I, and 77.9% and 58.3% in group II; the rates were not significantly different. As has been reported by other groups, these results demonstrate that imatinib treatment can provide excellent clinical and molecular effects for not only newly diagnosed but also previously treated CML patients in practical settings that cover a wider variety of patients than clinical trials. PMID:17321991

Matsuo, Emi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Tsutsumi, Chizuko; Inoue, Yoriko; Yamasaki, Reishi; Hata, Tomoko; Fukushima, Takuya; Tsushima, Hideki; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Iwanaga, Masako; Sakai, Mari; Ando, Koji; Sawayama, Yasushi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Yasuhisa; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Ikeda, Shuichi; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Honda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Jun; Onimaru, Yasuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Tawara, Masayuki; Atogami, Sunao; Yamamura, Masaomi; Soda, Hisashi; Yoshida, Yoshiharu; Matsuo, Yuji; Nonaka, Hiroaki; Joh, Tatsuro; Takasaki, Yumi; Kawasaki, Chiyuki; Momita, Saburo; Jinnai, Itsuro; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Tomonaga, Masao

2007-02-01

15

Trends in the incidence of uterine cancer in Nagasaki city, with a reference to previous atomic bomb exposure, 1973-1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An epidemiological study has been conducted to elucidate the trend in the incidence of uterine cancer, with a reference also to previous A-bomb exposure. Studied were 783 cases (345 exposed and 438 nonexposed) of uterine cancer that were handled from 1973 to 1982. The incidence rate of cervical cancer was significantly higher among the population who came into Nagasaki city within two weeks after exposure. A comparison between the incidence rate of '73-'77 and '78-'82 revealed a decreasing trend of cervical cancer and an increasing trend of corpus cancer. The increasing rate of corpus cancer was higher in the younger group of A-bomb survivors (less than 59 years old) than in the other survivors. (author)

16

Analysis of air pollution data in Kawasaki City, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution monitoring activities at Kawasaki City, Japan during 1969 through 1974 are discussed. Data are presented on sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, CO, and suspended particulates in relation to weather conditions.

Washio, Y.

1976-09-17

17

Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost 35 years have passed since the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were exposed to atomic bombs in August, 1945. In the same year, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was organized. The quality of radiation received by the survivors in the 2 cities differed appreciably. The Hiroshima bomb was composed of 235U so that from 15 - 30% of the radiation released was in the form of neutron particles, and the remainder was gamma. 239Pu bomb of Nagasaki released almost pure gamma radiation. Before 1950, an increased number of the axial opacity of the lenses of eyes was noted in many of the exposed survivors, and such lesions found more in Hiroshima was related to the dose. Maternal radiation exposure during the first 15 weeks of gestation caused small head children. Prenatal exposure to more than 50 rad in Hiroshima was associated with the eventual reduction in stature, 1.8 to 2.3 cm shorter in the average height at the age of 17. The chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were significantly increased in the persons who had been exposed to high dose of radiation while in utero or at any time after birth. Thyroid tumors occurred more frequently among the survivors exposed to high dose than those who received little or no radiation. The histologic types of radiation-related tumors were unique. The risk of lung cancer in the exposed persons continued to be high, regardless of smoking. Predominant leukemia in exposed children waredominant leukemia in exposed children was acute lymphoblastic, and in adults, it is chronic granulocytic leukemia. (Yamashita, S.)

18

Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

1989-02-01

19

Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

20

Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author)

21

Los Alamos, Hiroshima, Nagasaki - a personal recollection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, a physicist participating in the Manhattan Project, recalls his experiences and work in the laboratories at the time which marked the onset of the nuclear era, the construction of the first uranium and plutonium bombs in Los Alamos, and the hidious effects shown to the world by the nuclear bombing of Japan. His thoughts and memories presented 50 years after the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and now that the Cold War has ended, call for a global ban of nuclear weapons. (orig.)

22

Radon measurements in some houses of Tsukuba Science City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements concerning radon and its daughter products' concentration levels have been performed in 42 selective houses of the Tsukuba Science City (Japan) using CR-39 and LR-115 nuclear track detectors. These included both single story houses and flats in multi-storied buildings. Four CR-39 and four LR-115 detectors were put into a zippable polyethylene bag and a number of such bags were prepared. These detector loaded bags were then installed in two bedrooms of each of the houses/flats and were exposed for a period of three months during the winter season (i.e. from December to February). These radon exposed samples were then processed, analyzed and related to the Bq/m3. These studies indicated that the radon levels are very low in the houses surveyed and do not pose any serious threat to the occupants. (author)

23

Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

24

Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

25

Ingestion of Chernobyl 137Cs in Akita City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ingestion of 137Cs during 1985-1988 in Akita City, Japan, has been studied. Samples of 13 separate food categories were collected and analyzed for Cs radioisotopes. The ingestion rate of 137Cs originating from the Chenobyl accident decreased exponentially with a practical half-life of 1.6 years. The total ingestion of Chernobyl 137Cs per capita is estimated to be 62 Bq. The relative contributions of various food categories to 137Cs ingestion after the accident were dissimilar to those from nuclear weapons testing. Thus, the contamination pattern for Chernobyl 137Cs was characterized by a higher contribution (42%) by dairy products to total 137Cs ingestion. The practical half-life for the decrease in the 137Cs ingestion rate from dairy products was found to be 0.75 years. The transfer coefficient from deposition to diet for 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident was found to be significantly lower than that describing transfer of 137Cs from nuclear weapons test. (author)

26

Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m-3 and 40.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m-3 and 13.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

27

Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concernede current study is concerned

28

Examination of human diaphragms for trichinosis, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trichinella spiralis has been found in three species of mammals born in Hokkaido so it possibly infects other species in Japan, including man. Although examination of human diaphragms in a small series of 149 autopsies in Hiroshima and 37 autopsies in Nagasaki (by digestion, compression, and microscopic sections) failed to reveal any instance of trichinous infection, it is felt that the existence or absence of human trichinosis inJapan can be determined only by examination covering a larger series of autopsies, and performed in various parts of the country. 6 references.

Gould, S.E.; Ozaki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Kazuo

1961-11-30

29

Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

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Survey of dental radiology among RERF, Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed to assess the frequency and type of dental radiography performed during 2-week periods from March through June 1976. Patients radiographed were categorized as members of the Adult Health Study (AHS), non-AHS (Extended Life Span Study other than AHS) sample and general populations, and also categorized as Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Handbook holders (the A-bomb exposed) and nonholders of the handbook (the nonexposed). All of these groups were variously compared. They were mainly exposed to conventional oral radiography, and to a much lesser extent(3%-5%) to orthopantomography. The exposure frequencies for oral radiography per caput per year in Hiroshima were 1.2 for AHS, 0.9 for non-AHS, and 0.9 for the general population. In Nagasaki, these were 0.9, 1.1, and 0.6, respectively. The oral radiography exposure rates for the A-bomb exposed were 0.6 in Hiroshima and 0.5 in Nagasaki. For the nonexposed, these were 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Thus, the exposure rates were about 1.5 times greater among the nonexposed than the exposed in both cities. The analysis of technical factors used revealed that, compared to a previous survey (1970), many dental radiographic machines were fitted with open-end cylindrical cones. Because of this a reduction in exposure dose can be inferred. Data obtained in the present investigation are essential for subsequent estimations of exposure doses of the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. (author)

31

Strengthened tuberculosis control programme and trend of multidrug resistant tuberculosis rate in Osaka City, Japan  

OpenAIRE

Osaka City has the highest tuberculosis (TB) notification rates in Japan. In the period 1999–2003, the TB control programme was strengthened, and the Stop TB Strategy was implemented to reduce the number of notified cases. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of these control activities in Osaka City, including the implementation of directly observed treatment (DOT), by analysing TB surveillance and routinely collected data. We reviewed the surveillance data of all sputum sm...

Nobukatsu Ishikawa; Jun Komukai; Hideki Yoshida; Kenji Matsumoto; Akihiro Ohkado; Akira Shimouchi

2013-01-01

32

Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 this year, the names of 5,501 hibakusha who had died during the past year were added to the Hiroshima Cenotaph, making the total number of deaths of Hiroshima's hibakusha 269,446. In Nagasaki on August 9, 3,114 names were added to make a total of 152,276. Adding the death tolls from both cities, the total of Hiroshima/Nagasaki deaths as of August, 2010 was 421,722. The total number of hibakusha, including the living and dead, is at least 649,287, and keeping in mind those unaccounted for, it is probably more. Simply put, approximately, one third of hibakusha survive, speaking and living on behalf of all.No matter how many years go by, the number of people who were in or under the fiery clouds from the explosion of the two atomic-bombs, the first to be used against people, will always be the same, whether alive or dead. It includes those who perished instantly at and near the hypocentres, as Maruki Iri and Maruki Toshi described above,4 without ever being able to speak or even comprehend their own experience. It is for those dead and living people that we younger generations are acting and speaking on behalf of, and from whom we learn. And having fewer, or even none, of those surviving people will in no way diminish the significance of our actions, our shared memories, and our knowledge, to be inherited by future generations, so that never again will nuclear weapons be used, in combat or in experiments.

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-12-01

33

Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. The enormous difference in dose rates between the atomic bombings and the radiation sources used for calibration experiments may also have some effect on some dosimetric systems or on some biological systems. Although it may be difficult to quantify some of these uncertainties, it is extremely important to keep all these uncertain factors in mind when analysing the atomic bomb effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Japan, medical X-ray examination is compulsory in schools, factories and companies. With certain diseases such as tuberculosis and some diseases of the lung and digestive systems extensive X-ray examinations may be conducted and periodically repeated. Survivors with a relatively low dose of high dose rate atomic bomb radiation must also have received some relatively low dose of low dose rate medical X-ray radiation. In other words, they must have received both high dose rate radiation and low dose rate radiation. There is a possibility of non-probabilistic uncertainties involved in estimation of the relative proportion of the two types of radiation and even greater uncertainties would be involved in the estimation of the organ doses. In these uncertainties both randomness and fuzziness may be involved.Under such situation it may be important to consider application of fuzzy theory for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiations, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. Therefore, the possibility of the combined effects of all these direct factors and the indirect factors such as those mentioned above must be considered in interpreting the effect of the atomic b

34

Geographical shielding of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to collect data concerning the title in Old Nagasaki City for the future assessment of exposure effect on cancer mortality as there had been no such data in Nagasaki University. The City areas were classified in 237 regions shielded (45), partly shielded (41) and not-shielded (151) by hills surrounding the City along with the 5 steps of distances from <1.0 to 5 km or more from the hypocenter (503 m high) + Nishiyama region (shielded) with use of Using Arc View GIS (Geological Information System, USA). Cancer mortality in each region was studied on total 43,735 survivors directly exposed to A-bomb at the age of <30 y who had lived in the City on Jan. 1, 1970. Cancer death was studied on this cohort until Dec. 31, 2011 (during 42 years). Numbers of not-shielded people were estimated to be 8,779 (49.3%) males and 13,430 (51.8%) females. Curves vs time of their mortality per 100 thousands during the 42 years were found to have the peak of about 600 males exposed at 1.0-1.9 km from the hypocenter and about 350 females at <1.0 km. The higher was the mortality, the closer was the distance from the hypocenter. The correlation between the mortality and distance was thus found, but not in shielded people. The effect of this geographical shielding should be considered in assessment of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure. (T.T.)

35

Sensitivity of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic inferences to dosimetric parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the influence that various possible values of physical dosimetric parameters can have on radiobiological interpretations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic data is analyzed. Neutron RBE's (relative biological effectiveness values) calculated from the resulting dose-response relationships are found to be most sensitive to variations in device yield, with a sensitivity ratio (SR) of 1.2 (12% change resulting from 10% parameter change). The RBE's are also very sensitive to neutron output alone (SR = 0.7) of the Hiroshima device. They are least sensitive to gamma-ray output (SR = 0.4) of the Hiroshima device. Gamma-ray risk coefficients, which depend only on Nagasaki data, are inversely proportional to the gamma-ray output (and device yield) of the Nagasaki device. On the basis of the assumption that neutrons could not have been protective, results from this analysis suggest limits on certain physical parameters - device yields and gamma-ray outputs for both cities. No such limits, however, are found for reasonable values of Hiroshima neutron output, and this parameter has the potential for strongly influencing inferences regarding neutron RBE

36

Investigation of circular asymmetry in cancer mortality of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry in cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method and controlling for age ATB, sex, followup year, distance from the hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that in Hiroshima cancer mortality was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer were higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki, only lung cancer exhibited circular asymmetry, and was significantly higher in the westerly direction. For various reasons, the results tend to support the possibility of an asymmetry in radiation dose in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. Also, possible asymmetry in nondose variables associated with cancer is suggested in both cities, particularly in variables associated with lung cancer. Indications for future work and implications for future dose-mortality investigations are discussed

37

Surface Albedo in Cities: Case Study in Sapporo and Tokyo, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface albedo of two large cities in Japan was measured using a pyranometer mounted on a helicopter to avoid the bidirectional reflectance distribution. The daytime albedo was 0.12 in the cities, which was less than that of a nearby forest (0.16). The albedo was dependent on building structure in the cities; the albedo was lower in areas with more buildings, and decreased as the aspect ratio of street canyons increased. There are two reasons for this dependency: the multiple reflection of radiation in the building canopy, as has been shown in many previous studies, and the sparse vegetation in urban areas. These two factors concurrently determine the albedo in a real city, where the vegetation amount decreases as the plan roof ratio increases.

Sugawara, Hirofumi; Takamura, Tamio

2014-12-01

38

High-speed inter-city transport system in Japan: Past, present and the future  

OpenAIRE

With the advent of Shinkansen in 1964, a unique inter-city transport network in which high-speed railway and air transport developed simultaneously, emerged in Japan, and modal choice between them based on price and speed has been manifested. Looking ahead, the next generation high-speed transport, the Maglev, is on the horizon. In order to capture the full impacts of the Maglev technology, simulation analysis with a dynamic spatial nested logit model was conducted. From this, we identified a...

Yamaguchi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi

2009-01-01

39

Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m3 and 26.5 Bq/m3, respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

40

Hiroshima-Nagasaki exhibition towards a world of peace opens September 5 at the Vienna International Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document gives information about the Hiroshima-Nagasaki exhibition organized by the two cities together with IAEA, CTBTO and UN Office in Vienna in September 2000 at the Vienna International Centre, with the occasion of the fifty-fifth anniversary of the dropping of the atomic bombs on these cities

41

Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors. PMID:25298315

Someya, Azusa; Ito, Ryuki; Maeda, Akihiko; Ikenaga, Mitsuhiro

2015-02-17

42

Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace. PMID:12177912

1987-02-01

43

Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter examines events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences in an attempt to understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. Comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from conventional bombings, consequences of major earthquakes, historical effects of the Black Plague, widespread famines and other extreme natural events. It is concluded that mere extrapolation from the experiences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has consistently led to a gross underestimation of what the consequences of the next nuclear war would be for the global human population. (UK)

44

Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

45

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that Japan has strong reasons to expand its nuclear cooperation and trade and become a major supplier. It clearly is interested in influencing the policies of the Pacific Rim nations---some of which have energy problems---which are seen as important to its security as well as to its economy. Japan can also expect political and economic benefits from aiding China's fledgling nuclear power industry. Indeed, Japan already has a net of agreements for nuclear cooperation with other countries, including the United States and other major suppliers as well as developing countries. In addition, Japan is committed under the Nuclear Non-Proliferaton Treaty (NPT) to cooperate in the peaceful applications of nuclear energy, especially in the territories of non-nuclear-weapons states party to the Treaty, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world

46

Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality frcontrol. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

47

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear research in Japan was restarted in 1952 after World War II. The legislation of the Atomic Energy Act in 1955 provided the basis nuclear development of the country. The nuclear engineering course was inaugurated in the Department of Applied Physics of Tokai University in 1956 as the first nuclear engineering department in Japanese Universities. Major organizations like the Science and Technology Agency (STA), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and others started around 1955. The first reactor, JRR-1 went critical in 1957 at JAERI. Since then, various research reactors including general research reactors, educational or training reactors, and test reactors have been constructed. Japan is the only country who has faced the devastating effects of nuclear weapons in World War II. Despite this terrible situation, Japan has embraced the peaceful use of nuclear technology to provide a substantial portion of its electricity. In 1966, its first commercial reactor started operation. Today, the country has 55 power reactors in operation, generating about 30% of the country's total electricity production. Japan plans to increase this to 41% in 2014. Needs for nuclear scientists and engineers are closely related to the national nuclear programmes. The current status of nuclear power generation in Japan has been given above. Following are the main nuclear activities that need a nuclear technical work force in the country: - Safe operation of current nuclear power - Safe operation of current nuclear power plants; - Development of new power and research reactors; - Activities related to front end and back end sectors of fuel cycle; - Nuclear related activities as fusion power development. The public perception plays an important role in attracting talent towards this particular discipline of education. Unfortunately, since the Chernobyl incident, the nuclear community is facing negative public perception regarding the risks of a nuclear accident. Specifically, in Japan, a series of local incidents have been reported in mass media such as; the sodium leak in Monju in December 1995, fire at the asphalt solidification plant in March 1996, invention of inspection data of spent fuel transportation casks in October 1997, criticality accident at JCO in Tokaimura in September 1999. The latest one, the JCO accident, is extremely serious because it seems to suggest at present a deteriorating situation of Japanese technologies. These accidents affected the public perception of nuclear education which reinforced the decreasing trends of nuclear engineering in the universities. According to a CECD report in 2002, in Japan, there has been an imbalance between graduated students and recruitment i.e. the number of students graduated from a nuclear related master's course were almost 300 while the recruitment by nuclear engineering was about 70 every year. In order to prevent nuclear education from a serious downturn, during the 1990s, the government changed its policy for national universities having nuclear engineering departments and restructured nuclear education. Major changes are to emphasize education on a graduate school level. The department for undergraduate education has been renamed at most of the universities. Nuclear engineering departments have disappeared from national universities except for Hokkaido University. Instead, the key words for the new department names are energy, quantum system and science. The key words, nuclear or nuclear energy are retained in the names of the graduate courses. Engineering fundamentals have been emphasized in undergraduate education. Moreover, nuclear engineering was projected as a study to utilize nuclear reactions for the welfare of mankind. Major nuclear reactions are fission and fusion, but dealing with other nuclear reactions is within the category of nuclear engineering. Since April 2004, all national universities have been reformed

48

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000-200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population

49

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000 - 200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population. (author)

50

Circular asymmetry of cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry of cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method, and controlling for age at the time of the bomb, sex, follow-up year, distance from hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that cancer mortality in Hiroshima was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer was higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki also cancer mortality, notably lung cancer mortality, was significantly higher in the westerly direction. Discussed are possible sources of the asymmetry, particularly the possibilities of asymmetry of epidemiologic variables and of radiation exposure, and indications for future work. (author)

51

Field monitoring of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in an industrial city in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highly portable, sensitive, and selective passive air samplers were used to investigate ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) levels at multiple sampling sites in an industrial city, Fuji, Japan. We determined the spatial distributions of 27 species of VOCs in three campaigns: Mar (cold season), May (warm season), and Nov (mild season) of 2004. In all campaigns, toluene (geometric mean concentration, 14.0 ?g/m3) was the most abundant VOC, followed by acetaldehyde (4.76 ?g/m3), and formaldehyde (2.58 ?g/m3). The spatial distributions for certain VOCs showed characteristic patterns: high concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde were typically found along major roads, whereas high concentrations of toluene and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were usually found near factories. The spatial distribution of PCE observed was extremely consistent with the diffusion pattern calculated from Pollutant Release and Transfer Register data and meteorological data, indicated that passive air samplers are useful for determining the sources and distributions of ambient VOCs. - Passive air samplings with hood are useful for determining the identities, sources, and distributions of ambient VOC pollutants

52

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG)

53

Indications of an increase of occupational pleural mesothelioma in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to obtain an epidemiological picture of occupational pleural malignant mesotheliomas in Japan, the author surveyed the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases (published by the Japanese Pathological Society) from 1974 through 1980. Two hundred and twenty-two malignant mesotheliomas (0.114% of all autopsy cases) were found in that period. One hundred and forty-five cases (0.074%) of them were of pleural origin. Until 1977, there were no pleural malignant mesotheliomas associated with asbestosis, but there were one in 1978, three in 1979 and two in 1980. Two of them were housewives and the others were a ship builder, a welder, a ceramist and a steel factory worker. Two lived in Sakae City, and the others in Kure City, Kaizuka City, Nagasaki City and Kanagawa Prefecture, where large shipyards are located. Compared to the Western countries, there is a time lag of 10 to 20 years in the increase of consumption of asbestos in Japan, where the increase has occurred rapidly after World War II. The epidemiological picture obtained by this study clearly states that the number of occupational pleural malignant mesotheliomas began to increase in the past few years in Japan. PMID:6679617

Baba, K

1983-03-01

54

Scholastic intercourse between Shogunal Astronomer Shibukawa Kagesuke and Nagasaki-based astronomer Mine Gensuke  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to know how scholastic tradition of Tenmon-kata (Shogunal Astronomical Office) was transferred to local astronomers over the 19th century, since it is likely that modernization of Japan in science and technology after the Meiji-restoration (1868) has its root in the pre-Meiji period. In this report, as a case-study of such line-of-thoughts, I took up a local astronomer Mine Gensuke, from Omura-han (clan) of Nagasaki. Mine, at his age of 25 (1850), came to Edo and learned astronomy for six years under the supervision of Shibukawa Kagesuke, the top-ranking Shogunal astronomer at that time. After returning to Nagasaki, Mine was assigned to be the land-surveyer of Omura-han. In Mine's book-collection preserved at the Nagasaki Municipal Museum, I found several books and notebooks copied and annotated by Mine, whose original author was Shibukawa. Through a research to those materials, I discuss what and how Mine learned from Shibukawa.

Ito, Setsuko

2004-04-01

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Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to hepatitis B surface antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation life-span study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the pathology study sample were observed. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assessed in all of the cases with the use of orcein and aldehyde fuchsin stains and was confirmed by the immunofluorescence technique. The incidence of PLC was two times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, which was statistically significant, but little difference was noted in the prevalence of cirrhosis in the two cities. Findings that might possibly explain the higher PLC incidence in Nagasaki were 1) the 2.3 times higher presence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of HBsAg in the livers of subjects without liver disease and 2) the two times higher prevalence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of cirrhosis with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to hepatitis B virus infection, although other factors (e.g., immunologic competence affected by radiation) cannot be excluded. In both cities, a suggestive relationship of radiation dose to cirrhosis prevalence, but not to PCL prevalence, was noted. To clarify possible radiation effects on cirrhosis prevalence, further follow-up of the populations of these two cities is necessary

56

The radioactive fallout in Nagasaki from the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive fission products were released to the atmosphere from the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. We measured radioactivity in airborne dust, rain water and city water in Nagasaki from 29 April to 16 July. The radioactivity in the airborne dust were detected first from the sample during 1 to 5 May. Thirteen different radionuclides were detected; 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Rh, 129mTe, 132Te, 131I, 132I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La and 141Ce. 131I was the largest amount inhaled to people in Nagasaki and its radioactivity was estimated to be 10.0 Bq. Inhaled intake of all radionuclides was 1.21 x 10-5 of the annual limit on intake, which corresponded to 5.89 x 10-7 Sv. Compared with the recommended annual dose limit for the public of 5 mSv per year, it was not regarded that the exposed dose by radioactive fallout to people in Nagasaki was dangerous. (author)

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Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan: outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".  

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Full Text Available

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

Hayashi,Hoei

2005-04-01

58

How many Assertive Community Treatment Teams are Needed in Japan? Estimate from Need Survey in Sendai City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increasing ACT teams in Japan, no research exists on the need of ACT within the Japanese mental health system. The aim of this study was to describe the needs and feasibility of ACT teams. Furthermore, we estimated the number of po-tential ACT users and ACT teams needed in Japan. This study consists of two cross-sectional surveys in Sendai city. The primary survey was a self-completed questionnaire on the need and feasibility of ACT. In the secondary survey, the number of patients eligible for ACT was estimated based on primary physicians' evaluations. In the primary survey, 17 of the 57 in-stitutions responded (response rate 29.8%). All respondents answered that ACT teams are needed in the city of Sendai and "Crisis response" was as the most needed role of ACT. Based on the results of the secondary survey, approximately 900 to 3,600 patients in Sendai are estimated to be eligible for ACT. This finding indicates that the estimated number of ACT teams needed for 100,000 populations is from 0.9 to 3.5 in Japan, a result that is in general agreement with data from other coun-tries. PMID:25614756

Nishio, Masaaki; Sono, Tamaki; Ishiguro, Toru; Horiuchi, Kentaro; Ambo, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

59

Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

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Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

61

Reevaluation of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry system currently used in analyzing the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data was developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their T65 system was called into question following a new study of the incidence of leukemia in the two cities. H.H. Rossi and C.W. Mays concluded that a worker continually exposed to neutrons at the maximum permissible level recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) stood a chance of developing leukemia that was several times higher than for the average unexposed person. Rossi and Mays recommended the NCRP reduce its permissible doses for neutrons by an order of magnitude. One of the reponses of the NCRP to this recommendation was to set up a Task Group on Atomic-Bomb Dosimetry, under the chairmanship of H.O. Wyckoff, to review the dosimetry for the data that had led to the Rossi-Mays conclusion. This paper reviews the work of this task group which has been divided into 5 areas: bomb spectra, fireball gamma rays, radiation transport, buildings, and depth dose

62

Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

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Statement at Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, 15 December 2012, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When disaster struck at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the IAEA offered immediate assistance to the Plant operators and the Japanese authorities as they tried to regain control over the reactors. We began sharing verified information about the accident with the world and helped to channel international assistance to Japan. A high priority was to do everything we could to help ensure the safety of the people of Japan, especially those in Fukushima Prefecture who were most affected by the crisis. I went to Japan a few days after the accident to meet then Prime Minister Kan. I assured him that Japan could count on the support of the entire international community and stressed the need for full transparency. I sent a number of expert teams to assist in areas such as radiological monitoring, food safety, and analysis of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Plant. Four IAEA teams undertook measurements in the Fukushima region, both inside and outside the 20 km evacuation zone. An expert on marine monitoring programmes from the IAEA Environmental Laboratories helped to monitor seawater. Joint teams from the IAEA and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization advised local authorities on technical issues related to food safety and agricultural countermeasures. Some important environmental readings at key points in the unfolding crisis were taken by IAEA experts. Our presence helped to provide reassurance to the people of Japan at a very critical time. It is now one year and nine months since the accident. In that time, we have continued to work closely with Japan. Today, I will sign an important document with Governor Sato of Fukushima Prefecture on our cooperation in the coming years. The IAEA will work closely with the Prefecture in radiation monitoring and decontamination. We will also implement human health projects with Fukushima Medical University.

