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1

Spatial distribution and pyrethroid susceptibility of mosquito larvae collected from catch basins in parks in Nagasaki city, Nagasaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the spatial distribution and pyrethroid susceptibility of the mosquito larvae belonging to Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens group in catch basins located in parks in Nagasaki city, Nagasaki, Japan. Among the 308 parks located in the central regions of the city, 194 were investigated. Cx. pipiens group larvae were collected from 31 sites; larvae of Ae. albopictus, from 34 sites. The Cx. pipiens group larvae were identified by PCR: 93.4% were found to belong to Cx. pipiens pallens, and 0.9%, to Cx. pipiens form molestus. A bioassay was performed by observing the knockdown of larvae during 30-min exposures to 0.4- and 0.1-ppm solutions of d-allethrin. High tolerance to d-allethrin (susceptibility index = 36) was observed in only 1 colony of Cx. pipiens pallens across 24 sites. On the other hand, Ae. albopictus showed high tolerance (susceptibility index > 30) in 8 of 22 sites; this indicated that Ae. albopictus populations tolerant to pyrethroids were spreading widely in Nagasaki city. The organized and massive larvicidal treatment of graveyard containers with DDT in the 1950s was thought to be one of the main causes for the development of pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus. PMID:20093757

Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Abe, Mayumi; Ohashi, Kazunori; Ohba, Shin-ya; Takagi, Masahiro

2010-01-01

2

The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

3

Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb.

Saito-Kokubu, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp; Esaka, F. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Magara, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyamoto, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Usuda, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamazaki, H. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yoshikawa, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nagaoka, S. [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

2007-04-15

4

Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb. PMID:17150366

Saito-Kokubu, Y; Esaka, F; Yasuda, K; Magara, M; Miyamoto, Y; Sakurai, S; Usuda, S; Yamazaki, H; Yoshikawa, S; Nagaoka, S

2007-04-01

5

Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb

6

Protein variants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: tales of two cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of 1,465,423 allele product determinations based on blood samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, involving 30 different proteins representing 32 different gene products, are analyzed in a variety of ways, with the following conclusions: (1) Sibships and their parents are included in the sample. Our analysis reveals that statistical procedures designed to reduce the sample to equivalent independent genomes do not in population comparisons compensate for the familial cluster effect of rare variants. Accordingly, the data set was reduced to one representative of each sibship (937,427 allele products). (2) Both chi 2-type contrasts and a genetic distance measure (delta) reveal that rare variants (P less than .01) are collectively as effective as polymorphisms in establishing genetic differences between the two cities. (3) We suggest that rare variants that individually exhibit significant intercity differences are probably the legacy of tribal private polymorphisms that occurred during prehistoric times. (4) Despite the great differences in the known histories of the two cities, both the overall frequency of rare variants and the number of different rare variants are essentially identical in the two cities. (5) The well-known differences in locus variability are confirmed, now after adjustment for sample size differences for the various locus products; in this large series we failed to detect variants at only three of 29 loci for which sample size exceeded 23,000. (6) The number of alleles identified per locus correlates positively with subunit molecular weight. (7) Loci supporting genetic polymorphisms are characterized by more rare variants than are loci at which polymorphisms were not encountered. (8) Loci whose products do not appear to be essential for health support more variants than do loci the absence of whose product is detrimental to health. (9) There is a striking excess of rare variants over the expectation under the neutral mutation/drift/equilibrium theory. We suggest that this finding is primarily due to the relatively recent (in genetic time) agglomeration of previously separated tribal populations; efforts to test for agreement with the expectations of this theory by using data from modern cosmopolitan populations are exercises in futility. (10) All of these findings should characterize DNA variants in exons as more data become available, since the finding are the protein expression of such variants. PMID:3195587

Neel, J V; Satoh, C; Smouse, P; Asakawa, J; Takahashi, N; Goriki, K; Fujita, M; Kageoka, T; Hazama, R

1988-12-01

7

The cancer registry in Nagasaki City, with atomic bomb survivors data, 1973-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tumor registry program in Nagasaki City was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population and a tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. According to the chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City, an increasing trend was shown in males for cancer of the colon, rectum, lung, urinary bladder, and for all sites combined, and, in females for cancer of the colon, pancreas, and breast. No decreasing trend was observed for any site in males, while a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. In comparison with age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in other prefectures and cities in 1979, the rates in Nagasaki City are high for both males and females. Sites with a tendency for high rates, in Nagasaki City, are, for males, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and lymphoid tissue, and for females, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, lung, breast, and lymphoid tissue. From these data, it is necessary to ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors than in nonexposed persons. According to the Nagasaki City tumor and tissue registry data for 1973 - 77, the crude incidence rate and relative risk for several cancers were higher in A-bomb survivors and well correlated with the radiation dose. However, the adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only frelative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes. Histopathological difference between cancer tissue of A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons was not detected. In general, it is premature to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences of malignancy between A-bomb survivors and nonexposed persons, although an increase in cancer incidence and mortality is a recognized late effect of exposure to A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

8

Epidemiological studies on multiple primary malignant tumors in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ninety-four cases of multiple primary malignant tumors registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1973--1977 were studied. The crude incidence rate tended to be higher in atomic bomb survivors although the difference was not significant. The male: female ratio was 1:1.19. Cases in the sixth decade of life were dominant, the average age was somewhat lower in females than in males. Stomach cancer was observed in 48 patients (51.1%; triple malignancies in 8 cases (8.5%). (author)

9

The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

10

Epidemiological studies on malignant lymphoma in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred and eighty-two (182) cases of malignant lymphoma registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to the end of 1977 were studied in relation to atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in the incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and nonexposed groups. One hundred and thirty-one (131) cases excluding Hodgkin's disease and mycosis fungoides were histologically reviewed and classified according to Lymphoma Study Group (L.S.G.) and Working Formulation (W.F.) Classifications. Using the L.S.G. Classification, the three histological types(diffuse large cell, diffuse pleomorphic, and diffuse medium sized cell) occupied 72.7 % and 69.0 % of the exposed and nonexposed groups respectively. No significant difference in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found with an exception of a slightly higher incidence of the diffuse medium sized cell type in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group. An evaluation of these results was made in comparison with the results in Hiroshima. (author)

11

The cancer registry in Nagasaki city with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the establishment of the tumor registry program in Nagasaki City; it was conceived as a contribution to knowledge concerning possible radiation induced carcinogenesis among a human population. The tumor registry was established in 1957 and a tissue registry in 1974. Chronological changes in adjusted incidence rates for Nagasaki City are examined for various cancers in males; a decreasing trend was indicated in females for cancer of the uterus. From these data, the authors ascertain whether or not the incidence of malignant tumors is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed persons. The adjusted relative risk showed a higher trend only for thyroid cancer in females and in double cancers for both sexes of the A-bomb survivors

12

The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

13

An epidemiological study in Nagasaki City of malignant lymphoma and the atomic bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of primary site and histological type of malignant lymphoma and the relationship to the atomic bomb exposure in Nagasaki City were investigated in a population of age over 30 years during 1973 to 1982. Of 365 cases (male 207, female 158) of malignant lymphoma reported, 142 (male 66, female 76) had the atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and non-exposed groups. Primary sites of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were: lymph nodes; male exposed, 66; non-exposed, 67%; female exposed, 50%; non-exposed, 69%, gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract, male exposed, 14%; non-exposed, 11%; female exposed, 21%; non-exposed, 17%. histological reexamination of 232 cases according to the National Cancer Institute (USA) criteria yielded: diffuse large cell type, 27.2%; large cell immunoblastic type, 28.0%. No significant difference in these items was found between the exposed and the non-exposed groups. A comparison to the Hiroshma data revealed that an atomic bomb survivor does not show higher incidence in Nagasaki but in Hiroshima. (author)

14

Statistical studies on cause of death among A-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1975 in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 5466 cases of death which were reported to the A-bomb survivors counterplan section of the municipal office of Nagasaki City, cause of death was analysed according to the sex, age, and distance from the center of explosion. The result revealed significant difference the mortality from malignant neoplasms between the data of A-bomb survivors and those of national survey, and also showed significant difference in the mortality from malignant neoplasms between heavily exposed group and lightly exposed group of the survivors. Those who died and were not reported to the A-bomb survivors counterplan section of municipal office of Nagasaki City are now being investigated. Cause of death except from malignant neoplasma and cerebral vascular diseases as well as laboratory findings of survivors will be analysed; and the cause of the difference between the order of the causes of death in people exposed to A-bomb radiation and those in national survey will be pursued. (Ueda, J.)

15

Incidence of hip fractures of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of the hip fracture was investigated more than 40 years after exposure to A-bomb when victims were for the most part aged above 60 years. The numbers of hip fractures in Nagasaki city were 238 in 1989 and 235 in 1990 and 102 and 113 (about 46%) of them had been exposed to A-bomb. The incidence of such fractures per 100,000 in 1989 and 1990 were 280.1 and 307.4, respectively in the exposure group, and 316 and 285.6 in the non-exposure group. There was no significant difference between the exposure and non-exposure groups. When the significance of difference was assessed by the survival-rate analysing method, no significant difference was noted between persons exposed and unexposed to A-bomb and between victims exposed near the center of explosion and at more distant places. Taken altogether, exposure to A-bomb is considered to produce to influence on the incidence of the hip fracture. (author)

16

Statistical investigation of a-bomb survivors health examinations in Nagasaki City, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical investigation was made as to results of hematological examinations in male A-bomb survivors picked out from 60,000 A-bomb survivors (the total cases, 600,000) in Nagasaki city who received general health examinations from 1965 to 1979. With respect to the exposed who were young at the time of exposure (their age; under 12 years, the mean age at the time of exposure; 6.4 years, and the mean age at the time of examinations; 33.7 years), there was a significant difference in hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure between a short-distance group exposed within 1.8 km from the center of explosion and a long-distance group exposed over 2.4 km between the age 30 and 35 years. Systematic changes in erythrocyte count and white cell count were not found. With respect to the exposed who had grown up at the time of exposure (the age at the time of exposure; over 13 years, the mean age at the time of exposure; 29.7 years, and the mean age at the time of examinations; 57.0 years), erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and white cell count in both a short-distance group and a long-distance group tended to decrease in accordance with aging. Systolic blood pressure elevated in accordance with aging, but there was not a significant difference between both groups. (Tsunoda, M.)

17

Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

18

Epidemiological studies of colon cancer in Nagasaki city with special reference to radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies were conducted on 223 cases of colon cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1977, with particular emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence in atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different as compared with nonexposed persons. By site, cancer of the sigmoid colon was more frequent in males than in females, especially in older people, but no difference was seen by exposure status. Histologically, about 90% was relatively differentiated adeno-carcinoma and showed no difference by age, sex or exposure status. (author)

19

Physique, body composition and maximum oxygen consumption of selected soccer players of Kunimi High School, Nagasaki, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the physical and physiological ability of selected soccer players of Kunimi High School in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The Kunimi team is famous for its intensive training, and had won the championship of the All Japan High School Soccer Tournament six times by 2003. We measured physique, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake of 72 members aged between 16 and 18 years old between 1986 and 1994. They consisted of 66 outfield players (12 forward players, 23 midfielders, 31 defenders) and 6 goalkeepers. Body density was measured by the under-water weighing method, and Brozek's equation was applied to calculate percentage body fat (%Fat, %), fat-free mass (FFM, kg), FFM/height (FFM/Ht, kg.m(-1)), and FFM index (FFM/Ht(3), kg.m(-3)). The following results were obtained: 1. The average of 66 outfield players was 172.7 cm of height, 64.6 kg of weight, 54.0 cm of girth of thigh, and 90.0 cm of girth of hip, 9.3% of %Fat, 58.6 kg of FFM, 33.9 kg.m(-1) of FFM/Ht and 113.8 kg.m(-3) of FFM index. The mean vital capacity was 4.25 L and total lung capacity was 5.58 L. The mean maximal ventilation was 138.7 L.min(-1), VO(2)max was 3.95 L.min(-1), and VO(2)max/Wt was 61.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1). 2. Goalkeepers were taller and heavier than outfielders, and had a smaller mean value of VO(2)max/Wt than outfielders (p<0.01). 3. For 23 out of the 72 players measured twice with an interval of about one year, FFM increased and %Fat reduced significantly, while V(E)max, VO(2)max and VO(2)max/Wt did not change. Kunimi players of the present study had as large a VO(2)max/Wt as local players, and a similar or slightly smaller VO(2)max/Wt than national-level players. They had similar %Fat and a similar VO(2)max/Wt with professional soccer players in England (Davis et al., 1992) while they had much smaller physiques. PMID:16891759

Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Nakayama, Masao; Nakagaichi, Masaki; Komine, Tadatoshi; Kusano, Yosuke; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

2006-07-01

20

Strong association of fallout plutonium with humic and fulvic acid as compared to uranium and 137Cs in Nishiyama soils from Nagasaki, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the formation of mobile organic plutonium, the plutonium contents of the fulvic (FA) and humic (HA) acids were analyzed from the soil samples obtained at Nishiyama, Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of the plutonium bound strongly to HA and to FA vs. the total plutonium in the soil were 5-10% and 1%, respectively, at the depth of 0-0.1 m, much higher values than those of 137Cs and uranium. After being weathered for 51 years under a temperate climate, the initial highfired oxides of fallout plutonium have become as chemically reactive plutonium from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Epidemiology of lung cancer in Nagasaki City with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted on 1057 cases (462 exposed and 595 nonexposed) of lung cancer resistered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence of lung cancer in either sex tended to be higher in A - bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, particulaly in older age, than in the nonexposed but not significantly different. By histological type, adenocarcinoma was the most frequent in both sexes and both the exposed and nonexposed, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. In A - bomb survivors, adenocarcinoma was more frequent in males compared with the nonexposed, but the difference in relative distribution by histologic type between the exposure and nonexposure groups was not significant. Further analysis of histologic type of lung cancer in the high dose and younger age radiation groups are necessary. (author)

22

Epidemiology of thyroid cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973-1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted on 212 cases (90 exposed and 122 nonexposed) of thyroid cancer resistered at the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer in female was higher than in males about three and half times. The age - adjusted relative risk was significantly high in females of A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero. By histological type, papillary carcinoma was the most frequent in both sexes and both the exposed and nonexposed, fllowed by follicular carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. In A-bomb survivors, papillary carcinoma was more frequent in females exposed from 2 km to 10 km from ground zero compared with the nonexposed, but the difference in relative distribution by histologic type between the exposure and nonexposure groups was not significant. Further analysis of histologic type of thyroid cancer in the high dose and younger age radiation groups are necessary. (author)

23

Epidemiological studies on malignant lymphoma in Nagasaki city. Especially in relation to atomic bomb exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One hundred and eighty-two (182) cases of malignant lymphoma registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to the end of 1977 were studied in relation to atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in the incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and nonexposed groups. One hundred and thirty-one (131) cases excluding Hodgkin's disease and mycosis fungoides were histologically reviewed and classified according to Lymphoma Study Group (L.S.G.) and Working Formulation (W.F.) Classifications. Using the L.S.G. Classification, the three histological types(diffuse large cell, diffuse pleomorphic, and diffuse medium sized cell) occupied 72.7 % and 69.0 % of the exposed and nonexposed groups respectively. No significant difference in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found with an exception of a slightly higher incidence of the diffuse medium sized cell type in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group. An evaluation of these results was made in comparison with the results in Hiroshima.

Maeda, Hiroshi; Jubashi, Toru; Matsuo, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Ikeda, Takayoshi

1987-06-01

24

Japan's Four Major Smart Cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

NONE

2012-11-15

25

Studies on the growth of the middle school children, whose parents were exposed to the atom bomb in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagasaki junior high school students were divided into Group E (children of the exposed) and Group O (children of the non-exposed). Their growth was compared according to the degree of exposure received by their parents. An interim result was reported. There was a big difference between the height and body weight of students who lived in the center of the city and those who lived in the suburbs. These values also differed greatly according to family occupations. When the difference in physique between Group E and Group O was considered, districts and occupations were restricted. A tendency of O>E only was observed in an investigation of all subjects in all districts. A significant difference between the groups was observed in regard to some grades when districts and occupations were restricted. A scattering analysis of physique values, regarded as independent variables, of the same students according to grade revealed a difference in O>E in height, especially in boys. (Tsunoda, M.)

26

210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ingestion of 210Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d-1, and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

27

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among Atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in clinical laboratory findings before death were investigated based on the data in 621 patients (323 males and 298 females) extracted from the Scientific Data Center of Atomic-Bomb Disasters, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. A decrease in hemoglobin level and an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate began to occur 2 years before death in many of the patients with cancer, cerebrovascular disease or heart disease. (Namekawa, K.)

28

Atomic bombs and the long-run effect on trust: Experiences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan are the only cities in the world that have experienced an atomic bomb attack. This paper explores how this devastating experience affected victims’ tendency to trust others. Individual-level data were used to examine the long-term influence of experiencing an atomic bomb on individuals’ trust. After controlling for individual characteristics, I obtained the following key findings. Individuals who experienced the attack were more likely to trust others. Furt...

Yamamura, Eiji

2012-01-01

29

Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

1989-02-01

30

Epidemiology of large intestinal cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973?1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies were conducted on 1098 cases of large intestinal cancer (615 cases of colon cancer and 483 cases of rectum cancer) registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence in atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that in non-exposed persons, but the incidence in persons exposed at a young age tends to be higher, particularly the incidence of colon cancer in females. By site, about 56% of all colorectal cases investigated were shown to originate in the colon. In the colon, sigmoid cancer was the most frequent in both males and females, but there was no difference with regard to exposure status. In a comparison of the incidence during the first and second halves of the period examined, colorectal cancer revealed a general increasing trend, particularly for colon cancer in males and rectum cancer in females. Histologically, over 90% was differentiated adenocarcinoma and showed no difference by age, sex or exposure status. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that musinous carcinoma was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in non-exposed people. Further analysis of the incidence, site and histologic type of colorectal cancer, especially in the group exposed at a young age, is necessary. (author)

31

Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost 35 years have passed since the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were exposed to atomic bombs in August, 1945. In the same year, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was organized. The quality of radiation received by the survivors in the 2 cities differed appreciably. The Hiroshima bomb was composed of 235U so that from 15 - 30% of the radiation released was in the form of neutron particles, and the remainder was gamma. 239Pu bomb of Nagasaki released almost pure gamma radiation. Before 1950, an increased number of the axial opacity of the lenses of eyes was noted in many of the exposed survivors, and such lesions found more in Hiroshima was related to the dose. Maternal radiation exposure during the first 15 weeks of gestation caused small head children. Prenatal exposure to more than 50 rad in Hiroshima was associated with the eventual reduction in stature, 1.8 to 2.3 cm shorter in the average height at the age of 17. The chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were significantly increased in the persons who had been exposed to high dose of radiation while in utero or at any time after birth. Thyroid tumors occurred more frequently among the survivors exposed to high dose than those who received little or no radiation. The histologic types of radiation-related tumors were unique. The risk of lung cancer in the exposed persons continued to be high, regardless of smoking. Predominant leukemia in exposed children was acute lymphoblastic, and in adults, it is chronic granulocytic leukemia. (Yamashita, S.)

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Depositional records of plutonium and 137Cs released from Nagasaki atomic bomb in sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sediment core of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki city, depth profiles of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio, 239+240Pu and 137Cs activities were determined. Sediments containing plutonium and 137Cs, which were deposited immediately after a detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb, were identified in the core. Observed below the sediments were macroscopic charcoals, providing evidence for initial deposit of the fallout of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. This is the first entire depositional records of plutonium and 137Cs released from the Nagasaki atomic bomb together with those from atmospheric nuclear tests

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Depositional records of plutonium and (137)Cs released from Nagasaki atomic bomb in sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a sediment core of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki city, depth profiles of (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio, (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities were determined. Sediments containing plutonium and (137)Cs, which were deposited immediately after a detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb, were identified in the core. Observed below the sediments were macroscopic charcoals, providing evidence for initial deposit of the fallout of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. This is the first entire depositional records of plutonium and (137)Cs released from the Nagasaki atomic bomb together with those from atmospheric nuclear tests. PMID:18171596

Saito-Kokubu, Y; Yasuda, K; Magara, M; Miyamoto, Y; Sakurai, S; Usuda, S; Yamazaki, H; Yoshikawa, S; Nagaoka, S; Mitamura, M; Inoue, J; Murakami, A

2008-01-01

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Depositional records of plutonium and {sup 137}Cs released from Nagasaki atomic bomb in sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a sediment core of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki city, depth profiles of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotopic ratio, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs activities were determined. Sediments containing plutonium and {sup 137}Cs, which were deposited immediately after a detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb, were identified in the core. Observed below the sediments were macroscopic charcoals, providing evidence for initial deposit of the fallout of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. This is the first entire depositional records of plutonium and {sup 137}Cs released from the Nagasaki atomic bomb together with those from atmospheric nuclear tests.

Saito-Kokubu, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp; Yasuda, K.; Magara, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Sakurai, S.; Usuda, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamazaki, H. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yoshikawa, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nagaoka, S. [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Mitamura, M.; Inoue, J.; Murakami, A. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

2008-01-15

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Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

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Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author)

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Texture and chemistry of pillow lava from Omodaka, Nishisonogi peninsula, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Nagasakiken Nishisonogi hanto Omodaka ni bunpu suru shinjo yogan no soshiki to kagaku sosei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Omodaka, Nishisonogi Peninsula in Nagasaki Prefecture, rocks accompanying pillow lava are widely distributed. Surface structure, feature of inside texture, formation process, and feature of chemical texture of pillow loves of which pillow lava is composed were studied. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Two strata of lavas exist in Omodaka. Between them, a stratum corresponding to the lower conglomerate stratum exists and pillow lava yields only on the bottom of upper Magaribana basaltic-andesite. 2. A feeder of pillow lobes is observed between pillow lava and upper lava stream. A pillow lobe having a round section piles up one after another complocatedly, and hyaloclastite fills the space between lobes. 3. It is inferred that pillow lava was a low level of viscosity enough to form pillow lobes because pillow lava hardly contained phenocryst when extruding at a high temperature. 4. The quantity of glass decreases from the circumference of pillow lobes towards the center, and the quantity of groundmass miner al increases, and finally intergranular texture is observed. 26 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Mitani, Atsuyuki; Nakada, Setsuya; Aoki, Yoshikazu (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan). The Faculty of Science)

1990-01-30

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Clinical statistics in a four-year period (1971-1974) and incidence of malignant tumor in general patients and A-bomb exposed patients in the Japan Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical cases of the Japan Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital during the four-year period from 1971 to 1974 were analyzed statistically according to inpatient or outpatient, age, sex, disease and method of operation. Malignant tumor cases were divided into general patients and A-bomb exposed patients and in order to see if there was any significant difference in incidence of malignant tumor between these two groups, a total of 101 cases of malignant tumor during the 11-year period from 1964 to 1974 were studied statistically. A-bomb exposed patients consisted of 2547 outpatients and 370 inpatients. The male-female ratio was 1:1.04 in outpatients and 1:0.37 in inpatients. The rate of hospitalization was 17.0%. Aged patients over 70 years of age occupied 47.4% of the inpatients. During the 11 years from 1964 to 1974, there occurred 101 cases of malignant tumors and these cases were studied statistically to see the difference in incidence between the general patients group and the A-bomb exposed group. Prostatic cancer showed a significant difference between these two groups in outpatients with higher incidence for the A-bomb exposed group but no significant difference in inpatients. Other malignant tumors showed no significant difference. (auth.)

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Ingestion of Chernobyl 137Cs in Akita City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ingestion of 137Cs during 1985-1988 in Akita City, Japan, has been studied. Samples of 13 separate food categories were collected and analyzed for Cs radioisotopes. The ingestion rate of 137Cs originating from the Chenobyl accident decreased exponentially with a practical half-life of 1.6 years. The total ingestion of Chernobyl 137Cs per capita is estimated to be 62 Bq. The relative contributions of various food categories to 137Cs ingestion after the accident were dissimilar to those from nuclear weapons testing. Thus, the contamination pattern for Chernobyl 137Cs was characterized by a higher contribution (42%) by dairy products to total 137Cs ingestion. The practical half-life for the decrease in the 137Cs ingestion rate from dairy products was found to be 0.75 years. The transfer coefficient from deposition to diet for 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident was found to be significantly lower than that describing transfer of 137Cs from nuclear weapons test. (author)

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Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis

 
 
 
 
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Epidemiology of cancers of the liver, gall bladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas in Nagasaki city from 1973 to 1982 with reference to atomic bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This epidemiology study included 808 cases of liver cancers, 378 cases of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 312 cases of pancreas cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relationship of these cancers to radiation exposure. The incidence of liver, gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer in both sexes tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors than in the nonexposed population, but were particularly significantly higher in male A-bomb survivors in each age-adjusted relative risk group. The incidence of pancreas cancer in females tended to be higher among A-bomb survivors than in the nonexposed population, and age-adjusted relative risk was significantly higher for female A-bomb survivors. No significant differences in relative distribution of histological type between exposed and nonexposed groups was observed. (author)

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Learning Cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to…

Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

2013-01-01

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Delayed damage from fallout and activated radiation of A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In connection with an alternative approach to assess the risk of delayed damage from fallout and activated radiation of the A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the total doses absorbed were determined separately for the '0-9 rad T65D' and 'NIC' (Not In City) groups of individuals. The risk of organ damage from loosely ionising radiation in the low dose range was calculated on the basis of quantitative observations for mammary carcinomas and leukemia. Account was further taken of predictions about the dose-response relationship, including theories supporting the likelihood of linear and quadratic curves for the two organ lesions under investigation. The incidence of these diseases as indicated by the overall cancer index for Japan was taken as a control value. (ECB)

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Long-term effects of ionizing radiation - lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation based on the lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The paper also presents the current research program being conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which began as a series of platform protocols based on a fixed cohort of 120,000 survivors listed in the Japan National Census of 1950

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Study on Comparison of Citizens’ Environmental Awareness Among Four Cities in China and Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to compare governmental activities and citizens’ consciousness in environmental protection in China and Japan. The citizens’ environmental awareness and the relevant acts were examined by designing and distributing questionnaires to citizens in urban and rural cities in China and Japan. The results demonstrate that there are more differences between the two countries than between urban and rural cities inside the same country. Chinese people pay more attention to local severe problems, and require more garbage classification while Japanese people are relatively satisfied with the current environmental situations. Past trends of the accessible environment could positively affect citizens’ perspectives for the environment in the future.
Key words: Environmental awareness; Citizen; China; Japan; Social survey

Peng WANG

2011-09-01

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Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan

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Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m-3 and 40.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m-3 and 13.6 Bq m-3, respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

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Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concernede current study is concerned

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Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

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Surface Albedo in Cities: Case Study in Sapporo and Tokyo, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface albedo of two large cities in Japan was measured using a pyranometer mounted on a helicopter to avoid the bidirectional reflectance distribution. The daytime albedo was 0.12 in the cities, which was less than that of a nearby forest (0.16). The albedo was dependent on building structure in the cities; the albedo was lower in areas with more buildings, and decreased as the aspect ratio of street canyons increased. There are two reasons for this dependency: the multiple reflection of radiation in the building canopy, as has been shown in many previous studies, and the sparse vegetation in urban areas. These two factors concurrently determine the albedo in a real city, where the vegetation amount decreases as the plan roof ratio increases.

Sugawara, Hirofumi; Takamura, Tamio

2014-08-01

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High-speed inter-city transport system in Japan: Past, present and the future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the advent of Shinkansen in 1964, a unique inter-city transport network in which high-speed railway and air transport developed simultaneously, emerged in Japan, and modal choice between them based on price and speed has been manifested. Looking ahead, the next generation high-speed transport, the Maglev, is on the horizon. In order to capture the full impacts of the Maglev technology, simulation analysis with a dynamic spatial nested logit model was conducted. From this, we identified a...

Yamaguchi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi

2009-01-01

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 this year, the names of 5,501 hibakusha who had died during the past year were added to the Hiroshima Cenotaph, making the total number of deaths of Hiroshima's hibakusha 269,446. In Nagasaki on August 9, 3,114 names were added to make a total of 152,276. Adding the death tolls from both cities, the total of Hiroshima/Nagasaki deaths as of August, 2010 was 421,722. The total number of hibakusha, including the living and dead, is at least 649,287, and keeping in mind those unaccounted for, it is probably more. Simply put, approximately, one third of hibakusha survive, speaking and living on behalf of all.No matter how many years go by, the number of people who were in or under the fiery clouds from the explosion of the two atomic-bombs, the first to be used against people, will always be the same, whether alive or dead. It includes those who perished instantly at and near the hypocentres, as Maruki Iri and Maruki Toshi described above,4 without ever being able to speak or even comprehend their own experience. It is for those dead and living people that we younger generations are acting and speaking on behalf of, and from whom we learn. And having fewer, or even none, of those surviving people will in no way diminish the significance of our actions, our shared memories, and our knowledge, to be inherited by future generations, so that never again will nuclear weapons be used, in combat or in experiments.

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-12-01

53

Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. The enormous difference in dose rates between the atomic bombings and the radiation sources used for calibration experiments may also have some effect on some dosimetric systems or on some biological systems. Although it may be difficult to quantify some of these uncertainties, it is extremely important to keep all these uncertain factors in mind when analysing the atomic bomb effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Japan, medical X-ray examination is compulsory in schools, factories and companies. With certain diseases such as tuberculosis and some diseases of the lung and digestive systems extensive X-ray examinations may be conducted and periodically repeated. Survivors with a relatively low dose of high dose rate atomic bomb radiation must also have received some relatively low dose of low dose rate medical X-ray radiation. In other words, they must have received both high dose rate radiation and low dose rate radiation. There is a possibility of non-probabilistic uncertainties involved in estimation of the relative proportion of the two types of radiation and even greater uncertainties would be involved in the estimation of the organ doses. In these uncertainties both randomness and fuzziness may be involved.Under such situation it may be important to consider application of fuzzy theory for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiations, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. Therefore, the possibility of the combined effects of all these direct factors and the indirect factors such as those mentioned above must be considered in interpreting the effect of the atomic b

54

Japan'  

...Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable Nuclear Crisis - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews ...MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2011 / March / 14 / Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable Nuclear Crisis Posted on March 14, 2011 Japan's Unnecessary and Predictable ... Nuclear Crisis Where the first two catastrophes were natural and unpredictable, a nuclear meltdown is entirely unnatural and entirely predictable. by Dr....Oil spill showed the inherent dangers of the oil economy, the current nuclear crisis in Japan shows that nuclear power is not a solution....

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Geographical shielding of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to collect data concerning the title in Old Nagasaki City for the future assessment of exposure effect on cancer mortality as there had been no such data in Nagasaki University. The City areas were classified in 237 regions shielded (45), partly shielded (41) and not-shielded (151) by hills surrounding the City along with the 5 steps of distances from <1.0 to 5 km or more from the hypocenter (503 m high) + Nishiyama region (shielded) with use of Using Arc View GIS (Geological Information System, USA). Cancer mortality in each region was studied on total 43,735 survivors directly exposed to A-bomb at the age of <30 y who had lived in the City on Jan. 1, 1970. Cancer death was studied on this cohort until Dec. 31, 2011 (during 42 years). Numbers of not-shielded people were estimated to be 8,779 (49.3%) males and 13,430 (51.8%) females. Curves vs time of their mortality per 100 thousands during the 42 years were found to have the peak of about 600 males exposed at 1.0-1.9 km from the hypocenter and about 350 females at <1.0 km. The higher was the mortality, the closer was the distance from the hypocenter. The correlation between the mortality and distance was thus found, but not in shielded people. The effect of this geographical shielding should be considered in assessment of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure. (T.T.)

56

Investigation of circular asymmetry in cancer mortality of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry in cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method and controlling for age ATB, sex, followup year, distance from the hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that in Hiroshima cancer mortality was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer were higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki, only lung cancer exhibited circular asymmetry, and was significantly higher in the westerly direction. For various reasons, the results tend to support the possibility of an asymmetry in radiation dose in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. Also, possible asymmetry in nondose variables associated with cancer is suggested in both cities, particularly in variables associated with lung cancer. Indications for future work and implications for future dose-mortality investigations are discussed

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Sensitivity of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic inferences to dosimetric parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the influence that various possible values of physical dosimetric parameters can have on radiobiological interpretations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiologic data is analyzed. Neutron RBE's (relative biological effectiveness values) calculated from the resulting dose-response relationships are found to be most sensitive to variations in device yield, with a sensitivity ratio (SR) of 1.2 (12% change resulting from 10% parameter change). The RBE's are also very sensitive to neutron output alone (SR = 0.7) of the Hiroshima device. They are least sensitive to gamma-ray output (SR = 0.4) of the Hiroshima device. Gamma-ray risk coefficients, which depend only on Nagasaki data, are inversely proportional to the gamma-ray output (and device yield) of the Nagasaki device. On the basis of the assumption that neutrons could not have been protective, results from this analysis suggest limits on certain physical parameters - device yields and gamma-ray outputs for both cities. No such limits, however, are found for reasonable values of Hiroshima neutron output, and this parameter has the potential for strongly influencing inferences regarding neutron RBE

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The current situation and future scope of radiation emergency medical care network in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the framework of the International Consortium for Medical Care of Hibakusha and Radiation Life Science (Nagasaki University 21st Century COE Program) and bearing in mind the unique history and responsibility of Nagasaki University, several projects on radiation emergency preparedness are in progress. The critical accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999 made us realize that nuclear emergencies happen anywhere radionuclides exist. In fact, nuclear accidents possibly take place in factories, research facilities, hospital and wherever radioactive materials are in transit. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective preparedness network system for potential radiation emergency that may occur in Nagasaki and nearby prefectures and to cooperate with other Japanese and worldwide networks. (author)

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Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan occupies a central position in the issue of climatic change. The nation still depends on imported energy for more than 90 percent of its energy supply. This dependency prompted substantial efforts to save energy through the application of advanced technologies. Japan uses only about half as much energy per unit of economic output as the United States. Japan thus represents a special case - a wealthy, low-energy nation with aspirations for greater energy services but a compelling need to conserve. Japan's high efficiency and low rate of services in some sectors make further gains difficult. but if Japan can hold constant or even cut emissions of carbon, there is considerable hope that other, more energy-intensive nations may do more. Total carbon dioxide emissions in Japan were almost constant between 1973 and 1987, averaging about 250 million tons per year. Emissions from oil declined over this period while releases from coal and liquefied natural gas (LNG) increased. Similarly, emissions from buildings and transportation rose. A significant increase of carbon dioxide emissions in 1988, however, indicates that the period of stable carbon dioxide emissions is ending and is expected to be replaced by steady increases. Both energy efficiency improvements, defined as reduced energy requirements per unit of GNP, and a shift to low - or noncarbon fuels appear to be waning

60

Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron (220Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m3 and 26.5 Bq/m3, respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

JAPAN  

Science.gov (United States)

DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-04

62

Strengthened tuberculosis control programme and trend of multidrug resistant tuberculosis rate in Osaka City, Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osaka City has the highest tuberculosis (TB notification rates in Japan. In the period 1999–2003, the TB control programme was strengthened, and the Stop TB Strategy was implemented to reduce the number of notified cases. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of these control activities in Osaka City, including the implementation of directly observed treatment (DOT, by analysing TB surveillance and routinely collected data. We reviewed the surveillance data of all sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases registered in the Osaka City Public Health Office from 2001 to 2008 and data collected from the routine TB programme. The DOT implementation rate increased from 0% in 2001 to 68% in 2008 for smear-positive PTB cases of the general public and to 61% for all PTB cases of the homeless. The proportion of smear-positive PTB cases that had treatment failure and default combined, declined from 8.0% (52 of 650 in 2001 to 3.6% (20 of 548 in 2006. The proportion of cases among the homeless with previous treatment declined from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008. The proportion of cases with multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB among those without previous treatment declined from 1.7% in 2001 to 0.9% in 2008. It is logical that reduction in the failure and default rate would lead to the reduction of cases with previous treatment and TB transmission, including resistant TB, therefore to the reduction of MDR-TB rates.