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The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester…

Orr, Thomas, Ed.

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Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical x-ray exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All large hospitals and 40% of the small hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed for the X-ray examinations they performed during a 2-week period in 1974. The frequency and type of X-ray examinations received by members of the RERF Adult Health Study (AHS) and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) extended, excluding AHS (Non-AHS), were compared with the general population in each city. Radiologic exposures of patients at hospitals and clinics were most frequent among the general populations. The number of patients, examinations, and exposures per caput per year in each population were estimated. Since the age distribution differed among the three populations, comparisons were made only after correcting for age. On a per caput per year basis exposure frequency was relatively high in the AHS and low in the general populations, a reflection of the greater number of patients in the AHS than in the general populations. Non-AHS males in Nagasaki had a higher X-ray examination rate than did the AHS subjects. The others in the Non-AHS did not differ appreciably from the general populations. There was no difference among these groups according to body sites examined. (author)

66

Effect of a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Intervention on COPD Awareness in a Regional City in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on COPD awareness in a regional city in Japan. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the residents of the city of Matsuura, Japan. Residents (?50 years) of the mainland in Matsuura were included in a COPD intervention project (mainland group), while residents of the islands district received no intervention due to geographical issues (island group). The rates of COPD awareness and accuracy of responses to the questions about COPD were compared between the two groups. Materials The study included 5,891 residents 40 to 74 years of age of Matsuura in 2013. The mainland group comprised 4,419 subjects, and the island group 1,472 included subjects. Results The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 24.6%, with similar response rates between the two groups. The rate of COPD awareness in the mainland group was 24.5%, which was significantly higher than that observed in the island group (11.8%) (prate of awareness tended to decrease in association with increasing age. Among 276 responders who stated they were aware of COPD, the accuracy rate for responses to the questions about COPD was not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion In the present study, there was a difference in COPD awareness between the two groups, suggesting that COPD interventions may increase awareness of the disease. However, the level of knowledge regarding COPD remained low and modifications to the intervention are required to improve awareness of the condition, especially among elderly subjects. PMID:25743007

Asai, Masaharu; Tanaka, Takako; Kozu, Ryo; Kitagawa, Chika; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Senjyu, Hideaki

2015-01-01

67

Characterization of Extracellular Chitinase from Bacterial Isolate 99 and Enterobacter sp. G-1 from Matsue City, Japan  

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Full Text Available One hundred and twenty isolates of chitosanase producing bacteria were screened from water and soil from localies around Matsue city, Japan. In previous experiments, four isolates (isolates 96, 97, 99, and 100 strain were analyzed for their chitosanase characteristics, and one of the isolates (99 was detected as being both a chitosanase and a chitinase producer. Characteristics of the chitinase enzyme were analyzed in this study. Chitinase from bacterial isolate 99 showed higher activities compared to that Enterobacter sp. G-1 (isolated from water in Matsue city, Japan, the activity was 0.039 U/ml and the specific activity was 0.56 U/mg protein, while those from Enterobacter sp. G-1 were 0.029 U/ml and 0.48 U/mg protein respectively. Chitinase from isolate 99 was stable in a pH range between 4-7, while that from Enterobacter sp. G-1 was stable in pH range 3-7. Optimum pH of the chitinase produced by isolate 99 was 5 whereas the chitinase from Enterobacter sp. G-1 it was pH 7. Chitinase from isolate 99 was stable at temperature 20-60°C, while that from Enterobacter sp. G-1 at 20-50°C. Chitinase secreted by isolate 99 showed optimum temperature of 50°C while chitinase from Enterobacter sp. G-1 was optimal at 40°C. Several ions (Fe2+, Ba2+, Co2+ increased the activity of the enzyme from isolate 99 whereas Ca2+ and Co2+ increased activity of the Enterobacter sp. G-1 chitinase.

MARIA ENDO MAHATA

2008-04-01

68

Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histoloeast 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

69

Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche.

Tokunaga, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.; Tsuji, Y.

1979-06-01

70

[Development of modern medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji].  

Science.gov (United States)

Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and early Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following years, the Meiji government settled down a dual-track medical licensing system: one for the graduates from medical schools with certain quality and the other for the graduate from less qualified schools who should take the licensing examination. PMID:22343704

Kim, OckJoo; Takuya, Miyagawa

2011-12-31

71

Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

Seo, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

72

The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

73

Zircon fission-track ages of some pyroclastic flow deposits in the Kagoshima city area, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven new fission-track ages of zircons from pyroclastic flow deposits in the Kagoshima City area, southern Kyushu, have been determined by the external detector method. The ages of the deposits are as follows: Omine 1, 2.2 +- 0.4 (+-2 ) m.y.; Omine 3, 0.7 +- 0.2 m.y.; Omine 4, 0.5 +- 0.2 m.y.; Omine 5, 0.5 +- 0.2 m.y.; Kogashira 2, 0.7 +- 0.1 m.y.; Yoshino, 0.5 +- 0.2 m.y. and Mifune, 0.9 +- 0.2 m.y. These data were supplemented with previously determined fission-track ages for the Upper Kakuto, 0.3 +- 0.1 m.y., Lower Kakuto, 0.3 +- 0.1 m.y. and Giono, 2.0 +- 0.4 m.y. to provide time markers for future correlations. All the ages, except the Mifune rhyolite, are consistent with the stratigraphy in the Kagoshima City area. (author)

74

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

75

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.6 contains tables of SMR for multiple myeloma. (J.P.N.)

76

Spatial genetic structure of Salvia japonica Thunb. population (Labiatae in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Osaka Prefecture, Japan  

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Full Text Available Salvia japonica Thunb. (Japan: Aki-no-Tamurasou was a perennial herb, protandry insect-pollinated, and self-incompatible with water-flow dispersed seed. We used allozyme loci to know genetic structure of a S. japonica population. We examined spatial autocorrelation of individuals within five distance class with Moran`s I statistics. The area of observation was in plot 5x5 m2 in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Katano, Osaka Prefecture. The 8 loci examined were polymorphic, namely Aat-1, Aat-2, Pgi, Mnr, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Idh, and 6-Pgd. Low levels of genetic diversity were found for 29 individuals. Ninety-two percent cases for all of distance class were similar?and only 8% (8 of 105 cases were significant differences. This result indicated that the spatial genetic distributions in all of distance classes were all similar and no spatial autocorrelation of genotypes. Only in distance class 2 had one significantly positive cases (0.15 in Pgm-1c, indicating that spatial genetic structure in the study population was weak at most. In the other word that spatial pattern of the individuals within S. japonica population was random. Overall of the result was indicating that genotype among individuals of S. japonica changed distantly and tended to isolation in distance by seed dispersed.

SUDARMONO

2005-10-01

77

Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

78

Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc, F, I, TS, CaO, MnO and P2O5 in the building pillar area, probably due to the deposition of residential wastes. High level of As, Pb, Zn, Cu, V, Sc, MnO and Fe2O3 are found in the blacksmith area. These enrichments seem related to ancient anthropogenic effects, such as metallurgical activity at the harbor site. Iron melting, including slag, has been identified in the bottom of a furnace (bowl shape slag) in the eastern part of the southern area. A group of elements (Ni, Y, Nb, Zr, Th and TiO2) do not reflect the anthropogenic history. However, these elements and their ratios can be used to identify element sources, as well as to establish baseline concentrations of other elements which are influenced by anthropogenic and detrital inputs. The northern area of the harbor site contains sandy soils, and is bordered by sand dunes on its seaward side. This area mainly contains post holes from building pillars and ceramic fragments, and can be recognized as a living area for residents. Soils in the northern area are characterized by high Zr contents and relatively low abundances of most other elements (excluding Cr and TS). This enrichment is mainly due to textural differences in the soils, and is probably due to their sandy character.

Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki

2014-05-01

79

Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

Hui Zhang

2014-09-01

80

Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

81

Characterization of atmospheric particulate during the RICE straw burning period in a midsize city in northern Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected from three areas (commercial, residential and agricultural) in and near Akita City in northern Japan, October 1996 (rice straw burning period), over three days with a one-hour sampling interval for each area. The elemental composition and particle shape of TSP samples were determined and/or observed by PIXE and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In the hourly TSP samples collected during the rice straw burning period, values of 24 elements were determined for each area, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca and Fe were the major components. Comparing the arithmetic means of elemental concentrations in TSP for the rice straw burning and non-snow-clad period (May - June 1996), in the residential and agricultural areas the Si concentration in the rice straw burning period was approximately two times that in the non-snow-clad period, and K and Ca concentrations in the rice straw burning period were a little higher than those in the non-snow-clad period. In the residential and agricultural areas, change in SPM concentration and change in Si, K and Ca concentrations were in relative agreement during the hours that smoke from rice straw burning was present in the atmospheric space. With the aid of SEM- EDX analysis, many cubic particles were observed for almost all hourly TSP samples. The cubic particles were of the silicon-rich type, and their morphology was rice straw frpe, and their morphology was rice straw fragments or aggregation of fragments. (author)

82

Japan's nuclear power tightrope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that early in February, just as Japan's nuclear energy program was regaining a degree of popular support after three years of growing opposition, an aging pressurized-water reactor at Mihama in western Japan sprang a leak in its primary cooling system. The event occasioned Japan's first nontest use of an emergency core-cooling system. It also elicited a forecast of renewed public skepticism about nuclear power form the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Government body responsible for promoting and regulating Japan's ambitious nuclear power program. Public backing for this form of energy has always been a delicate flower in Japan, where virtually every school child visits the atomic bomb museums at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the country, which imports 80 percent of its energy and just about all its oil, is behind only the United States, France, and the Soviet Union in installed nuclear capacity. In fiscal 1989, which started in April, Japan's 39 nuclear power stations accounted for 25.5 percent of electricity generated - the largest contribution - followed b coal and natural gas. Twelve more plants are under construction

83

Kioto, la antigua capital del Japón y el modelo chino de la ciudad ideal / Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan and the Chinese model of the ideal city  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ciudad de Kioto fue fundada en el ańo 794 cuando el emperador Kanmu decidió construir la nueva capital del Japón y abandonar la ciudad de Nara. Esta contribución recorre la historia de la fundación de Kioto en relación con los principios ideales de la ciudad china. Este modelo de cuadricula const [...] ituyó por algunos siglos una referencia cultural importante para la construcción de nuevas ciudades en Japón. Hoy la ciudad de Kioto conserva la antigua estructura urbana reticular y esta contribución tiene como finalidad proponer una reflexión sobre la influencia de la cultura china en Japón desde el 550 d.C. (período Kofun) y evaluar el desarollo de esta cultura en el tiempo y su presencia actual en la forma urbana y en su arquitectura, sobre todo religiosa. El modelo ideal de la ciudad china después de 1200 ańos desde la fundación de Kioto se conserva y constituye una referencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la ciudad contemporánea en estrecha relación con el paisaje. Abstract in english The city of Kyoto was founded in 794 when Emperor Kanmu decided to build a new capital of Japan and to leave the city of Nara. This paper traces the history of the foundation of Kyoto in relation to the normative principles of the Chinese city. For centuries, this urban model, with orthogonal axes, [...] had constituted a major cultural reference for the construction of new cities in Japan. Today, the city of Kyoto preserves the old urban orthogonal structure and this contribution aims to propose a reflection on the influence of Chinese culture in Japan since 550 AD (Kofun period) and to consider the development of this culture over time and its current presence in urban form; especially religious architecture. The ideal model of the Chinese city, after 1200 years since the foundation of Kyoto, is preserved and constitutes a fundamental reference for the development of the contemporary city in strict relationship with the landscape.

Olimpia, Niglio.

2014-04-01

84

Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 30 years ago, population-based tumor registries were established in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report, the first of a series of papers on cancer incidence, describes methodological aspects of the tumor registries and discusses issues of data quality in the context of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, the major atomic bomb survivor population. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are characterized by active case ascertainment based on abstraction of medical records at area hospitals, augmented by tissue registries operational in the area and a number of clinical and pathological programs undertaken over the years among the atomic bomb survivors. Using conventional measures of quality, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries have a death certificate-only (DCO) rate of less than 9%, a mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio of about 50%, and a histological verification (HV) rate in excess of 70%, which place these registries among the best in Japan and comparable to many established registries worldwide. All tumor registry data pertaining to the LSS population were assembled, reviewed and handled with special attention given to the quality and uniformity of data based on standardized procedures. Special studies and monitoring programs were also introduced to evaluate the quality of the tumor incidence data in the LSS. Analyses were performed to examine the quality of incidence data overall and across various substrata used for risk assessment such as agstrata used for risk assessment such as age, time and radiation dose groups. No significant associations were found between radiation dose and data quality as measured by various indices. These findings warrant the use of the present tumor registry-based data for studies of cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

85

Training the Technical Trainer: Issues and Strategies. Papers Presented at a Workshop (Chiba City, Japan, May 13-23, 1987).  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 1987 a regional workshop was organized in Japan under the technical assistance program of the Asian Development Bank with the collaboration of the Asian and Pacific Skill Development Programme of the International Labour Organisation and the support of the Ministry of Labor of the government of Japan. The workshop addressed the major issues…

Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines).

86

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

87

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

88

Unpublished facts about cancer at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author shows that, in spite of uncertainties concerning dosimetry, scientists conducting research into radiopathology can still find their best data in the case histories of atomic bomb survivors. Using his original method he finds that the relations between dose and cancer risk have the same staged form at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also after radiotherapy. The three-stage shift along the dose axis is easy to interpret. The recent modification proposed for dosimetry of bomb radiation only modifies the dose at each stage. This dose-risk correlation makes it possible for him to pinpoint the carcinogenic effect of supraliminal doses from this radiation with a retroactivity of over thirty years

89

Japan Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.

90

Ichiban: radiation dosimetry for the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important issues of the nuclear age concerns the effects of ionizing radiation on man. Immediately after the cessation of fighting in Japan in World War II, studies began which were aimed at learning as much as possible about radiation effects on the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. The most important factors were the immediate and long-term effects of the varying doses of radiation to the survivors. Although the medical studies commenced within months of the bombings, it was ten years before technology reached the stage at which it appeared possible to determine with any real reliability the effect the radiation doses had on these people. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and subsequently the Energy Research and Development Administration supported and strongly encouraged medical and dosimetry studies of the survivors until 1975 when the United States and Japan joined as full partners to carry on the studies far into the future. During the last few years, reliable doses for most of the individual survivors have been obtained, and the door was opened to a much better understanding of the effects of radiation on human beings. The dosimetry portion of these studies is recorded in this monograph. In this review the author presents an interesting mixture of historical highlights and scientific information without trying to cover either subject in great depth. The objective is to give the reader some insight and understanding into the overae insight and understanding into the overall program and to identify the original publications for those seeking an in-depth analysis

91

Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substancea possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers who were trained at Narashino Chemical School were assigned, at least one, to each unit (brigade and higher) of the Japanese Army. Chemical Weapons Control unit was organised at the headquarters in the centre of Hiroshima. After atomic bombing some vessels of mustard gas stored underground were found cracked and leaked. Judging from these findings it may be possible that some chemical weapons were released to the environment from the military facilities on ground at the time they were destroyed by the atomic bombing and the survivors were exposed to poison gases to a smaller or larger extent. There was no drinking water and they had to drink rain water which fell heavily soon after the atomic bombing. It is highly possible that the rainwater was also contaminated by various toxic substances including chemical weapons. These effects combined with the irradiation by atomic radiation are difficult to quantify accurately at present, many years after atomic bombings. But if all these adverse effects were ascribed solely to the ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation may be overestimated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data for establishing radiation safety standard in peaceful uses of atomic energy, we should keep these possibilities of overestimation in mind. At the Bikini accident, where Japanese fishing boat was showered by strongly radioactive ash due to thermonuclear test on March 1, 1954 in the Pacific, some crew tested the ash to see what it is. The amount of intake is uncertain. Depending on the assumption, a widely different result would be obtained. (author)

92

Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

93

Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

94

Late Quaternary climates of East Asia deduced from the total organic carbon contents of cored sediments (MD179-3304, 3312) off Joetsu City, Japan Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations are analyzed with high temporal resolution (ca. 100 years) for cores MD179-3304 and MD179-3312 taken from the Japan Sea off Joetsu City. The temporal changes in TOC and TN concentrations vary quasi-regularly in similar patterns. The age models are formed on the basis of the dates of 14C dating, marker tephra beds, TL layers, and marine isotope events with depth. TOC concentration is high in MIS 1 and 5, low in MIS 2 and 4, and slightly elevated in MIS 3 with frequent short fluctuations. This general trend is very similar to LR04 curve, except for the reduced dominance of TOC around the MIS 5.5 substage. As shown typically in MIS 3, there are many peaks of TOC in a short interval. The details of these TOC peaks can be correlated with the warm interstadials of the Greenland ice core. We can identify a sawtooth-like decreasing trend of TOC in MIS 3. In contrast, the decreasing trend of ?18O in the ice core corresponds to an increasing trend of TOC in MIS 5. The most plausible explanation for the correlation of climate changes between East Asia and the North Atlantic is oscillation of the Arctic polar front through time. The detailed correspondence of TOC concentrations of the Japan Sea sediments to other common paleoclimate proxies means that the TOC concentrations of these sediments is an excellent paleoclimate record in Far East Asia, although the genetic relationship between air temperature and biological productivity in the Japan Sea is as yet unknown.

Urabe, Tasuku; Kuriyama, Manato; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kumon, Fujio

2014-08-01

95

Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

96

Radiochemical estimation of neutron fluence of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To estimate neutron fluence of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs by radiochemical methods. Methods: Thermal neutron fluence at the time of explosion was estimated from the results of radiochemical analysis of residual 60Co in iron materials or iron products. Results: Materials were obtained through the kindness of Dr. Masanori Nakaidzum. The distribution of neutron fluence in Hiroshima and Nagasaki can be determined by measuring the residual radioactivity of many pieces of material by radiochemical methods presented in the paper

97

Application of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to estimate the groundwater age at a headwater wetland in Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

To delineate the groundwater flow system in a basin, the groundwater age was estimated by analyzing chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113) in a typical headwater wetland in Ichikawa, Japan. Feasibility of groundwater dating by CFCs was assessed comprehensively based on the concentrations of NO3 -, SO4 2-, Fe2+ and dissolved CH4 in the groundwater, because the CFCs would be degraded under the reduction condition available in a wetland. It was found that the CFC-11 apparent age was much older than that estimated by other CFC species. It showed that CFC-12 and CFC-113 were suitable tracers for groundwater dating because of their stability in the wetland environment. Furthermore, the mixture of groundwater with different age was discussed by CFC-12 and CFC-113 based on the binary mixing model and piston-flow model. As a result, the apparent age of groundwater in the study area is in the range of 38-48 years.

Han, Zhiwei; Tang, Changyuan; Piao, Jingqiu; Li, Xing; Cao, Yingjie; Matsumaru, Touma; Zhang, Chipeng

2014-09-01

98

Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in several districts in the western part of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in 365 locations of several districts in the western part of Japan were carried out with more than 6 month exposures of CR-39 bare track detectors. The arithmetic mean value of all measurements was 29.9 Bq/m3, the standard deviation was 36.1 Bq/m3, the geometric mean was 19.1 Bq/m3 and the median was 18.1 Bq/m3. The geometric means of the distributions for Hiroshima city, Nagasaki city, Mihama town, Misasa town, and Shiga prefecture were 26.2, 9.9, 32.4, 27.7, and 21.0 Bq/m3, respectively. Correlations between the concentration and various factors were analyzed from the results of the measurements. The factors analyzed were regional differences, construction materials, purpose of the room, age of the house, number of floors, etc. From the results of the studies, the regional differences and construction materials were found to have apparent correlations. Personal monitoring was also carryied out on 25 persons living in Misasa. The median value of the radon concentrations obtained from the personal monitoring approximately agreed with that obtained from the measurements in the dwellings. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between the individual values obtained from the personal monitoring and the measurement in the dwellings. (author)

99

Pathological study of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

9331 autopsies were carried out in Nagasaki-district after the world war II, the chronological changes of the diseases incidences and the difference between exposed and unexposed cases were reviewed. Diseases of the circulatory system, hepatic diseases, and hematopoietic disorders were 14.8%, 13.5%, and 9.2%, respectively. The rate of malignant tumors from '76 to '77 was 67.7%, which was about 10% higher than the national average. In the hepatic lesions, cirrhosis and hepatoma were 1.7 and 1.4 times higher than the national average, respectively, and the highest rate was observed at the age of forties and fifties. For the hematopoietic disorders, leukemia was higher than malignant lymphoma until '60, which order became reverse after '61, and the incidences were 1.9 and 2.2 times higher than the national average, respectively, in '76. Chronological changes of disorders of the circulatory system had not been effected by exposure. (Nakanishi, T.)

100

Tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continued monitoring of tumor incidence is an important part of the surveillance of health effects of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF)(formerly Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC)) has been engaged in the operation of tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These registries have been instrumental in studying risk of various specific cancer sites (thyroid, breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, and salivary gland) in a defined sample of A-bomb survivors. A recent analysis of registry data revealed little basis for suspecting systematic biases of registry data (e.g., hospital-related, or diagnostic biases related to radiation dose) which may confound observed association of cancer and radiation. The analysis also showed similarities in relative risk of cancer based on incidence and mortality data. However, absolute risks estimated from mortality data may underestimate the true magnitude for certain cancer sites (including breast, stomach, lung, and uterus). The registry data are also useful in assessing secular trends of radiation-induced cancer incidence which are essential in determining the latency of cancer. (author)

101

New dosimetry system (DS86) for Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and its effects on risk estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) at Hiroshima has recently published reports on the ongoing revision of the dose estimates to A-bomb survivors and the consequent changing trends in the risk estimates. A brief summary is presented here on the physics of the new dosimetry system calle d DS86 and the revised risk estimates from the presently available RERF reports. The important findings are: (i) The tissue free-in-air gamma doses are higher for Hiroshima and lower for Nagasaki compared to the earlier estimates; (ii) The free-in-air kerma values for neutrons are lower for both the cities and the reduction is nearly by an order of magnitude for Hiroshima; (iii) The excess cancer mortalities per 104 PYGy (combined shielded kerma) are increased from 1.38 to 1.61 fold for the various cancer types in the revised estimates; (iv) The difference in cancer mortality risk rates between Hiroshima and Nagasaki is smaller and no longer statistically significant; (v) Assumption of various values of RBE for the neutrons do not change significantly the risk estimates under the new system; (vi) The excess cancer mortality per 104 PYSv attributable to ?-rays (RBE=1) turns out to be 4 per cent lower for leukaemia and 27 per cent lower for all other cancer together, as compared to T65D estimates at RBE=1; (vii) At RBE=10 for neutrons and assuming the additive risk model for leukaemia and the multiplicative risk model for other cancers, the revised risk facl for other cancers, the revised risk factor for the general Japanese population works out to be 11.5 per cent Sv-1 as against the ICRP-26 risk factor of 1.25 per cent Sv-1. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs

102

Evaluation of river pollution of neonicotinoids in Osaka City (Japan) by LC/MS with dopant-assisted photoionisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) source for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was applied to determine neonicotinoid pesticides in the aquatic environment. Dopant-assisted APPI was very effective in the ionisation of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids generated protonated molecules in APPI with high sensitivity, while adduct ions, such as sodiated molecules, were predominantly generated in conventional electrospray ionisation. The ionisation of neonicotinoids was confirmed by ultra-high-resolution MS. An analytical method coupled with solid phase extraction was developed for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam. Method detection limits were 0.47 to 2.1 ng L(-1) for six neonicotinoids. Dinotefuran was the most frequent and highest among the neonicotinoids examined in the aquatic environment in Osaka, Japan. The maximum concentration of dinotefuran was 220 ng L(-1). Given the toxicity of neonicotinoids for aquatic creatures, the concentrations observed here were substantially low. The change in concentrations was temporally coincident with the period of the neonicotinoid application. Although rapid photodegradation and some degradation products have been elucidated, the degradation products in the aquatic environment were not identified in the present study. PMID:22767100

Yamamoto, Atsushi; Terao, Tomoko; Hisatomi, Hirotaka; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

2012-08-01

103

Influence of the 2009 financial crisis on detection of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city, Japan: a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate the association between the economic recession and the detection of advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city from 2007 to 2009. Design A repeated cross-sectional study. Setting Osaka city has been the highest tuberculosis burden area in Japan. After the previous global financial crisis, the unemployment rate in Osaka prefecture has deteriorated from 5.3% in 2008 to 6.6% in 2009. Participants During the study period, 3406 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were enrolled: 2530 males and 876 females; 1546 elderly cases (65?years and above) and 1860 young cases (under 65?years); 417 homeless cases and 2989 non-homeless cases. Outcome measures Patients’ information included the sex, age, registry, health insurances, places of detection, sputum smear test results, patients’ delay, doctors’ delay and the grade of chest x-ray findings. They were statistically analysed between 2007 and 2008, two years before and just before the financial crisis, and between 2008 and 2009, just before and after the financial crisis. Results The total numbers of pulmonary tuberculosis cases were 1172 in 2007, 1083 in 2008 and 1151 in 2009. In health examinations for non-homeless people, higher number of cases in 2009 were sputum smear positive, had respiratory symptoms and showed advanced disease in chest x-rays than those in 2008, with a longer patients’ delay. On the contrary, in health examination for homeless people, fewer cases of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis were found in 2009 than in 2008, with a shorter patients’ delay. In clinical examinations, there was no trend towards a difference between non-homeless and homeless people. Conclusions Although homeless people might be protected by public assistance, tuberculosis prevention and control need to be reinforced for the non-homeless population after the financial crisis. PMID:23558729

Danno, Katsura; Komukai, Jun; Yoshida, Hideki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Shinichi; Terakawa, Kazuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

2013-01-01

104

Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2006-01-01

105

Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper presents the 36Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35Cl(n,?)36Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39K(n,?)36Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ? 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for 36Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima

106

Scientists and the atomic bombings of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1995, on the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the controversy about the use of nuclear weapons has been heated up. Still little-known or unknown to the general public are the efforts made by some scientists to prevent the atomic bombing, the formidable impediments encountered by such anti-bomb pleas; the support in summer 1945 from many notable A-bomb scientists for use of A-bomb, and the range of responses from such important scientists as J. Robert Oppenheimer, Leo Szilard, and Luis Alvarez, right after the use of atomic bomb in Japan

107

Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

108

Epidemiological study of recent death risk of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at close range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate the hormetic effect on health of human exposed with very low-dose ionizing radiation, we preliminary investigate the epidemiological study of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. The major results are as follows; (1) Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed with 2-18 cGy are investigated, and the epidemiological data-base of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are updated by these new data. (2) An applicability of the expanded new data-base to epidemiological analysis is investigated. Based on this investigation, the theme of epidemiological study to elucidate the hormetic effect on human health are discussed. (3) Effects of A-bomb dose on risk of total death cause, cancer death and non-cancer death are analysed by epidemiological method. The relative frequency of non-cancer death cause on male survivors exposed with 50-99 cGy is decreased relative to unexposed controls. (author)

109

Epicenter of the Nagasaki weapon: a reanalysis of available data with recommended values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant source of uncertainty in estimates of radiation dose for atomic-bomb survivors of Nagasaki and in correlations of radiation dose with medical effects observed in these survivors is due to unresolved discrepancies in the literature with respect to the location of the epicenter or burst point of the weapon. Available data on the epicenter of the weapon have been reanalyzed in this report using several different approaches. These appear to have resolved some of the major discrepancies found in the literature and to justify a recalculation of radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors of Nagasaki. A recommended epicenter for recalculating the radiation doses is given in the report

110

Characterization of soluble and insoluble components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions of airborne particulate matter in Kofu city, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic method combining water and diluted-acid extractions has been developed for the manifold evaluation of soluble and insoluble fractions in ambient aerosol. The pre-washed regenerated cellulose membrane filter was used as a collection medium of a low-volume air sampler. The collection time of 7-14 days was required to obtain the sample amounts enough for the systematic analysis. Simple and efficient extraction procedures using the filtration of water and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid were recommended in order to obtain the information about the dissolution behaviors of various elements in the aerosol. Soluble components in both the extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography (IC). These extraction procedures were also preferred to prepare thin-layer specimens suitable to the succeeding X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for insoluble components. Elemental compositions of the extraction residues were conveniently determined by the XRF calibrated with thin-layer standard specimens prepared with activated carbon. The determination of the 17 representative elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb) in these three fractions from an aerosol sample was performed rapidly within 4 h. The proposed systematic method was applied to PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosol samples collected in Kofu City, Central Japan, and the enrichment behaviors of various elements and their source apportionment such as soil, anthropogenic substances and vehicle exhaust particulates could be demonstrated by the present method.