Nobukatsu Ishikawa

2013-02-01

63

Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG)

64

Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

65

Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Influenza C Viruses Which Caused Two Outbreaks in Yamagata City, Japan, in 1996 and 1998  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the 3 years from January 1996 to December 1998, a total of 33 strains of influenza C virus were isolated from 10,726 throat swab specimens collected from children with acute respiratory illness who visited two pediatric clinics in Yamagata City, Japan. These 33 strains were isolated in clusters during two different periods, 20 strains in May to August 1996 and the remaining 13 in March to June 1998. Antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycop...

Matsuzaki, Y.; Sugawara, K.; Mizuta, K.; Tsuchiya, E.; Muraki, Y.; Hongo, S.; Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, K.

2002-01-01

66

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

67

Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

Loewe, W.E.

1983-09-01

68

Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality frcontrol. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

69

Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan: outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

Hayashi,Hoei

2005-04-01

70

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000 - 200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population. (author)

71

Sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of acute deaths in both cities which occurred due to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 until the end of December 1945 is estimated to be between 150,000-200,000 and the number of survivors identified by the supplementary schedule of the 1950 National Census is 284,000. From among these survivors, a fixed population, the Life Span Study (LSS) sample, was established and has been followed by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). In this paper the sampling methods of the fixed population are explained. Also described is the utilization of the tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the LSS and the Adult Health Study (AHS) for cancer detection among the fixed population

72

Statement at Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, 15 December 2012, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When disaster struck at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the IAEA offered immediate assistance to the Plant operators and the Japanese authorities as they tried to regain control over the reactors. We began sharing verified information about the accident with the world and helped to channel international assistance to Japan. A high priority was to do everything we could to help ensure the safety of the people of Japan, especially those in Fukushima Prefecture who were most affected by the crisis. I went to Japan a few days after the accident to meet then Prime Minister Kan. I assured him that Japan could count on the support of the entire international community and stressed the need for full transparency. I sent a number of expert teams to assist in areas such as radiological monitoring, food safety, and analysis of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Plant. Four IAEA teams undertook measurements in the Fukushima region, both inside and outside the 20 km evacuation zone. An expert on marine monitoring programmes from the IAEA Environmental Laboratories helped to monitor seawater. Joint teams from the IAEA and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization advised local authorities on technical issues related to food safety and agricultural countermeasures. Some important environmental readings at key points in the unfolding crisis were taken by IAEA experts. Our presence helped to provide reassurance to the people of Japan at a very critical time. It is now one year and nine months since the accident. In that time, we have continued to work closely with Japan. Today, I will sign an important document with Governor Sato of Fukushima Prefecture on our cooperation in the coming years. The IAEA will work closely with the Prefecture in radiation monitoring and decontamination. We will also implement human health projects with Fukushima Medical University.

73

Implications of new Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates: cancer risks and neutron RBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) estimates of the neutron and gamma doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were applied to available biomedical data from A-bomb survivors. Dose-response relations for four major endpoints were re-analyzed: radiation-induced leukaemia, breast cancer, total malignancies and chromosome aberrations. The new LLNL doses fitted well with epidemiological observations in Japan, and dose-response relations derived from them gave improved consistency between A-bomb and other radiobiological data. From the results, inferences were drawn regarding risk coefficients for radiation-induced malignancies and, where possible, regarding neutron RBE. (U.K.)

74

Realizing Education for Sustainable Development in Japan: The Case of Nishinomiya City  

Science.gov (United States)

Various approaches have been advocated and practiced to address sustainable development. Among these, education has been recognized as one of the key measures to achieving sustainability. In Nishinomiya, Japan, education for sustainable development (ESD) has been established through the Learning and Ecological Activities Foundation for Children…

Yoshizumi, Miki; Miyaguchi, Takaaki

2005-01-01

75

School Science Achievement in Japan and Singapore: A Tale of Two Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares and contrasts school science achievement between two top scoring nations, Japan and Singapore, on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments. The first part of the study is devoted to examining cross-national comparisons on selected background questions administered in the TIMSS survey, while the…

Aun, Toh Kok; Riley, Joseph P.; Atputhasamy, Lourdusamy; Subramaniam, R.

2006-01-01

76

The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester…

Orr, Thomas, Ed.

77

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to hepatitis B surface antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation life-span study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the pathology study sample were observed. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assessed in all of the cases with the use of orcein and aldehyde fuchsin stains and was confirmed by the immunofluorescence technique. The incidence of PLC was two times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, which was statistically significant, but little difference was noted in the prevalence of cirrhosis in the two cities. Findings that might possibly explain the higher PLC incidence in Nagasaki were 1) the 2.3 times higher presence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of HBsAg in the livers of subjects without liver disease and 2) the two times higher prevalence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of cirrhosis with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to hepatitis B virus infection, although other factors (e.g., immunologic competence affected by radiation) cannot be excluded. In both cities, a suggestive relationship of radiation dose to cirrhosis prevalence, but not to PCL prevalence, was noted. To clarify possible radiation effects on cirrhosis prevalence, further follow-up of the populations of these two cities is necessary

78

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to hepatitis B surface antigen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation life-span study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the pathology study sample were observed. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assessed in all of the cases with the use of orcein and aldehyde fuchsin stains and was confirmed by the immunofluorescence technique. The incidence of PLC was two times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, which was statistically significant, but little difference was noted in the prevalence of cirrhosis in the two cities. Findings that might possibly explain the higher PLC incidence in Nagasaki were 1) the 2.3 times higher presence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of HBsAg in the livers of subjects without liver disease and 2) the two times higher prevalence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of cirrhosis with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to hepatitis B virus infection, although other factors (e.g., immunologic competence affected by radiation) cannot be excluded. In both cities, a suggestive relationship of radiation dose to cirrhosis prevalence, but not to PCL prevalence, was noted. To clarify possible radiation effects on cirrhosis prevalence, further follow-up of the populations of these two cities is necessary.

Asano, M.; Kato, H.; Yoshimoto, K.; Seyama, S.; Itakura, H.; Hamada, T.; Iijima, S.

1982-12-01

79

Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 65 – A Reflection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On countless occasions this year, sixty-five years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, I have heard and read that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors) are dying away, and that we need to eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the earth, for the future of humanity, to be sure, but also so that their dying wishes are fulfilled. Indeed, hibakusha are not getting any younger. The average age of the 227,565 hibakusha who hold atomic-bomb health books as of March 2010 is 76.73. On August 6 ...

Norimatsu Satoko

2010-01-01

80

Isotope dilution sector-field ICPMS combined with extraction chromatography for rapid determination of Am-241 in soils derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in 1945  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On August 9, 1945, a Pu atomic bomb was exploded over Nagasaki, Japan. In contrast to the comprehensive studies on Pu, a great knowledge gap exists on the concentration variation and the mobility of 241Am. We investigated the current status of 241Am and Pu isotope concentrations in surface soils of Nagasaki using isotope dilution sector-field ICPMS. We reconstructed the variation of 241Am in the past 6 decades. We found that 241Am has reached maximum activity in 2008, and 241Am/239+240Pu activity ratio, similar to 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio, was a useful fingerprint for environmental radioactivity study. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Imported dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever cases in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several dengue outbreaks occurred in Japan from 1942 to 1945. Dengue fever emerged in Nagasaki in August 1942 and soon spread to other cities such as Sasebo, Hiroshima, Kobe and Osaka, recurring every summer until 1945 and constituting the greatest outbreak in the temperate zone. Domestic outbreaks have not been reported in Japan since then. However, the number of imported dengue cases has increased year by year: 868 imported cases were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2010 according to the Infectious Diseases Control Law. Moreover, 406 imported cases were confirmed to be dengue virus infection among 768 dengue suspected cases received at NIID from 2003 to 2010. A total of 142 cases (35.6%), 103 cases (25.8%) and 62 cases (15.5%) were noted in the 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 age groups, respectively. Infecting dengue virus serotypes were determined for 280 of the 406 cases. The number of cases infected with each of the 4 serotypes was 98 (35%) with type 1, 78 (28%) with type 3, 72 (26%) with type 2, and 32 (11%) with type 4. Sixty percent of dengue cases were imported from July to October, the summer vacation season in Japan. PMID:22500132

Takasaki, Tomohiko

2011-12-01

82

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

83

Current and future strategy for breast cancer treatment at Nagasaki University Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breast cancer has emerged as the most frequent malignant neoplasm among Japanese women in recent years, raising awareness in society of the issue of breast cancer, including good screening and therapies. In fact, the establishment of breast cancer screening program with mammography in the United States and Western Europe has contributed to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stage, and proper management, including various options of evidence-based treatment has not only reduced mortality but also enhanced patients' quality of life. However, the mortality rate due to breast cancer in Japan has continued to increase, and the number of patients is also increasing rapidly. It is therefore very urgent to develop a good system of breast care in all medical facilities as well as the provision of a national scheme in Japan. In this report, we review the situations of breast surgery at Nagasaki University Hospital from 1975 to 2004 and current management practices for breast disease, and evaluate the possibility of establishing a better system for breast care at our hospital, which could then act as a core medical institute in Nagasaki. (author)

84

Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance with the manual, the hospital disaster task force was established. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team coordinated medical support from organizations such as physicians associations, dental associations, self-defence forces medical teams, pharmacists associations, the Japanese Red Cross and relief teams from hospitals all over the country. In three days, the joint relief team directly visited all emergency shelters to make an initial assessment and to collect information about the number and state of health of evacuees, provision of food and drinking water and the availability of electricity, water and sewerage. Outcome: Initial assessment revealed that 35 emergency shelters lacked a sufficient food supply and that 100 shelters had unsanitary conditions. The joint relief team provided the Miyagi Prefecture government and the Ishinomaki municipal government with information about emergency shelters that did not have a sufficient food supply. As of 30 September, the activities of the joint relief teams were completed, and there was no outbreak of communicable diseases in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone. A total of 328 shelters with 46 480 evacuees were managed by the Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team.Discussion: Advanced preparation to quickly establish an initial response system, expertise, and decision-making ability and the ability to get things done are required for disaster response management.

Tadashi Ishii

2011-12-01

85

Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

86

Epidemiological studies. From experience in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are sod from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)

87

A method for Bayesian estimation of the probability of local intensity for some cities in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seismic hazard in terms of probability of exceedance of a given intensity in a given time span,was assessed for 12 sites in Japan.The method does not use any attenuation law.Instead,the dependence of local intensity on epicentral intensity I 0 is calculated directly from the data,using a Bayesian model.According to this model (Meroni et al., 1994,local intensity follows the binomial distribution with parameters (I 0 ,p .The parameter p is considered as a random variable following the Beta distribution.This manner of Bayesian estimates of p are assessed for various values of epicentral intensity and epicentral distance.In order to apply this model for the assessment of seismic hazard,the area under consideration is divided into seismic sources (zonesof known seismicity.The contribution of each source on the seismic hazard at every site is calculated according to the Bayesian model and the result is the combined effect of all the sources.High probabilities of exceedance were calculated for the sites that are in the central part of the country,with hazard decreasing slightly towards the north and the south parts.

G. C. Koravos

2002-06-01

88

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.2 contains tables of SMR for leukemia. (J.P.N.)

89

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.3 contains tables of SMR for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. (J.P.N.)

90

Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.4 contains tables of SMR for malignant lymphoma. (J.P.N.)

91

Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

92

Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

Hui Zhang

2014-09-01

93

Radiation-driven migration: the case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

2014-09-01

94

Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc, F, I, TS, CaO, MnO and P2O5 in the building pillar area, probably due to the deposition of residential wastes. High level of As, Pb, Zn, Cu, V, Sc, MnO and Fe2O3 are found in the blacksmith area. These enrichments seem related to ancient anthropogenic effects, such as metallurgical activity at the harbor site. Iron melting, including slag, has been identified in the bottom of a furnace (bowl shape slag) in the eastern part of the southern area. A group of elements (Ni, Y, Nb, Zr, Th and TiO2) do not reflect the anthropogenic history. However, these elements and their ratios can be used to identify element sources, as well as to establish baseline concentrations of other elements which are influenced by anthropogenic and detrital inputs. The northern area of the harbor site contains sandy soils, and is bordered by sand dunes on its seaward side. This area mainly contains post holes from building pillars and ceramic fragments, and can be recognized as a living area for residents. Soils in the northern area are characterized by high Zr contents and relatively low abundances of most other elements (excluding Cr and TS). This enrichment is mainly due to textural differences in the soils, and is probably due to their sandy character.

Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki

2014-05-01

95

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical x-ray exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All large hospitals and 40% of the small hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed for the X-ray examinations they performed during a 2-week period in 1974. The frequency and type of X-ray examinations received by members of the RERF Adult Health Study (AHS) and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) extended, excluding AHS (Non-AHS), were compared with the general population in each city. Radiologic exposures of patients at hospitals and clinics were most frequent among the general populations. The number of patients, examinations, and exposures per caput per year in each population were estimated. Since the age distribution differed among the three populations, comparisons were made only after correcting for age. On a per caput per year basis exposure frequency was relatively high in the AHS and low in the general populations, a reflection of the greater number of patients in the AHS than in the general populations. Non-AHS males in Nagasaki had a higher X-ray examination rate than did the AHS subjects. The others in the Non-AHS did not differ appreciably from the general populations. There was no difference among these groups according to body sites examined. (author)

96

Neutrons confirmed in Nagasaki and at the Army Pulsed Radiation Facility: implications for Hiroshima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reports have clearly demonstrated that large discrepancies exist between neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and activation calculated using the current dosimetry system, DS86. The reports confirmed previous results for cobalt activation in Hiroshima that suggested problems, and this has spurred a joint U.S.-Japan effort to identify the source(s) of this discrepancy. Here, new results are presented that appear to eliminate both the measurements of neutron activation and the DS86 air-transport calculations as potential sources of the discrepancy in Hiroshima. Computer transport of DS86 fission neutrons through large distances of air was validated using concrete samples from Nagasaki and chloride detectors placed at selected distances from a bare uranium reactor. In both cases, accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure thermal neutron activation via the reaction, 35Cl(n, gamma)36Cl (half-life, 301,000 years). Good agreement was observed between measurements of neutron activation and DS86 calculations for Nagasaki, as well as for the reactor experiment. Thus the large discrepancy observed in Hiroshima appears not to be due to uncertainties in air-transport calculations or in the activation measurements; rather, the discrepancy appears to be due to uncertainties associated with the Hiroshima bomb itself. PMID:8183989

Straume, T; Harris, L J; Marchetti, A A; Egbert, S D

1994-05-01

97

Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

98

Characterization of atmospheric particulate during the RICE straw burning period in a midsize city in northern Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected from three areas (commercial, residential and agricultural) in and near Akita City in northern Japan, October 1996 (rice straw burning period), over three days with a one-hour sampling interval for each area. The elemental composition and particle shape of TSP samples were determined and/or observed by PIXE and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In the hourly TSP samples collected during the rice straw burning period, values of 24 elements were determined for each area, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca and Fe were the major components. Comparing the arithmetic means of elemental concentrations in TSP for the rice straw burning and non-snow-clad period (May - June 1996), in the residential and agricultural areas the Si concentration in the rice straw burning period was approximately two times that in the non-snow-clad period, and K and Ca concentrations in the rice straw burning period were a little higher than those in the non-snow-clad period. In the residential and agricultural areas, change in SPM concentration and change in Si, K and Ca concentrations were in relative agreement during the hours that smoke from rice straw burning was present in the atmospheric space. With the aid of SEM- EDX analysis, many cubic particles were observed for almost all hourly TSP samples. The cubic particles were of the silicon-rich type, and their morphology was rice straw frpe, and their morphology was rice straw fragments or aggregation of fragments. (author)

99

Japan's nuclear power tightrope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that early in February, just as Japan's nuclear energy program was regaining a degree of popular support after three years of growing opposition, an aging pressurized-water reactor at Mihama in western Japan sprang a leak in its primary cooling system. The event occasioned Japan's first nontest use of an emergency core-cooling system. It also elicited a forecast of renewed public skepticism about nuclear power form the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Government body responsible for promoting and regulating Japan's ambitious nuclear power program. Public backing for this form of energy has always been a delicate flower in Japan, where virtually every school child visits the atomic bomb museums at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the country, which imports 80 percent of its energy and just about all its oil, is behind only the United States, France, and the Soviet Union in installed nuclear capacity. In fiscal 1989, which started in April, Japan's 39 nuclear power stations accounted for 25.5 percent of electricity generated - the largest contribution - followed b coal and natural gas. Twelve more plants are under construction

100

Kioto, la antigua capital del Japón y el modelo chino de la ciudad ideal / Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan and the Chinese model of the ideal city  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ciudad de Kioto fue fundada en el año 794 cuando el emperador Kanmu decidió construir la nueva capital del Japón y abandonar la ciudad de Nara. Esta contribución recorre la historia de la fundación de Kioto en relación con los principios ideales de la ciudad china. Este modelo de cuadricula const [...] ituyó por algunos siglos una referencia cultural importante para la construcción de nuevas ciudades en Japón. Hoy la ciudad de Kioto conserva la antigua estructura urbana reticular y esta contribución tiene como finalidad proponer una reflexión sobre la influencia de la cultura china en Japón desde el 550 d.C. (período Kofun) y evaluar el desarollo de esta cultura en el tiempo y su presencia actual en la forma urbana y en su arquitectura, sobre todo religiosa. El modelo ideal de la ciudad china después de 1200 años desde la fundación de Kioto se conserva y constituye una referencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la ciudad contemporánea en estrecha relación con el paisaje. Abstract in english The city of Kyoto was founded in 794 when Emperor Kanmu decided to build a new capital of Japan and to leave the city of Nara. This paper traces the history of the foundation of Kyoto in relation to the normative principles of the Chinese city. For centuries, this urban model, with orthogonal axes, [...] had constituted a major cultural reference for the construction of new cities in Japan. Today, the city of Kyoto preserves the old urban orthogonal structure and this contribution aims to propose a reflection on the influence of Chinese culture in Japan since 550 AD (Kofun period) and to consider the development of this culture over time and its current presence in urban form; especially religious architecture. The ideal model of the Chinese city, after 1200 years since the foundation of Kyoto, is preserved and constitutes a fundamental reference for the development of the contemporary city in strict relationship with the landscape.

Olimpia, Niglio.

 
 
 
 
101

Kioto, la antigua capital del Japón y el modelo chino de la ciudad ideal / Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan and the Chinese model of the ideal city  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ciudad de Kioto fue fundada en el año 794 cuando el emperador Kanmu decidió construir la nueva capital del Japón y abandonar la ciudad de Nara. Esta contribución recorre la historia de la fundación de Kioto en relación con los principios ideales de la ciudad china. Este modelo de cuadricula const [...] ituyó por algunos siglos una referencia cultural importante para la construcción de nuevas ciudades en Japón. Hoy la ciudad de Kioto conserva la antigua estructura urbana reticular y esta contribución tiene como finalidad proponer una reflexión sobre la influencia de la cultura china en Japón desde el 550 d.C. (período Kofun) y evaluar el desarollo de esta cultura en el tiempo y su presencia actual en la forma urbana y en su arquitectura, sobre todo religiosa. El modelo ideal de la ciudad china después de 1200 años desde la fundación de Kioto se conserva y constituye una referencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la ciudad contemporánea en estrecha relación con el paisaje. Abstract in english The city of Kyoto was founded in 794 when Emperor Kanmu decided to build a new capital of Japan and to leave the city of Nara. This paper traces the history of the foundation of Kyoto in relation to the normative principles of the Chinese city. For centuries, this urban model, with orthogonal axes, [...] had constituted a major cultural reference for the construction of new cities in Japan. Today, the city of Kyoto preserves the old urban orthogonal structure and this contribution aims to propose a reflection on the influence of Chinese culture in Japan since 550 AD (Kofun period) and to consider the development of this culture over time and its current presence in urban form; especially religious architecture. The ideal model of the Chinese city, after 1200 years since the foundation of Kyoto, is preserved and constitutes a fundamental reference for the development of the contemporary city in strict relationship with the landscape.

Olimpia, Niglio.

2014-04-01

102

Geographical distribution of fractionated local fallout from the Nagasaki A-bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unfissioned plutonium (239+240Pu) along with fission products (including 137Cs) were released from the Nagasaki A-bomb on 9 August 1945 and deposited in the eastern side (Nishiyama) of the city of Nagasaki. The concentrations of these radioactive materials were determined in 47 undisturbed surface soils collected from both eastside and westside of the hypocenter. The maximum concentrations were 64.5 mBq g-1 (dry) (or 181 mBq cm-2) for 239+240Pu and 188 mBq g-1 (dry) (or 526 mBq cm-2) for 137Cs in the Nishiyama district where 'black rain' precipitated 20 min after the detonation. The ratio 239+240Pu/137Cs was not constant in the soil samples collected from the Nishiyama. The maximum ratio (73.8%) was observed 2.8 km east of the hypocenter, where the maximum 239+240Pu concentration was observed. This finding suggests that there was fractionation between 239+240Pu and 137Cs during 'black rain' formation. Previously reported data support this fractionation hypothesis for the Nishiyama local fallout. (author)

103

Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

104

Childfood leukemia. Epidemiological investigation and effectiveness of treatment in Nagasaki over the past 12 years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An epidemiological investigation of childhood leukemia was performed in Nagasaki Prefecture. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the disease as a whole by studying the incidence classified by year, sex, area and disease type, age of onset, effectiveness of treatment, prognosis, and possible association with the atomic bombing in 1945. The annual incidence was 3.0 per 100000 children under 15 years of age, lower than the national average. There was no significant change in the annual incidence for 12 years. No increase in incidence was observed in Nagasaki City and its surrounding areas. There was no obvious difference in age of onset and incidence by sex from those previously reported. Acute lymphocytic leukemia accounted for a large part of childhood leukemia. There was no increase in the incidence of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, but its familial occurrence and accumulation were observed. The rate of first complete remission and the number of long-term survivors increased with the improvement of treatment for acute leukemia. The influence of the atomic bomb was not clear when the incidence of disease types was compared between areas. The comparison of the disease type ratio in patients of the second and third generations of atomic bomb victims with that of patients without a family history of atomic bomb exposure also did not show an obvious influence of the bomb. (author)

105

The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

106

Effects of the atomic bomb: Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atomic bomb was aimed at the heart of the multifunctional regional center in he Hiroshima Bay. The buildings were reduced to rubble and ashes by a combination of the blast wave and heat rays. Determining the number of persons exposed to the atomic bomb and those killed is most difficult due to many movements of the people at that time and due to loss of records in the bombing, but from various sources the total physically present population in Hiroshima on the bombing day is estimated to 340,000-350,000. Body injuries resulting from the atomic bombing included burns, trauma and serious body injuries due to radiation. Compared to Hiroshima, blast damage to buildings was more severe in Nagasaki, damage by fire defied all imagination. Population in Nagasaki is estimated at 240,000 on the dy of bombing. Body injuries from exposure to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were classified as acute A-bomb injuries in the initial stage, secondary injuries, after-effects, and delayed effects. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience is the starting point for projecting and absolute necessity for preventing, the irreversible devastation that would result from the use of current nuclear weapons

107

Preliminary reanalysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in relation to past and newly revised dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the chromosome data from 408 atomic bomb survivors, 229 in Hiroshima and 179 in Nagasaki, was performed in terms of the frequency of cells with radiation-induced chromosome aberrations plotted against the existing A-bomb dosimetry system (T65D), and the new dosimetry systems from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Preliminary analysis shows that the inter-city difference in aberration frequencies is still apparent at every T65D dose level, while the aberration frequencies based on both ORNL and LLNL systems do not differ strikingly between the two cities, particularly in the dose range below 200 rad. The purpose of this study is to compare the somatic chromosome aberration frequencies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, based on the T65D, ORNL and LLNL dose estimates

108

Simulation of the probable vector density that caused the Nagasaki dengue outbreak vectored by Aedes albopictus in 1942.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan experienced dengue outbreaks vectored by Aedes albopictus during the Second World War. The probable vector density that caused the largest dengue outbreak in Nagasaki in 1942 was estimated using a mathematical simulation model. The estimated vector density was 15.0-558.0 per person when various assumptions of uncertain parameters were applied, such as proportion of symptomatic cases, vector mortality, and human biting rate of A. albopictus. When the most favourable disease spread conditions, such as a combination of the exclusive human biting rate and the longest vector survival were assumed, the vector density was 15-25 mosquitoes per person. Unusually high vector density due to wartime practices, and the traditional Japanese lifestyle were presumably responsible for the earlier dengue outbreak. If an outbreak occurs in present-day Japan, it is unlikely to spread as much as the previous one, as environmental conditions and human behaviour have changed in a protective manner. PMID:23481094

Oki, M; Yamamoto, T

2013-12-01

109

Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

110

Stable isotopic reconstructions of adult diets and infant feeding practices during urbanization of the city of Edo in 17th century Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urbanization of the city of Edo, the capital of premodern Japan, has been assumed to be not as a result of natural increase but that of in-migration although this assumption has never been verified. To obtain information on natural fertility in Edo, we analyzed stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 46 adult and 84 subadult human skeletons excavated from the Hitotsubashi site (1657-1683 AD: the early Edo period), Tokyo, Japan and reconstructed their breastfeeding period, one of the most important determinants of fertility. Adult females are significantly more depleted in (15) N by 0.7‰ than adult males, suggesting a dietary differentiation between sexes and/or the effect of pregnancy. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that supplementary foods were introduced around the age of 0.2 years and weaning ended around 3.1 years, which agrees with descriptions in various historical documents of the period. The duration of breastfeeding in the Hitotsubashi population was relatively longer than those in modern industrial and traditional societies and four previously reported populations in medieval and in the industrial England. As later weaning closely associates with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, our data suggest a lower natural fertility for the Hitotsubashi population. Assuming that the proportion of married people was also lower in the major cities of the earlier Edo period, our results support the assumption that Edo developed and increased its population by attracting immigrants during urbanization. PMID:24374954

Tsutaya, Takumi; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

2014-04-01

111

Japan Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.

112

Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-69  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pathological features of 161 cases of breast cancer --7% noninfiltrating carcinoma, 47% nonspecific infiltrating duct carcinoma, 21% nonfiltrating papillary duct carcinoma, 7% comedo carcinoma, 6% medullary carcinoma, 6% colloid carcinoma, 4% lobular carcinoma, and 2% sarcoma-- were investigated and their relation to irradiation dosage due to the atomic bomb was studied. Irradiation dosage was estimated from T65 dosage, the total dosage of ?-rays and neutrons in unshielded tissue. However, there was no relation between the dosage and any specific tissue type. Breast cancers were classified as either type I, type II, or type III according to the histological grade, and each grade was divided according to the degree of differentiation, multiplicity, and mitiotic activity. The pathological characteristics, lymphatic infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, localization, calcification, and vascular, perineurial, muscular, and dermal invasion were investigated in each case. The histological grade and the incidence of localized invasion, necrosis, localization, and calcification were lower in the patients who were irradiated with more than 50 rad than in those who were not irradiated. The absolute risk rate for breast cancer was estimated to increase by 1.9 cases/100,000 rad from 1950 to 1969. This increase was much smaller than that estimated from x-ray irradiation during medical treatment in North America. The dose response curves at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and fitted well with a linear model, suggesting that the effect of ?-rays was analogous to that of neutrons in inducing cancer. The problems involved in the histological classification of breast cancer and the histological differences between cancer patients in Japan and in the U.S.A. were discussed. (Nakanishi, T.)

113

Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 30 years ago, population-based tumor registries were established in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report, the first of a series of papers on cancer incidence, describes methodological aspects of the tumor registries and discusses issues of data quality in the context of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, the major atomic bomb survivor population. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are characterized by active case ascertainment based on abstraction of medical records at area hospitals, augmented by tissue registries operational in the area and a number of clinical and pathological programs undertaken over the years among the atomic bomb survivors. Using conventional measures of quality, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries have a death certificate-only (DCO) rate of less than 9%, a mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio of about 50%, and a histological verification (HV) rate in excess of 70%, which place these registries among the best in Japan and comparable to many established registries worldwide. All tumor registry data pertaining to the LSS population were assembled, reviewed and handled with special attention given to the quality and uniformity of data based on standardized procedures. Special studies and monitoring programs were also introduced to evaluate the quality of the tumor incidence data in the LSS. Analyses were performed to examine the quality of incidence data overall and across various substrata used for risk assessment such as age, time and radiation dose groups. No significant associations were found between radiation dose and data quality as measured by various indices. These findings warrant the use of the present tumor registry-based data for studies of cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

114

Potential plant biomass estimation through field measurement and vegetation cover mapping using ALOS satellite imagery: Case study of Fujiyoshida City, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass is a renewable energy source that is produced from living or recently living biological material. Vegetation type and biomass are considered important components that affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The ground assessment of biomass, however, has been found to be insufficient due to the limited spatial extent of surveys. This study aims to integrate field measurements with satellite remote sensing data for regional biomass mapping in Fujiyoshida City, Japan. Fujiyoshida City is situated on the northern slope of Mt. Fuji and includes a large area of forest land, named "Onshirin Forest". From 2011 to 2012, a field survey was conducted to calculate the biomass potential in situ as ground-truthed data. After fieldwork, ortho-rectified ALOS data with an AVNIR-2 scene (22 May 2008) was used to map the vegetation cover types. Japanese larch, Japanese red pine, mixed forest, other forest, grass, bare soil and roads, and buildings were identified using supervised classification. The total plant biomass was 163,252 tons. The biomass potential estimate from field measurements was extrapolated to the large forest area in Fujiyoshida City to estimate the potential plant biomass of specific vegetation cover types.

Doko, T.; Chen, W.; Qazi, O.; Okabayashi, S.; Meguro, D.; Kanamori, T.; Jones, M.; Kawata, C.; Yagasaki, T.; Ichinose, T.; Sasaki, K.

2014-03-01

115

The development of the urban system and the hierarchy of cities in newly opened regions: Hokkaido, Japan and South Africa  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the pattern and process of distribution of cities in the newlyopened regions by tracing the historical changes of the urban system in Hokkaido, Japanand in the Republic of South Africa. The history of colonization is not so long in the newlyopened regions. This means that we can study the genesis and development process ofcities from the beginning of colonization. These frontier cities often have the gateway functioninfluencing over the wide surrounding region. The main concern of this study is to findout how urban functions and the urban system change from their beginning in the newlyopened region. This study examines the relation between the hierarchy of cities and thelocational characteristics of branch offices for the analysis of the postwar urban system inHokkaido. We can discern the three stages in the development of the urban system in newlyopened regions. First stage is the formative period: coastal regions were the centers of theexploitation and port cities were dominant. Second stage is the growth period: the exploitationmade great progress in inland regions and the coastal cities and inland cities werein conflict with each other. Third stage is the reorganization period: the economical centersmove towards inland regions and the inland capital gets dominant.

Ryoji Teraya

2004-01-01

116

Late Quaternary climates of East Asia deduced from the total organic carbon contents of cored sediments (MD179-3304, 3312) off Joetsu City, Japan Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations are analyzed with high temporal resolution (ca. 100 years) for cores MD179-3304 and MD179-3312 taken from the Japan Sea off Joetsu City. The temporal changes in TOC and TN concentrations vary quasi-regularly in similar patterns. The age models are formed on the basis of the dates of 14C dating, marker tephra beds, TL layers, and marine isotope events with depth. TOC concentration is high in MIS 1 and 5, low in MIS 2 and 4, and slightly elevated in MIS 3 with frequent short fluctuations. This general trend is very similar to LR04 curve, except for the reduced dominance of TOC around the MIS 5.5 substage. As shown typically in MIS 3, there are many peaks of TOC in a short interval. The details of these TOC peaks can be correlated with the warm interstadials of the Greenland ice core. We can identify a sawtooth-like decreasing trend of TOC in MIS 3. In contrast, the decreasing trend of ?18O in the ice core corresponds to an increasing trend of TOC in MIS 5. The most plausible explanation for the correlation of climate changes between East Asia and the North Atlantic is oscillation of the Arctic polar front through time. The detailed correspondence of TOC concentrations of the Japan Sea sediments to other common paleoclimate proxies means that the TOC concentrations of these sediments is an excellent paleoclimate record in Far East Asia, although the genetic relationship between air temperature and biological productivity in the Japan Sea is as yet unknown.

Urabe, Tasuku; Kuriyama, Manato; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kumon, Fujio

2014-08-01

117

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

118

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

119

Application of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to estimate the groundwater age at a headwater wetland in Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

To delineate the groundwater flow system in a basin, the groundwater age was estimated by analyzing chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113) in a typical headwater wetland in Ichikawa, Japan. Feasibility of groundwater dating by CFCs was assessed comprehensively based on the concentrations of NO3 -, SO4 2-, Fe2+ and dissolved CH4 in the groundwater, because the CFCs would be degraded under the reduction condition available in a wetland. It was found that the CFC-11 apparent age was much older than that estimated by other CFC species. It showed that CFC-12 and CFC-113 were suitable tracers for groundwater dating because of their stability in the wetland environment. Furthermore, the mixture of groundwater with different age was discussed by CFC-12 and CFC-113 based on the binary mixing model and piston-flow model. As a result, the apparent age of groundwater in the study area is in the range of 38-48 years.

Han, Zhiwei; Tang, Changyuan; Piao, Jingqiu; Li, Xing; Cao, Yingjie; Matsumaru, Touma; Zhang, Chipeng

2014-09-01

120

Back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: epidemiological study for 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan  

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There have been a few studies regarding detail of back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) as prevalence, location, and severity. The condition of back pain in adolescents with IS was clarified based on a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey, targeting a total of 43,630 pupils, including all elementary school pupils from the fourth to sixth grade (21,893 pupils) and all junior high pupils from the first to third year (21,737 pupils) in Niigata City (population of ...

Sato, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Toru; Ito, Takui; Morita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Ren; Endo, Naoto; Tanabe, Naohito

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

122

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

123

Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are radiobiologically examined for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are changed very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

124

Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substancea possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers who were trained at Narashino Chemical School were assigned, at least one, to each unit (brigade and higher) of the Japanese Army. Chemical Weapons Control unit was organised at the headquarters in the centre of Hiroshima. After atomic bombing some vessels of mustard gas stored underground were found cracked and leaked. Judging from these findings it may be possible that some chemical weapons were released to the environment from the military facilities on ground at the time they were destroyed by the atomic bombing and the survivors were exposed to poison gases to a smaller or larger extent. There was no drinking water and they had to drink rain water which fell heavily soon after the atomic bombing. It is highly possible that the rainwater was also contaminated by various toxic substances including chemical weapons. These effects combined with the irradiation by atomic radiation are difficult to quantify accurately at present, many years after atomic bombings. But if all these adverse effects were ascribed solely to the ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation may be overestimated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data for establishing radiation safety standard in peaceful uses of atomic energy, we should keep these possibilities of overestimation in mind. At the Bikini accident, where Japanese fishing boat was showered by strongly radioactive ash due to thermonuclear test on March 1, 1954 in the Pacific, some crew tested the ash to see what it is. The amount of intake is uncertain. Depending on the assumption, a widely different result would be obtained. (author)

125

Landslide-susceptibility analysis using light detection and ranging-derived digital elevation models and logistic regression models: a case study in Mizunami City, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

To mitigate the damage caused by landslide disasters, different mathematical models have been applied to predict landslide spatial distribution characteristics. Although some researchers have achieved excellent results around the world, few studies take the spatial resolution of the database into account. Four types of digital elevation model (DEM) ranging from 2 to 20 m derived from light detection and ranging technology to analyze landslide susceptibility in Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, are presented. Fifteen landslide-causative factors are considered using a logistic-regression approach to create models for landslide potential analysis. Pre-existing landslide bodies are used to evaluate the performance of the four models. The results revealed that the 20-m model had the highest classification accuracy (71.9%), whereas the 2-m model had the lowest value (68.7%). In the 2-m model, 89.4% of the landslide bodies fit in the medium to very high categories. For the 20-m model, only 83.3% of the landslide bodies were concentrated in the medium to very high classes. When the cell size decreases from 20 to 2 m, the area under the relative operative characteristic increases from 0.68 to 0.77. Therefore, higher-resolution DEMs would provide better results for landslide-susceptibility mapping.