Kyotani, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Masaaki

111

Present status of the reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been going on by the American committee (chairman; Dr. F. Seitz) and the Japanese committee (chairman; Dr. E. Tajima). Here, the status of these committees is written and some discussions are done about their problems. (author)

112

Urban and spatial planning in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

Marin Tominaga

2011-12-01

113

 Smart Shrinking Sado: Development Strategies in Shrinking Cities  

OpenAIRE

Rapid urbanisation has resulted in shrinking cities around the world, and Japan is no exception. This thesis endeavours to understand the causes and consequences of, and prospects for, shrinking cities in Japan through a case study: the city of Sado. Sado faces the shrinking city phenomenon following deindustrialisation, deagriculturalisation and Japan‘s structure of high concentration. Within Sado, suburbanisation and peripherization is observed, draining the younger generation from the ce...

Taniguchi, Ryo

2009-01-01

114

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10-4 per gamete per generation. (author)

115

Investigation of environmental migration and behavior by trace of Nagasaki atomic bomb recorded in sediment 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sediment in a reservoir accumulates substances in its layers which records the environmental change in the past. Yamazaki et al. found the trace of Nagasaki atomic bombardment recorded in the sediments of 'A core' sampled at Nishiyama reservoir, using the information of chronological order estimated from the stratigraphic distribution of 137Cs and geological features in the sediments. The determination of origin of the substances can provide useful information to determine the chronological order in the sediments accurately. The ratio of 240Pu/239Pu and the morphology of particles give the information of their origin. To make a further research on the traces of the atomic bombardment, another sediment core sample (B core) collected from Nishiyama reservoir was analyzed in this study. From the depth profile of B core, it was observed that 137Cs and 239+240Pu concentrations had two peaks. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio in B core sediments was lower than that of 1960's nuclear tests, suggesting the Pu originated from Nagasaki atomic bomb. The concentrations of Cu and Pb had similar profiles to 137Cs concentration. The deeper layer samples, in which maximum 137Cs concentrations were observed, contained particles of Cu metal and its alloy scattered by the bomb blast. The stratigraphic distribution of 137Cs and 239+240Pu and the ratio of 240Pu/239240Pu/239Pu indicated that the sediments below 200 cm contained the trace of Nagasaki atomic bombardment. Sand layer found at the depth of 150-200 cm was considered to be a result of the flood in 1953. At the depth of 120-150 cm, the trace of Nagasaki atomic bombardment come from the surface soil around the reservoir after the floods. Above 120 cm, 137Cs and Cu originated from nuclear tests and industrial activities, respectively. (author)

116

Hiroshima and Nagasaki initial radiations: delayed neutron contributions and comparison of calculated and measured cobalt activations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculated estimates of neutron doses received by atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have not included contributions from delayed neutrons emitted by fission products in the debris cloud, although the possibility of a significant contribution from this source has been suggested. In the present work, an established model accounting for gamma-ray kermas from these fission products is adapted to provide the desired neutron kerma estimates. Adaptations include use of explicit time dependence of neutron emitters, properly folded with the time-dependent phenomenology of the explosion itself, and detailed air-over-ground neutron transport with a source having an energy spectrum characteristic of these delayed neutrons. Results show that delayed neutrons are indeed negligible contributors to atomic-bomb survivor dosimetry, as well as to neutron activations at Hiroshima. About half the activation at Nagasaki, however, is due to the delayed component. Calculated activation of cobalt, a revision of previous estimates, is compared to measured values at Hiroshima and at Nagasaki. The causes of the substantial discrepancies are discussed and compared to previously reported discrepancies for sulfur activation. Additional investigation is recommended

117

Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 Nagasaki strain adheres and invades PK-15 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro ability of two H. parasuis serovars of different virulence (serovar 5, Nagasaki strain, highly virulent, belonging to serovar 5, and SW114 strain, nonvirulent, belonging to serovar 3) to adhere to and invade porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK-15 line). Nagasaki strain was able to attach at high levels from 60 to 180 min of incubation irrespective of the concentrations compared (10(7)-10(10)CFU), and a substantial increase of surface projections could be seen in PK-15 cells by scanning electron microscopy. This virulent strain was also able to invade effectively these epithelial cells, and the highest invasion capacity was reached at 180 min of infection. On the contrary, nonvirulent SW114 strain hardly adhered to PK-15 cells, and it did not invade these cells, thus suggesting that adherence and invasion of porcine kidney epithelial cells could be a virulence mechanism involved in the lesions caused by H. parasuis Nagasaki strain in this organ. PMID:21839589

Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F

2012-01-27

118

The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings

119

Characterization of atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) in a midsize city in Northern Japan: non-snow-clad period to snow-clad period comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected from three areas (commercial, residential and agricultural) in and near Akita City in northern Japan, from May - June 1996 (non-snow-clad period) and January - February 1997 (snow-clad period), over three days with a one-hour sampling interval for each area. The elemental composition and particle shape of TSP samples were determined and/or observed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In the hourly TSP samples collected during the non-snow-clad period, 23 elements were determined for each area, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe were the major components. On the other hand, 25 elements, excluding As and Rb, were found in the snow-clad period samples, and P, Ga, Nb and Mo were only found in the snow-clad-period samples. Dominant elements, i.e., major components, of the snow-clad period were the same as the non-snow-clad period. Comparing the arithmetic means of elemental concentrations in TSP for the non-snow-clad and snow-clad periods, in the commercial area the elemental concentrations in the snow-clad period were the same or lower than those in the non-snow-clad period, with the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti and Fe in particular being markedly lower. In the residential area the concentrations of Na, Mg and Cl were markedly higher in the snow-clad period than in the non-snow-clad period, whiriod than in the non-snow-clad period, while the concentrations of the other elements were the same or only slightly lower. In the agricultural area, the concentrations of Na and Cl were markedly higher in the snow-clad period relative to the non-snow-clad period, and the concentrations of the other elements, except for P, were low. The concentrations of the major elements and Pb were particularly low. Thus, in the residential and agricultural areas the effect of northwesterly winter wind on TSP can be observed by Cl, and it is conjectured that soil particles rising up into the air is inhibited by snow accumulation. Soil particles rising up into the air seems to be inhibited by snow accumulation in the commercial area as well. With the aid of SEM and EDX analysis, aggregates of diesel exhaust particles (DEP), soil particles and small silicon-rich spherical particles were observed in the non-snow-clad period samples for each area. In addition, small aluminum-rich and iron-rich spheres were observed during the non-snow-clad period in the commercial area. Zinc-rich fiber was observed during the non-snow-clad period in the residential area. (author)

120

Water reuse in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though Japan has mean annual precipitation of 1,714 mm and hundreds of dams and reservoirs constructed, frequent and severe droughts have occurred in wide regions of the country. Because of rapid economic growth and concentrations of population in urban areas, water demands in large cities have stressed reliability of water supply systems and necessitated the development of new water resources with considerable economic and environmental costs. To alleviate these situations, wastewater reclamation and reuse have been implemented widely in major cities. This paper summarizes the current status of water reuse in Japan and discusses dominant uses of reclaimed water, emphasizing non-potable urban applications such as toilet flushing, industrial reuse, and environmental water. PMID:11436777

Ogoshi, M; Suzuki, Y; Asano, T

2001-01-01

121

Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

1992-01-01

122

Southern Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This dramatic infrared view of Southern Kyushu, Japan (31.5N, 130.5E) shows the vegetation on the island as a red or pink, depending upon its lushness. The small islands of Yaku Jima and Tanega Shima are almost totally cloud covered. The port city of Kagoshima with its active volcano, Sakura Jimai in the middle of the harbor, is at the extreme southern tip of Kyushu. This volcano has erupted almost continuously for over 1,200 years.

1989-01-01

123

Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

124

Initial activities of a radiation emergency medical assistance team to Fukushima from Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an urgent response to serious radiological accidents in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the radiation emergency medical assistance team (REMAT) from Nagasaki University landed at Fukushima on March 14, 2011, two days after the initiation of radiation crisis by the hydrogen explosion at Unit-1 reactor. During a succession of unexpected disasters, REMAT members were involved in various activities for six days, such as setting the base for radiological triage at the Fukushima Medical University, considerations for administration of stable iodine, and risk communication with health care workers. This report briefly describes what happened around REMAT members and radiation doses measured during their activities. -- Highlights: ? The radiation emergency medical assistance team from Nagasaki was sent to Fukushima. ? The practical action level for body surface contamination was 100 kcpm. ? The ambient radiation dose in Fukushima drastically elevated on March 15, 2011. ? Higher than 10 kBq of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 were detected in soil samples. ? The effective dose of the team members ranged between 51.7 and 127.8 ?Sv in 6 days

125

Fuel combustion in thermal power plants in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The position of black coal in the energy balance of Japan is discussed. About 75% of electric energy is produced by thermal power plants. Eighty-five per cent of electricity is produced by power plants fired with liquid fuels and 3% by coal fired plants. Coal production in Japan, the forecast coal import to the country by 1990 (132 Mt/year), proportion of coal imported from various countries, chemical and physical properties of coal from Australia, China and Japan are discussed. Coal classification used in Japan is evaluated. The following topics associated with coal combustion in fossil-fuel power plants in Japan are discussed: coal grindability, types of pulverizing systems, slagging properties of boiler fuel in Japan, systems for slag removal, main types of steam boilers and coal fired furnaces, burner arrangement and design, air pollution control from fly ash, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, utilization of fly ash for cement production, methods for removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas using ammonia and catalysts or ammonia without catalysts, efficiency of nitrogen oxide control, abatement of nitrogen oxide emission from boilers by flue gas recirculation and reducing combustion temperatures. The results of research into air pollution control carried out by the Nagasaki Technical Institute are reviewed.

Kotler, V.R.

1983-11-01

126

Delineation and interpretation of spatial coseismic response of groundwater levels in shallow and deep parts of an alluvial plain to different earthquakes: A case study of the Kumamoto City area, southwest Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Coseismic changes in groundwater levels have been investigated throughout the world, but most studies have focused on the effects of one large earthquake. The aim of this study was to elucidate the spatial patterns of level changes in response to several earthquakes, and the relationship of the patterns to shallow and deep groundwater in the same area. We selected the Kumamoto City area in southwest Japan, a region with one of the richest groundwater resources in Japan, as our study site. Data from hourly measurements of groundwater levels in 54 wells were used to characterize the coseismic responses to four earthquakes that occurred in 2000, 2001, 2005, and 2008. Although the distance to the hypocenter (12-2573 km), and seismic energy (Mw = 5.0-8.0) of these earthquakes varied, systematic groundwater level changes were observed in the range of 0.01-0.67 m. Spatial patters of the level changes were clarified by interpolating the point data by a spline method. The zones where coseismic rises were observed were generally wider for deep groundwater than for shallow groundwater, probably as a result of an increase in compressive stress. General trends in the changes in groundwater levels, and calculated pressure changes, were clarified to be consistent in the deep groundwater, but the coseismic increases or decreases in compressive stress in the shallow groundwater were variable, depending on the distance to the earthquake epicenter. We developed a conceptual model of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon by assuming permeability enhancement induced by elastic strain and pore-pressure change over the depth range. In addition, the importance of local geology was identified, because levels in the area of Togawa lava (a porous andesite) tended to change more in magnitude, and more quickly, with a shorter recovery time, than levels measured in the area outside the lava.

Parvin, M.; Tadakuma, N.; Asaue, H.; Koike, K.

2014-04-01

127

Japan’s Economic Recession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not have any long term effect on the growth.In many respects Japan remains very unique among the developed countries. The country’s economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s has encouraged debate among the scholars to the significance of Japan’s economic past. It is widely seen as due to different model of development in areas such as industrial organisation, the role of the state, social institutions and history. Her appeal lies in the dramatic growth rates and economic transformation. Japan was first Asian country to break the western monopoly of modern industrialisation. Less than a generation ago, Japan was viewed an exemplary success story in terms of rapid economic growth and a model to be emulated by other developed and developing countries. Here I will argue that the Japanese economy suffers from severe problems that are not cyclical but structural in nature. Such structural problems are the most serious impediments to economic dynamism and the future long-run economic success of the country.

Kalim Siddiqui

2009-08-01

128

Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake.

Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

2006-06-01

129

Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), ?1-microglobulin (?1-MG), ?2-microglobulin (?2-MG), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., ? 4 ?g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, ?1-MG, ?2-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 ?g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 ?g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in ?1-MG and NAG (?2-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questith the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake

130

A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

131

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical X-ray exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical factors used during radiological examinations performed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki medical institutions were analyzed. The most frequently performed examination was chest radiography, followed by upper GI series. More than half the radiographic exposures were from upper GI series due to the many spot films made during fluoroscopy. Comparison of the present survey results with those of a previous one showed that relatively high kVp, low mAs and mA, and smaller field sizes are now more widely used. Though there have been decreased in fluoroscopy times and tube currents over the past 10 years, the numbers of spot films used have increased. Based on these technical factors, tables of organ doses from fluoroscopic examinations were compiled. (author)

132

Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

133

Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

134

Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597  

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Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, ŕ Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache ŕ examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps ŕ travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évčnements paroxystiques révčlent en męme temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontičre de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos espańoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la espańola y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

Clotilde Jacquelard

2011-11-01

135

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been mae. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

136

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2011-04-01

137

Establishment of the milk-borne transmission as a key factor for the peculiar endemicity of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1): the ATL Prevention Program Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

In late 2010, the nation-wide screening of pregnant women for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection was implemented in Japan to prevent milk-borne transmission of HTLV-1. In the late 1970s, recognition of the adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cluster in Kyushu, Japan, led to the discovery of the first human retrovirus, HTLV-1. In 1980, we started to investigate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) for explaining the peculiar endemicity of HTLV-1. Retrospective and prospective epidemiological data revealed the MTCT rate at ?20%. Cell-mediated transmission of HTLV-1 without prenatal infection suggested a possibility of milk-borne transmission. Common marmosets were successfully infected by oral inoculation of HTLV-1 harboring cells. A prefecture-wide intervention study to refrain from breast-feeding by carrier mothers, the ATL Prevention Program Nagasaki, was commenced in July 1987. It revealed a marked reduction of HTLV-1 MTCT by complete bottle-feeding from 20.3% to 2.5%, and a significantly higher risk of short-term breast-feeding (<6 months) than bottle-feeding (7.4% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001). PMID:21558754

Hino, Shigeo

2011-01-01

138

Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

139

Cancer of the head and neck in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1957-1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A search was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for all cases of cancer of the lip, nose and nasal cavity, accessory sinuses, larynx, and the oral cavity and pharynx with their subdivisions occurring during the period 1957-1976 among a large, fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors. A total of 232 cases were identified, of which 154 (66.4%) were histologically confirmed (definite cases). Among definite cases, cancer of the epiglottis and larynx predominated (31.2%), followed by accessory sinus (24.7%) and tongue (18.8%). Of the 154 definite cases, 141 (91.6%) were squamous-cell carcinomas. Only two sarcomas were identified, neither of which was attributable to radiation exposure. Analysis of both total and definite cases, by both total group and major anatomic site, failed to reveal definite evidence of a radiation relationship. Although a suggestive relationship to radiation dose was found for accessory sinus cancers (P . 0.06) among the definite cases, inconsistencies in the data do not permit the conclusion that the incidence of tumors in this group increased as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure. The medical literature concerning post-irradiation head and neck tumors is briefly reviewed

140

Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

141

Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

142

Japan earthquake: Footage of moment tsunami hit  

Science.gov (United States)

This video footage shows the force at which the tsunami struck Japan's coast. In the fishing port of Miyako, in Iwate prefecture, boats were overturned, while video from Kamaishi city shows cars being dragged down city streets by the water. The tsunami that followed the 8.9-magnitude earthquake wreaked havoc along a huge stretch of Japan's north-east coast, sweeping far inland and devastating a number of towns and villages. Powerful aftershocks are continuing to hit the region. Footage courtesy of TV Asahi and TBS

BBC

143

The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation sickness and subsequent cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an analysis of data obtained from the Life Span Study, a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of a linear dose response between the estimated dose of ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (p 0.2) by the presence of epilation. The results for leukemia were not modified by age or sex and were consistent in both cities. These observations suggest that those individuals who experienced early effects of radiation were more likely to die of leukemia during the follow-up period than individuals who were exposed to the same level of A-bomb radiation but did not develop epilation. The robustness of this finding on the interaction of two difficult but important problems was investigated. These were the validity of a linear dose-response model for leukemia, and the level of assumed precision of the radiation dosimetry system used for assignment of dose estimates to individual survivors. Assuming 35 % random dose errors and a dose-response function cubic in dose, the excess relative risk for leukemia was still estimated to be 1.89 times higher for the group with epilation, and the p-value for a test of association between leukemia and epilation remained significant at the 0.10 level. If 50 % random dosimetry errors are assumed using the same cubic model, the dose response in the epilation group is estimated to be 1.58 times higher than the others, but is not significant (p < 0.3). (author)

144

Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR functionime of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

145

Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

146

Uncertainties in estimating dose-effects relationships under emergency (Hiroshima, Nagasaki 1945, Bikini 1954)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many types of uncertainties involved in the estimation of risks or dose-effect relationships under emergency conditions, However, they may be divided into two major categories: uncertainty due to randomness and that due to fuzziness. The conventional methods of treating uncertainty are to apply statistical methods of estimation, which are, in turn, based upon the concept of probability. Even in cases where the source of uncertainty is of non-statistical nature, formal application of statistical methods of analysis is often made to deal quantitatively with uncertainty, tacitly accepting the premise that uncertainty - whatever its nature - can be equated with randomness. Most of the work on risk analysis or risk assessment has been done using such methods. In the fuzzy set concept set uncertainties are accepted as uncertain with the introduction of the membership function. Instead of the non-fuzzy two-valued logic 'true or false' any intermediate value between zero (false) and one (true) can be assumed for the membership function in the fuzzy set theory. Use of the fuzzy set theory is proposed in an attempt to analyse the causal relation between dose and effects under emergency conditions. After the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Bikini Accident many efforts have been made to estimate the dose of survivors. However, because of various uncertainties involved in this type of estimation under the emergency conditions, the accurate estimation ofncy conditions, the accurate estimation of the individual dose is very difficult. It was recently reported that ESR dosimetry could be applied to estimate the radiation doses of the individual using the enamel of the teeth of the survivors or material such as shell-button, sugar etc. found on the person. (author)

147

Statement by IAEA Director General on the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: No one who has seen the victims, the film footage or photographs of the aftermath of the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II can fail to be horrified by the devastation that was wrought by the use of nuclear weapons. To date, Hiroshima and Nagasaki thankfully remain the only instances in which nuclear weapons have been used, and while it is difficult to speak of any good coming out of such ruin, it has always been hoped that the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand as constant reminders of why preventing the further use and proliferation of such weapons - and why nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear-weapon-free world - is of utmost importance for the survival of humankind and planet Earth. The International Atomic Energy Agency born out of President Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, came at a time when the horrifying consequences and images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh. Through its safeguards and verification system in support of the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other similar non-proliferation agreements, the IAEA has done a great deal of work to help stem the tide of nuclear proliferation, while ensuring that the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are made available to all those who want them. While the Agency can effectively verify compliance with non-proliferation undertakings, the value of these efforts can be better realized if they are reinforced by all other components of the nuclear non-proliferation and arms control regime, and accompanied by the political will and dialogue among concerned States to address underlying issues of security and confidence building with a view to achieving a system of collective security that no longer relies on nuclear weapons. A world without nuclear weapons remains a far-off goal and the world continues to be burdened with nearly thirty thousand nuclear warheads. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has not entered into force and the negotiation of a global treaty on the verified production ban on fissile material for nuclear weapons has not started. Despite these continuing challenges, there are symbols of hope and indicators of the path to follow - the NPT is almost universal, and nuclear-weapon-free zones cover all of the landmass of the southern hemisphere. We should remain humbled by what we have learned from the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We cannot allow sixty years to soften our memories of how devastating such weapons are. Let us instead ensure that the memories of what happened sixty years ago are once again a catalyst for a new way of thinking. The best protection against nuclear weapons, and the only way to prevent future Hiroshimas and Nagasakis, is to bring about an end to all nuclear weapons. Let us renew today - on the 60th anniversary of the first use of nuclear weapons - the promise to the peoples of the world to spare no effort to work collectively to reduce and eliminate nuclear weapons. (IAEA)

148

Structure of the capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from Haemophilus parasuis strains ER-6P (serovar 15) and Nagasaki (serovar 5).  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium from the family Pasteurellaceae and a swine pathogen. H. parasuis is found in the upper respiratory tract of piglets and produces Glässer's disease, an invasive disease characterized by polyserositis. H. parasuis contains a short lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) reported to play a partial role in interaction with host cells. The presence of capsule has been phenotypically demonstrated in certain H. parasuis strains and its role in virulence has been suggested, but the chemical structure of the surface polysaccharides of this bacterium was unknown. The structure of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and LOS from virulent strains ER-6P and Nagasaki was studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. CPS from both strains had the same main chain with disaccharide repeating unit, substituted with ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-GalNAc-(1-P-(strain ER-6P) or ?-Neu5R-(2-3)-?-Gal-(1-P-strain Nagasaki) side chains, where R is the N-acetyl or N-glycolyl group. Glycolyl-neuraminic acid is widely found in animal glycoproteins, but it apparently has not been found in bacteria before, and might be important for the biology of this microorganism. Ac and Gc were present in equal amounts in the strain ER-6P but Nagasaki contained only about 20% of Gc substituent. Both strains produced the same LPS of a rough type with a single phosphorylated Kdo linking core and lipid A parts. LOS structure was similar to some strains of H. influenzae and contained a globotetraose terminal sequence. PMID:23664728

Perry, Malcolm B; MacLean, Leann L; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Aragon, Virginia; Vinogradov, Evgeny

2013-08-30

149

Wind Energy Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-06-15

150

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agreement with traditional values. The new discrete ordinates software appears to have potential application to conventional radiation transport calculations as well. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

151

Thermoluminescence analyses of Hiroshima ceramic tile and Nagasaki brick using the pre-dose and inclusion techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a small program of diagnostic testing on ceramic tile from Hiroshima the pre-dose and inclusion measurements have been completed on a sample of tile from Hiroshima University (University of Utah reference UHFSFT02, at 1442 m from the hypocenter) and a sample of brick (NAIE06, at 1427 m) from Nagasaki. In this outline report the results of the measurements and also the results obtained from measurements on gamma-ray irradiated quartz supplied by the Oxford Laboratory and samples of gamma-ray irradiated material prepared by the University of Utah to enable a comparison of laboratory beta-particle calibrations are presented

152

RBE of neutrons in cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-78  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in cancer mortality in the period 1950-78 in a fixed cohort of 109,000 individuals is reported. The RBE of neutrons has been estimated by fitting several models to the dose-response curves in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for leukemia, lung, breast, and stomach cancers where the dose-response relationship has been confirmed and for cancers of all sites other than leukemia. A simple additive model was used because two other models where mortality is assumed to level off in the high dose group due to cell killing fit closely resembling the simple additive model. Thus, primarily, the L-L model where mortality is assumed to increase linearly with gamma and neutron doses and the Q-L model where mortality increases proportionally to the square of the gamma dose and linearly with the neutron dose were used. Since the observations on cancers of all sites fit both the L-L and Q-L models, the RBE was estimated for both. The RBE based on the kerma dose (and tissue dose) is leukemia 7.3 (14.7), stomach cancer 3.0 (7.4), lung cancer 2.2 (4.7), and breast cancer 4.6 (6.5) using the L-L model. Under the Q-L model, the RBE is dose dependent and decreases with increasing dose. At 100 rad it is 5.1 (5.5), 3.1 (3.4), 8.3 (9.2), and 11.6 (12.7), respectively. The L-Q-L model where mortality increases with the gamma dose and its square, and linearly with the neutron dose, fits better than either the L-L model or the Q-L model for the data on cancer other than leukemia. However, one or the other of the two estimated coefficients associated with the gamma dose are negative. (author)

153

Exposure of Nishiyama residents in Nagasaki to radioactive fallout: Investigation of behaviour immediately after the A-bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to estimate the maximum radioactive fallout from the Nagasaki A-bomb of which Nishiyama residents in Nagasaki were exposed. Environmental radiation in the Nishiyama area after the A-bomb was measured from September to November 1945, by US and Japanese scientists. The exposure rate at the time of measurement was determined and the cumulative exposure estimated. These data had some discrepancies in value but, according to the data in this chapter, the cumulative exposure in the Nishiyama area is estimated to be 20 to 40 R. To be realistic, individual Nishiyama residents did not spend all of their time outdoors where the exposure rate was high. They must have slept indoors at night and some of them must have gone out of the Nishiyama area from time to time. Therefore, the levels of individual exposure of Nishiyama residents must be lower than the above-mentioned cumulative exposure. Prior to the measurement of exposure of Nishiyama residents in 1969, using the whole-body counter, an investigation was conducted on the individual behavior of Nishiyama residents after the A-bomb. Using the data available from the investigation, it is proposed to review the behavior of Nishiyama residents immediately after the A-bomb, determine the time of stay in the high-dose region and estimate the maximum exposure

154

Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

155

Japan's Imbalance of Payments  

OpenAIRE

During the past three decades, Japan?s current account experienced five large swings. The yen appreciated considerably in periods when the current account boomed, and it depreciated whenever Japan?s external performance weakened. However, there has always been a certain lag in the adjustment of the exchange rate. This paper tries to explain these empirical regularities. It argues that as a result of the large movements of the current account, the flows of cash between Japan and ist trading ...