Wang, Liang-Jie; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji

2013-01-01

126

Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

127

Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in several districts in the western part of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in 365 locations of several districts in the western part of Japan were carried out with more than 6 month exposures of CR-39 bare track detectors. The arithmetic mean value of all measurements was 29.9 Bq/m3, the standard deviation was 36.1 Bq/m3, the geometric mean was 19.1 Bq/m3 and the median was 18.1 Bq/m3. The geometric means of the distributions for Hiroshima city, Nagasaki city, Mihama town, Misasa town, and Shiga prefecture were 26.2, 9.9, 32.4, 27.7, and 21.0 Bq/m3, respectively. Correlations between the concentration and various factors were analyzed from the results of the measurements. The factors analyzed were regional differences, construction materials, purpose of the room, age of the house, number of floors, etc. From the results of the studies, the regional differences and construction materials were found to have apparent correlations. Personal monitoring was also carryied out on 25 persons living in Misasa. The median value of the radon concentrations obtained from the personal monitoring approximately agreed with that obtained from the measurements in the dwellings. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between the individual values obtained from the personal monitoring and the measurement in the dwellings. (author)

128

Physical destruction in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, chapter 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 1 ''physical destruction'', the following matters are described: dropping of the atomic bombs, atomic bombs and heat rays, blast due to atomic bombing, damages due to heat rays, blast and fire, radiation from the atomic bombings, and weather on the days of atomic bombings. (J.P.N.)

129

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the radiation doses to occupants of two reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki, who survived the immediate effects of the nuclear weapon detonation, are determined using state-of-the-art radiation transport techniques. The radiation doses at all locations in the buildings are calculated using the Three-Dimensional Oak Ridge Discrete Ordinates Radiation Transport Code which was constructed especially for this task. This code represents a new and unique capability that has been previously reported. This study resulted in case-by-case lists of doses to occupants and an uncertainty analysis. These data have been used in a companion study as the basis for determining a new value of the dose producing a 50% risk of fatality

130

Fission-track age determination of accessory zircon from the Neogene-Tertiary tuff samples, around Sendai City, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present work is to establish a time scale for the stratigraphic succession in and around Sendai on the basis of the age determination on the zircon crystals collected from tuffs. The fission-track age was obtained by the procedure of the track density of population registered on the zircon from each sample. Neogene-Tertiary formations are widely exposed in the area around Sendai City, and the stratigraphical studies of the area have been made by many workers. In this study, 1 rhyolite and 14 tuff samples were collected and classified according to the sampling areas. Volcanic rocks and tuff are proper dating samples, because the fission-track age of the minerals in these rocks may be equal to the age of sedimentation. The samples were crushed, washed, sieved, dried and separated chemically and magnetically, and zircon crystals were picked up. Etching with phosphoric acid, irradiation with thermal neutrons, and observation of fission tracks were made on the zircon crystals, meanwhile the principle of the fission-track dating is explained briefly. The fission-tracks on the zircon crystals used in this study were completely faded out by 1 hour heating at 7000C, therefore the annealing effect on tracks seems to be negligible. The annealing can be utilized to eliminate spontaneous fission-tracks. Concerning the accuracy of the age by fission-track dating, errors become larger as the age of samples is younger. The obtained age is given. (Kako, Iunger. The obtained age is given. (Kako, I.)

131

Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

132

Comparison of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan, during 2005-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (TSP) in the ambient air in an urban area in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan was carried out from 2005 to 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental levels, emission sources, seasonal variations and health risk of eleven PAHs in the two cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City where air pollution is becoming a serious concern. The results showed that the concentrations of TSP and total PAHs were significantly higher in Ho Chi Minh City than levels in Osaka. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring PAHs (BeP, BbF, BkF, BaP, BghiP and InP) were much higher in TSP samples in Ho Chi Minh City than in Osaka, accounting for 82% and 51% of total PAHs, respectively. These PAHs are known to be highly carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. Vehicular emission is suggested as one of the main pollution sources of PAHs in both cities. Motorcycles and gasoline automobiles are suggested as the main emission sources of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, whereas diesel automobiles are the primary source in Osaka. Seasonal variations of PAHs were observed in this study; higher concentrations of PAHs were found in the rainy season (May-December) and lower concentrations corresponded to the dry season (February-April) in Ho Chi Minh City, while higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the winter (November-January) in Osaka. The number of sunshine hours was an important meteorological factor affecting seasonal variations of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, while the temperature was a main factor causing the variations of PAHs in Osaka. The high BaP equivalent concentration of 5- and 6-ring PAHs even in the ambient air is an alarming signal for harmfulness to human health and environmental quality in Ho Chi Minh City. (author)

Hien, To Thi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Natural Sciences, Vietnam National University of Ho Chi Minh City, No. 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, 5 District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nam, Pham Phuong [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Natural Sciences, Vietnam National University of Ho Chi Minh City, No. 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, 5 District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Yasuhiro, Sadanaga; Takayuki, Kameda; Norimichi, Takenaka; Hiroshi, Bandow [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

2007-08-15

133

Characterization of soluble and insoluble components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions of airborne particulate matter in Kofu city, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic method combining water and diluted-acid extractions has been developed for the manifold evaluation of soluble and insoluble fractions in ambient aerosol. The pre-washed regenerated cellulose membrane filter was used as a collection medium of a low-volume air sampler. The collection time of 7-14 days was required to obtain the sample amounts enough for the systematic analysis. Simple and efficient extraction procedures using the filtration of water and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid were recommended in order to obtain the information about the dissolution behaviors of various elements in the aerosol. Soluble components in both the extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography (IC). These extraction procedures were also preferred to prepare thin-layer specimens suitable to the succeeding X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for insoluble components. Elemental compositions of the extraction residues were conveniently determined by the XRF calibrated with thin-layer standard specimens prepared with activated carbon. The determination of the 17 representative elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb) in these three fractions from an aerosol sample was performed rapidly within 4 h. The proposed systematic method was applied to PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosol samples collected in Kofu City, Central Japan, and the enrichment behaviors of various elements and their source apportionment such as soil, anthropogenic substances and vehicle exhaust particulates could be demonstrated by the present method.

Kyotani, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Masaaki

134

Pathological study of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

9331 autopsies were carried out in Nagasaki-district after the world war II, the chronological changes of the diseases incidences and the difference between exposed and unexposed cases were reviewed. Diseases of the circulatory system, hepatic diseases, and hematopoietic disorders were 14.8%, 13.5%, and 9.2%, respectively. The rate of malignant tumors from '76 to '77 was 67.7%, which was about 10% higher than the national average. In the hepatic lesions, cirrhosis and hepatoma were 1.7 and 1.4 times higher than the national average, respectively, and the highest rate was observed at the age of forties and fifties. For the hematopoietic disorders, leukemia was higher than malignant lymphoma until '60, which order became reverse after '61, and the incidences were 1.9 and 2.2 times higher than the national average, respectively, in '76. Chronological changes of disorders of the circulatory system had not been effected by exposure. (Nakanishi, T.)

135

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs

136

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-03-01

137

Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

138

Neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report the basis for new estimates of ''free-in-air'' kermas resulting from the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for ground ranges out to 2 km. The results are substantially different from previously accepted values known as T65D, particularly for Hiroshima. The methodology used in their study is different from that of T65D. To obtain prompt neutron and gamma-ray kermas, calculated leakage spectra were utilized that had been generated by modern weapons design codes. These leakage spectra were used as sources in radiation transport calculations performed with extensively validated modern transport codes. They have further cross-checked their calculational results in one and two dimensions, and by using very different solution techniques. For delayed gamma rays, the authors used a formalism based on the results of atmospheric testing. Their results have been compared with Japanese in situ measurements of neutron activation and of gamma-ray kerma, and found to show good agreement with them. They have explained the major differences between the T65D values and their own, as well as between neutron kermas inferred from the in situ activations and their own kerma values. These new results merit confidence. However, improvements in these estimates can occur when additional work is done. One application of practical importance to radiological protection standards has already been made.

Loewe, W.E.; Mendelsohn, E.

1982-07-01

139

Japan Japan Japón  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaf...

Kazujo Suzuki

2000-01-01

140

Urban and spatial planning in Japan  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

Marin Tominaga

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Urban and spatial planning in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

Marin Tominaga

2011-01-01

142

Epicenter of the Nagasaki weapon: a reanalysis of available data with recommended values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant source of uncertainty in estimates of radiation dose for atomic-bomb survivors of Nagasaki and in correlations of radiation dose with medical effects observed in these survivors is due to unresolved discrepancies in the literature with respect to the location of the epicenter or burst point of the weapon. Available data on the epicenter of the weapon have been reanalyzed in this report using several different approaches. These appear to have resolved some of the major discrepancies found in the literature and to justify a recalculation of radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors of Nagasaki. A recommended epicenter for recalculating the radiation doses is given in the report

143

Critical requirements for a posteriori track recorder neutron dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International programs have been carried out over the last four decades to quantify the exposure of atom bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unfortunately, the quest for accurate gamma-ray and neutron exposure doses of atom bomb survivors has proven illusive. In the most recent of these programs, designated as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), a serious and persistent discrepancy has arisen between neutron transport calculations and radiometric (RM) neutron dosimetry for the Hiroshima site, which has been called the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. A recently completed in-depth analysis demonstrates that a simple single factor panacea does not exist to explain the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. Careful treatment of a number of specific experimental and calculational effects is required before any progress can be achieved. Within this perspective, the applicability of solid state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites is examined as an independent alternative to radiometric (RM) neutron dosimetry. The utility of the SSTR method for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites is analyzed in light of: (i) the current status of the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma; and (ii) SSTR characteristics that are specifically germane to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki sites. On this basis, critical SSTR requirements are identified, recommended ways of meeting these critical requirements are advanced and the domain of applicability of SSTR neutron dosimetry at tplicability of SSTR neutron dosimetry at the Hiroshima site is estimated. (author)

144

Epidemiology of stomach cancer in Nagasaki city, with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973 - 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological study was conducted to ascertain whether or not the incidence of stomach cancer is higher among atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed populations. There were 2894 cases (1152 exposed and 1752 nonexposed) of stomach cancer registered during the ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The incidence of stomach cancer tend to be higher in male of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from ground zero, and the incidence rate and relative risk showed a dose-dependent relationship, but no significant differences were noted. Comparison of the incidence rate between the earlier and later five years of the period examined revealed an increasing trend of incidence in male younger group (less than 59 years old) of atomic bomb survivors, despite the other groups in exposed and nonexposed population showed a decreasing trend. Analysis of histological type showed that, in female, the cancer of intestinal type (Lauren's type A) was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in nonexposed people, but not significantly different. Further analysis of histological type of stomach cancer, high dose group and younger age exposed group are necessary. (author)

145

Update Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

Hoopes, Aaron

146

Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer incidence among Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dependence of thyroid cancer incidence on radiation exposure level is examined with the use of tumor registry follow-up data on a life-span cohort of 98,610 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. The sample includes 112 clinically evident thyroid cancer cases: 62 in Hiroshima and 50 in Nagasaki. A clear, predominantly linear, increase in thyroid cancer incidence corresponds to increasing levels of gamma radiation to the thyroid gland, whereas neutron exposure could not be shown to contribute further to thyroid cancer risk. The relative risk associated with gamma ray exposure is particularly high among persons who were less than 30 years old at the time of radiation exposure. Limitations on the incidence and dosimetry data are discussed, as well as the ability of the Cox regression method to accommodate some of these limitations

147

Investigation of environmental migration and behavior by trace of Nagasaki atomic bomb recorded in sediment 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sediment in a reservoir accumulates substances in its layers which records the environmental change in the past. Yamazaki et al. found the trace of Nagasaki atomic bombardment recorded in the sediments of 'A core' sampled at Nishiyama reservoir, using the information of chronological order estimated from the stratigraphic distribution of 137Cs and geological features in the sediments. The determination of origin of the substances can provide useful information to determine the chronological order in the sediments accurately. The ratio of 240Pu/239Pu and the morphology of particles give the information of their origin. To make a further research on the traces of the atomic bombardment, another sediment core sample (B core) collected from Nishiyama reservoir was analyzed in this study. From the depth profile of B core, it was observed that 137Cs and 239+240Pu concentrations had two peaks. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio in B core sediments was lower than that of 1960's nuclear tests, suggesting the Pu originated from Nagasaki atomic bomb. The concentrations of Cu and Pb had similar profiles to 137Cs concentration. The deeper layer samples, in which maximum 137Cs concentrations were observed, contained particles of Cu metal and its alloy scattered by the bomb blast. The stratigraphic distribution of 137Cs and 239+240Pu and the ratio of 240Pu/239Pu indicated that the sediments below 200 cm contained the trace of Nagasaki atomic bombardment. Sand layer found at the depth of 150-200 cm was considered to be a result of the flood in 1953. At the depth of 120-150 cm, the trace of Nagasaki atomic bombardment come from the surface soil around the reservoir after the floods. Above 120 cm, 137Cs and Cu originated from nuclear tests and industrial activities, respectively. (author)

148

Comparative proteome analysis of the extracellular proteins of two Haemophilus parasuis strains Nagasaki and SW114.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a comparative proteomics approach to distinguish between the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles of extracellular proteins in Nagasaki and SW114. Protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ten proteins unique to Nagasaki were putative adhesin AidA protein, putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (771aa), putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (780aa), protective surface antigen D15, 30S ribosomal protein S2, periplasmic serine protease do/hhoA-like protein, acid phosphatase, membrane protein, protein-disulfide isomerase, and iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Meanwhile, the two proteins unique to SW114 were C4-dicarboxylate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein and peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze the mRNA transcript levels of three randomly selected proteins. The afuA, AidA, and ompD15 genes encoding iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putative adhesin AidA protein and protective surface antigen D15 respectively demonstrated significantly higher mRNA transcript levels (39.606, 3.924, and 36.668, respectively) in Nagasaki than in SW114. These observations suggest the levels of differentially expressed proteins were directly proportional to their cellular mRNA levels. Three virulence-related proteins, namely, putative adhesin AidA protein, putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (771aa) and putative extracellular serine protease (autotransporter) (780aa) were identified in Nagasaki. PMID:24657264

Wei, Xingliang; Cao, Sanjie; Zhang, Luhua; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qigui

2014-04-18

149

The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings

150

Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 Nagasaki strain adheres and invades PK-15 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro ability of two H. parasuis serovars of different virulence (serovar 5, Nagasaki strain, highly virulent, belonging to serovar 5, and SW114 strain, nonvirulent, belonging to serovar 3) to adhere to and invade porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK-15 line). Nagasaki strain was able to attach at high levels from 60 to 180 min of incubation irrespective of the concentrations compared (10(7)-10(10)CFU), and a substantial increase of surface projections could be seen in PK-15 cells by scanning electron microscopy. This virulent strain was also able to invade effectively these epithelial cells, and the highest invasion capacity was reached at 180 min of infection. On the contrary, nonvirulent SW114 strain hardly adhered to PK-15 cells, and it did not invade these cells, thus suggesting that adherence and invasion of porcine kidney epithelial cells could be a virulence mechanism involved in the lesions caused by H. parasuis Nagasaki strain in this organ. PMID:21839589

Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F

2012-01-27

151

Hiroshima and Nagasaki initial radiations: delayed neutron contributions and comparison of calculated and measured cobalt activations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculated estimates of neutron doses received by atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have not included contributions from delayed neutrons emitted by fission products in the debris cloud, although the possibility of a significant contribution from this source has been suggested. In the present work, an established model accounting for gamma-ray kermas from these fission products is adapted to provide the desired neutron kerma estimates. Adaptations include use of explicit time dependence of neutron emitters, properly folded with the time-dependent phenomenology of the explosion itself, and detailed air-over-ground neutron transport with a source having an energy spectrum characteristic of these delayed neutrons. Results show that delayed neutrons are indeed negligible contributors to atomic-bomb survivor dosimetry, as well as to neutron activations at Hiroshima. About half the activation at Nagasaki, however, is due to the delayed component. Calculated activation of cobalt, a revision of previous estimates, is compared to measured values at Hiroshima and at Nagasaki. The causes of the substantial discrepancies are discussed and compared to previously reported discrepancies for sulfur activation. Additional investigation is recommended.

Loewe, W.E.

1985-03-01

152

Hiroshima and Nagasaki initial radiations: delayed neutron contributions and comparison of calculated and measured cobalt activations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculated estimates of neutron doses received by atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have not included contributions from delayed neutrons emitted by fission products in the debris cloud, although the possibility of a significant contribution from this source has been suggested. In the present work, an established model accounting for gamma-ray kermas from these fission products is adapted to provide the desired neutron kerma estimates. Adaptations include use of explicit time dependence of neutron emitters, properly folded with the time-dependent phenomenology of the explosion itself, and detailed air-over-ground neutron transport with a source having an energy spectrum characteristic of these delayed neutrons. Results show that delayed neutrons are indeed negligible contributors to atomic-bomb survivor dosimetry, as well as to neutron activations at Hiroshima. About half the activation at Nagasaki, however, is due to the delayed component. Calculated activation of cobalt, a revision of previous estimates, is compared to measured values at Hiroshima and at Nagasaki. The causes of the substantial discrepancies are discussed and compared to previously reported discrepancies for sulfur activation. Additional investigation is recommended

153

Japan’s Economic Recession  

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Full Text Available Japan, the world’s second largest economy, is experiencing the worst economic crisis since the Second World War and the government is attempting to avoid a return to the “lost decade” of the 1990s when it was stuck in a deflationary spiral. To fight back recession, the Bank of Japan has kept the interest rate to 0.1 %, even lower than Bank of England’s 0.5 %. Japan’s economy has grown only at an average of 1% annually since 1992. Equally, the country’s recovery of 2003-07 did not have any long term effect on the growth.In many respects Japan remains very unique among the developed countries. The country’s economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s has encouraged debate among the scholars to the significance of Japan’s economic past. It is widely seen as due to different model of development in areas such as industrial organisation, the role of the state, social institutions and history. Her appeal lies in the dramatic growth rates and economic transformation. Japan was first Asian country to break the western monopoly of modern industrialisation. Less than a generation ago, Japan was viewed an exemplary success story in terms of rapid economic growth and a model to be emulated by other developed and developing countries. Here I will argue that the Japanese economy suffers from severe problems that are not cyclical but structural in nature. Such structural problems are the most serious impediments to economic dynamism and the future long-run economic success of the country.