Mu?ller-plantenberg, Nikolas

2003-01-01

156

Neurological deficit among the survivors exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A reassessment and new directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extensive epidemiological and experimental literature records the deleterious effects on the embryonic and fetal central nervous system of exposure to ionizing radiation; much of the human evidence stems from studies of the in utero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (orig./MG)

157

On JALT 2000--Towards the New Millennium. Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching & Learning and Educational Materials Expo (26th, Shizuoka City, Japan, November 2-5, 2000).  

Science.gov (United States)

These conference proceedings address the following six topics: (1) "Change and the Future" (e.g., English language education in Japan, sociolinguistics in Hong Kong, and Esperanto); (2) "Children and Language Education" (e.g. a short-term language immersion case study, virtual classrooms for bilingual students, and the role of phonics in achieving…

Long, Robert, Ed.; van Troyer, Gene, Ed.; Lane, Keith, Ed.; Swanson, Malcom, Ed.

158

Octants and Sextants before the 1860s Preserved in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The octant was invented in 1731 independently in the UK and US, and the sextant by John Campbell around 1757. Octants were brought to Japan in the 1770s by ships of the Dutch East India Company. A Dutch booklet manual on octants ``Beschryvinge van het Octant en deszelfs Gebruik" (Description of the octant and its usage) written in 1749 by Cornelis Douwes was translated into Japanese at Nagasaki in the 1780s--90s. This translation triggered serious attention of Japanese astronomers to octants. Because those instruments had no chance to be used in ocean navigation due to the strict seclusion policy forced by the then Shogunal government, the Japanese instead devised methods to use octants and sextants for land surveying. Sextants specially designed for the ground measurements were made, and even precursor instruments of the modern range finder were also produced. In this paper we report results of our recent survey investigation of octants and sextants preserved in Japan, which were imported or home-made before the 1860s. About ten objects were identified. We describe their characteristics in terms of originality and influence from overseas products. We also plan to report on accurate measurements of some of domestic products of the 19th century using a modern standard scale, in an attempt to infer how the Japanese artisans at that time could inscribe the graduation without such as a Ramsden's dividing machine.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2012-09-01

159

Landslides in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This internet site, published by The Japan Landslide Society, focues on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan.

160

FAQs: Japan Nuclear Concerns  

Science.gov (United States)

... Donor centre Global network Global Health Cluster FAQs: Japan nuclear concerns September 2011 Current risk What is ... current risk of radiation-related health problems in Japan for those residing near the reactor in comparison ...

161

Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

162

Education Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

Shaked, Haim

2014-01-01

163

Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

164

Academic Libraries in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

2008-01-01

165

Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

166

Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors, report 7. Part III. incidence of cancer in 1959-1978, based on the tumor registry, Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of malignant tumors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry was investigated for the period 1959-1978. (1) No bias in exposure status in data collection was revealed. Neither method of diagnosis nor reporting hospitals nor the frequency of doubtful cases differ by exposure dose. (2) The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancers of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancers of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, no increase is seen for cancer of the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, uterus, ovary, or salivary gland or for malignant lymphoma. (3) In general, the relative risks based on incidence, that is, on the tumor registry data, are either the same or somewhat higher than those based on mortality in the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates [excess cancer per 10(6) Person Year Rad (PYR)] are far higher. (4) Since A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki consisted essentially of gamma rays, the present report provides a good opportunity to examine the shape of the dose-response curve for gamma exposures. Unfortunately, statistically one cannot actually distinguish one model from another among a simple linear, a quadratic, or a linear quadratic response. Further data are obviously necessary

167

Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part B. 152Eu measurements in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal neutron activation data on 60Co and 152Eu were not so sufficient at the time of the DS86 Final Report. For example, a systematic discrepancy was noted in the measured 60Co data and DS86 calculation. The 152Eu data by Nakanishi et al. (1983, 1987) as well as that of Sakanoue et al. (1987) and Okajima and Miyajima (1987), however, were roughly in agreement with the DS86 calculation (Loewe et al. 1986). Thereafter, Nakanishi (1991) performed further radiochemical sample purification and repeated the 152Eu measurements, and Shizuma et al. (1993) collected many new samples and reported 70 additional measurements for 152Eu at Hiroshima. These new 152Eu data revealed a systematic discrepancy, as seen in 60Co data of Hashizume et al. (1967). For Nagasaki, existing data at the time of DS86 Final Report were scattered and lacked the accuracy needed to determine whether or not a similar discrepancy exists in that city. Nakanishi et al. (1998) sampled roof tiles at a slant range of about 1,200 m and concrete cores from Konpirayama Mountain located at a slant range of 1,596 m. Shizuma et al. (2003) collected nine samples of rocks at ground ranges less than 1,000 m. Thus, more reliable 152Eu data were accumulated for Nagasaki. (author)

168

Pension Reform in Japan  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to establish guidelines for public pension reform in Japan, using a numerical simulation approach. The paper introduces the example of a minimum guaranteed pension in the Swedish pension system and compares this with the basic pension in Japan’s public pension system, with regard to methods of income redistribution through a public pension scheme. Simulation results show that the switch from the basic pension to the guaranteed pension does not always generate favorable resul...

Akira Okamoto

2010-01-01

169

Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

170

Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

1978-01-01

171

Methodology of detecting internal radiation on paraffin embedded materials of Nagasaki atomic bomb casualties and DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose to establish a methodology in the title, expression of 53BP1, a tumor suppressing p53 related-DNA checkpoint protein, was examined in paraffin embedded specimens of the liver and spleen of a thorotrast (T) patient, 7 Nagasaki A-bomb exposed casualties and 2 non-exposed subjects. The 53BP1 protein was detected by immuno-fluorescent staining. Focal 53BP1 was seen in cells around T granules in liver, epithelium of bile duct and spleen of the patient. It was also observed in cells of liver and bile duct epithelium of casualties and the expression was particularly high in those outdoor-exposed at 0.5 km distance from the hypocenter and with shortest surviving period. 53BP1 foci were reported to be the indicator of genome instability in A-bomb casualties. The foci were found to be formed by T in this study, suggesting that DNA double strand had been broken by internal radiation exposure and its repair mechanism had been operated. Thus 53BP1 can be an indicator of internal exposure. (T.T.)

172

Incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to neutron and gamma dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia during 1950-71 in the fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been analyzed as a function of individual gamma and neutron kerma and marrow dose. Two dose response models were tested for each of acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of the separate risks imposed by the gamma ray and neutron doses; in Model I both are assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that while the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from gamma rays is proportional to dose-squared. Weighted regression analyses were performed for each model. When the two models were fitted to the data for all types of leukemia, the estimated regression coefficients corresponding to the neutron and gamma ray doses both differed significantly from zero, for each model. However, when analysis was restricted to acute leukemia, both the neutron and gamma ray coefficients were significant only for Model II, and with respect to chronic granulocytic leukemia, only the coefficient of the neutron dose was significant, using either Model I or Model II. It appeared that the responses of the two leukemia types differed by type of radiation. If the chronic granulocytic and acute leukemias are considered together, the Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither models is rejected by the data. (author)

173

Treatment outcome of elderly patients with aggressive adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma: Nagasaki University Hospital experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

VCAP (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone)-AMP (doxorubicin, ranimustine, and prednisone)-VECP (vindesine, etoposide, carboplatin, and prednisone) is a standard regimen for aggressive adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). However, the efficacy of this regimen has not been fully elucidated for patients aged 70 years or older. Here, we retrospectively analyzed elderly patients with aggressive ATL at Nagasaki University Hospital between 1994 and 2010 to assess treatment outcomes. Of 148 evaluable patients, 54 were aged 70 years or older at diagnosis. The median survival time (MST) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years in elderly patients were 10.6 months and 22.1%, respectively. Thirty-four patients received VCAP-AMP-VECP as the initial treatment, although the doses were reduced for most patients. In these patients, MST and OS at 2 years were 13.4 months and 26.6%, respectively. Eleven of 34 patients (32%) received maintenance oral chemotherapy after two or three cycles of VCAP-AMP-VECP, and MST and OS at 2 years were 16.7 months and 32.7%, respectively. Our results suggest that the VCAP-AMP-VECP regimen may be effective and that maintenance oral chemotherapy may be considered as a therapeutic option for elderly patients with aggressive ATL. PMID:25209605

Makiyama, Junya; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Tsushima, Hideki; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriwaki, Yuji; Sawayama, Yasushi; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Hata, Tomoko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi

2014-11-01

174

Thyroid ultrasound findings in a follow-up survey of children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted ultrasound thyroid screening in cohort of 4,365 children aged between 3 to 18 years in three Japanese prefectures (Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki) using the same procedures as used in the Fukushima Health Survey. Forty-four children had nodules ? 5.1?mm in diameter or cysts ? 20.1?mm in diameter detected at the first screening, and 31 of these children underwent the second follow-up survey. We collected information from thyroid ultrasound examinations and final clinical diagnoses and re-categorized the thyroid findings after the second examination. Twenty children had nodules ? 5.1?mm in diameter or cysts ? 20.1?mm in diameter at the second examination; of these, one child was diagnosed with a thyroid papillary carcinoma and the remaining 19 children were diagnosed with possibly benign nodules such as adenomas, adenomatous nodules, and adenomatous goiters. A further 11 children were re-categorized as "no further examinations were required." Our results suggest that ultrasound thyroid findings in children may change with a relatively short-term passing period, and that thyroid cancer may exist at a very low but certain frequency in the general childhood population. PMID:25762224

Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Furuya, Fumihiko; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

2015-01-01

175

Behavior and redistribution of fallout 137Cs released by the Nagasaki A-bomb in environments of soil and sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

23.4 g 137Cs was produced by the Nagasaki A-bomb and a part of them was deposited in soil, tree and sediment cores of the Nishiyama reservoir at 3 km distance from the hypocenter. 137Cs was added as global fallout by nuclear tests since 1946, and amount of them was estimated as 50% of total cumulative radiation dose. 137Cs distribution was measured in soil, tree sediment cores and groundwater. Almost fallout 137Cs was distributed between ground surface and 40 cm depth. 95% of total amount of 137Cs was observed from surface of ground to 10 cm depth. 137Cs peak in 1945 was assumed as a simple peak and its distribution indicated to make possible estimate the particle-mixing coefficient (De) based on the Pu distribution in the local fallout peak stored at the depth of 0.22 to 0.34 m in the sediment core of the Nishiyama reservoir as De=0.08-0.12 cm2/y. The history of fallout was not clear by fallout 137Cs distribution in the rings of sugi. 137Cs concentration profile was the same as that of 40K. 40K and 137Cs concentration increased rapidly in the transition phase from sapwood to heartwood, and then approximated to the constant value. 40K seemed to be absorbed by root, but 137Cs by leaves and stem. (S.Y.)

176

Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

Hayakawa, K.

2012-11-15

177

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

178

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

179

Defining Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Stakeholders: the Case of Japan  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Gujo Odori, a Festival Gujo Odori is a Japanese Bon (festival for the dead usually held in midsummer), in this case a dance matsuri (festival) held annually in Gujo Hachiman, Gujo City, in Gifu Prefecture. Landlocked Gifu Prefecture, and even less Gujo City and the administrative district of Gujo Hachiman, are not too prominent in Japan’s consciousness, and are known primarily for the historic villages of Shirakawa-go and Gokayama, UNESCO WorldHeritage sites, and to some peopl...

Voltaire Garces Cang

2007-01-01

180

Major Earthquake Strikes Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

On 16 July 2007 at 10:13 A.M. local time (0113 UT) an earthquake of local magnitude 6.8 rumbled offshore Niigata Prefecture on Japan's Honshu Island, originating approximately 17 kilometers underground at 37.5°N, 138.6°E, according to the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

2007-07-01

181

Depleted uranium in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, depleted uranium ammunition is regarded as nuclear weapons and meets with fierce opposition. The fact that US Marines mistakenly fired bullets containing depleted uranium on an island off Okinawa during training exercises in December 1995 and January 1996, also contributes. The overall situation in this area in Japan is outlined. (P.A.)

182

Japan and LPG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

183

Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

184

City Mayors  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

185

Sin City?  

OpenAIRE

Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correl...

Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

2007-01-01

186

Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

187

Identification of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis as vanC-type Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) from sewage and river water in the provincial city of Miyazaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a first step for assessing the risk to human health posed by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the aquatic environment, we screened sewage and urban river water samples from Miyazaki, Japan for VRE. Because vancomycin-resistant organisms are not as prevalent in sewage and river water as vancomycin-susceptible organisms, the samples were screened by minimum inhibitory concentration test using the vancomycin-supplemented membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-?-d-glucoside (mEI) agar. The isolates, presumed to be enterococci, were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The percentages of VRE isolates screened using 4 ?g mL(-1) vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar from sewage and urban river water samples were 12% and 24%, respectively. The vancomycin-resistant genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the isolates from both samples by PCR analysis. All enterococci isolates containing vanC1, which is a specific gene for vanC-type of VRE, were identified as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarum. Further, 92% enterococci isolates containing vanC2/3 were identified as E. casseliflavus/gallinarum, the remaining isolates containing vanC2/3 were E. faecium (4%) and E. faecalis (4%). Thereafter, the distribution of E. faecium and E. faecalis, which are the major types of enterococci in humans containing vanC2/3, was observed in the water samples collected. PMID:25438128

Nishiyama, Masateru; Iguchi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

188

State of research and perspective on adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a review article entitled ''Physical Benefits from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,'' published in Health Physics in December of 1982, Professor T.D. Luckey of the University of Missouri, asserted the ''radiation hormesis'' with 200 references. This resulted in the first International Symposium on Radiation Hormesis in Oakland, California (August 1985). CRIEPI consulted many specialists about Luckey's paper and studied many other papers such as Lorenz, 1954; Luckey, 1980, Liu et al., 1985. Radiation hormesis research in Japan has been based on the rationale that if Luckey's claim were to be true, radiation management in Japan has been extremely erroneous. CRIEPI organized a Hormesis Research Steering Committee composed of leading specialists in the field concerned, and began research in cooperation with a number of universities, as well as the National Cancer Research Institute, and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After obtaining interesting results in various experiments on the health effects of exposure to low doses of radiation, we have proceeded on an expanded program, which involves fourteen universities and two research institutes throughout Japan. The interesting results we obtained can be categorized in five groups. 1. Enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes and suppression of cancer, 2. Radio-adaptive response relating to the activation of DNA repair and adoptosis, 3. Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 4. Radiation effect on neuro-transmitting system through increase of key enzymes, 5. Others, including the therapy of adult-disease such as diabetes and hypertension. We are now carrying out experimental activities on the effects of low-dose radiation on mammals. After several years of research activities, we are recognizing Luckey's claim. Some basic surveys including Hiroshima Nagasaki and animal experiments in Japan have brought us valuable informations on the health effects of low-dose radiation. The followings are some topical research informations obtained across Japan. (author)

189

Paper making in Japan  

OpenAIRE

A paper making factory in Japan where the traditional mulberry paper is still made. The various stage in the pulping, floating and using of paper are shown and some of the effects of the development of paper are discussed.

Harrison, Sarah

2004-01-01

190

Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

191

Open City  

Science.gov (United States)

Are you interested in improving civic culture and knowledge with apps? If so, you will be delighted to learn about the Open City site. The Open City folks are a group of programmers, citizen activists, and policy types that create apps with open data in order "to improve transparency and understanding of our government." Chicagoans can stop by the Merchandise Mart to meet up and work with Open City in person. Everyone else can check out the Projects page to view apps like "Chicago Councilmatic," "How's Business?" and "Crime in Chicago." Each of these apps takes open source data from the city of Chicago and other organizations to create tools designed to help decision makers, journalists, and scholars with their various projects. The site also contains information about the people behind the organization and press releases about their work.

192

Recycle City  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

193

Sin City?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships.

Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.

2007-01-01

194

Sustainable cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementatiorocess, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

195

Quo Vadis, Japan?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan?

196

Cultural Astronomy in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

Renshaw, Steven L.

197

Overview of recent trans-institutional health network projects in Japan and Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide populations are aging and countries have to prepare for the effects of demographic change in health care. Health information exchange (HIE), which is the process of moving patient information across health care providers electronically, can help overcome health data fragmentation and open opportunities to improve patient care in terms of quality, economy and efficiency. Since Japan and Germany are among the first countries strongly impacted by demographic changes of aging populations, we report on current developments about health information systems carrying out HIE based on case studies in both countries. Four projects that address the improvement of HIE within a defined region have been selected and investigated: the German project of the Lower Saxony Bank of Health and the Japanese projects Chiba ITnet, Nagasaki AjisaiNet and the National Disaster and Backup System of Japan. The project descriptions are based on relevant English publications, on-site visits and interviews with developers and users. The projects are introduced in terms of their basic architecture and implementation, their present status and future objectives. The projects' developments are still in progress and all have to cope with significant challenges before they will be able to provide a fully working trans-institutional health network solution. PMID:25732082

Juhr, Maren; Haux, Reinhold; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko

2015-05-01

198

Megaloblastic anemia in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

Taguchi,Hirokuni

1978-08-01

199

Disaster in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-28

200

Tokyo and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Tokyo and Japan should be interesting and educational for people from junior-high students to adults. It provides an interactive experience as a virtual tourist on a trip to Tokyo. You can also 'Ask the Old Japan Hand' questions about Tokyo and what it's like to live there. There are also links to many Japanese sites that publish in English. The site is young, but growing. It's direction and speed of growth will be determined by the reactions of the visitors. Your input is encouraged.

201

Mapping of cosmic ray doses in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays in all municipalities in Japan were estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. The latitude, longitude, and altitude data for all municipalities were assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets comprising every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50 m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component were grouped into two categories: the ionizing component including photons, and the neutron component. The population-weighted average dose in Japan was estimated to be 29.2 nSv h-1 for the ionizing component and 6.1 nSv h-1 for the neutron component, or 35.3 nSv h-1 in total. The highest value among the prefectural averages was found in Nagano Prefecture at 44.0 nSv h-1, although this prefecture is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumptions in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report for cosmic ray dose estimation, the doses in Japan were estimated to be 0.21 mSv a-1 for the ionizing component and 0.045 mSv a-1 for the neutron component, or 0.26 mSv a-1 in total. The cosmic ray dose rate data for each municipality are presented here in the form of maps and tables. (author)

202

Vatican City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues. PMID:12178097

1984-11-01

203

FUN CITY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".

2007-01-01

204

Vacant city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if  not recognized by any instrument. It is the Vacant city, magmatic, formless, pervasive and widespread, marginal and interstitial. Its spaces express, in their programmatic essence, those conditions of re-colonization of the territory intended to minimum investment  of financial capital and maximum return in terms of social value as a result of a transformation. 

Nicola Marzot

2013-06-01

205

Sapovirus in Water, Japan  

OpenAIRE

Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

Hansman, Grant S.; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

2007-01-01

206

Educational Administration in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes administrative roles from the Ministry of Education to boards of education elected by each prefecture and municipality. Discusses local autonomy in relation to national measures promoting educational equality. Identifies educational needs resulting from Japan's world trade, progress in science and technology, and changes in family life.…

Kida, Hiroshi

1986-01-01

207

Language Testing in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

208

Civics Education in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides an overview of policies concerning civics education in Japan during the 50 years following World War II. Summarizes the problems in civics education, focusing on textbooks, teaching styles, and the marginalization of civics in the curriculum. Considers the future of Japanese civics education. (CMK)

Otsu, Kazuko

1999-01-01

209

China, South Korea, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

210

City 2020+  

Science.gov (United States)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

211

Globalization and Education in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

212

Spent fuel management strategy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan has consistently based its policy on its nuclear fuel cycle option with only peaceful purposes, in order to ensure a stable and reliable energy supply and to minimize environmental loads. Since the start of operation of the first commercial nuclear power plant in 1966, nuclear power generation in Japan has steadily increased. At present, 52 commercial nuclear power plants are in operation. Nearly 1,000 tU of spent fuel is discharged annually by these plants. JNFL is constructing the RRP, planned to be commissioned in July 2005. The reprocessing capacity is 800 tU/year. Therefore, more than 200 tU of surplus spent fuel will accumulate every year. Building up the interim storage capability outside of nuclear plant sites is now a focal point for the flexible, practical, and safe management of the surplus amount of spent fuel predicted to arise over the next several decades. In February 1997, a Cabinet decision on 'Policy to Promote Nuclear Fuel Cycle' was made and the need to build more AFR interim storage capacity was acknowledged. A law concerning interim storage was enacted in 1999. Thus, the spent fuel storage business has legally become possible in Japan. Since then, the utilities have been endeavouring to site ARF storage facilities, with the goal of commencing operation around 2010. TEPCO is now preparing for the first AFR in Japan, Mutsu Recycle Fuel Storage Center, located at Sekinehama in Mutsu City. In April 2003, TEPCO released a report on the site feas, TEPCO released a report on the site feasibility investigation, which verified the suitability of the site for the AFR storage facility and also announced the framework of this project. (author)

213

Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies  

OpenAIRE

Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the preval...

Nobuyuki Shiba; Hiroaki Shimokawa

2008-01-01

214

Present status of the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new synchrotron radiation facility, 'Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility' is now being constructed in Aichi area about 20 km from the center of Nagoya city. The facility will be operational in 2012. The facility will provide synchrotron radiation covering hard X-ray for industries, universities and research institutes in Aichi area. The design of 6 beamlines which will be installed in the first year is completed. (author)

215

Source apportionment of PCBs in urban ambient air, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, source identification and apportionment for PCDDs/DFs and PCBs have come to be studied using statistical methods. For this purpose, it is desired that detailed congener specific concentration data should be used as input data. In this study, all the PCB congeners were measured in ambient air at Yokohama City, Japan and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) for source identification. Then the contributions from each source were estimated by multiple regression analysis (MRA).

Kim Kyoung-Soo [Inst. of Environmental Chemistry, Jeonju (Korea); Masunaga, S. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

2004-09-15

216

Foundations of minority communities: Resident Koreans in Japan  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the development of Korean communities in Japan from their origins in the late nineteenth century through their stabilization following the Second World War. Approaching the developing communities from a spatial perspective, the chapter compares Tokyo and Osaka and shows the connections between the urban environment and development of migrant communities. The chapter shows that the conditions of urban environments are specific to each city and that those distinctions const...

Rands, David

2010-01-01

217

Migration, age, and education: a cross-sectional analysis of geographic labor mobility in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This paper presents some new empirical evidence on the determinants of prefecture-to-city migration in Japan, using a model based on the human capital-search theoretic approach." Several hypotheses relating the rate of migration to age, education, distance moved, and earnings are tested, and the applicability of the theoretical framework to the analysis of labor migration in Japan is evaluated. Data are from the 1970 census and the 1968 Employment Status Survey. PMID:12265025

Inoki, T; Suruga, T

1981-11-01

218

DPAL activities in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

2015-02-01

219

Vaccine chronicle in Japan  

OpenAIRE

The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner’s cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events...

Nakayama, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

220

Thorotrast injury in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thorotrast injuries in Japan were discovered after 1945, and 94 autopsy cases were examined up to 1970. These autopsy cases included 60 cases of malignant tumor of the liver and 9 cases of blood disease. Examination of thorotrast-administered autopsy cases in Japan has revealed, among other things, that about one-half of all thorotrast-administered cases were war-wounded ex-servicemen and that the dates of injection in these cases were concentrated between 1932 and 1945. Based on this preliminary findings, a follow-up study was made on 147 thorotrast-administered war-wounded ex-serviceman after a lapse of 31 to 36 years from injection, and 6 cases of malignant tumor of the liver, 1 case of leukemia, 1 case of thrombocytopenic purpura, and 5 cases of liver cirrhosis were found among the samples. The incidence of these diseases in the samples was significantly higher than in the controls. The total number of thorotrast-administered persons living in Japan as of 1973 was roughly estimated at 5,000. (auth.)