Kalim Siddiqui

2009-08-01

154

Atomic bombing and nuclear energy development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki introduced Japan to nuclear power. Approximately ten years after the bombing, the Japanese Parliament adopted a ''Nuclear Basic Law'', and unanimously proclaimed independence, democracy, and openness as indispensable prerequisites for the continued peaceful utilization of nuclear power. For more than a decade, the political party in government and the opposition parties unanimously adopted all legislation and ordinances connected with nuclear power as well as the necessary budgets. This led to the establishment of research and development institutions. The basic consensus underlying nuclear development in Japan has been the exclusion of any military use. The Japanese public perceives that a military component is not feasible in the country's development of nuclear power. (orig./UA)

155

Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive {sup 36}Cl and other neutron activation measurements was the recognized need to validate the neutron component of the dose in Hiroshima. Although this was suggested at the time of the DS86 Final Report, where it was stated that the calculated neutron doses for survivors could possibly be wrong, the paucity of neutron validation measurements available at that time prevented adequate resolution of this matter. It was not until additional measurements and data evaluations were made that it became clear that more work was required to better understand the discrepancies observed for thermal neutrons in Hiroshima. This resulted in a large number of additional neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by scientists in the US, Japan, and Germany. The results presented here for {sup 36}Cl, together with measurements made by other scientists and for other isotopes, now provide a much improved measurement basis for the validation of neutrons in Hiroshima.

Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

2005-01-14

156

Detection and genetic characterization of human enteric viruses in oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks between 2001 and 2012 in Osaka City, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enteric viruses are an important cause of viral food-borne disease. Shellfish, especially oysters, are well recognized as a source of food-borne diseases, and oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks have on occasion become international occurrences. In this study, 286 fecal specimens from 88 oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were examined for the presence of 10 human enteric viruses using antigenic or genetic detection methods in order to determine the prevalence of these infections. All virus-positive patients were over 18 years old. The most common enteric virus in outbreaks (96.6%) and fecal specimens (68.9%) was norovirus (NoV), indicating a high prevalence of NoV infection associated with the consumption of raw or under-cooked oysters. Five other enteric viruses, aichiviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses (EVs), and rotavirus A, were detected in 30.7% of outbreaks. EV strains were characterized into three rare genotypes, coxsackievirus (CV) A1, A19, and EV76. No reports of CVA19 or EV76 have been made since 1981 in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report by the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center, Japan. Their detection suggested that rare types of EVs are circulating in human populations inconspicuously and one of their transmission modes could be the consumption of contaminated oysters. Rapid identification of pathogens is important for the development of means for control and prevention. The results of the present study will be useful to establish an efficient approach for the identification of viral pathogens in oyster-associated gastroenteritis in adults. J. Med. Virol. 86:2019-2025, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24415518

Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kaida, Atsushi; Abe, Niichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Sekiguchi, Jun-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Goto, Kaoru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru

2014-12-01

157

Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals. PMID:24107558

Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

2013-01-01

158

Geographical distribution of plutonium derived from the atomic bomb in the eastern area of Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detonation of Nagasaki atomic bomb occurred on August 9, 1945. A large amount of unfissioned plutonium was dispersed into Nagasaki area. In our previous study, we measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios as well as 239+240Pu concentrations in sediment collected at Nishiyama reservoir in the center of Nishiyama area, where 'lack rain' was precipitated, and found that trace amount of the atomic-bomb plutonium has flown into the reservoir even now. A further study on soil samples collected within 10 km from the hypocenter including the basin of the reservoir elucidated the geological distribution of the atomic-bomb plutonium, which was locally deposited at Nishiyama area. In addition, the ratios of 0.13±0.01, which was lower than the value (0.176) of global fallout, were found in samples taken about 8 km east from the hypocenter, while the concentrations were comparable with back ground level. This means a possibility that the plutonium was deposited farther in eastern area. For this reason, we expanded the search area to the eastern area of Nagasaki for determining the deposition of the atomic-bomb plutonium from view point of 240Pu/239Pu ratio. Until now, we collected eight soil samples within 100 km north eastward of the hypocenter. As preliminary results of 2 samples collected at about 25 km east and 45 km from the hypocenter, the 240Pu/239Pu ratios were 0.154±0.017 and 0.111±0.004, which were lower than the value of global fallout indicating the existence of the atomic-bomb plutonium. In the presentation, we will report the details and other results in soils collected in farther area and discuss about deposit area of the atomic-bomb plutonium.

159

Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

2014-02-01

160

Radiation dose due to neutron-induced residual radioactivities by the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation dose at 1 m above the ground was estimated due to neutron-induced radioactivities by the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The dose rate at the hypocenter at 1 min after the bombing was 600 and 400 cGy h-1 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, and rapidly decreased with the decay of the main induced radioactivities of relatively short half-lives: 28Al (2.24 min), 56Mn (2.58 h) and 24Na (15.0 h). The infinite cumulative dose after the bombing was 120 and 57 cGy at the hypocenter of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, and also sharply decreased with the distance from the hypocenter. Considering the results obtained so far, the people who entered into the area less than 1 km from the hypocenter up to 1 weak after the bombing could receive external dose over 1 cGy from neutron-induced radioactivities. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Change of blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in blood pressure and systolic/diastolic hypertension in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors were surveyed from 1973 to 1982. Systolic hypertension tended to decrease, while diastolic hypertension tended to increase in younger male survivors. The incidence of hypertension tended to decrease or be constant. According to the WHO classification of hypertension, the type of H, in which both diastolic and systolic blood pressures were high, and the type of SH, in which only systolic blood pressure was high, tended to decrease, while the type of DH, in which only diastolic blood pressure was high, tended to increase. (Namekawa, K.)

162

Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

163

High-energy gamma rays in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Implications for risk and WR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the DS86 dosimetry system, nearly all of the dose to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was due to unusually high-energy gamma rays, predominantly in the 2- to 5-MeV range. These high energies resulted in part from neutron capture gamma rays as the bomb neutrons penetrated large distances of air. Because of the inverse relationship between energy and biological effectiveness, these high-energy gamma rays are expected to be substantially less effective in producing biological damage than the radiations commonly used in radiobiology and risk assessment. This observation has implications for radiation protection and risk assessment

164

Historical review of radiation research in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outline of the history of radiation research in Japan is written in connection with the names of researchers. Yoshio Nishina was a pioneer, who derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering of hard X-ray by free electrons. In 1935, the first nuclear experiment laboratory was constructed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Two cyclotrons, 26 in and 60 in pole face diameter, and a high voltage Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator were installed. Irradiation of insects and plants with fast neutrons was attempted to examine the biological effect. In August, 1945, atomic bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1950, radioisotopes were available. In early March, 1954, Bikini accident occurred. One fishing vessel was contaminated by radioactive fallout, and to investigate the effect of radioactivity, a committee consisted of investigators of physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, fisheries and geophysics was organized. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in June, 1956. Several institutions for the peaceful use of atomic energy were established. The hybrid spark chamber to image the distribution of ?-emitting isotopes on a plane surface was constructed in Nagoya University. As for the national project on food irradiation, one laboratory has played the role in irradiation techniques. Researches on radiation chemistry in universities, governmental and commercial organizations have been progressing steadily, and the machinbeen progressing steadily, and the machines for nanosecond to picosecond pulse radiolysis are working. (Yamashita, S.)

165

Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture. A remote teleradiology and helicopter transportation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The time required to transport the patients to a specialized hospital can influence the prognosis. In the isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture, there is no medical institution which can offer emergent neurosurgical intervention. We reviewed the cases of HICH in this region from January 2006 to September 2010, who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by a helicopter after consultation via teleradiology. Eighty four cases (23%) were transferred via helicopter to our institution from isolated islands. In three of them (4%), re-hemorrhage was demonstrated on computed tomography after helicopter transportation, and one of three had been administered an anti-coagulant agent. Only one case (1%) has deteriorated during helicopter transportation because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The outcome at discharge was as follows: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) I: 3 cases (4%), II: 5 cases (6%), III: 3 cases (4%), IV: 30 cases (36%), V: 31 cases (37%), VI: 12 cases (14%), 43 cases (51%) showed poor outcome (mRS V, VI). For medical management in isolated islands, a remote teleradiology system is indispensable to decide a strategy of treatment rapidly, and a helicopter transportation system is very useful in cases requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention, particular in cases of impending cerebral herniation or acute hydrocephalus. However, we may need to expand logistical supportinwe may need to expand logistical supporting hospitals or secure other transportation facilities because many of the patients with poor outcome can not return to their home islands. (author)

166

[Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in isolated islands in Nagasaki Prefecture: a remote teleradiology and helicopter transportation system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The time required to transport the patients to a specialized hospital can influence the prognosis. In the isolated islands in Nagasaki prefecture, there is no medical institution which can offer emergent neurosurgical intervention. We reviewed the cases of HICH in this region from January 2006 to September 2010, who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by a helicopter after consultation via teleradiology. Eighty four cases (23%) were transferred via helicopter to our institution from isolated islands. In three of them (4%), re-hemorrhage was demonstrated on computed tomography after helicopter transportation, and one of three had been administered an anti-coagulant agent. Only one case (1%) has deteriorated during helicopter transportation because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The outcome at discharge was as follows: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) I: 3 cases (4%), II: 5 cases (6%), III: 3 cases (4%), IV: 30 cases (36%), V: 31 cases (37%), VI: 12 cases (14%), 43 cases (51%) showed poor outcome (mRS V, VI). For medical management in isolated islands, a remote teleradiology system is indispensable to decide a strategy of treatment rapidly, and a helicopter transportation system is very useful in cases requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention, particular in cases of impending cerebral herniation or acute hydrocephalus. However, we may need to expand logistical supporting hospitals or secure other transportation facilities because many of the patients with poor outcome can not return to their home islands. PMID:21972185

Kawahara, Ichiro; Motokawa, Tetsufumi; Umeno, Tetsuya; Morofuji, Yoichi; Takahata, Hideaki; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Masahiro; Takayama, Hayato

2011-10-01

167

Initial activities of a radiation emergency medical assistance team to Fukushima from Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an urgent response to serious radiological accidents in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the radiation emergency medical assistance team (REMAT) from Nagasaki University landed at Fukushima on March 14, 2011, two days after the initiation of radiation crisis by the hydrogen explosion at Unit-1 reactor. During a succession of unexpected disasters, REMAT members were involved in various activities for six days, such as setting the base for radiological triage at the Fukushima Medical University, considerations for administration of stable iodine, and risk communication with health care workers. This report briefly describes what happened around REMAT members and radiation doses measured during their activities. -- Highlights: ? The radiation emergency medical assistance team from Nagasaki was sent to Fukushima. ? The practical action level for body surface contamination was 100 kcpm. ? The ambient radiation dose in Fukushima drastically elevated on March 15, 2011. ? Higher than 10 kBq of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 were detected in soil samples. ? The effective dose of the team members ranged between 51.7 and 127.8 ?Sv in 6 days

168

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

169

A survey of 165 sporotrichosis cases examined in Nagasaki prefecture from 1951 to 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 165 sporotrichosis cases occurring in Nagasaki prefecture, and examined at Nagasaki University Hospital, were evaluated. Both males and females were equally affected, with no significant differences in the affected body regions. Lesions were frequently seen on the face (49 cases, 29.5%) and upper limbs (101 cases, 60.9%). The localised cutaneous type of sporotrichosis (105 cases, 62.9%) was much more frequent than the lymphocutaneous type (62 cases, 37.1%). The infection rate in patients over 50 years of age was 73.1%. The most frequent occupation among the patients was farming (52 cases, 37.4%), and 34 patients had a history of injury. Regarding the geographical distribution of sporotrichosis, 48 cases occurred in the Shimabara peninsula (31.2%) and this is much higher than expected for the population size. Before 1994, almost all sporotrichosis cases (112 cases, 96.5%) were treated with potassium iodide (KI). After 1995, the number of patients treated with KI decreased (nine cases, 23.1%), and itraconazole (ITZ) was used in 21 cases (59.0%) and terbinafine in six cases (15.3%). The time between ITZ and KI treatment and cure was 13.8 weeks and 12.5 weeks, respectively. All 116 cases, for which the outcome was known, were cured or improved. PMID:24283850

Takenaka, Motoi; Yoshizaki, Asako; Utani, Atushi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro

2014-05-01

170

Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested. (ERB)

Whalen, P.P.

1981-09-01

171

Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

172

Statistical analysis of the late effect in the a-bomb survivors from the inpatient records of the internal department of Nagasaki A-Bomb Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical analysis was made as to inpatient records of internal department of Nagasaki A-bomb Hospital for 5 years between 1971 and 1975. It was not proved whether these records represented original A-bomb survivors precisely or not, because these records were not those of all A-bomb survivors. To investigate the total admission period according to age, the exposed and controls were divided into the 4 age groups: the age between 35 and 44 years, 45 and 54 years, 55 and 69 years, and over 70 years. As a result, the total admission period was significantly long in male A-bomb survivors over the age of 55 years. To investigate the total admission period according to exposure distance, the subjects were divided into 5 age groups starting from the age of 30 years every 10 years. The frequency of admission was significantly higher in male and female A-bomb survivors of middle and old ages exposed within 1.9 km than that in a long-distance group who were exposed over 2 km or entered the city after the explosion. (Tsunoda, M.)

173

Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical X-ray exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical factors used during radiological examinations performed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki medical institutions were analyzed. The most frequently performed examination was chest radiography, followed by upper GI series. More than half the radiographic exposures were from upper GI series due to the many spot films made during fluoroscopy. Comparison of the present survey results with those of a previous one showed that relatively high kVp, low mAs and mA, and smaller field sizes are now more widely used. Though there have been decreased in fluoroscopy times and tube currents over the past 10 years, the numbers of spot films used have increased. Based on these technical factors, tables of organ doses from fluoroscopic examinations were compiled. (author)

174

Recent re-assessments of the doses to survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to recalculations of the neutron output of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, re-assessments of the doses to survivors are under review. The details of the sources of radiation, bombs and detonations are given. This is followed by a discussion of the doses received by the survivors due to the immediate photon and neutron emission from the bomb and subsequent fireball, and the interactions of these radiations with air, ground and other shielding material. There remains considerable uncertainty in the results of these new calculations. The re-assessment is still in progress and will need to include recalculations of shielding factors from the effects of terrain and buildings, and a consideration of kerma to organ dose conversion factors. (U.K.)

175

A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

176

Calculation and interpretation of In-Situ measurements of initial radiations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cobalt activation calculations will be reviewed, and similar comparisons of sulfur activation interior to electrical insulators on power transmission lines will be discussed. The relationship between neutron tissue kermas one to two kilometers from hypocenter and the particular activations of cobalt and sulfur are reviewed. At present, measured and calculated quantities agree within associated uncertainties, which are substantial. Additional work to shrink these uncertainties will be discussed. Particular cobalt activation topics will include: the sensitivity to thermal neutrons outside the pillar; calculated values using actual Nagasaki concrete composition; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration. Particular sulfur activation topics will include: absolute comparisons of measured and calculated ratios of dpm/gm of 32P at all measured ranges, based on approximate experimental values for insulator attentuation and source radiations; the relationship between sulfur activation within a kilometer of hypocenter and kermas at two kilometers; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration

177

Calculation and interpretation of In-Situ measurements of initial radiations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cobalt activation calculations will be reviewed, and similar comparisons of sulfur activation interior to electrical insulators on power transmission lines will be discussed. The relationship between neutron tissue kermas one to two kilometers from hypocenter and the particular activations of cobalt and sulfur are reviewed. At present, measured and calculated quantities agree within associated uncertainties, which are substantial. Additional work to shrink these uncertainties will be discussed. Particular cobalt activation topics will include: the sensitivity to thermal neutrons outside the pillar; calculated values using actual Nagasaki concrete composition; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration. Particular sulfur activation topics will include: absolute comparisons of measured and calculated ratios of dpm/gm of /sup 32/P at all measured ranges, based on approximate experimental values for insulator attentuation and source radiations; the relationship between sulfur activation within a kilometer of hypocenter and kermas at two kilometers; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration.

Loewe, W.E.

1983-02-16

178

Wind Energy Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-06-15

179

Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

180

Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Problems of Radiation Dose Evaluation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and their Explanation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic bomb doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been evaluated by many groups. In the 'Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Dosimetry Group', radioactivities of 152Eu and 60Co in exposed rock samples have been measured to evaluate neutron doses both in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These radioactivities were induced by neutron capture reactions. Thermoluminescence dosimetry has also been applied to estimate gamma ray doses using exposed tile, roof tile and brick samples. After DS86, our group found systematic discrepancies in measured specific radioactivities and calculation based on DS86. The difference, for example, was that measured data were 5 to 10 times larger than the calculation in Hiroshima. The measured gamma ray doses are almost the same as DS86, but they have a similar trend as neutrons, and at 2 km ground range data, are 50-70% larger than the calculation. To find the reason for those problems, some experiments were then carried out by our group. The conclusion of these experiments is that everything seems reasonable except the estimation of neutron and gamma ray spectra at the burst point in Hiroshima. A possible explanation is proposed for the neutron and gamma ray discrepancy in Hiroshima. For this, three concepts are assumed as follows: (1) Increase the yield of the atomic bomb about 20%. (2) Leakage of bare fission neutrons from the atomic bomb about 5%, in this model, to the side. That means that for the direction downward, neutrons are shielded with the Hiroshima atomic bomb body. (3) Elevation of burst height about 90 m. By these assumptions all neutron activation data within 1 km ground range and thermoluminescence gamma ray data are simultaneously explained. (author)

182

Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been mae. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

183

Intercomparison study on (152)Eu gamma ray and (36)Cl AMS measurements for development of the new Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of developing a new dosimetry system for atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (DS02), an intercomparison study between (152)Eu and (36)Cl measurements was proposed, to reconcile the discrepancy previously observed in the Hiroshima data between measurements and calculations of thermal neutron activation products. Nine granite samples, exposed to the atomic-bomb radiation in Hiroshima within 1,200 m of the hypocenter, as well as mixed standard solutions containing known amounts of europium and chlorine that were neutron-activated by a (252)Cf source, were used for the intercomparison. Gamma-ray spectrometry for (152)Eu was carried out with ultra low-background Ge detectors at the Ogoya Underground Laboratory, Kanazawa University, while three laboratories participated in the (36)Cl measurement using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS): The Technical University of Munich, Germany, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA and the University of Tsukuba, Japan. Measured values for the mixed standard solutions showed good agreement among the participant laboratories. They also agreed well with activation calculations, using the neutron fluences monitored during the (252)Cf irradiation, and the corresponding activation cross-sections taken from the JENDL-3.3 library. The measured-to-calculated ratios obtained were 1.02 for (152)Eu and 0.91-1.02 for (36)Cl, respectively. Similarly, the results of the granite intercomparison indicated good agreement with the DS02 calculation for these samples. An average measured-to-calculated ratio of 0.98 was obtained for all granite intercomparison measurements. The so-called neutron discrepancy that was previously observed and that which included increasing measured-to-calculated ratios for thermal neutron activation products for increasing distances beyond 1,000 m from the hypocenter was not seen in the results of the intercomparison study. The previously claimed discrepancy could be explained by insufficient understanding of the measured data. PMID:18389270

Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Straume, T; Komura, K; Rühm, W; Nolte, E; Huber, T; Nagashima, Y; Seki, R; Sasa, K; Sueki, K; Fukushima, H; Egbert, S D; Imanaka, T

2008-07-01

184

Epidemiology studies of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans of Japan by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous epidemiological studies of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in Japan showed that only C. neoformans var. neoformans is present and serotype A is the most common with frequencies in excess of 95%. A DNA fingerprinting method, using a genomic DNA probe (UT-4p), has become available recently which discriminates between individual isolates in a population that are morphologically and serologically indistinguishable. Fifty-two serotype A isolates of C. neoformans were obtained from three different institutions (in Nagasaki, Chiba, and Tokyo) in Japan. Only two of these strains were isolated from AIDS patients and one from pigeon excreta. Of the nine reported finger-printing patterns in serotype A, only three types (IV, V and VII) were observed in Japanese isolates. Pattern IV was almost exclusively observed in Nagasaki isolates (21/22) with only one of pattern VII. In Chiba, however, patterns VII and IV appeared to be equally distributed. In Tokyo, patterns IV and V (which included two isolates from AIDS patients) were observed at similar frequencies. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of four isolates of serotype AD showed a typical serotype A pattern which also contained a serotype D-specific band. This finding suggests the independence of serotype AD. These data could enhance the survey of the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. PMID:7876673

Kohno, S; Varma, A; Kwon-Chung, K J; Hara, K

1994-12-01

185

Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the annual health examination records were investigated and classified by cause of death. In males with cancer, there was noted an increased incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and traces of urinary proteins 1 year to 3 years before death. However, the incidence of urinary protein traces was low compared with that in other diseases. In males with cerebral vascular diseases, there was a high incidence of hypertension. Urinary protein traces appeared from 4 years to 5 years before death. In females with cardiovascular diseases including hypertensive diseases and valvular diseases, the incidence of urinary protein traces increased from 4 years to 5 years prior to their death. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was generally high in these cases. In males with liver cirrhosis, urinary urobilinogen amount was generally more than that in other diseases. This tendency also appeared in females with liver cirrhosis 6 years before death. The incidence of abnormal hemoglobin amount and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in males with liver cirrhosis, and that of abnormal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in females with liver corrhosis. (Ueda, J.)

186

Demographic and reproductive factors for high seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among pregnant women in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to elucidate demographic and reproductive factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity, serological screening and questionnaire survey were conducted on pregnant women in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Serum samples were taken from 1718 pregnant women between September and December, 1996, at the cooperative obstetric hospitals and clinics, and tested for the presence of antibodies to C. trachomatis using the enzyme immunoassay. A questionnaire was administered on a sub-sample (n -409), among whom 85 (20.8%) were seropositive. A multiple logistic analysis revealed that four characteristics showed a significant association with the seropositivity: (i) experience of premarital pregnancy, (ii) non use of condoms, (iii) short duration of education, and (iv) more frequent induced abortion. The unsafe sexual behavior of young people lacking proper knowledge of how to prevent STD is the most important intervention target for control of the C. trachomatis epidemic in Japan. PMID:10750735

Kusano, Y; Shibata, Y; Katamine, S; Yamamoto, T; Kurokawa, K; Moriuchi, R; Kubota, K; Masuzaki, H; Honda, S; Moji, K; Takemoto, T

2000-01-01

187

Recent trends of plutonium fallout observed in Japan: plutonium as a proxy for desertification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plutonium in monthly deposition samples collected in Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan from 1990 to end of 2001 is reported, together with monthly plutonium deposition in Nagasaki and Yonaguni in 2000. The annual deposition of (239,240)Pu during the period from 1990 to 2001 shows no systematic interannual variation. However, monthly (239,240)Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to seasonal cycle of soil dusts originating from the East Asian arid area. Plutonium isotopic ratios in the deposition samples suggest that significant amounts of the recent (239,240)Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to the resuspension of plutonium-bearing surface soil particles; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian arid areas. The recent increased tendency of (239,240)Pu content in residues in deposition samples may reflect desertification in the East Asian continent. PMID:12729272

Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Chang, B W

2003-04-01

188

A study of plutonium fallout in japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly fall rate of 239+240Pu in Tokyo and Tsukuba Science City during January 1974 through December 1980 is given. The cumulative amount of plutonium fallout in Tokyo from the beginning of nuclear detonations to the end of 1980 is estimated to be about 1.2 m Ci/km2. The ratio of 239+240Pu to 90Sr deposition during the same period was about 1.6 %. Samples collected at Akita, the Japan Sea side of Honshu Island, Japan, during 1963 to 1964 indicate that the fall rate of plutonium isotopes is about 2 times higher than that in Tokyo. After the removal of our Institution to Tsukuba Science City, about 60 km north of Tokyo, the sampling and analysis of plutonium isotopes were continued and it was confirmed that the amount of plutonium deposition in both cities are in good agreement with each other. (author)

189

Twelve cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki (especially seven atomic bombing casualty cases). [In Japanese  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1958, there have been 12 cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki, and among them were 7 cases representing atomic bombing casualties, with 3 cases being with 2 km distance from the hypocenter. The age of onset was between 51 and 69 years, and the sex ratio was 8:4, it occurring mostly in males. Symptoms were predominantly low back pain and chest pain caused by the bone changes in 8 cases. Two cases complained of general malaise and palpitation which resulted from anemia. One developed persistent epistaris, and another complained of diplopia caused by the paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. Peripheral blood in all cases showed anemia, 9 with hyperchromic and 3 with normochromic or hypochromic anemia. Low platelet counts were seen in 3 cases. All showed leukopenia. All cases showed typical ..gamma..-globulin change with a myeloma peak, and in 4 cases showed an increase of ..beta..-globulin. Bence-Jones proteinuria was present in 5 cases. Average course was 1 year 4 months. Among complications, myeloma nephrosis, aplastic anemia, and pneumonia were the most important ones.

Ichimaru, M.; Yasuhi, S.; Ouchuru, S.

1963-12-01

190

The general investigation on A-bomb sufferers in Nagasaki, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

861 subjects in Nagasaki were studied from April 1977 to June 1977 and from August 1977 to November 1977. The results were compared with those of a 1975 study by the Ministry of Public Welfare. The number of persons requiring detailed examinations in this study was 21.7% higher than that in the Ministry's investigation. There was a correlation between the latest health conditions and the number of persons requiring detailed examinations. Some persons not studied were weak and were already receiving medical treatment. From the data, the rate of abnormality was estimated to be 18.7% or 22.17% (13.7% in the Ministry's investigation). To increase the number of patients undergoing examinations and to improve the quality, examinations at institutions with conveniencies for the physically handicapped and notifing all persons undergoing examinations is desirable, as is promotion of a wide range of examinations for clarifying the relation between disease and exposure to the a-bomb. In the future, health control and detailed explanation of treatment should be carried out. (Tsunoda, M.)

191

Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

192

Cancer of the head and neck in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1957-1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A search was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for all cases of cancer of the lip, nose and nasal cavity, accessory sinuses, larynx, and the oral cavity and pharynx with their subdivisions occurring during the period 1957-1976 among a large, fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors. A total of 232 cases were identified, of which 154 (66.4%) were histologically confirmed (definite cases). Among definite cases, cancer of the epiglottis and larynx predominated (31.2%), followed by accessory sinus (24.7%) and tongue (18.8%). Of the 154 definite cases, 141 (91.6%) were squamous-cell carcinomas. Only two sarcomas were identified, neither of which was attributable to radiation exposure. Analysis of both total and definite cases, by both total group and major anatomic site, failed to reveal definite evidence of a radiation relationship. Although a suggestive relationship to radiation dose was found for accessory sinus cancers (P . 0.06) among the definite cases, inconsistencies in the data do not permit the conclusion that the incidence of tumors in this group increased as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure. The medical literature concerning post-irradiation head and neck tumors is briefly reviewed

193

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific radioactivities of residual europium (Eu)-152 were measured in six roof tile samples exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at two locations. The ground distances of the two locations from the hypocenter are 1020 m and 1060 m. In order to obtain reliable data, Eu-enriched samples (from 207 to 855 mg) were prepared by separating Eu from each roof tile sample (from 1 to 2 kg). For the major aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, residual radioactivity of 152Eu was measured using a low-energy photon spectrometer. For the minor aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, Eu content was determined by neutron activation analysis. Results of the specific radioactivity (152Eu/Eu, Bq mg-1) corrected to the time of bombing were in a range from 0.080 to 0.446. Although the measured values showed some scattering, they are moderately consistent with the calculated values by the DS86 methodology, i.e. the average ratio of the calculated to measured values is 1.3±0.8. (author)

194

Mean bone marrow dose of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ratio of the mean bone-marrow dose to in-air tissue absorbed dose for survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been calculated with the aid of the Synder mathematical phantom, using depth dose curves in phantom. From this ratio, the mean bone-marrow dose has been estimated as a function of the distance from the hypocenter. The ratios were corrected for the angular distribution of atomic bomb radiation. The resultant ratios were tabulated as a function of incident angles on an adult and a child (3-7 years old) survivor for gamma-rays and neutrons. As an example of the resultant mean bone-marrow dose, the adult survivors who were standing straight in open field at 1000m from the Hiroshima hypocenter have been estimated to be exposed to 165 rads of initial gamma-rays, 32 rads of recoil protons, 14 rads of gamma-rays from 1H(n, ?)2D reaction and 0.9 rads of protons from the 14N(n, p)14C reaction. (auth.)

195

Calculation and interpretation of in situ measurements of initial radiations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultimate purpose of this Dosimetry Workshop is to establish the values and the associated limit of uncertainty of the initial nuclear radiation reaching the ground at the time of the A-bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These explosions were physically complex phenomena and the events of long ago, accordingly large undesirable errors arise in the theoretical and computational analogies and extrapolation. Therefore, any in situ evidence which is related directly to the initial radiation has a potentially supreme value for the determination of the actual initial radiation. The realization of that potential depends on the closeness of the relation between the observed quantity and absorbed dose, the accuracy and completeness of record keeping, and the inherent uncertainty in the observation itself. The results of the careful calculation of neutron and gamma radiations were compared with the existing measured values of the gamma-ray dose in roof tiles and face bricks and also of the cobalt activation inside concrete pillars. The cobalt calculation is reviewed, and the similar comparison of the sulfur activation in the insulators on power transmission lines is discussed in this workshop. The topics on the cobalt and sulfur activation are described. (Kako, I.)

196

The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation sickness and subsequent cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an analysis of data obtained from the Life Span Study, a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of a linear dose response between the estimated dose of ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (p 0.2) by the presence of epilation. The results for leukemia were not modified by age or sex and were consistent in both cities. These observations suggest that those individuals who experienced early effects of radiation were more likely to die of leukemia during the follow-up period than individuals who were exposed to the same level of A-bomb radiation but did not develop epilation. The robustness of this finding on the interaction of two difficult but important problems was investigated. These were the validity of a linear dose-response model for leukemia, and the level of assumed precision of the radiation dosimetry system used for assignment of dose estimates to individual survivors. Assuming 35 % random dose errors and a dose-response function cubic in dose, the excess relative risk for leukemia was still estimated to be 1.89 times higher for the group with epilation, and the p-value for a test of association between leukemia and epilation remained significant at the 0.10 level. If 50 % random dosimetry errors are assumed using the same cubic model, the dose response in the epilation group is estimated to be 1.58 times higher than the others, but is not significant (p < 0.3). (author)

197

Teacher Belief, Teacher Action: Connecting Research and the Classroom. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning and Educational Materials Expo (25th, Maebashi City, Japan, October 1999).  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty papers presented at the Japanese Association for Language Teaching (JALT) conference were selected for inclusion in this volume. JALT is a nonprofit professional organization of language teachers dedicated to the improvement of language learning and teaching in Japan. JALT's publications and events serve as vehicles for the exchange of new…

Brooks, David, Ed.; Robbins, Jill, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

198

FAQs: Japan Nuclear Concerns  

Science.gov (United States)

... Donor centre Global network Global Health Cluster FAQs: Japan nuclear concerns September 2011 Current risk What is ... current risk of radiation-related health problems in Japan for those residing near the reactor in comparison ...

199

Japan's Polar Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Title : INT9403 Japan's Polar Research Type : International Document NSF Org: SBE / INT Date : April ... int9403 JAPAN'S POLAR RESEARCH This report summarizes Japanese polar research activities and budgets ...

200

Landslides in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This internet site, published by The Japan Landslide Society, focues on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan.

2008-09-29

 
 
 
 
201

Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

2013-04-01

202

Bank of Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

203

Academic Libraries in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

2008-01-01

204

Breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950--1969  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the period 1950-69, 231 cases of breast cancer were identified among 63,275 female atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls; 187 were among survivors for whom dose estimates were available. The estimated absolute risk per rad was 1.9 excess cases per 106 person-years at risk over this period for women who were 10 years old or older at the time of bombing (ATB), substantially less than published estimates largely based on X-ray and fluoroscopy data from smaller samples of younger North American women. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose-response curves were similar, which suggested approximate equivalence of neutron and gamma radiations in their carcinogenic effect on breast tissue, and were consistent with a linear model. An identifiable radiation effect was evident before 1955. For women of comparable ages ATB, the time from 1945 to diagnosis did not vary by dose, nor was there evidence that radiation caused breast cancer to develop in these women at earlier ages than usual. No breast cancers were found up to 1969 among atomic bomb survivors under age 10 ATB, nor were any substantial numbers observed until 1960 in those 10-19 years old ATB. By 1965-69, however, the cohort 10-19 years old ATB exposed to high or medium doses was experiencing a much greater excess of breast cancer than was observed in women 35 years old or older ATB who were exposed to any dose level. This suggests that the breast tissues of adolescent females may be more sensitive than those of older women to the effects of ionizing radiation. Finally, for each age-ATB interval (10-19, 20-34, 35-49, and 50+ yr), women exposed to 100+ rads had, by 1969, already approximated or exceeded their lifetime expectations (after 1950) of breast cancer as calculated from Japanese cancer registry data

205

Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR functionime of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

206

Incidence of multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Association with radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPC), we analyzed the association between the incidence of second primary cancers in survivors of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, and exposure distance. The incidence rate (IR) of a second primary cancer was calculated and stratified by the distance from the hypocenter and age at the time of bombing for the years 1968 through 1999. The IR of the first primary cancer was also calculated and compared with the second primary cancer to determine whether atomic bomb radiation was associated with the multiplicity of tumors. There were 511 confirmed cases of MPC in the 7572 cancer-bearing survivors. The crude IR was 27.6 per 100000 person-years. The IR of second primaries decreased significantly with increasing distance from the hypocenter: relative risk, 0.89 per 1.0 km; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.94. A significant decrease was also noted for those of older ages at the time of the bombing, based on the attained age of the second primary cancer: relative risk, 0.91 per 1 year; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.92. These findings suggest that the radiation has affected the incidence of MPC. Furthermore, when compared with the first primary cancer, a stronger distance effect was suggested on the occurrence of a second primary cancer in the survivors. The present study suggests the significance of atomic bomb radiation on MPC in the survivors. These results on the incidence of MPC in the tumor-bearing survivors and its correlations with the atomic bombing of 62 years ago are described for the first time in this report. (author)

207

Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

208

Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

209

Statement by IAEA Director General on the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: No one who has seen the victims, the film footage or photographs of the aftermath of the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II can fail to be horrified by the devastation that was wrought by the use of nuclear weapons. To date, Hiroshima and Nagasaki thankfully remain the only instances in which nuclear weapons have been used, and while it is difficult to speak of any good coming out of such ruin, it has always been hoped that the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand as constant reminders of why preventing the further use and proliferation of such weapons - and why nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear-weapon-free world - is of utmost importance for the survival of humankind and planet Earth. The International Atomic Energy Agency born out of President Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, came at a time when the horrifying consequences and images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh. Through its safeguards and verification system in support of the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other similar non-proliferation agreements, the IAEA has done a great deal of work to help stem the tide of nuclear proliferation, while ensuring that the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are made available to all those who want them. While the Agency can effectively verify compliance with non-proliferation undertakings, the value of these efforts can be better realized if they are reinforced by all other components of the nuclear non-proliferation and arms control regime, and accompanied by the political will and dialogue among concerned States to address underlying issues of security and confidence building with a view to achieving a system of collective security that no longer relies on nuclear weapons. A world without nuclear weapons remains a far-off goal and the world continues to be burdened with nearly thirty thousand nuclear warheads. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has not entered into force and the negotiation of a global treaty on the verified production ban on fissile material for nuclear weapons has not started. Despite these continuing challenges, there are symbols of hope and indicators of the path to follow - the NPT is almost universal, and nuclear-weapon-free zones cover all of the landmass of the southern hemisphere. We should remain humbled by what we have learned from the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We cannot allow sixty years to soften our memories of how devastating such weapons are. Let us instead ensure that the memories of what happened sixty years ago are once again a catalyst for a new way of thinking. The best protection against nuclear weapons, and the only way to prevent future Hiroshimas and Nagasakis, is to bring about an end to all nuclear weapons. Let us renew today - on the 60th anniversary of the first use of nuclear weapons - the promise to the peoples of the world to spare no effort to work collectively to reduce and eliminate nuclear weapons. (IAEA)