221

Japan’s foreign aid sanctions policy toward African countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward African countries since new guidelines for Japanese ODA were introduced. There were three cases of positive reinforcement in Africa, i.e. in Madagascar, Zambia) and Guinea. Also, the Japanese government implemented nine negative reinforcements in the region, i.e. in Kenya, Zaire, Malawi, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Togo, Nigeria and Gambia. Although Japan applied positive reinforcement and provided additional foreign aid to assist the...

Furuoka, Fumitaka

2007-01-01

222

Diffusion of microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) from the reservoir of Isahaya Bay, Japan, into the marine and surrounding ecosystems as a result of large-scale drainage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the artificial reservoir of the Isahaya reclaimed land, Nagasaki, Japan, algal blooms have become an annual event, dominated primarily by the microcystin (MC) producing cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Although the majority of MCs are either degraded by bacteria or washed out to sea, some remain in the sediment of the reservoir and bay throughout the year. As a result, they also accumulate in aquatic organisms (mullet, oyster, etc.) that inhabit the reservoir and surrounding areas, as well as midge flies that spend their larval period in the bottom of the reservoir. Accordingly, MCs also accumulate in the predators of these organisms, allowing the toxin to spread from the hydrosphere to terrestrial ecosystems. The most effective method for resolving this potentially dangerous condition is to introduce seawater into the reservoir by opening the drainage gates at high tide. PMID:25444624

Takahashi, Tohru; Umehara, Akira; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki

2014-12-15

223

Regional and transported aerosols during DRAGON-Japan experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol properties over Japan have been monitored by AERONET sun / sky photometers since 2000. These measurements provides us with long term information of local aerosols, which are influenced by transported aerosols, such as Asian dusts or anthropogenic pollutants due to rapid increasing of energy consumption in Asian countries. A new aerosol monitoring experiment, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Japan is operated in spring of 2012. The main instrument of DRAGON network is AERONET sun/sky radiometers. Some of them are sparsely set along the Japanese coast and some others make a dense network in Osaka, which is the second-largest city in Japan and famous for manufacturing town. Several 2ch NIES-LIDAR systems are also co-located with AERONET instrument to monitor Asian dusts throughout the campaign. The objects of Dragon-Japan are to characterize local aerosols as well as transported ones from the continent of China, and to acquire the detailed aerosol information for validating satellite data with high resolved spatial scale. This work presents the comprehensive results of aerosol properties with respect to regional- and/or transported- scale during DRAGON-Japan experiments.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Nishizawa, T.; Takamura, T.; Takemura, T.; Yonemitsu, M.; Fujito, T.; Schafer, J.; Eck, T. F.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kouzai, K.; KUJI, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

2013-12-01

224

Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the prevalence and mortality of CHF used to be relatively low in Japan, the disorder has been markedly increasing due to the rapid aging of the society and the Westernization of lifestyle that facilitates the development of coronary artery disease. The Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART-1 study was one of the largest cohorts in Japan. The study has clarified the characteristics and prognosis of Japanese patients with CHF, demonstrating that their prognosis was similarly poor compared with those in Western countries. However, we still need evidence for the prevention and treatment of CHF based on the large cohort studies or randomized treatment trials in the Japanese population. Since the strategy for CHF management is now changing from treatment to prevention, a larger-size prospective cohort, called the CHART-2 study, has been initiated to evaluate the risk factors of CHF in Japan. This review summarizes the current status of CHF studies in Japan and discusses their future perspectives.Keywords: heart failure, aging, Japanese

Nobuyuki Shiba

2008-03-01

225

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

2008-02-15

226

Low-dose Computed Tomography Screening in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in both male and female individuals in Japan. The effect of screening using chest radiography is assumed to be limited. In Japan, screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT) was initiated in 1993, and its dissemination has progressed with studies evaluating its efficacy, although it is not officially recommended. In addition to the academic activities of the Japanese Society of CT Screening, certification of physicians and radiologic technologists by the Japan Accreditation Council for CT Screening has been progressing. Currently, several hundred thousand low-dose CT screenings are performed annually in Japan. In Hitachi City, Ibaraki Prefecture, low-dose CT screening among employees and in communities started in 2001, and it was estimated that 40% of 50- to 69-year-old citizens had undergone screening at least once by March 2009. The lung cancer mortality rate in citizens in this age group decreased by 24% in 2005 to 2009 compared with the national statistics. Low-dose CT screening targeting the general population may be effective, but it is necessary to consider the target and interval of screening separately from those for the high-risk group. Observational study may play a role in evaluating the efficacy of screening in Japan. PMID:25658475

Nawa, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Endo, Katsuyuki

2015-03-01

227

The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.

1998-01-01

228

Creating a Career in Japan  

OpenAIRE

This Bachelor's thesis' purpose is to research how a career is possible to be created in Japan from the perspective of Finnish University student and University of Applied Sciences student. The job-hunting process in Japan differs from the Finnish job-hunting process significantly. The purpose of this research is to contribute Finnish University students and University of Ap-plied Science's students who are interested in creating their career in Japan. There are concrete explanations of ho...

Mansikka, Jussi

2014-01-01

229

Branding Cities, Changing Societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place.

Ooi, Can-Seng

2010-01-01

230

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

231

Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow induced a debris flow and it moved downstream for about 1 km.

Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

2012-04-01

232

Food Irradiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, “kamaboko” (fish-paste products), “Vienna” sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given “unconditional acceptance” for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

233

Strong Quake Strikes Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

234

Study of adolescents exposed in utero: clinical and laboratory data 1958-1959, Nagasaki. Report 2. Growth and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A group of 286 adolescent children, all of whom were in utero at the time of the atomic bombing in Nasasaki, were examined as part of a long-term program to determine possible differences in growth and development that might be attributable to exposure to ionizing radiation. Three comparison groups were studied: Group I, whose mothers were within 2000 m from the hypocenter; Group II, whose mothers were located between 3000 to 4999 m; Group III, whose mothers were not in the city at the time of the bomb. Group I was further subdivided into high and low dose categories as judged by direct dose estimates, whether or not the mother experienced the acute radiation syndrome, or whether she was more or less than 1500 m from the hypocenter. The age at menarche and degree of epiphyseal closure in the wrist were determined. In addition, measurements were made of head circumference, standing and sitting heights, weight, and chest circumference.

Burrow, G.N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Hrubec, Z.; Amamoto, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Fumie; Brill, A.B.

1964-04-23

235

The automobile in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

2005-01-01

236

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

237

Spent fuel management in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

238

Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part F. 36Cl measurements in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system at the Tandem Accelerator Center of the University of Tsukuba was started in 1995, using the university's own molecular pilot beam technique. Presently, it is the only facility in Japan used to measure 36Cl (Nagashima et al. 2000). The sensitivity of the 36Cl AMS system is around 10-1436Cl/Cl atom ratio, which is enough to measure the natural level of the 36Cl/Cl ratio. The system is characterized by long-term stability, enabling high-quality, continuous measurements over many hours. Our AMS system was used to measure 36Cl produced in soil by neutrons released into the environment at the time of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura in 1999 (Seki et al. 2003). At the beginning of 2001, our group joined the collaborative efforts to investigate and clarify the discrepancy observed between measurements and calculations of neutron activities induced by the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Using our AMS system, 36Cl was measured in granite samples from Hiroshima exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons and in distant, unexposed samples. (author)

239

Atmopheric source and prediction of meteotsunamis (Abiki) in the west of Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Abiki is a local name of a meteotsunami in the west Kyushu, Japan, one of the area that such kind of ocean oscillation frequently occurred. The event in March 1979 at Nagasaki port is one of the famous event of meteotsunami, in which the study of the Hibiya and Kajiura (1982) pointed out the propagation of the pressure wave from the west coastal area of the East China Sea, as cited by much of the meteotsunami scientists. The development of synoptic and mesoscale meteorology (e.g, the numerical modelling such as WRF or JMA-NHM, in situ and satellite observation, and gridded dataset technique and so on) has made scientists be able to detect the atmospheric source of the Abiki phenomena. The summary of the common characteristics of the meteorological condition, brought Abiki in the west Kyushu, is as follows. 1) The wet moist air along the subtropical high on the western Pacific Ocean lifted by mountain orography in the South China. Joining the lifted moist air and the dry air mass (RHsatellite remote sensing data by MTSAT etc. In order to predict the Abiki, as a first guess, it is useful to find the atmospheric structure of the unstable layer in the midtroposphere above the stable layer in the low troposphere over the region of the East China Sea. The non-hydrostatic meteorological model is able to catch the sea level pressure disturbance itself, however, there remains to be improved in the accuracy of the pressure disturbance.

Tanaka, K.; Asano, T.

2012-12-01

240

History of R and D on environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for tokai reprocessing facility in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan's basic policy of utilization of atomic energy is strongly limited only for the peaceful use under the statutory control, reflecting the catastrophic experience of twice atomic bomb detonation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. To attain a sustainable prosperous happy life of people, the energy resource is one of indispensable factor which ranks with foods and environment. Japan has started peaceful atomic energy development program since 1955, the program contained power reactor, uranium exploration, plutonium utilization including reprocessing of spent fuel and MOX fuel and so on. Tokai Reprocessing plant for spent fuel was constructed from 1970 and has been operated since 1977. At the start of the operation, to protect the vicinity people and the environment from radiation hazard which might be occurred by the discharged radioactivity from the plant a total environmental monitoring program was set by the implementing organization. Prior to the operation, environmental monitoring technique had to be developed. This presentation will introduce the history of R and D on low level environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for Tokai Reprocessing Facility in Japan. (authors)

241

Generic antibiotics in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk particle and amount of solubilizer. The Japanese government hopes to increase the diffusion rate of generic drugs (in terms of quantity) from 20.2 % in 2010 to 30 % or more in 2012, and therefore it will be necessary to clarify the advantages of generic antibiotics in terms of expenditure and equivalency with the branded drugs. PMID:22684334

Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

2012-08-01

242

Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

243

Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120.000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F1) of 77 000. The LSS and F1 studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F1 Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures. (authors)

244

Interference due to Sm-X-rays to the determination of ultra-low-level 152Eu separated from a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have undertaken the determination of the specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a place 1595 m from the explosion point. Chemical separation to prepare europium-enriched sample was performed for a 7.8 kg sample, and low-energy photon spectrometry was carried out. In the spectrometry, 39-40 keV Sm X-rays emitted after electron-capture decay of 152Eu was measured because of the highest sensitivity. During careful counting, we found an excess 152Eu activity compared to that estimated by DS02. It was suspected that the europium-enriched sample contains Sm, and Sm generates fluorescence X-rays. Hence, mock-up samples were prepared to assess the interference due to the fluorescence X-rays of Sm to the accurate determination of 152Eu. It was confirmed that the intensity of fluorescence X-rays of Sm increases in direct proportion to the alpha/beta-activity and beta maximum energy in the mock-up samples. The measured value was corrected for the fluorescence X-rays, but it is still highest than estimated by DS02. (author)

245

Japan: Ingestion study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan is a developed country in the Asian region with very little or no population below the poverty line. The food intake pattern of the Japanese population is believed to be quite uniform and hence it was possible to use duplicate diets to study dietary intakes of trace elements by country's adult population. Duplicate diet samples were collected from nine different regions spread over the entire country considering the comparatively homogeneous socio-economic status of the Japanese population. These samples covered diets consumed on three consecutive days from nine subjects in the age range of 20-50 a. In addition, food materials were also collected to develop the Typical Japanese Diet RM (see section 6 on QA/QC)

246

Economic Crisis in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.

247

Radiation processing in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

248

Radiation processing in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

2001-03-01

249

SCWR Concepts in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two SCWR concepts are being developed in Japan, one corresponding to the thermal spectrum reactor and the other to the fast spectrum reactor. Yamada et al. described the thermal-spectrum reactor concept referred to as the Japan SCWR (or JSCWR). This concept was developed under the financial support of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The basic philosophy of the JSCWR development is to utilize proven light water reactor and supercritical fossil-fired power plant technologies as much as possible to minimize the R&D cost, time and risks. Therefore, the JSCWR is designed as a thermal neutron spectrum reactor using light water as moderator and reactor coolant. The JSCWR plant consists of a pressure-vessel type, once-through reactor and a direct Rankine cycle system. Reactor coolant fed through inlet nozzles is heated up in the core and flows through outlet nozzles with no recirculation in the vessel. Other options to the JSCWR core design are being investigated at the University of Tokyo. The electric output of the JSCWR is assumed to range from 600 MWe to 1700 MWe class to fulfill user’s requirements as much as possible. In this section, the reference value is selected to 1725 MWe, which corresponds to a reactor thermal output of 4039 MWth. Nakatsuka et al. described the core design for the fast-spectrum reactor, which is based on a similar plant system compared to that of the thermal-spectrum reactor. The fast-spectrum reactor, however, would produce higher power rating than the thermal-spectrum one of the same reactor pressure-vessel size. Since the fast-spectrum reactor does not require the moderator, its unit capital cost would be lower than the thermal-spectrum reactor

250

Japan country report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production (Under construction): BWR: 1 unit, PWR: 1 unit. - Electricity production (Preparing for construction): BWR: 9 units, PWR: 2 units. - Research: FBR: 1 unit. Nuclear waste management: NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established as the implementing organization for a high-level waste disposal project in October 2000. Operations are slated to start in the 2030's. NUMO will select the site through the following three-step process. 1- Selection of preliminary investigation areas by documentary studies; 2- Selection of areas for detailed investigation by borehole programs, etc.; 3- Selection of the site for repository construction by test programs in underground exploration facilities. NUMO is recruiting voluntary candidates for documentary studies. Some municipalities have interested in the project, however, they have not let NUMO to do documentary studies. The mayor of the town of Toyo in Kochi prefecture applied for a documentary study in January 2007. It was the first application in Japan, and NUMO was authorized to implement a documentary study there by the national government in March 2007. But NUMO withdrew its application in April 2007 because of opposition from prefecture governors, stakeholders and general public in the town. To improve this situation, the government strengthened its efforts to start documentary studies. For example, they changed the rule so that the government could propose some suitable towns as candidates for documentary studies, in addition to accepting voluntary applications. Other nuclear activities: Implementation of a new inspection system (after FY 2008) instead of the current uniform inspection, change to a plant-by-plant approach. Inspection also during operation. Analyzing the root causes of abnormal occurrences and accidents. This new system improves not only measures against aging facilities but also the reliability of inspection activities by individual plants and the quality of work by equalizing the volume of work. Nuclear competencies (Needs, education and training): It's serious subject ho

Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

2008-07-01

251

The Consequence of Economic Growth for Human and Natural Resource Development: Case Study in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before being included in Kanazawa City in 1954, all villages in the Yasuhara district of Japan might have been called model village communities, for these farming communities were built around common utilization of naturally-flowing ground water, and the rice farmers worked communally exhibiting principles of closeness and equality. When Yasuhara…

Ninomiya, Tetsuo

252

Worldwide cryogenics - Japan. Research and development at the Japanese National Research Institute for Metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research activities at the National Research Institute for Metals on high-field superconducting materials and the structure materials for cryogenic use are described. The superconducting materials research building equipped with a 17.5 T superconducting magnet, was recently constructed in Tsukuba New Science City of Japan to further progress in superconducting and cryogenic engineering. (author)

253

Souther portion of Island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7  

Science.gov (United States)

City of Kagoshima and Kagoshima Bay area of the southern portion of the island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 9th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 125 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 12 hours and 10 minutes.

1968-01-01

254

National gas transmission pipelines - vital for greater gas use in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, unlike Europe and U.S.A., high-pressure transmission pipelines are confined to areas around the cities of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, because they primarily connect LNG receiving terminals with city pipelines. Building longer pipelines has been hampered by the difficulty of determining the routes and the high construction cost due to topographical complexity, concentrated population in the limited non-mountainous areas, and no established concept of right-of-way as in Europe and U.S.A., owing to a complicated pattern of land ownership. This underdeveloped transmission pipeline network has been a bottleneck for promoting natural gas distribution on a nation-wide basis, and construction of a national transmission pipeline running through the Japanese archipelagos is essential for natural gas to play an important role in the future primary energy supply in Japan. As major gas distribution companies, we wish to describe in this report the concept of national gas transmission pipelines in Japan

255

An updated report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan, 1958-2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of cancer trends in Japan requires periodic updating. Herein, we present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using recent population-based data. National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2013 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2010 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4, -1.3). During the most recent 10 years, over 60% of the decrease in cancer mortality was accounted for by a decrease in stomach and liver cancers (63% for males and 66% for females). The long-term increase in female breast cancer mortality, beginning in the 1960s, plateaued in 2008. All-cancer incidence continuously increased, with annual percent changes of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) between 1985 and 2005, and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6, 2.9) between 2005 and 2010. During the most recent 10 years, almost half of the increase in cancer incidence was accounted for by an increase in prostate cancer (60%) in males and breast cancer (46%) in females. The cancer registry quality indices also began to increase from ?2005. Decreases in stomach and liver cancers observed for incidence and mortality reflect the reduced attribution of infection-related factors (i.e. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis virus). However, it should be noted that cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates began to increase from ?1990. PMID:25637502

Katanoda, Kota; Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Hattori, Masakazu; Soda, Midori; Ioka, Akiko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

2015-04-01

256

Climatological features on the decrease in the heavy rainfall days around Western Japan in the mature stage of the Baiu season after 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant rainy season called "Baiu (in Japan)/Meiyu (in China)" appears before the midsummer in East Asia and the heavy rainfall events frequently occur there, especially around the western Japan and Central China (from late June to early July), due to the huge moisture transport from the tropics or subtropics. The present study examined the synoptic features and the recent long-term change in the Baiu precipitation around Kyushu District (western Japan) based on the daily precipitation data and NCEP/NCAR Re-analysis data during 1971~2008. We paid special attention to the relation among the appearance frequency of "heavy rainfall days" (with more than 50mm/day), the location of the surface front, the meridional extension of the "heavy rainfall area" and its synoptic conditions. It was pointed out that the total precipitation in June decreased greatly after ~2000 in the mainland of Kyushu except for its southern part, especially decreased in the northwestern Kyushu (Otani and Kato, EGU2010). Although the appearance frequency of the surface front around the southern Kyushu (30~32N) was nearly the same in both periods (1971~2000 and 2001~2008), the total precipitation and the contribution of the heavy rainfall days at Nagasaki (northwestern part of Kyushu) decreased after ~2000, with its increase at Kagoshima (southern part of Kyushu). It is also noted that the mean precipitation at Nagasaki did not increase when the front is located to the north of Nagasaki after ~2000, in spite of the increase in the appearance frequency of the front there. Climatologically, the baroclinicity around the Baiu front in the east of Japan is not so small. However, the weak baroclinic zone extended further westward to the East China Sea area (the narrow meridional width) in relatively many cases when the heavy rainfall days appeared around the northwestern part of Kyushu. The synoptic fields of air temperature were not so different from the heavy rainfall days and the non-heavy rainfall days around the northwest Kyushu when the surface front located around there (31.5~33.5N). On the other hand, it had been a meso-?- or synoptic- scale low pressure was located to the west of Kyushu in the heavy rainfall days, and the low-level southerly winds from the tropics or subtropics could penetrate to the frontal zone compared with the non-heavy rainfall days. According to the surface weather maps, an anticyclone was found around the Japan Sea area, in the northeast quadrant of that disturbance in many cases. In other words, the synoptic situation with the low-level strong southerly wind with the high equivalent potential temperature across that baroclinic zone might be one of the important patterns which bring the heavy rainfall around the northwestern part of Kyushu. It is necessary to examine how the appearance tendency of such synoptic situation feasible for bringing the heavy rainfall events changed after 2000 in the future.

Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Kuranoshin

2014-05-01

257

Building good relationships with neighbors of Japan's oldest plant, Tsuruga  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its establishment in 1957 as a pioneer company of nuclear power development in Japan, the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has gained a great deal of experience with construction and operation of four nuclear power plants - one gas-cooled reactor, two boiling water reactors (BWRs), and one pressurized water reactor (PWR) - at two sites, Tsuruga and Tokai. To gain the understanding and cooperation of the local community, the Tsuruga station must keep running. Each employee is encouraged to make every possible effort not only to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the two units, but also to ensure conscientious coexistence and coprosperity within the local community. The Tsuruga office in the city and the Public Relations (PR) Pavilion (visitor's center) at the site work together as an open window of communication with the local community. Under these basic philosophies, various good neighbor activities are developed and carried out

258

Biosimilar development and regulation in Japan  

OpenAIRE

In Japan, biosimilars guidelines following the principles of the EU framework were established by Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in March 2009. The guidelines cover the manufacturing process, characterization of quality attributes, and clinical and non-clinical studies for biosimilars. In this paper, the requirements for regulatory approval of biosimilars in Japan are outlined.

GaBI Journal Editor

2013-01-01

259

Early Childhood Education in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The two kinds of educational facilities for early childhood in Japan are the kindergarten, established in accordance with the School Education Law, and the day nursery, based upon the Children's Welfare Law. (Author/MB)

Yamashita, T.

1972-01-01

260

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

261

The photovoltaic energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

262

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from January through September 1992. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were 0.19±0.011 Bq/p·d from Kamisaibara-mura (Okayama) and 0.34±0.021 Bq/p·d from Nagano, respectively, for total diet; 0.021±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Chiba and 0.048±0.0076 Bq/kgwet from Kanazawa for rice (producing districts); 0.18±0.013 Bq/l and 0.16±0.010 Bq/l from Aomori for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.14±0.012 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.12±0.009 Bq/l from Hikawa-machi (Shimane) for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.057±0.0068 Bq/l from Sapporo and 0.15±0.014 Bq/l from Nagasaki for milk (consuming districts); 0.76±0.029 Bq/l and 2.0±0.04 Bq/l from Sample C for powdered milk; 0.50±0.015 Bq/kgwet and 2.6±0.04 Bq/kgwet from Oota (Shimane) for vegetables (producing districts); 0.37±0.019 Bq/kgwet and 0.098±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sendai for vegetables (consuming districts); 1.9±0.09 Bq/kg from Ue-mura (Kumamoto) and 3.1±0.14 Bq/kg from Kawaminami-machi (Miyazaki) for Japanese tea; 0.035±0.0063 Bq/kgwet in Scorpion-fish collected from Hamada (Shimane) and 0.42±0.024 Bq/kgwet in Skipjack from Tosa (Kochi) for sea fish; 0.95±0.033 Bq/kgwet from Akita and 0.38±0.025 Bq/kgwet from Kasumigaura (Ibaraki) for freshwater fish; 0.010±0.011 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.054±0.013 Bq/kgwet from Minamichita-machi (Aichi) for shellfish; 0.049±0.012 Bq/kgwet from Sakata (Yamagata) and 0.036±0.0095 Bq/kgwet from Muta (Aomori) for seaweeds. (N.K.)

263

Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D? - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D? - 0.06)>0, where D? is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

264

Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities  

OpenAIRE

There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but a...

Peter Newman; Timothy Beatley

2013-01-01

265

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

266

Proton therapy in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two facilities for clinical trials with protons in Japan: the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, and the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), University of Tsukuba. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, patient treatment with the 70 MeV proton beam began in November 1979, and 29 patients were treated through December 1984. Of 11 patients who received protons only, 9 have had local control of the tumor. Two of the 9 patients, suffering from recurrent tumor after radical photon beam irradiation, developed complications after proton treatment. In the patients treated with photons or neutrons followed by proton boost, tumors were controlled in 12 of 18 patients (66.6%), and no complications were observed in this series. Malignant melanoma could not be controlled with the proton beam. A spot-beam-scanning system for protons has been effectively used in the clinical trials to minimize the dose to the normal tissues and to concentrate the dose in the target volume. At the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center, University of Tsukuba, treatment with a vertical 250 MeV proton beam was begun in April 1983, and 22 patients were treated through February 1984. Local control of the tumor was observed in 14 of 22 patients (63.6%), whereas there was no local control in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. There have been no severe complications in patients treated at PARMS. The results suggest that local control of tumors will be better with proton beams than with photon beams, whereas additional modalities are required to manage radioresistant tumors. PMID:3003785

Tsunemoto, H; Morita, S; Ishikawa, T; Furukawa, S; Kawachi, K; Kanai, T; Ohara, H; Kitagawa, T; Inada, T

1985-01-01

267

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ?60 years since 1945 and long distance from thers since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

268

Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma) and those at sea level takes the value of about 0.1. It is drawn from the above facts that the influence of inbound aerosols to total one is really high in western part of Japan.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

2012-12-01

269

The City at Stake:  

OpenAIRE

Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing...

Sophie Esmann Andersen; Anne Ellerup Nielsen

2009-01-01

270

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

271

Inequalities in Noncommunicable Disease Mortality in the Ten Largest Japanese Cities  

OpenAIRE

The burden of noncommunicable diseases and social inequalities in health among urban populations is becoming a common problem around the world. This phenomenon is further compounded by population aging. Japan faces the task of maintaining its high level of population health while dealing with these challenges. This study focused on the ten largest cities in Japan and, using publicly available administrative data, analyzed standardized mortality ratios to examine inequalities in relative morta...

Kano, Megumi; Hotta, Miyuki; Prasad, Amit

2013-01-01

272

INSTANT CITY : PERFORMATIVE ARCHITECTURE AND CITY LIFE  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.

Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

2013-01-01

273

What Is Clean Cities?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

2007-08-01

274

Ülemiste City kutsub gümnasiste  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ülemiste City pakutavast vőimalusest gümnaasiuminoortele alates sügisest tulla linnakusse ekskursioonidele, et tutvuda kaasaegsete IT-ettevőtete töötingimustega. Sellega soovib Ülemiste City olla toeks Eesti Infotehnoloogia ja Telekommunikatsiooni Liidu IKT-sektori populariseerimise projektile

2007-01-01

275

Wrongful birth claim in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wrongful birth claim is generally defined as a claim by the parents of a child born alive but with a disability that a doctor was negligent in permitting the pregnancy to continue to birth. There have been four cases relating to congenital rubella syndrome and one case relating to Down's syndrome held in Japan. The claims brought by the mothers were that, but for the negligence of the doctor in managing the pregnancy, the mother would have had a lawful abortion and the child would not have been born to suffer a disability. As we do not have the provision of foetal indication for abortion in Japan, wrongful birth claim by parents is founded upon a breach of doctors' duty in advising of the probability of a disabled child. We compare the lawful nature of wrongful birth claims in Japan with those in the United States and the United Kingdom. PMID:12201072

Sakaihara, Mitsuo

2002-07-01

276

Book review: City cycling  

OpenAIRE

"City Cycling." John Pucher and Ralph Buehler. MIT Press. November 2012. --- Cycling in cities is booming, for many reasons: health and environmental benefits, time and cost savings, more and better bike lanes and paths, and innovative bike sharing programs. City Cycling offers reports on cycling trends and policies in cities in North America, Europe, and Australia. The authors offer detailed examinations and illustrations of cycling conditions in different urban environments: from small ...

Grous, Alexander

2013-01-01

277

Retirement memorial lecture. Review of studies on assessment of radiation exposed dose-exposure dose estimation in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described are following author's experiences about studies of dosimetry performed in such fields as in the title and concomitant thoughts of the health effect of radiation. The author expresses the degree of radiation risk, when simplified, with the equation, health effect/dose. The effect is either deterministic like alopecia/leucopenia or stochastic like carcinogenesis. DS02 (Dosimetry System 2002) leading to about 10% increase of the risk in the equation above is established with investigation of 120 thousands exposed people by Japanese and American reassessment study of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where neutron dose has been problematic but solved. Exposed dose 4000 mGy of Dolon village 110 km afar from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site has been said to be the highest among its nearest regions. However, the external exposure dose is estimated to be 400 mGy by dosimetry of bricks and other materials and factors concerned in radiation spread like soil Cs-137, Pu-239/240 against the reported dose above by old Soviet Union. Radioactive contamination in wide areas and in local spots is observed following the hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12-15, 2011) in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and decontamination is in progress with a measure of Cs-137. As for Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, following respective matters are different: the number of evacuated people of 400 thousands vs 85 thousands; 145 thousands people involved in contaminated area of >37eople involved in contaminated area of >37 kBq/km2 vs 8 thousands in >30 thousands kBq/km2; areas subjected to forced evacuation of 13 thousands km2 vs areas to planned evacuation of 8 hundreds km2; and released radioactivity of 5200 thousands TBq vs 770 thousands TBq. In Fukushima, there are additional problems of contamination of sea and of waste of the Plant rubbles. The author thinks that all of information and standard criteria about contamination should be more easily disclosed to public for their self judgment and decision. (T.T.)

278

Present status and future development of cogeneration using city gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1981, city gas was adopted for the first time for the cogeneration in the national stadium, as of March, 1992, the cogeneration using city gas reached nearly 750 MW. Meanwhile the positioning of cogeneration changed largely for city gas enterprises and the national energy policy and environment policy, and its importance has continued to increase. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. paid attention to this system early, and based on the long term perspective, it promoted the technical development and the introduction into markets, and realized the utilization in various fields now. According to Japan Gas Association, as of the end of March, 1992, the cogeneration using gas engines, gas turbines and diesel engines has been installed in Japan by about 2.6 million kW, and those using city gas takes about 30%. In cogeneration, at the same time with electric power generation, its waste heat is effectively utilized, therefore, the overall efficiency of 70-80% and the energy conservation of 20-30% as compared with conventional method are attained. The positioning of cogeneration related to environment policy and city planning, the efforts exerted by gas enterprises, the relaxation of regulation and the development of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

279

Field Observations of Meteotsunami in Kami-koshiki Island, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Meteotsunami; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band, are known in Japan by the local term "abiki", literally meaning "net-dragging waves" in Japanese. Large abiki occur in bays and harbors along the west coast of Kyushu almost every year during winter and early spring. On 24-25 February, 2009, Urauchi Bay, located on west coast of Kami-Koshiki Island on the southeast coast of Kyushu, was subjected to a destructive meteotsunami. In this event, a maximum sea surface height of 3.1 m was observed at the inner part of the bay. At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. This event surpassed the previous record height for an abiki in Japan: 278 cm in Nagasaki Bay, also located west coast of Kyushu, in 1979. Generally, such an elongated inlet with narrow mouth as Urauchi bay provides calm water conditions even when offshore weather is stormy. Therefore, the area is regarded as a suitable place for the farming of large fish with a high market value. Possible damage to the extensive fish cage system as a result of meteotsunami events is of concern, especially because aquaculture is the main industry in the isolated islands. Forecasting of meteotsunami is a serious request from the local people. AIMS The objectives of the present study are to detect a meteotsunami event in Urauchi Bay and to clarify the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions related to its occurrence. This work attempts to observe the whole process of a meteotsunami event: generation offshore, resonance while it propagates, and finally amplification in the bay. Observations were conducted over a period of 82 days; 12 January to 4 April, 2010, aiming to record large secondary oscillations. A comprehensive measuring system for sea level, current and barometric pressure fluctuations was deployed covering not only inside and near Urauchi Bay but also further offshore in the vicinity of Mejima in the East China Sea. MAIN RESULTS 1) Large meteotsunami events with total height in excess of 150 cm were observed five times during the 82-day observation period. On 1 February, 2010, one such event coincided with the high water of a spring tide, which resulted in flooding. The present observations have revealed that meteotsunami events occur more frequently than previously estimated from existing records of flooding. Even if a meteotsunami event does not result in flooding (e.g., if it coincides with a low tide), attention should be paid to the seiche induced strong currents that may damage fishing boats or aquaculture installations. 2) Three dominant modes were found to exist in sea level fluctuation data in Urauchi Bay using spectra analysis, wavelet analysis and phase analysis of the extracted period band components. The node and anti-node structure for each node governs more energetic areas for sea level and the current velocity fluctuations. 3) Analyses of barometric pressure data show that abrupt pressure changes of 1-2 hPa are generated in the open sea area at Mejima when major meteotsunami events occur. The pressure waves propagated eastward or northeastward to reach Kami-Koshiki within 1-2 hours. The propagation speed was found to nearly coincide with ocean long waves over the East China Sea. This air-sea resonant coupling is considered to be a source mechanism of meteotsunami generation.

Asano, T.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishimura, N.

2012-12-01

280

Estimation of dose due to cosmic rays in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays at all municipalities in Japan are estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. Latitude, longitude and altitude data for all municipalities are assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50-m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component are grouped into two categories, ionizing component including photons and neutron component. The population weighted average dose in Japan is estimated to be 29.2 nSv h-1 for the ionizing component, 6.1 nSv h-1 for the neutron component and 35.3 nSv h-1 for the total. The highest value among prefecture averages is found in Nagano Prefecture to be 44.0 nSv h -1 although it is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumption in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report for dose estimation due to cosmic rays, the doses in Japan are estimated to be 0.21 mSv a-1 for the ionizing component, 0.045 mSv a-1 for the neutron component and 0.26 mSv a-1 for the total. (author)

281

Estimation of dose due to cosmic rays in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays at all municipalities in Japan are estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. Latitude, longitude and altitude data for all municipalities are assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50-m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component are grouped into two categories, ionizing component including photons and neutron component. The population weighted average dose in Japan is estimated to be 29.2 nSv h{sup -1} for the ionizing component, 6.1 nSv h{sup -1} for the neutron component and 35.3 nSv h{sup -1} for the total. The highest value among prefecture averages is found in Nagano Prefecture to be 44.0 nSv h {sup -1} although it is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumption in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report for dose estimation due to cosmic rays, the doses in Japan are estimated to be 0.21 mSv a{sup -1} for the ionizing component, 0.045 mSv a{sup -1} for the neutron component and 0.26 mSv a{sup -1} for the total. (author)

Fujimoto, Kenzo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); O' Brien, K. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

2002-12-01

282

Banking crises and "Japanization": Origins and implications  

OpenAIRE

Japan's "two lost decades" perhaps represent an extreme example of a weak recovery from a financial crisis, and are now referred to as "Japanization." More recently, widespread stagnation in advanced economies in the wake of the global financial crisis led to fears that Japanization might spread to other countries. This study examines the dimensions of Japanization - including low trend growth, debt deleveraging, deflation, and massive increases in government debt - and analyzes their possibl...

Kawai, Masahiro; Morgan, Peter

2013-01-01

283

Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance measures have been adopted to assist in managing transport policy challenges, including the application of experimentation, monitoring and evaluation of plans, policies and institutions. The paper looks at two cases of policy management within Japanese transportation: The first is the performance evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance measurement is outlined, the actual application is presented, and the results in terms of how the indicators contribute to promote sustainable transport will be reviewed. A finding is that indicators in both programs seem to have limited positive influence on sustainability, with the most and visible effects in the latter one. The institutional context seems important for the strength of influence.

Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

284

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

285

[Hereditary spastic paraplegia in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC) is conducting a nationwide clinical and genetic survey of patients with HSP in Japan. To date (July 20, 2011), 375 index patients with HSP from 42 prefectures in Japan have been registered. In 148 Japanese ADHSP families, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 47%, followed by SPG31 (4%), SPG3A (3%), SPG8 (1%), and SPG10 (1%). Meanwhile, preliminary data showed that SPG11 and ARSACS were common in Japanese ARHSP families. Since the genes in approximately 40% of ADHSP and 80% of ARHSP cases remain unknown, we aim to identify the new genes responsible for HSP. We are now searching for a novel gene responsible for ARHSP with optic atrophy and neuropathy. To date, non-Quebec patients with ARSACS have been found in the Mediterranean area, Europe and Japan. Although Quebec patients show a homogeneous phenotype, Japanese patients exhibit some atypical clinical features, as follows: slightly later onset than that in Quebec patients, absence of retinal hypermyelination, intellectual impairment, and lack of spasticity. Recently, we found characteristic MRI findings in eight Japanese ARSACS patients, who all exhibited linear hypointensity in the pons and a hypointense area in the middle cerebellar peduncles in T(2) weighted and FLAIR images. PMID:22277506

Takiyama, Yoshihisa

2011-11-01

286

Recent trends in tuberculosis, Japan.  

OpenAIRE

Despite a decline after World War II, the rate of tuberculosis in Japan remains high. Infection is heavily concentrated in the > or =60-year age group, and 82% of patients are > or =40 years of age. The success rate for treatment of smear-positive patients is 78%. Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are rare.

Mori, T.

2000-01-01

287

BWR Stability Issues in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

Hideaki Ikeda

2007-12-01

288

BWR Stability Issues in Japan  

OpenAIRE

The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR) stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

Hideaki Ikeda; Takanori Fukahori; Yuichiro Kubo; Hideo Soneda; Shinya Mizokami

2007-01-01

289

[The digital revolution in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

The digital revolution will be achieved using three types of technology: platform; distribution; and content. Japan is advanced in these technologies, although its transformation to a new society has been slow. To keeping up with this global revolution, we need to change our mind set. PMID:10412146

Tsukio, Y

1999-04-01

290

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

291

Light water reactors in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economy shifted to a low growth rate, and energy conservation advanced, accordingly, the growth rate of electric power demand is expected to be 3 %. As the result, nuclear power must be more economical. From the perspective of the national security, the continuous development of nuclear power is essential for Japan, as nuclear power is a quasi-domestically produced energy source, and Japan must reduce the dependence on oil. The commercial power plants in Japan are a gas-cooled reactor plant of 166 MW capacity, 16 BWR plants of 12,917 MW total capacity and 15 PWR plants of 11,438 MW total capacity, totaling 32 plants of 24,521 MW. Those in the construction or planning stage are 8 BWR plants of 8,245 MW and 8 PWR plants of 7,928 MW, totaling 16 plants of 16,173 MW. As of the end of March, 1986, nuclear power generating facilities were 16 % of the total facilities in Japan, which generated 26 % of the total electric power generated in fiscal year 1985. The capacity factor exceeded 70 % since 1982. The improvement and standardization program of LWRs and its results, the effort to develop ALWRs, the further advance in LWRs, the use of plutonium and so on are discussed. The further improvement of the economy and reliability of nuclear power plants is urgently required. (Kako, I.)

292

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as...

2010-04-01

293

The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy  

Science.gov (United States)

During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

Kumano, Ruriko

2007-01-01

294

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan  

OpenAIRE

To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.

Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2009-01-01

295

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol came into force in December 1999 in Japan. After that, Japan makes an effort to meet the Additional Protocol. Through the submission of the initial declaration and the annual declaration, or through the implementation of the complementary access, Japan got many experiences. (author)

296

Education and Youth Employment in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The education/employment situation of young people in Japan is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary societies. Youth problems in Japan stem from the incredibly rapid industrialization and social change that have taken place in Japan since World War II. In spite of this…

Kato, Hidetoshi

297

Scientists Examine Challenges and Lessons From Japan's Earthquake and Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

A week after the magnitude 9.0 great Tohoku earthquake and the resulting tragic and damaging tsunami of 11 March struck Japan, the ramifications continued, with a series of major aftershocks (as Eos went to press, there had been about 4 dozen with magnitudes greater than 6); the grim search for missing people—the death toll was expected to approximate 10,000; the urgent assistance needed for the more than 400,000 homeless and the 1 million people without water; and the frantic efforts to avert an environmental catastrophe at Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, about 225 kilometers northeast of Tokyo, where radiation was leaking. The earthquake offshore of Honshu in northeastern Japan (see Figure 1) was a plate boundary rupture along the Japan Trench subduction zone, with the source area of the earthquake estimated at 400-500 kilometers long with a maximum slip of 20 meters, determined through various means including Global Positioning System (GPS) and seismographic data, according to Kenji Satake, professor at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo. In some places the tsunami may have topped 7 meters—the maximum instrumental measurement at many coastal tide gauges—and some parts of the coastline may have been inundated more than 5 kilometers inland, Satake indicated. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) noted that eyewitnesses reported that the highest tsunami waves were 13 meters high. Satake also noted that continuous GPS stations indicate that the coast near Sendai—which is 130 kilometers west of the earthquake and is the largest city in the Tohoku region of Honshu—moved more than 4 meters horizontally and subsided about 0.8 meter.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

298

Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

Suguimoto S Pilar

2012-03-01

299

The nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the development and use of nuclear power are considered key building blocks of safe energy supply in the 21st century. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle so as to utilize uranium and plutonium from spent fuel elements is to establish nuclear power as a quasi-domestic energy source in Japan. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. is the only private enterprise in Japan to offer nuclear fuel cycle services. At Rokkasho, the company operates plants for reprocessing (under construction), uranium enrichment, treatment of radioactive waste, and a repository for low level radioactive materials. Consequently, an important sector of Japan's future energy supply is ensured on this location. (orig.)

300

Differences of the effects of social capital on health status among residents: evidence from modern Japan.  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to explore how social capital is related to self-rated health status in Japan and how this relationship depends on the extent to which a person is embedded into community. The study used data from 3 079 adult participants in the 2000 Social Policy and Social Consciousness (SPSC) survey. Controlling for unobserved city size- and area-specific fixed effects, I find through Ordered Probit estimation that social capital has a significantly positive effect on health status for long...

Yamamura, Eiji

2009-01-01

301

Communication externalities in cities  

OpenAIRE

To identify communication externalities in French cities, we exploit a unique survey recording workplace communication of individual workers. Our hypothesis is that in larger and/or more educated cities, workers should communicate more. In turn, more communication should have a positive effect on individual wages. By estimating both an earnings and a communication equation, we find evidence of communication externalities. Being in a larger and more educated city makes workers communicate more...

Charlot, Sylvie; Duranton, Gilles

2003-01-01

302

Assimilation in multilingual cities  

OpenAIRE

Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the allophones (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the language...

Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

2011-01-01

303

A Tourist's Album of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

If you are looking to explore Japan in the year 1909 via the eyes of an informed and thoughtful Western tourist, look no further. This engaging collection from the University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives brings together the photo album compiled by Katherine Wolcott and her uncle, Robert Hull Fleming. Fleming was a graduate of the University of Vermont and as part of a larger Asian trip, the two of them stopped in Japan and collected photos, postcards, and other printed ephemera. This collection contains nearly 40 leaves of collected items which depict daily life, landscapes, and pictures of the countryside. Visitors can browse the materials here by genre, topic, creator, format, or place. A good place to start here is with the photos of Mount Fuji, which are a real treat.

2011-02-01

304

Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pőlvamaal Moostes mőtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

2001-01-01

305

Cities, terrorism and development  

OpenAIRE

This article interrogates the relationship between terrorism and development through the lens of cities, arguing that despite the post 9/11 hype in relation to cities of the global North, the impact of terrorism on cities of the global South should not be ignored. Defining terrorism in terms of acts of terror, it is suggested that cities are more susceptible to this form of political violence than rural areas because of the likelihood of greater impact and visibility and the incidence and imp...

Beall, Jo

2006-01-01

306

Potato irradiation technology in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

307

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during June, 1991 - July, 1992. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal and intermediate reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes and national programs. The main references were taken from journals published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

308

Mammography reference field in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing Radiation Section in NMIJ/AIST provides the X-ray, ?-ray, and ?-ray standards in Japan as a primary NMI. We have developed air kerma standards for mammography radiation with a molybdenum (Mo) anode X-ray tube and Mo filters. We started the dissemination of this standard in March 2009. In this symposium, we report about the mammography reference field and the evaluation of a glass dosemeter specially designed for mammography X-ray radiation

309

Conceptions of CSR in Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese companies in terms of social employee issues and concerns. A strong relationship between companies and employees has always been an advantage of the Japanese economy, and this strength was developed further by the integration of CSR into management systems and strategies. But increasing environmental concerns have raised crucial questions about environmental issues with regards to CSR. How do Japanese companies incorporate environmental issues into their CSR aims and achievements? What is the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan? This paper will analyze the conceptualization of CSR in TEPCO documents and the political discussions following the Fukushima accident. Drawing on rhetorical theory, especially on the importance of metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; 1999) and how this applies to the field of strategic management (Audebrand, 2010), Thus, the paper interrogates CSR as a site of conceptual and metaphorical "struggle" regarding how to conceive the social responsibilities of companies. It identifies three main conceptions of CSR; a narrow economic conception, a broad economic conception and a systemic conception of CSR. They represent different taken-for-granted conceptual frameworks used to understand CSR and the strategic challenges for CSR in Japan. Such a conceptual analysis provides important insight into how Japanese companies conceive of environmental issues and incorporate these into their CSR aims and achievements. As such, this paper will argue, part of the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan is to deal with the preconceptions about the nature of business activities amongst managers, politicians, and other CSR agents.

Lystbćk, Christian Tang

2014-01-01

310

Job displacement penalties in Japan  

OpenAIRE

The costs of job displacement are examined on a sample of Japanese workers successfully provided job placement services from 2000 to 2003, a period of economic stagnation and structural change in Japan. We find that displaced workers suffer a loss of approximately $1,100 for each additional year of age. Workers also incur a large penalty when they change industries after being displaced. The age-earnings loss relationship is consistent with the operation of a delayed compensation scheme in la...

Bognanno, Michael; Delgado, Lisa

2005-01-01

311

Supply of radiopharmaceuticals in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed statistics of the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine in Japan are summarized. They are the amount of supply in terms of monetary value and radioactivity, categorized usages of in vivo and in vitro, number of facilities using the radiopharmaceuticals for the time span of 5 years (1998-2002). Obvious tendency of decrease for in vitro use can be seen while the total amount of radiopharmaceuticals is almost unchanged. (author)

312

Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

Jorge Morel

2014-09-01

313

Japan: desire for energy independence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state of the art of nuclear power development in Japan is reviewed. Given is a list of operating, constructing and planning NPPs as well as prototype reactors. Problems of NPP components and parameters improvement are discussed. Problems of their seismic stability and problems related to fuel cycle are discussed as well. It is noted that the purpose of the Japan energy program emphasizing on NPP construction is decreasing the dependence of the country on the import of oil and other types of fuel. It is underlined that in the nearest future PWR and BWR reactors will be mainly used at NPPs. High priority in developing nuclear power is given to its safety. Besides application of different measures for controlling NPP safety created is a system for early detection of defects of operating components which permits to exclude accidents earlier occurring at NPPs. The work has been done an creating an information system for data processing with accounting for mechanical properties of materials, programming of possible sequences and taking measures to exclude accidents. Much attention is paid to the problem of thermal release of NPP and dissipation of this heat. Work is in progress on improvement of the domestic production process of isotope separation using centrifuges. At present spent fuel is regenerated at the Tokai facility as well as under contracts in Great Britain and France. Japan will be able to satisfy regeneration requirements by itself after 1990ements by itself after 1990

314

Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples around small intrusions of the Takamatsu crater, appears here in the hard copy. The following anomalous mixed materials are considered to be impact-induced origin: 1) Fe-Ni grains: Black glassy rocks at Jissojiyama (No. 15) contain irregularly Fe-Ni grains of 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. Chemical composition of the small Fe+Ni grains varies from ca. 18~90 atom. % mixed with the major granitic components. Atomic ratios of Fe/Ni are the same of kamacite as 3.4 to 68.7, but differ from those of awaruite (Fe/Nivalues (ca.- 0.4%) of each plane-distance of all shock-generated Plane deformation features (PDFs). The structural data of high density are the same of shocked quartz grains in terrestrial impact craters [6,7]. 3) Diaplectic feldspars: Shock-generated diaplectic feldspars with compositions of albite plagioclases with undulatory extinction are observed with dark or partly dark (i.e. diaplectic) glassy materials under cross-polarized microscope (Nos. 2,3,6,15). Crushed plagioclases with circular or ellipsoidal shape are also found at Hiyama (No. 6) and Hiraike (No. ll). Diffuse and irregular textures of feldspar fragments are different with other localities outside the crater [2,3]. 4) G1asses of potassium feldspar compositions: Many glassy fragments with flow texture are observed from fine-grained sediments around Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6), which have potassium feldspars compos

Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

1995-09-01

315

The Plains City Story  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City

van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

2006-01-01

316

Salt Lake City, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

317

Lost City News Release  

Science.gov (United States)

This press release from the National Science Foundation provides an overview of the 2003 expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the Atlantis Massif. It briefly describes the expedition, features of the Lost City, research results and implications for future discoveries. Photos and images accompany the text.

Office of Legislative and Public Affairs

318

Detection of hot particle remnants using a fission track technique and the evaluation of radiation-doses from luminescence measurements in roof tiles from the Nagasaki and Hiroshima areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a fission track method was applied to the melted or fused surface of some roof tiles collected at about 500 m from the hypocenter in the Nagasaki atomic bomb area, star-like fission tracks on the muscovite detector were revealed after neutron irradiation of the sample assembly in a reactor. These results offer certain evidence that micro-particles containing fissile nuclides of atomic-bomb origin remain on the roof tile surface. The Pu-contents in some remnant particles were evaluated to be 0.72-5.7x107 atoms from the star-like track analysis. Additionally, shortening of the track lengths suggested the existence of particles in slightly deeper sites from the tile surface. Subsequently, the accumulated ?-dose on some roof tiles, which were exposed at about 700 m from the hypocenter of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, was evaluated from a blue thermoluminescence (TL) measurement of quartz extracts by a regeneration method. After correcting naturally accumulated doses within the roof tile, the retrospective dose amounted to 13.0 Gy, which was derived from the atomic bomb explosion. Furthermore, the exposed temperature on the surface of the Nagasaki roof tile was estimated to be beyond 1100degC based on TL color images, compared with the thermally annealed inner parts. From these results, hot particle remnants from the atomic-bomb were confirmed to be comprised of materials with a higher melting temperature than the fused temperature of the roof tile surfaceused temperature of the roof tile surface beyond 1100degC. (author)

319

Marriage and the City  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset.

Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael

2005-01-01

320

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

321

A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW, Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including typical depressive states. Suffocations/hangings are the most common methods used to commit suicide by both sexes. Utilities and interactions among these several components were considered, as well as a perspective of suicidal behavior. Conclusion. In order to prevent suicide and avoid the worst tragedy for a family, it is an essential requirement to collect and analyze any information concerning suicide victims.

Yamamura Takehiko

2006-01-01

322

Japan's post-Fukushima reconstruction: A case study for implementation of sustainable energy technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following World War II, Japan miraculously developed into an economic powerhouse and a model of energy efficiency among developed countries. This lasted more than 65 years until the Northeastern Japan earthquake and tsunami induced nuclear crisis of March 2011 brought Japan to an existential crossroads. Instead of implementing its plans to increase nuclear power generation capacity from thirty percent to fifty percent, Japan shut-down all fifty-four nuclear reactors for safety checks and stress-checks (two have since been restarted), resulting in reduced power generation during the summer of 2012. The reconstruction of Northeastern Japan approaches at a time when the world is grappling with a transition to sustainable energy technologies—one that will require substantial investment but one that would result in fundamental changes in infrastructure and energy efficiency. Certain reconstruction methods can be inappropriate in the social, cultural and climatic context of disaster affected areas. Thus, how can practitioners employ sustainable reconstructions which better respond to local housing needs and availability of natural energy resources without a framework in place? This paper aims at sensitizing policy-makers and stakeholders involved in post disaster reconstruction by recognizing advantages of deploying sustainable energy technologies, to reduce dependence of vulnerable communities on external markets. - Highlights: • We examine the energy challenges faced by Japan in the aftermath of Fukushima. • We identify policy measures for the use of energy technologies applicable to disaster prone nations. • We evaluate the potential for renewable energy to support reduced reliance on nuclear energy in Japan. • We model scenarios for eco-towns and smart-cities in post-disaster reconstruction. • We assess the role of culture in formulating energy policy in post-disaster reconstruction

323

Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Hiroshi Toshida1,2, Yoshiaki Kadota3, Chikako Suto2, Toshihiko Ohta1, Akira Murakami21Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Shizuoka, 2Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, 3Bausch & Lomb Japan Co, Ltd, Research and Development, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan.Methods: The subjects were 1000 men and ...

Toshida H; Kadota Y; Suto C; Ohta T.; Murakami A

2012-01-01

324

Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

2009-01-01

325

Characteristics of Japan’s Commodities Index and its Correlation with Stock Index  

OpenAIRE

The commodity indexes associated with Japan’s commodity-futures markets were formed in 2008 and publicized by the Tokyo Commodity Exchange and the Tokyo Grain Exchange. In this paper, I used these indexes to analyze the properties of Japan’s commodity futures as portfolio investments, and could confirm that they possess investment characteristics that differ from stocks, and that commodity investors can enjoy favorable “diversified investment” effects if leveraged skillfully.

Yamori, Nobuyoshi

2009-01-01

326

Public information activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear p: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find new ways of increasing effectiveness and to examined carefully the proposals made at this conference

327

Bone marrow transplantation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

328

Children in Japan and multimedia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

Shimauchi, Y

1999-01-01

329

Japan nuclear ship sea trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

330

DNA Data Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA Data Bank of Japan collects DNA sequence data and assigns internationally recognized accession numbers mainly from Japanese researchers. It is one of the International DNA Databases that shares data on a daily basis with the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); as a result, all three sources should provide the same information. Users can search for data in several different ways or use one of the various analysis tools. The site also provides information for researchers looking to submit data. Most information is presented in both English and Japanese.

331

Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

332

[Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature. PMID:17176856

Haneda, Jun; Shiobara, Yasumasa; Inui, Masami; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshinori; Takayama, Yoko; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Okuda, Shunji; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Sasahara, Takeshi

2006-11-01

333

Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

Aspinall, Robert W.

334

@City: technologising Barcelona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

Rojas, Jesús

2007-05-01

335

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive animal studies are carried out at the national Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) to investigate biokinetics and biological effects of radionuclides, especially transuranic elements. The Institute has a staff of 90 plus 60 regular contractors who are allowed to work in the research facility. These people are counted twice a year. Another several dozen seasonal workers are counted at the beginning and the end of each contract. NIRS is also responsible for medical preparedness for radiation accident. If a patient seriously contaminated with plutonium is taken to NIRS, the lung monitor is used for the assessment of contamination level. Intercomparison Measurements: The measurements were conducted in the shielded whole body counter. The counting room is 2.3 m wide, 1.5 m deep and 1.6 m high. The shielding is provided by a graded liner of iron (200 mm), lead (3 mm), copper (1 mm) and plastic (3 mm). The room air is filtered with a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) air supply. Counting is performed using two sodium iodide, cesium iodide phoswich detectors, 125 mm in diameter. The entrance window is 75?m thick aluminum. Resolution in the plutonium L X ray region is 35% (Apparent), and 16% in the gamma-ray region of 241Am. The normal background is 0.10 counts per minute in the L X ray region and 0.13 counts per minute for ?-ray region of 241Am. The minimum detectable activity for 241Am is 30Bq. Data processing is conducted m is 30Bq. Data processing is conducted using a 16bit, 20MHz Personal Computer. Spectrum analysis software is used, and dose calculations are based on the ICRP 30 model. Results: The measured 238Pu (13.6 keV + 17.1 keV + 20.3 keV) counting efficiency for the Asian (JAERI) phantom is shown together with the measured efficiencies for the Western (Livermore) phantom. It shows close agreement between the Asian and Western phantoms with 100% muscle overlays. The comparison when the 50% adipose and 87% adipose overlays are used illustrates the effect of tissue composition at these low energies. The separate counting efficiencies for the right and left lungs indicate a significant difference in the relative contribution of the two sides for these phantoms. It is likely that this results in large part from shielding of the left lung in the Western phantom by the heart, which is acknowledged to be enlarged. There is a systematic difference of about 25%. Because the Western phantom has been used for some time and may be considered well characterized, this suggests that this difference may be due, in part, to an error in the assay of the 241Am content of this lung set

336

Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: View width 15 km ( 9.2 miles); view distance 12 km (7.3 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

2001-01-01

337

Fukushima, Into the Forbidden Zone - A Trip through Hell and High Water in Post-earthquake Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Just weeks after earthquake and tsunami struck Japan, the author ventured into the nuclear hot zone of the Fukushima Daiichi plant, outfitted only with rubber gloves, a cloth face-mask, and armed with a capricious dosimeter. He emerged with a haunting report on daily life in a now-ravaged Japan, a country he has known and loved for many years. He stopped to interview people in the cities and towns hit hardest by the earthquake, the tsunami, and the radioactive contamination. The answers he could get are sometimes surprising, in particular regarding the kindness and enduring spirit of the people he encountered and considering what was going on in their lives

338

Nuclear energy development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan, the industrial country with the greatest dependency on imported energy, has an abitious, extensive nuclear power program with a strong emphasis on self-sufficiency in all areas, including nuclear fuel supply and back end fuel cycle facilities. The program, which accentuates research and development, is supported by the government, industry and the utilities. It is regarded as one of the major cornerstones of the future industrial capabilities of Japan designed to maintain and expand the country's economic power. The program is to reduce the fraction of oil in meeting the primary energy requirement from at present approx. 75% to less than 50% by 1990. Since nuclear power is to play the main role as a substitute for oil, 51-53 GWe of nuclear generating capacity must be commissioned by that date. This objective can be met only in an extreme effort. Parallel with the use of light water reactors, which will dominate the scene beyond 1990, an advanced thermal reactor (ATR) is being developed. Already in the nineties, fast breeder reactors are to be introduced on an increasing scale. At present, most of the attention is being devoted to the nuclear fuel cycle, which has advanced considerably from enrichment to reprocessing and final storage. The natural uranium requirement is ensured by long term contracts and holdings in foreign uranium companies. (orig.)

339

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

340

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

341

The electronuclear program of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear

342

Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by supercritical flows, resulting in the loss of landward seawall slopes. Such erosion was also observed at landward side of footpath between rice fields. The Sendai plain was subjected just after the main shock of the earthquake. Seawater inundation resulting from tsunami run-up lasted two months. The historical document Sandai-jitsuroku, which gives a detailed history of all of Japan, describes the Jogan earthquake and subsequent tsunami which have attacked Sendai plain in AD 869. The document describes the prolonged period of flooding, and it is suggested that co-seismic subsidence of the plain took place. The inundation area of the Jogan tsunami estimated by the distribution of tsunami deposit mostly overlaps with that of the 3.11 tsunami. Considering the very similarity of seismic shocks between the both, we interpreted the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami is the second coming of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami.

Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

2011-12-01

343

PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation' (IJWBME 2011) will be held on 7-10 December 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan. This workshop was held for the first time on 17-19 December 2009 at NPL, New Delhi. Keeping in mind the importance of organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation and their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world, IJWBME 2009 was jointly organized by the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science & Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Much progress in the field of biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation is expected for the 21st Century. Organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic electroluminescent devices, organic thin-film transistors, organic sensors, biological systems and so on have especially attracted much attention. The main purpose of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for researchers interested in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation, to come together in an informal and friendly atmosphere and exchange technical knowledge and experience. We are sure that this workshop will be very useful and fruitful for all participants in summarizing the recent progress in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation and preparing new ground for the next generation. Many papers have been submitted from India and Japan and more than 30 papers have been accepted for presentation. The main topics of interest are as follows: Bioelectronics Biomolecular Electronics Fabrication Techniques Self-assembled Monolayers Nano-sensors Environmental Monitoring Organic Devices Organic Functional Materials We would like to express our sincere thanks to the organizing committee members of this workshop and the many organizations such as the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), India, the Society of Organic Nanometric Interfacial Controlled Electronic (NICE) Devices, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, Himeji City, Himeji Convention & Visitors Bureau, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India and the University of Hyogo for their financial support. Thanks are also given to The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Division of Molecular Electronics and Bioelectronics, The Japan Society of Applied Physics (M & BE), the Technical Committee on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation Materials of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Japan (IEEJ), the Technical Group on Organic Molecular Electronics, Electronics Society of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE), and the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Japan Chapter, for their cooperation. Finally, we hope that the many young and active researchers who are participating will enjoy stimulating discussions and exchange ideas with each other at IJWBME 2011, Himeji, Japan. 7 April 2011 IJWBME 2011 Chairs Mitsuyoshi Onoda Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan Bansi D Malhotra Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India Conference photograph Participants of the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation 2011, December 7-10 2011, EGRET Himeji, Japan The PDF also contains a list of sponsors.

Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Malhotra, Bansi D.

2012-04-01

344

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

345

75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

2010-11-01

346

Lung cancer at autopsy in A-bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961--1970. II. Smoking, occupation and A-bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The apparent effect of ionizing radiation on lung cancer in A-bomb survivors has not been large enough to still doubts as to its validity. It has seemed essential to determine whether the apparent radiation effect could have resulted from a confounding of heavy smoking and high radiation dose, or if the occupational exposure of high-dose subjects with lung cancer was suggestive of the influence of environmental hazards other than radiation. The available series consists of 204 subjects with lung cancer verified by autopsy, 61 of whom were low-dose (less than 1 rad) and 13 high-dose (200+ rads) subjects. No evidence could be found that the influence of either smoking or occupational exposure upon lung cancer was exerted so as to suggest that the apparent radiation effect is other than real. The study also provides additional evidence of the relationship between lung cancer and smoking in Japan

347

The Sustainable City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

Gangloff, Deborah

1995-01-01

348

Transforming Cities With Transit  

Science.gov (United States)

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.

349

City sewer collectors biocorrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

Ksia¸?ek, Mariusz

2014-12-01

350

Design a Solar City  

Science.gov (United States)

Students design and build a model city powered by the sun! They learn about the benefits of solar power, and how architectural and building engineers integrate photovoltaic panels into the design of buildings.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

351

Japan, a journey in irradiated lands. Japan changes its fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article describes the situation in terms of radioactivity, contamination and decontamination, of living conditions and of issues in the immediate surroundings of the Fukushima power station and in places located at different distances of the Fukushima power station: 10 km away, in a village 20 km away, in a farming and agriculture area 50 km away from the station, and in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (the greatest nuclear power station in the world, 220 km away from Fukushima). The article also evokes works performed in these places, sometimes with the help of French companies, to manage the wastes or decontamination purposes. The second article comments the perspectives of development of new energy sources, with a strong trend of investments in renewable energies. The author indicates that Japan not always possesses the required technologies. In this respect, the article outlines that there could be opportunities for French companies in the field of offshore wind energy

352

The Role of German in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

Sang, Juergen

353

Introduction of Japan radiation protection supervisor system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection supervisor system, which has been established based on Japanese law, is playing an important role in the field of radiation protection in Japan. For the reference of domestic radiation safety professionals, this paper introduces the Japan radiation protection supervisor system in more detail

354

Rethinking Perspectives on Educational "Exchanges" with Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that the fact that there are more Japanese students studying in the United States than there are U.S. students in Japan is not a problem in itself, but that the United States should develop and sustain its expertise on Japan. Educators and exchange specialists should cooperate to expand academic, work-study, and internship programs in…

Heginbotham, Stanley J.

1997-01-01

355

Japan - ocean dumping of nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early in 1980 Japan announced that it was proposing to conduct a trial dumping of low-level radioactive waste into a site in the North Pacific from mid-1981. Subsequent strong criticism of the proposed program by South Pacific countries has led Japan to review its plans

356

Autochthonous dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August-September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan. PMID:25695200

Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

2015-03-01

357

Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

Kawachi, Paul

2008-01-01

358

Research of geological hazards in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution is one the results of authors' cooperation on erosion and landslide hazards studies in two different geomorphologic areas of Japan. The physico-geographical and geological nature of the surveyed regions - typical for Japan - are described and examined from point of view of the intensity and causes of erosion and landslide events. (authors)

359

The postmodern city  

OpenAIRE

?This thesis explores Postmodern architecture and narrative representations of the city as an emblem for the presence of the past in a contemporary environment. The architectural theory of Aldo Rossi is a model for this perception of the city as a locus of memory. Berlin, London and Paris are the places I will consider. Part I presents examples of architectural practice of the 1980s. A project for a museum of German history in Berlin, the Sainsbury Wing of the National Galler...

Jaccaud, Sabine J.

1996-01-01

360

The Unsustainable City  

OpenAIRE

“Make cities more sustainable” is an omnipresent slogan in architecture and urban planning. This article is a discussion on theoretical and practical boundaries of using the expression “sustainability” with respect to the scientific community, therefore avoiding sustainability becoming a euphemism for “doing good”. By definition, it can be concluded, cities developed as counterparts to the hinterland and, therefore, they axiomatically should be and are as a matter of fact unsustai...

Matthias Berger

2014-01-01

361

Reflective cool cities:  

OpenAIRE

This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up easily, contributing to the urban heat island effect. This manual gives an overview of the new approach to make these surfaces more reflective, reducing the heat gain.

Heidegger, V.

2011-01-01

362

Art in Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

The organizers of Art in Cities say, "Cities are like a huge art gallery with a permanently changing exhibition." Therefore, this web site exists to collect submissions of artwork from cities all over the world, and plot it on a map. To view the art, browse by selecting points on the map, or search by City, Submitter, or artist (Artwork by). There is also a quick link to the most recent uploads. On the day we visited, this link lead to stencil art and graffiti from several cities in the Netherlands, including Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Eindhoven, as well as one from San Bernardino, CA. This was just the first page of 473 for this specific link, which is in turn only a fraction of the close to 6,000 pieces of art on view at the site. Submitting art is as easy as uploading an image from your computer, and filling out a few fields on a form thus encouraging anyone to walk the streets of their city looking for art to add the site.

363

The Cities Alliance  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponsored by the World Bank and other organizations, the Cities Alliance is "a global coalition of cities and their development partners committed to scaling up successful approaches to poverty reduction." The "News" area is front and center on their homepage and it provides a fine overview of their work, which ranges from concerted efforts to upgrade slums in the developing world, developing strategies to help cities with their financial situation, and also working on cohesive and comprehensive development strategies. Visitors can click on the right-hand side of the page to learn more about each of these thematic areas in the "Cities Alliance Activities" section. Moving on, the "Publications" area with its annual reports, fact sheets, and archived e-newsletters is a place worth visiting as well. The site is rounded out by the "City Development Strategies" area, which offers a rigorous explanation of the ways in which cities can assess their existing strengths and what the key aspects of a meaningful development strategy might be.

364

Oral presentations on nuclear energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oral presentations on nuclear energy in conferences and meetings held in 1978 were surveyed. A total of 144 meetings contained 4,104 presentations on nuclear energy. Physics accounted for 44%, the highest of all presentations, followed by nuclear engineering and chemistry and materials in decreasing order. It is pointed out that, nuclear fusion comprised 21%, higher than nuclear engineering, and became an important portion of Japanese information. A further survey was then made particular with the conferences and meetings of such major societies as the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Physical Society of Japan, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Chemical Society of Japan and the Japan Health Physics Society. Also it was recognized that the oral presentations are considered as useful data sources for on-going research information. (author)

365

78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum'') on February 18-19...

2013-12-26

366

Sedimentary features observed in the tsunami deposits at Rikuzentakata City  

Science.gov (United States)

The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami triggered by an earthquake off the east coast of northeastern Honshu Island (Tohoku region), Japan, deposited large amounts of sediment on land, including the Sendai Plain and Sanriku Coast. This study reports on the characteristics of the tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City, southeastern Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. A field survey identified the inundation pattern of the tsunami in this region and the facies model of the tsunami deposits at the bay-head deltas of estuarine systems. The tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City generally consist of one to four units that represent a discrete runup or backwash flow. Each unit is characterized by initial inverse grading and successive normal grading that correspond to the accelerating and decelerating stages of the flow, respectively. An internal erosional surface often developed between the inverse-graded and normal-graded units. It corresponds to the maximum shear velocity of the flow and truncates the underlying inverse-graded unit. In the case of the runup unit, silty fine-grained drapes overlay the graded sandy interval. A correlation of the sedimentary structures and grain fabric analysis revealed that the Tohoku-Oki tsunami inundated Rikuzentakata City at least twice and that the flow velocity exceeded 2.4 m/s. Paleontological analysis of the sediment and kriging estimation of the total volume of the tsunami deposit implied that the sediments were sourced not only from eroded beach sands but also from the seafloor of Hirota Bay or more offshore regions.

Naruse, Hajime; Arai, Kazuno; Matsumoto, Dan; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shota; Tanaka, Gengo; Murayama, Masafumi

2012-12-01

367

Application of EB in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

368

Application of EB in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

2003-02-01

369

Large Earthquake Strikes Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

On 26 September 2003, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake, Earth's most powerful in 2.5 years, struck offshore Tokachi, Hokkaido, Japan, at 0450 local time. The hypocenter was at 40 km depth along the boundary of the Pacific and North American plates (www.jma.go.jp). The focal mechanism shows a reverse fault with a northwest-southeast compressional axis (P-axis) (see http://www.bosai.go.jp). Following the main shock, named ``Heisei 15 Tokachioki-jishin,'' seismic activity has continued in the region. As of 30 September, the largest aftershock was M7.1 on 26 September at 0608. Tsunamis were observed on the Pacific coast of Hokkaido and the Tohoku region, including waves of 1.2 m at Kushiro, 1.3 m at Urakawa, and 1.0 m at Hachinohe.

Coffin, M.; Hirata, N.

370

The gas industry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holdresent on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the residential sector is only one-fifth to one-quarter that of western countries due to differences in climate, structure of dwellings and lifestyle; the cost of laying underground gas pipe is high. The japanese gas distribution law, revised in April 1999 and in force since October 1999, has introduced strong competition on the Japanese gas market, thereby opening up an unregulated market which represents a potential of 40% of sales and providing scope for the negotiation of sales and TPA (third party access) conditions. However, third-party access is unlikely to develop rapidly as there are practically no interconnected networks. In addition, the application since March 2000 of the law on the power industry will deregulate the power market, giving rise to stronger competition between gas and electricity, for cogeneration and air conditioning in particular. (authors)

371

Initiation of breastfeeding within 120 minutes after birth is associated with breastfeeding at four months among Japanese women: A self-administered questionnaire survey  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The proportion of mothers in Japan who breastfeed exclusively has been low since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the time of first breastfeed after birth and the proportion of mothers fully breastfeeding up to four months postpartum. Methods A survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The participants were 318 mothers who participated in a physical examination of their four month old infants in Nagasaki City, ...

Moji Kazuhiko; Nakao Yuko; Honda Sumihisa; Oishi Kazuyo

2008-01-01

372

The Firebombing of Tokyo: Views from the Ground  

OpenAIRE

More than sixty-five years after the Great Tokyo Air Raid of March 10, 1945, and the subsequent firebombing and destruction of Japan's cities by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II, the issues remain little known and less studied. In stark contrast to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, however, historians and other scholars working in the English language have paid little attention to the tremendous societal impact - both immediate and long-lasting - of the destructi...

Cary Karacas; Bret Fisk

2011-01-01

373

Analysis of energy intensity in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

374

SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in metamorphic rocks from northern Kyushu, western Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiometric ages of detrital zircons in psammitic schists from the Nagasaki, Kurume, Konoha and Kiyama areas, northern Kyushu, were obtained from 238U/206Pb ratio and isotopic compositions of Pb using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP II). Zircons from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show bimodal age distribution with peaks at ca. 1900 Ma and 250 Ma. It is suggested from this study that the older zircons were derived from Proterozoic landmass and the Korean Peninsula. Zircons from the Kiyama metamorphic rock show a different pattern with ages concentrated at 380-590 Ma. Such zircons are rare in rock samples from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas, indicating that Kiyama rocks and a different origin than those from the other three areas. The youngest zircons from the Kiyama, Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show ages of 382±23 Ma, 238±13 Ma, 249±13 Ma, and 175±4 Ma, respectively, These data mark the upper age limit of their deposition. Since a continuous igneous activity occurred during the period from 300 to 170 Ma in Far East Asia, and the metamorphic age has been close to the zircon age of each area, these youngest ages for the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas are considered nearly contemporary to the depositional ages. An evaluation of the nature of metamorphism and available ages suggest the possibility that the Nagasaki metamorphic rocks as well as the schist from the Kurume area belong to the Suo zone of the me area belong to the Suo zone of the Sangun belt, whereas the metamorphic rocks in the Konoha area may belong to the Ryoke belt or Suo zone of the Sangun belt. (author)

375

Hamilton : the electric city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

376

Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: February 8, 2001

2001-01-01

377

AMS 14C dating of wooden anchors and planks excavated from submerged wrecks located at Takashima in Imari Bay, Nagasaki prefecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to folklore the fleet that was dispatched to Japan for the second Mongol invasion of 1281 encountered a fierce typhoon at Takashima. Radiocarbon (14C) ages of wooden anchors and planks excavated from the submerged site at Takashima were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The 14C ages are 745±20 BP for bamboo and 770±20 BP for wood from the intact wooden anchor, and 840±20 / 865±20 BP for the planks, respectively. The calibrated bamboo age of 1268-1284 cal AD and the slightly older age of 1257-1279 cal AD for wood suggest that the wooden anchor was manufactured just before the invasion. The age range of planks (1191-1236 and 1163-1215 cal AD) is consistent with an idea that they are likely to be derived from contemporaneous ships. The high-precision AMS 14C dating confirms that the wooden anchors and planks are remains of wrecked Mongolian warships that were involved in the second Mongol invasion. (author)

378

Ferret hepatitis e virus infection in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined 85 fecal samples from pet ferrets in 10 animal hospitals in Japan for the detection of ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. We found that 6 (7.1%) of the samples were positive for ferret HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial ORF1 indicated that these ferret HEV strains were clearly separated from the Netherlands strains and were divided into 2 distinct clusters. These results suggest that ferret HEV is genetically diverse, and since ferrets are not indigenous to Japan, ferret HEV has been introduced into Japan through importation. PMID:25420653

Li, Tian-Cheng; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Terada, Yutaka; Takeda, Naokazu; Takaji, Wakita; Maeda, Ken

2015-01-26

379

Ultrafine particles in cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

2014-05-01

380

The Atlantic Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

What will the future of cities be like? It's a riveting question and one that excites the passions of the folks at The Atlantic Cities website. Their work here "explores the most innovative ideas and pressing issues facing today's global cities and neighborhoods." Visitors should browse through their newest articles, which might include "Why Our Kids Need Play" and "How Poverty Taxes the Brain." The site also has some neat features, including the Charts, Photos, and Urban Wonk areas. Geographers and artists will love the Maps section, which includes both scholarly and humorous offerings. First-time visitors should pay special attention here to "A Block-by-Block Map of Brooklyn, in Garbage" and "One Map, A World of Temperatures." Additionally, visitors can also sign up to receive their e-newsletter and other updates, including information about upcoming conferences and lectures sponsored by The Atlantic.

2013-09-23

381

Engineers Week: Future City  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides â??a fun and exciting educational engineering program for seventh- and eighth-grade students that combines a stimulating engineering challenge with a â??hands-onâ?? application to present their vision of a city of the future.â?ť The competition is intended to foster engineering skills, such as teamwork, communication and problem solving skills, as well as to inspire students to explore future careers in engineering. Using the commercial software SIMCITY to design their ideal city, students interact with each other, and with teachers and engineer mentors and also learn about the multi-disciplines within the engineering profession. The website has more information about the competition, as well as a handbook providing helpful tips and techniques. Examples of accomplishments from previous competitions are posted and CD-ROM video is available from regional coordinators to give more background on the competition.

382

Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass was observed in Lake Ikeda. On the other hand, the AO index was negative in December 1995 and January 1996. In addition, the WP (Western Pacific) index was also negative in the winter of 1995/96. When the WP index is negative, Japan experiences a cold winter (Koide and Kodera, 1999; Yasunaka and Hanawa, 2008). Therefore, the combination of the negative phase of AO and the negative phase of WP led to the occurrence of cold surges near Lake Ikeda, which in turn resulted in the high DO mass in February 1996. When DO concentration in the deep layer of the lake becomes higher caused winter mixing, we observe also a reduction in the DO concentration in the surface layer. The DO concentration in the surface layer sometimes decreased to 70%. In future, once Lake Ikeda will deep mixing during very cold winters, the DO concentration in the surface water might reduce largely.

Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

2010-12-01

383

Prototyping a Smart City  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city.

Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

384

Internal Structure of the Sambongi Fan - Towada Volcano, Japan: Putting the Theory to the Test, using an Extensive GPR Survey  

OpenAIRE

The Towada Caldera Volcano is located in Aomori Prefecture - Northern Honshu Island, Japan. The caldera, today filled by a lake, has produced 15,000 years ago a complex eruption emplacing an Ignimbrite deposit topped by the lake outburst flood deposit, through which the present Oirase River cuts. This deposit has shaped the geomorphologic feature named Sambongi fan, on which Towada City extends. Based on outcrops, a few coring and radiocarbon dating, Kataoka (2011) has developed a theory tyin...

Gomez, Christopher; Kyoko, Kataoka

2011-01-01

385

Mortality and life expectancy of Yokkaichi Asthma patients, Japan: Late effects of air pollution in 1960–70s  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma began increasing in early 1960s in the population of Yokkaichi-city (Mie Prefecture, Japan). The cause of the disease was sulfur oxide air pollution, and it is known as Yokkaichi Asthma. The pollution markedly decreased by the end of 1970s; no new cases have been reported since 1988. This study aimed at examining the late effects of air pollution on the health of Yokkaichi Asthma patients. M...

Suenaga Masami; Yokoyama Kazuhito; Guo Peng; Kida Hirotaka

2008-01-01

386

Prevalence of mood disorders according to dsm-iii-r criteria in the community elderly residents in Japan  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence rates of mood disorders according to the DSM- III -R criteria in the community elderly were investigated with structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. The subjects were 1,965 randomly selected residents aged 65 years or more who lived in Nagai City, Japan. In the first phase, a questionnaire including the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was distributed to all subjects. In the second phase, all persons scoring 6 points or more on the GDS and approxima...

Ihara, Kazushige; Muraoka, Yoshiaki; Oiji, Arata; Nadaoka, Toshihide

1998-01-01

387

University Teacher Training in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La formación del profesorado universitario en Japón ha sido promovida en el marco del “Desarrollo profesional docente (FD”. La formación del profesorado se convirtió en un "deber sustancial» para los profesores de los centros de pregrado por una orden ministerial en 2008 (en 2007 para los centros de posgrado. Sin embargo, el contenido de la Capacitación Docente queda a la discreción de cada organización, y el marco legal no impone como obligatoria la participación de todo el personal académico en la formación del profesorado. En la década de 2000, las universidades japonesas empezaron a moverse de acuerdo con presiones externas, como las inspecciones para garantizar la calidad, la obtención de fondos externos, y la publicación de datos acerca de sus estudiantes. Estas circunstancias han promovido los movimientos de la Capacitación Docente aplicada a las actividades de educación en las instituciones, y entendidas según el concepto del KAIZEN (proceso de mejora colectiva que sigue el ciclo planificación-acción-verificación. Sin embargo, la formación del profesorado basada en las habilidades de enseńanza todavía no es una prioridad en Japón.ABSTRACTUniversity teacher training in Japan has been promoted as a part of ‘Faculty Development (FD’. Teacher training became a ‘substantial duty’ to faculties for of undergraduate schools by a ministerial ordinance in 2008 (graduate schools in 2007. However, contents of the Faculty Development are left to each organisation’s discretion, and the ordinance does not have the legal right to mandate the participation of all academic staff in teacher training. In the 2000s, Japanese universities were under the external pressures such as quality assurance inspections, acquisition of external funds, and the exposure of data about their students. These circumstances have promoted the movements of the Faculty Development as KAIZEN (collective improvement by means of the plan-do-check-action cycle activities of education at institutions. However, a few institutions offer a systematised programme of teaching and learning for academic staff. The teacher training for enhancement of teaching skills is still not a priority in Japan.

Kaori Kato

2013-12-01

388

River and Wetland Restoration: Lessons from Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a peer reviewed article from BioScience focuses on river and wetland restoration projects in Japan. River and wetland restoration has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon and is becoming a highly profitable business. Although researchers worldwide know a lot about restoration practices in Europe and the United States, we have only scant information about the activities in Japan, where more than 23,000 river restoration projects have been conducted during the past 15 years. In Japan, restoration is a daunting business because of the high human population density, urbanization, and harsh environmental conditions. Here we provide an overview of the various restoration activities in Japan and discuss the lessons that we can draw from them.

KEIGO NAKAMURA, KLEMENT TOCKNER, and KUNIHIKO AMANO (; )

2006-05-01

389

1940 Japan-America Student Conference (JASC)  

Science.gov (United States)

The first release in a new electronic series published by the Center for East Asian Studies at the University of Kansas, James J. Halsema's "Diary of the 1940 Japan America Student Conference" (ed. Grant Goodman) offers an interesting account of the last JASC conference before the Second World War. A student delegate to the conference (which was held in Japan), Halsema made a number of astute observations on Japan and its imperial state in Northeast Asia in his diary, which he fortunately kept and has now shared with readers. The diary is offered as a large single HTML document, accompanied by an introduction from the editor and an appendix. The new series, which the diary inaugurates, will publish primary documents, translations, and scholarly studies relating to China, Japan, and Korea.

Halsema, James A.

390

Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

391

Short-sightness (myopia) in Japan  

OpenAIRE

A conversation between Alan Macfarlane and Dr Tokoro, a leading Japanese ophthalmologist, after a routine Japanese school eyesight test. Some of the possible causes and consequences of the very high rates of short-sightedness in Japan are discussed.

Macfarlane, Alan

2004-01-01

392

Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

393

226Ra in the Japan Sea and the residence time of the Japan Sea water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface water of the Japan Sea contained 226Ra of 70+-4 dpm m-3 which was nearly equal to that of the surface water in the North Pacific. The concentration of 226Ra in the Japan Sea deep water below 500 m was 151+-8 dpm m-3, showing a vertically and regionally small variation. This concentration of 226Ra in the deep water is unexpectedly high, because the Japan Sea deep water has a higher ?14C value by about 50per mille than the Atlantic deep water containing the same 226Ra. One of the causes to be considered is larger contribution of 226Ra from biogenic particles dissolving in the Japan Sea deep water, but the Japan Sea is not so fertile in comparison to the Bering Sea. The other more plausible cause is the internal ventilation of the Japan Sea water, which means that the residence time of the Japan Sea Proper water is considerably long although the water is vertically mixed fairly well especially in winter. The ventilation may supply some amounts of radiocarbon and oxygen but does not change the inventory of 226Ra. The residence times of the Japan Sea deep water and of water within the Japan Sea are calculated by solving simultaneous equations for 226Ra and 14C with a three-box model to be 300-400 years and 700-1000 years, respectively. (orig.)

394

On Chinese Trainees and Interns in Japan  

OpenAIRE

There are millions of Chinese workers in Japan, most as trainees and interns hired in small or medium sized industries. While they work hard and contribute great to the economic development of Japan, there also exist some problems arising from the mechanism which have to be faced by both Japanese and Chinese governments. On analyzing the status of the trainees and interns, the author exposed some problems in the system, and presents some suggestions from the legal view for the future at last.

Jiaoyan Fan

2012-01-01

395

Plans for super-beams in Japan  

OpenAIRE

In Japan, as the first experiment utilizes J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) neutrino facility, T2K (Tokai to Kamioka Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) starts operation. T2K is supposed to give critical information, which guides the future direction of the neutrino physics. Possible new generation discovery experiment based on T2K outcome is discussed. Especially, description of J-PARC neutrino beam upgrade plan and discussion on far detector options to max...

Hasegawa, Takuya

2010-01-01

396

Immigrants’ Experiences of Maternity Care in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women’s birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan’s highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South...

Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

397

Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumo...

Okumi, Hirokuni; Koyama, Atsuko

2014-01-01

398

Fighting Japan; Nippon auf den Fersen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the impeding new legislation on photovoltaic power generation, producers of solar systems are expanding their production capacities in order to reduce the production cost and get a better competitive position with respect to Japan. [German] Das PV-Vorschaltgesetz kommt. Die ersten Solarunternehmen haben angekuendigt, ihre Produktionskapazitaeten weiter deutlich auszubauen - um Kosten zu senken und so der Konkurrenz aus Japan Paroli zu bieten. (orig.)

Rentzing, S.

2003-12-01

399

The cost of schizophrenia in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Mitsuhiro Sado,1 Ataru Inagaki,2 Akihiro Koreki,1 Martin Knapp,3 Lee Andrew Kissane,4 Masaru Mimura,1 Kimio Yoshimura4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 2Center for Clinical Psychopharmacology, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Schizophrenia is a disord...

Sado M; Inagaki A; Koreki A; Knapp M; La, Kissane; Mimura M; Yoshimura K

2013-01-01

400

Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

Broadbent, Kaye

2005-01-01

401

The disappointments for nuclear energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several dysfunctions are reported in this paper: A reactor (Onagawa) closed after a nitrogen leakage; a small leakage of radioactive water in the nuclear power plant of Mihama assessment raised to five deaths, the operator stops its nuclear power plants for inspection, the Japan face to its ageing nuclear power plants, the truth about the cost of M.O.X., the seven reactors of Japan closed for inspection after cracks and leaks hidden to authorities, Tokai MURA accident. (N.C.)

402

Titanosauriform teeth from the Cretaceous of Japan  

OpenAIRE

Sauropod teeth from six localities in Japan were reexamined. Basal titanosauriforms were present in Japan during the Early Cretaceous before Aptian, and there is the possibility that the Brachiosauridae may have been included. Basal titanosauriforms with peg-like teeth were present during the "mid" Cretaceous, while the Titanosauria with peg-like teeth was present during the middle of Late Cretaceous. Recent excavations of Cretaceous sauropods in Asia showed that multiple lineages of sauropod...

Haruo Saegusa; Yukimitsu Tomida

2011-01-01

403

Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have in...

Furue, Masutaka; Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

2011-01-01

404

Scientific Balloon Activities in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2008, new Japanese balloon base at Taiki-town, Hokkaido has been in operation. In these two years, eight heavy balloons were successfully launched using the sliding launcher, which enables us to inflate a balloon inside the large hangar. By these balloon flights, scientific observations and engineering demonstrations were carried out, such as the cosmic-ray electron observation and the development of the micro-gravity experiment system. The standardization of balloons and balloon system is close to be completed. We have designed seven types of heavy balloons and two types of high altitude balloons with thin film. The development of new tracking, telemetry and command system is almost done, and it will be verified in the balloon flights in 2010. The development of the next generation balloons, i.e., the super-pressure balloons and the mesospheric balloons fabricated with ultra-thin film are also in progress. In this paper, the recent status of the scientific balloon activities in Japan will be presented. The prospects of the development of new balloon technologies and the international collaboration will also be discussed.

Yoshida, Tetsuya

405

Spent fuel management in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

406

Spent fuel treatment in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

407

From the Jura to Japan...  

CERN Multimedia

Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

2012-01-01

408

Characteristic patterns of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma: a comparative study of recurrent lesions after transplantation and chemotherapy by the Nagasaki Transplant Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-SCT) is a promising therapy that may provide long-term durable remission for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patients; however, the incidence of relapse associated with ATL remains high. To determine the clinical features of these patients at relapse, we retrospectively analyzed tumor lesions in 30 or 49 patients who relapsed following allo-SCT or chemotherapy (CHT), respectively, at three institutions in Nagasaki prefecture between 1997 and 2011. A multivariate analysis revealed that the development of abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients at relapse was less frequent after allo-SCT than after CHT (P<0.001). Furthermore, relapse with a new lesion only in the absence of the primary lesion was more frequent in allo-SCT (P=0.014). Lesions were more frequently observed in the central nervous systems of patients who relapsed with new lesions only (P=0.005). Thus, the clinical manifestation of relapsed ATL was slightly complex, especially in post-transplant patients. Our results emphasized the need to develop adoptive modalities for early and accurate diagnoses of relapsed ATL. PMID:25621801

Itonaga, H; Sawayama, Y; Taguchi, J; Honda, S; Taniguchi, H; Makiyama, J; Matsuo, E; Sato, S; Ando, K; Imanishi, D; Imaizumi, Y; Yoshida, S; Hata, T; Moriuchi, Y; Fukushima, T; Miyazaki, Y

2015-04-01

409

WHO Healthy Cities Programme.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies some urban health challenges and discusses World Health Organization (WHO) concepts of public health, a Municipal Health Plan, and the WHO Healthy Cities Program (HCP). A healthy city is defined as one that continually creates and improves the physical and social environment and expands community resources for enabling the mutual support among population groups for living. Urbanization is advancing rapidly, but government resources are not keeping pace with people's needs. By 1990, at least 600 million urban people in developing countries faced life and health threats. There is poverty, inadequate food and shelter, insecure tenure, physical crowding, poor waste disposal, unsafe working conditions, inadequate local government services, overuse of harmful substances, and environmental pollution. Poor people in cities frequently must satisfy all their basic needs in health, welfare, and employment. There is exposure to early sexual activity of adolescents, transient relationships, high levels of prostitution, and limited birth control. Unsustainable use of natural resources and environmental destruction pose threats to urban productivity and restrict future development options. The WHO launched a "Health for All" campaign in 1978, based on 4 basic principles. The HCP, which is based on these principles, has expanded to many cities. It measures the health burden and makes health issues relevant and understandable to local agencies through analysis and policy advocacy. The Municipal Health Plan facilitates awareness of environmental and health problems in schools, work and marketplaces, health services, and among other organizations. PMID:12178494

Goldstein, G; Kickbusch, I

1996-03-01

410

Olympic cities and communication  

OpenAIRE

Article published in Greek in the special issue "The Olympic Games: the mega sports and media event" of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens journal Communication Issues (2004, no.1), discussing the need for establishing a communication model for city-games relations.

Moragas Spa?, Miquel

2005-01-01

411

Global / globalizing cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Along with the rise in research on globalization, the concept of globalization has become a subject to a more critical scrutiny. While majority agree that it represents a serious challenge to the state-centrist assumptions of most previous social science, doubts about its newness, inevitability and epoch-making qualities are also being raised. Others argue that the globalization literature neglects issues of social regulation by the nation-state, while some critics view it as a discourse drawn upon to legitimize particular political and economic agendas. Debates focus on metropolitan manifestations and impacts. Moving from this background, the paper presents three sociospatial urban configurations that have emerged in the literature. Alongside attempts at identifying globalizing cities and transnational urban networks as new theoretical subjects, another significant vein in the literature focuses on the complex forces of globalization and the production of new urban spaces in these cities. In addition, economic conceptions of globalization is now being pushed beyond adding sociocultural or sociopolitical dimensions and argue instead for the need to theorize globalization as a discursive formation. The global city as a discursive category conjures up imaginary concepts of high modernity, megadevelopment, 21st century urbanity. However, it is noted that the way forward is to focus on the distinctive ways in which urban actors engage in specific processes of economic and social reflexivity. There exists an urgent task for theorizations of the global city, which weave together historical, economic, cultural, sociopolitical and discursive dimensions. PMID:12296126

Yeoh, B S

1999-01-01

412

Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].  

Science.gov (United States)

"Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

1998

413

Scarcity Makes the City  

OpenAIRE

The first talk in the series, Scarcity Makes the City, features Vancouver-based economic geographer Geoff Mann. Looking at how modern political economy affects social relations and our experience of everyday life, Mann will discuss how contemporary capitalist dynamics shape Vancouver’s urban context, and the pasts, presents, and futures that weave it together.

Mann, Geoff

2013-01-01

414

TELECOM-CITIES  

Science.gov (United States)

TELECOM-CITIES, a discussion list sponsored by the Taub Urban Research Center at New York University, focuses on practical and theoretical aspects of the impacts of advanced telecommunications and telematics on urban centers. A web-based subscription form is available.

415

City project and public space  

CERN Document Server

The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

2013-01-01

416

IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid classifying removed materials that do not warrant special radiation protection measures as ''radioactive waste''; - Japan is advised to consider explaining to the public the importance of focusing on radiation doses that may actually be received by people rather than on data indicating contamination levels; and - Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts. In doing so, Japan is encouraged to take into account the advice provided by the Mission. The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it considers new and appropriate criteria for such activities. The authorities and local residents in Japan fully assisted the IAEA international team in its endeavor to conclude its mission successfully. ''The team also appreciates the openness with which our discussions were conducted and the high level of cooperation and access we were granted by Japan,'' says Mr. Lentijo. ''This was an invaluable opportunity for us to learn from this important decontamination initiative. We would like to continue our support to Japan in this very challenging task. We look forward to sharing our findings with the international community.'' The final report of the mission will be presented to the Government of Japan in the next month. Background. The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA organized an International Fact Finding Expert Mission of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Following The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which took place between 24 May and 2 June 2011. The mission concluded today is a follow-up to the fact-finding mission held earlier in the year and an essential component of the IAEA's Nuclear Safety Action Plan, approved by the IAEA Board of Governors on 13 September and endorsed by all 151 Member States at the recent IAEA General Conference in September 2011. The Action Plan defines a programme of work to strengthen the global nucl

417

Are? compact? cities? environmentally? friendly?  

OpenAIRE

There is a large consensus among international institutions and national governments to favor urban-containment policies - the compact city - as a way to reduce the ecological footprint of cities. This approach overlooks the following basic trade-off: the concentration of activities decreases the ecological footprint stemming from commodity shipping between cities, but it increases emissions of greenhouse gas by inducing longer worktrips. What matters for the ecological footprint of cities is...

Gaigne?, Carl; Riou, Ste?phane; Thisse, Jacques-franc?ois

2010-01-01

418

Smart city: fact and fiction  

OpenAIRE

Transforming a city into a Smart City is a complex and multidimensional process which changes over time since all the involved stakeholders work to achieve more and better results. “To be smart” affects many aspects of a city including economics, government, people, living, mobility, environment, energy and services. This paper aims at critically analysing the main features related to smart cities such as terminological issues, the heterogeneous theoretical background and the methodo...

Santis, Roberta; Fasano, Alessandra; Mignolli, Nadia; Villa, Anna

2014-01-01

419

Cohort Profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at Final Follow-up  

OpenAIRE

The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city me...

Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu

2013-01-01

420

Sakura-jima volcano in Japan as seen from STS-66 Atlantis  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the world's most active volcanoes, Sakura-jima in southern-most Kyushu, Japan, erupts dozens of times a year. Volcanic eruptions are so much a part of of daily life in the city of Kagoshima (across the bay and west of Sakura-jima), that school children wear hard hats to school. This photo provides a nice clear view of Sakura-jima on a quiet day - only a plume of steam rises from the summit crater. The summit region is covered with gray ash from the frequent eruptions, and some of the rivers cutting down the mountain (especially the western drainages) appear to be filled with volcanic debris.

1994-01-01

421

The Future of American Cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Downtown developments have saved some cities from collapse but don't make up for the loss of federal funds, nor do they provide jobs or housing suitable for most inner city residents. Nothing, however, has hurt the inner cities more than drug use. (DM)

Gordon, Dan

1990-01-01

422

The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami. An update and lessons from the past great earthquakes in Japan since 1923  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (?18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of ''Tsunami, ten-den-ko.'' This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11th tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massivethquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (?105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters. (author)

423

Japan’s Positive and Negative Aid Sanctions Policy Toward Asian Countries: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, Japan’s positive and negative aid sanctions policy toward Asian countries since the introduction of new aid guidelines will be examined and discussed. Japan can choose to impose negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients that conduct desirable polices in the light of Japan’s ODA Charter. The Jap...

Furuoka, Fumitaka

2007-01-01

424

Japan Nuclear Technology Institute activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 1. Introduction of JANTI Japan Nuclear Technology Institute (JANTI) was established in April, 2005 by consent of Japanese nuclear industries such as electric utilities, manufacturers, subcontractors etc., and its members consist of 114 companies. JANTI has two major purposes. One is to support industrial initiatives for safety operation on the model of INPO. The other is to improve regulatory practices to agree with the state of the art nuclear technology based on operation data. JANTI promotes three core stones such as Operating Experience Analysis, Nuclear Safety Network and Codes and Standards. Our activities are based on knowledge management by gathering, evaluating the operation experiences from domestic and overseas nuclear power plants, promoting safety culture and industrial standards for safety operation by reflecting on lessons learned from operation experiences. 2. The out line of activities JANTI took over and enhanced information-gathering / delivery / utilization operations of the Nuclear Information Center, which was established in 1983 under the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry to incorporate lessons learned from the TMI (Three Mile Island) nuclear accident. The following items are implemented: (1) Sharing operational experiences from nuclear energy facilities (nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited) to issue recommendations based on event analysis. (2) Conducting trend analysis of opersis. (2) Conducting trend analysis of operation information to provide feedback on plant operation and maintenance work by exploring a database to counter issues associated with facility aging. (3) Utilizing operation information and equipment reliability data, data for probabilistic safety assessment and drawing up the guidelines for reliability centered maintenance / condition-based maintenance. 2.2 Promoting safety culture JANTI took over and evolved the rules of Nuclear Safety Net, which was established to incorporate lessons learned from the JCO nuclear accident in 1999. Efforts were made to optimize NS Net operations based on its past activities, while maintaining the positive aspects of the Peer Review mechanism. The following items are implemented: (1) Performing Peer Review with the help of INPO and establishing JANTI Peer Review. (2) Promoting safety culture 2.3 Developing voluntary consensus standards As Japanese laws begin to incorporate performance oriented standards, there is a need for developing voluntary consensus standards. (1) Grasping industry needs and drawing up a roadmap for them. (2) Supporting the development of voluntary consensus standards 3. Summary The capacity of the nuclear industry has been amassed to establish JANTI as an institute for developing the industry's technological foundation, promoting industrial initiatives for safety operation and contributing to the revitalization of the nuclear industry itself. Its basic policies are to use scientific, rational data and knowledge to contribute to enhancing industrial initiatives for safety operation. Especially, as the recent topic, Japanese utility revealed the critical event by inadvertent rod withdrawal which happened in 1999. It enhanced JANTI to improve our activities furthermore. Its outline and the countermeasures will be explained at the meeting. (author)

425

El Misti Volcano and the City of Arequipa, Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

This three-dimensional perspective view was created from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Model combined with a simulated natural color ASTER image, acquired July 13, 2001. It shows El Misti volcano towering 5822 meters high above the second city of Peru, Arequipa, with a population of more than one million. Geologic studies indicate that El Misti has had five minor eruptions this century, and a major eruption in the 15th century when residents were forced to flee the city. Despite the obvious hazard, civil defense authorities see it as a remote danger, and city planners are not avoiding development on the volcano side of the city. This view shows human development extending up the flanks of the volcano along gullies which would form natural channels for flows of lava, superheated ash and gas, or melted ice, snow, and mud from the summit snowfield in the event of an eruption. Image by Mike Abrams, NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

426

Ocean Science Communication in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

Ichikawa, H.

2011-12-01

427

'My city of ruins': A city to come  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available 'My city of ruins' is the title of a song by Bruce Springsteen and will accompany a public theological reflection of imagining alternative cities. A city of ruins is either a city of ruins in the sense that it is a city in ruins. Alternatively it is a city of ruins in the sense that it is a city tha [...] t is built from ruins, like a phoenix rising from the ashes. The article will reflect on the second alternative namely the poiesis of a habitable, sustainable and political space (polis) in a time when all the meta-discourses of constructing and social engineering lie in ruins (have been deconstructed). The article will focus on Derrida's ideas of deconstruction and the hope and prayer of perhaps. Springsteen's song includes the prayer: 'come on, come on, rise up!' A city of ruins prayed into existence, rising up by the call (prayer) of those longing for a liveable, sustainable city to rise up from the ruins of too many empty promises of the various political agendas. Creating and imagining a city of prayer, which involves the prayers for justice incarnate in the broken language (ruined language) of revolutions, and transformations and political construction, thus calls a city of promise into existence.

Johann-Albrecht, Meylahn.

2014-03-01

428

Inequalities in noncommunicable disease mortality in the ten largest Japanese cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of noncommunicable diseases and social inequalities in health among urban populations is becoming a common problem around the world. This phenomenon is further compounded by population aging. Japan faces the task of maintaining its high level of population health while dealing with these challenges. This study focused on the ten largest cities in Japan and, using publicly available administrative data, analyzed standardized mortality ratios to examine inequalities in relative mortality levels due to major noncommunicable disease at both city and subcity levels. On average, the ten major cities had excess mortality due to cancer and lower mortality due to heart disease and cerebrovascular disease compared to the country as a whole. Substantial inequalities in relative mortality were observed both between and within cities, especially for heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among men. Inequalities in relative mortality levels within cities appear to be increasing over time even while relative mortality levels are decreasing overall. The widely observed health inequalities signal the need for actions to ensure health equity while addressing the burden of noncommunicable diseases. Increasingly, more countries will have to deal with these challenges of inequity, urbanization, aging, and noncommunicable diseases. Local health governance informed by locally specific data on health determinants and outcomes is essential for developing contextualized interventions to improve health and health equity in major urban areas. PMID:23722269

Kano, Megumi; Hotta, Miyuki; Prasad, Amit

2013-12-01

429

Monitoring of acrylamide concentrations in potato chips in Japan between 2006 and 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrylamide levels in commercially available potato chips in Japan were monitored between August 2006 and June 2010 using the xanthydrol derivative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Seasonal and annual changes in acrylamide concentrations were determined. Nationwide bimonthly sampling of potato chips was carried out using a four-level design, and seasonal variations were detected in which the minimum acrylamide concentration was observed in August, and the maximum between February and June. Seasonal variations became less apparent after August 2008 as a result of annual effects and/or mitigation measures taken by the potato chip producers. Sampling uncertainties were separated into time-to-time, city-to-city, and lot-to-lot variation, and the largest variation was shown to be lot-to-lot including bag-to-bag. PMID:22594790

Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Ono, Hiroshi; Kibune, Nobuyuki; Isagawa, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Watai, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

2012-08-01

430

Heavy metal pollution in Ancient Nara, Japan, during the eighth century  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantitatively investigated the eighth century heavy metal pollution in Heijo-kyo (Ancient Nara), the first large, international city of Japan. In this metropolis, mercury, copper, and lead levels in soil were increased by urban activity and by the construction of the Great Buddha statue, Nara Daibutsu. Mercury and copper pollution associated with the construction of the statue was particularly high in the immediate vicinity of the statue, but markedly lower in the wider city environment. We therefore reject the hypothesis that extensive mercury pollution associated with the construction of the Nara Daibutsu made it necessary to abandon Ancient Nara, even though severe lead pollution was detected at several sites. The isotopic composition of the lead indicated that it originated mainly from the Naganobori mine in Yamaguchi, which was a major source of the copper for the Nara Daibutsu.

Kawahata, Hodaka; Yamashita, Shusuke; Yamaoka, Kyoko; Okai, Takashi; Shimoda, Gen; Imai, Noboru

2014-12-01

431

URBZ: User Generated Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

The User Generated Cities organization (URBZ) "facilitates the production and exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and practices towards better cities for all." With offices in Mumbai and Geneva, URBZ deploys a variety of web-based tools "for the production and sharing of information by residents and stakeholders." On their homepage, visitors can read postings from staff members on the construction of multi-story buildings in the developing world and sustainable architecture design charrettes. Moving on, visitors can learn more about URBZ by clicking on the "Workshops" section. Here they will find diagrams and explanations of URBZ's design philosophy and their work with local communities. Interested parties can also sign up here to receive email updates and to learn more about their upcoming events.

432

Inner City Press  

Science.gov (United States)

Based in the South Bronx, the Inner City Press has been publishing a newspaper focused on low-income neighborhoods nationwide since 1987. A few months ago, the organization went online with a weekly publication featuring original and engaging investigative and analytical pieces from a selection of beats, including the Federal Reserve, Community Reinvestment, Insurance Redlining, Wall Street, Environmental Justice, and Banks, among others. The most recent issue (August 30) includes concise reports on predatory lending, the economic crisis in Ecuador, press leaks and the Federal Reserve, and a round-up of bank news. The site also provides overviews and related resources for Community Reinvestment, the Inner City Public Interest Law Center, Environmental Justice, Insurance Redlining, and related topics.