210

Thermoluminescence analyses of Hiroshima ceramic tile and Nagasaki brick using the pre-dose and inclusion techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a small program of diagnostic testing on ceramic tile from Hiroshima the pre-dose and inclusion measurements have been completed on a sample of tile from Hiroshima University (University of Utah reference UHFSFT02, at 1442 m from the hypocenter) and a sample of brick (NAIE06, at 1427 m) from Nagasaki. In this outline report the results of the measurements and also the results obtained from measurements on gamma-ray irradiated quartz supplied by the Oxford Laboratory and samples of gamma-ray irradiated material prepared by the University of Utah to enable a comparison of laboratory beta-particle calibrations are presented

211

Long-term efficacy of imatinib in a practical setting is correlated with imatinib trough concentration that is influenced by body size: a report by the Nagasaki CML Study Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imatinib has dramatically improved long-term survival of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. To analyze its efficacy in a practical setting, we registered most of CML patients in Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan. Of these, 73 patients received imatinib as an initial therapy. The overall survival rate of these patients was 88.7% at 6 years, and the cumulative complete cytogenetic response rate was 82.5% at 18 months. These results are comparable with the data of other reports including the IRIS study; however, the administered imatinib dose was smaller in our study than that in other reports. To address these discrepancies, we measured the trough concentration of imatinib among 35 patients. Although 39% of the patients were administered less than 400 mg/day, the trough level was comparable to those of previous reports. The trough level of imatinib showed a significant relationship with its efficacy, and was clearly related to dose of imatinib administrated and dose of imatinib divided by body surface area (BSA). Considering the smaller BSA of Japanese patients as compared to those of foreign origin, the results suggest that a lower dose of imatinib could maintain enough trough level and provided excellent results for the treatment of CML in our registry. PMID:19266256

Sakai, Mari; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Matsuo, Emi; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Hata, Tomoko; Fukushima, Takuya; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Iwanaga, Masako; Tsushima, Hideki; Inoue, Yoriko; Takasaki, Yumi; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Komoda, Minori; Ando, Koji; Horio, Kensuke; Moriwaki, Yuji; Tominaga, Shinya; Itonaga, Hidehiro; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Tsutsumi, Chizuko; Sawayama, Yasushi; Yamasaki, Reishi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Yasuhisa; Ikeda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Onimaru, Yasuyuki; Tawara, Masayuki; Atogami, Sunao; Koida, Satoshi; Joh, Tatsuro; Yamamura, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yuji; Soda, Hisashi; Nonaka, Hiroaki; Jinnai, Itsuro; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Tomonaga, Masao

2009-04-01

212

Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

213

RBE of neutrons in cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-78  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in cancer mortality in the period 1950-78 in a fixed cohort of 109,000 individuals is reported. The RBE of neutrons has been estimated by fitting several models to the dose-response curves in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for leukemia, lung, breast, and stomach cancers where the dose-response relationship has been confirmed and for cancers of all sites other than leukemia. A simple additive model was used because two other models where mortality is assumed to level off in the high dose group due to cell killing fit closely resembling the simple additive model. Thus, primarily, the L-L model where mortality is assumed to increase linearly with gamma and neutron doses and the Q-L model where mortality increases proportionally to the square of the gamma dose and linearly with the neutron dose were used. Since the observations on cancers of all sites fit both the L-L and Q-L models, the RBE was estimated for both. The RBE based on the kerma dose (and tissue dose) is leukemia 7.3 (14.7), stomach cancer 3.0 (7.4), lung cancer 2.2 (4.7), and breast cancer 4.6 (6.5) using the L-L model. Under the Q-L model, the RBE is dose dependent and decreases with increasing dose. At 100 rad it is 5.1 (5.5), 3.1 (3.4), 8.3 (9.2), and 11.6 (12.7), respectively. The L-Q-L model where mortality increases with the gamma dose and its square, and linearly with the neutron dose, fits better than either the L-L model or the Q-L model for the data on cancer other than leukemia. However, one or the other of the two estimated coefficients associated with the gamma dose are negative. (author)

214

Recycle City  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

215

Kids Web Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Managed by the Japan Center for Intercultural Communications, the Kids Web Japan site introduces schoolchildren aged between 10 and 14 to the country of Japan. The main page offers links to information about the physical and cultural aspects of the country, including its nature and climate, history, traditions, daily life, and more. Each subject contains a description, beautiful photographs, and questions that kids can answer. Other features include several maps, games, a cookbook for kids, language lab, and much more.

2001-01-01

216

Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

1982-01-01

217

Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

Hayakawa, K.

2012-11-15

218

Journey to Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

Godfrey, Lorraine

1978-01-01

219

Japan and LPG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

220

Island of Okinawa, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Energy education in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, there is a substantial lack of systematic and continuing education regarding energy issues in schools. Energy education based on a systematic curriculum from a global point of view should be planned and realized. The present status of nuclear power education in Japan is surveyed. The organization and activities of an experimental training session on nuclear reactors are presented. (R.P.)

222

Nuclear ambitions of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made in this book to examine the nuclear policy of Japan, its external and internal compulsions. A truthful account of how nuclear technology came to be developed in Japan and an evaluation in historical perspective of how nuclearisation and militarisation have changed the entire complexation of regional security are also given

223

Transport in an air-over-ground environment of prompt neutrons and gammas from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the work on radiation shielding in the last two decades has been aimed at developing adequate data on transport methods and cross sections to describe the numerous prompt-neutron and the prompt and secondary gamma-ray interactions through the various materials. When adequate experimental data are available, the calculational results can be benchmarked. In the absence of such test data, however, one must rely on results obtained from the particle-transport calculations. The two most accurate methods for these calculations are the discrete-ordinates S/sub n/ method and the Monte Carlo method. This paper is concerned with the application of the S/sub n/ method for approximating a solution to the Boltzmann transport equation in an air-over-ground two-dimensional, cylindrical geometry as applied to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki environments

224

Measurement of residual 60Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual 60Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed 60Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present 60Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. PMID:12674203

Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Shimazaki, Tatsuya; Okumura, Yutaka; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

2002-12-01

225

Measurement of residual 60Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residual 60Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed 60Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present 60Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. (author)

226

Energy policy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the seventies, Japan could reduce its general dependence on imports of crude oil for the entire power supply in the country. Simultaneously, Japan could diversify the imports of energy from the Middle East to a certain extent and concerning to new sources of energy. The regional dependence on imported resources of energy was regionally concentrated to a substantial extent. Important changes of the regional dependence of imports were observed in certain periods of time. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the energy policy of Japan. Especially, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Challenges in the 21st century concerning to the national energy security; (b) Uncertainties with the future nuclear energy option and the regional distrust into of Japan civilian nuclear activities; (c) Japan's oil diplomacy and gas diplomacy. Despite the decrease of the dependence on crude oil by diversification into other sources of energy, the energy security of Japan is still threatened. So the dependence on imports of crude oil from the Middle East is still raised and could rise between the years 2010 and 2020. However, the greatest uncertainties exist in connection with the future of the own nuclear industry. Over the medium-term, Japan depends on the development of the nuclear energy if a stable power supply should be ensured

227

Defining Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Stakeholders: the Case of Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Gujo Odori, a Festival Gujo Odori is a Japanese Bon (festival for the dead usually held in midsummer), in this case a dance matsuri (festival) held annually in Gujo Hachiman, Gujo City, in Gifu Prefecture. Landlocked Gifu Prefecture, and even less Gujo City and the administrative district of Gujo Hachiman, are not too prominent in Japan’s consciousness, and are known primarily for the historic villages of Shirakawa-go and Gokayama, UNESCO WorldHeritage sites, and to some peopl...

Voltaire Garces Cang

2007-01-01

228

Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

229

Paper making in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paper making factory in Japan where the traditional mulberry paper is still made. The various stage in the pulping, floating and using of paper are shown and some of the effects of the development of paper are discussed.

Harrison, Sarah

2004-01-01

230

Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs), including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1). The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41) and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5), respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies. PMID:24551167

Suzuki, Motoi; Minh, Le Nhat; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

2014-01-01

231

Japan, the energy headache  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With 127 millions of inhabitants living on a territory smaller than in France, the Japan depends by a majority of the fossil energies. Thus in the framework of the Kyoto protocol, the energy policy is looking to the ''no carbon'', the nuclear and the the renewable energies. After an evaluation of the japan energy situation and the possibilities of energy sources, the author presents the programs and the collaboration with the France. (A.L.B.)

232

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a compilation of radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from May 1992 through March 1993. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were 0.14±0.017 Bq/p·d from Niigata and 0.20±0.015 Bq/p·d from Akita, respectively, for total diet; 0.028±0.013 Bq/kgwet from Fukushima and 0.073±0.010 Bq/kgwet from Ibaraki for rice (producing districts); 0.019±0.0091 Bq/kgwet from Kochi and 0.093±0.0099 Bq/kgwet from Shimane for rice (consuming districts); 0.059±0.0099 Bq/l from Aomori and 0.30±0.017 Bq/l from Ishikawa for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.11±0.017 Bq/l from Kochi and 0.11±0.012 Bq/l from Hokkaido for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.049±0.012 Bq/l from Yamagata and 0.065±0.0094 Bq/l from Hokkaido for milk (consuming districts); 0.65±0.020 and 2.4±0.05 Bq/l from Sample C in powdered milk; 0.74±0.019 Bq/kgwet from Yamanashi and 0.26±0.016 Bq/kgwet from Shizuoka for vegetables (producing districts); 2.3±0.04 and 0.11±0.010 Bq/kgwet from Yamagata for vegetables (consuming districts); 0.026±0.0056 from Yamaguchi for black rockfish and 0.21±0.019 Bq/kgwet from Nagasaki for tilefish; 1.2±0.03 Bq/kgwet from Kyoto and 0.18±0.016 Bq/kgwet from Fukui for crucian carp; 0.0074±0.0043 Bq/kgwet from Hiroshima for oyster and 0.033±0.0066 Bq/kgwet from Aomori for Japanese scallop; 0.040±0.0053 and 0.037±0.0067 Bq/kgwet from Nagasaki for Wakame seaweed. Annual variations in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in dietary materials are given in figures. (N.K.)

233

State of research and perspective on adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a review article entitled ''Physical Benefits from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,'' published in Health Physics in December of 1982, Professor T.D. Luckey of the University of Missouri, asserted the ''radiation hormesis'' with 200 references. This resulted in the first International Symposium on Radiation Hormesis in Oakland, California (August 1985). CRIEPI consulted many specialists about Luckey's paper and studied many other papers such as Lorenz, 1954; Luckey, 1980, Liu et al., 1985. Radiation hormesis research in Japan has been based on the rationale that if Luckey's claim were to be true, radiation management in Japan has been extremely erroneous. CRIEPI organized a Hormesis Research Steering Committee composed of leading specialists in the field concerned, and began research in cooperation with a number of universities, as well as the National Cancer Research Institute, and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After obtaining interesting results in various experiments on the health effects of exposure to low doses of radiation, we have proceeded on an expanded program, which involves fourteen universities and two research institutes throughout Japan. The interesting results we obtained can be categorized in five groups. 1. Enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes and suppression of cancer, 2. Radio-adaptive response relating to the activation of DNA repair and adoptosis, 3. Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 4. Radiation effect on neuro-transmitting system through increase of key enzymes, 5. Others, including the therapy of adult-disease such as diabetes and hypertension. We are now carrying out experimental activities on the effects of low-dose radiation on mammals. After several years of research activities, we are recognizing Luckey's claim. Some basic surveys including Hiroshima Nagasaki and animal experiments in Japan have brought us valuable informations on the health effects of low-dose radiation. The followings are some topical research informations obtained across Japan. (author)

234

Quo Vadis, Japan?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan?

235

Japan steel mill perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2004-07-01

236

Space robotics in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

1994-01-01

237

Pension Reform in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to establish guidelines for public pension reform in Japan, using a numerical simulation approach. The paper introduces the example of a minimum guaranteed pension in the Swedish pension system and compares this with the basic pension in Japan’s public pension system, with regard to methods of income redistribution through a public pension scheme. Simulation results show that the switch from the basic pension to the guaranteed pension does not always generate favorable results. If we consider a public pension program with the same scale as the current Japanese program, the highest level of social welfare is attained when a public pension system consists of only a basic pension and is financed by a consumption tax.

Akira Okamoto

2010-09-01

238

Megaloblastic anemia in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

Taguchi,Hirokuni

1978-08-01

239

Disaster in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2011-03-28

240

Methodology of detecting internal radiation on paraffin embedded materials of Nagasaki atomic bomb casualties and DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose to establish a methodology in the title, expression of 53BP1, a tumor suppressing p53 related-DNA checkpoint protein, was examined in paraffin embedded specimens of the liver and spleen of a thorotrast (T) patient, 7 Nagasaki A-bomb exposed casualties and 2 non-exposed subjects. The 53BP1 protein was detected by immuno-fluorescent staining. Focal 53BP1 was seen in cells around T granules in liver, epithelium of bile duct and spleen of the patient. It was also observed in cells of liver and bile duct epithelium of casualties and the expression was particularly high in those outdoor-exposed at 0.5 km distance from the hypocenter and with shortest surviving period. 53BP1 foci were reported to be the indicator of genome instability in A-bomb casualties. The foci were found to be formed by T in this study, suggesting that DNA double strand had been broken by internal radiation exposure and its repair mechanism had been operated. Thus 53BP1 can be an indicator of internal exposure. (T.T.)

 
 
 
 
241

Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

242

Residual neutron-induced radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks exposed to Nagasaki Atomic Bomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks exposed by Nagasaki Atomic Bomb were determined. Samples were obtained from the surface to 2 cm in depth of rocks. Each sample was pulverized and placed in a plastic container, and gamma-ray spectrum was measured with a pure germanium semiconductor detector. To determine the amount of natural element of cobalt and europium contained in each sample, the neutron activation method was performed by the reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). The radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 were evaluated as per 1 mg natural element at the time of Atomic Bomb. The results show that the radioactivities of Co-60 and Eu-152 in rocks were decreased with increasing slant distance. The Co-60 activity was 6.88±2.13 Bq/mgCo and the Eu-152 activity was 75.9±8.79 Bq/mgEu at 510 m from the epicenter. When we compared the activity of Eu-152 calculated by Loewe with our data, we found a divergence between them as the distance from the epicenter increases. (author)

243

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water...

2010-04-01

244

1998 Monbusho Summer Program in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... Summer Program in Japan Twenty-four American graduate students arrived in Japan on Monday, 29 June ... homeland and Japan, accommodations, meals, and transportation expenses in Japan. Participants by ...

245

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-01-01

246

Nuclear Power in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

Powell, John W.

1983-01-01

247

Political Corruption in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

Reed, Steven R.; And Others

1996-01-01

248

Japan's plutonium, Europe's problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the next three years, new reprocessing plants are due to begin operating at Sellafield in Britain (the THORP plant) and La Hague in France (UP3 and UP2-800). They will process spent nuclear fuel from Western Europe and Japan, causing a jump in the world production of civil plutonium, far in excess of demand. There will be no large and sustained requirement for plutonium to fuel fast reactors for at least forty years. As little as five per cent of the plutonium extracted by the new reprocessing plants may end up being consumed by fast reactors. Japan's problems are highlighted. In particular there is the problem of returning plutonium safely. Plutonium can also be used as material for nuclear weapons. Its production, storage and transport therefore raise concerns about risks to international security. Plutonium is also a highly toxic substance so that environmental and safety controls around its handling must be stringent. There must be special provision made for the sea transport required. Some of the plutonium can be used in mixed-oxide fuel programmes. The prospects for this in Japan are discussed. The need for Japan to have its own reprocessing facilities and storage facilities is explained. (UK)

249

China, South Korea, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

250

Japan's Landscape in Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an interdisciplinary approach combining geography and children's literature to teach about Japanese culture. Describes classroom activities that link the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography to literature and art. Includes 11 figures, 9 summaries of children's books about Japan, and a 15-item annotated bibliography. (CFR)

Marchetti, Bethany

1993-01-01

251

Sustainable cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

252

Nuclear power development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

253

Globalization and Education in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

254

Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

255

Mapping of cosmic ray doses in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays in all municipalities in Japan were estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. The latitude, longitude, and altitude data for all municipalities were assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets comprising every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50 m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component were grouped into two categories: the ionizing component including photons, and the neutron component. The population-weighted average dose in Japan was estimated to be 29.2 nSv h-1 for the ionizing component and 6.1 nSv h-1 for the neutron component, or 35.3 nSv h-1 in total. The highest value among the prefectural averages was found in Nagano Prefecture at 44.0 nSv h-1, although this prefecture is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumptions in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report for cosmic ray dose estimation, the doses in Japan were estimated to be 0.21 mSv a-1 for the ionizing component and 0.045 mSv a-1 for the neutron component, or 0.26 mSv a-1 in total. The cosmic ray dose rate data for each municipality are presented here in the form of maps and tables. (author)

256

Educational Practices in an Age of Information Innovation: Audiovisual Education Prize Winning Papers in 1998. AVE in Japan No. 38.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet contains two papers that won the 1998 Audiovisual Education Prize of the Japan Audio-Visual Education Association. "Nurturing the Ability To Live in an Advanced Information Network Society: Making the Most Effective Use of Networking" reports on a study of 7th grade students in Okazaki City (Japan). The focus was on an 8-month…

Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

257

A geographical study of the international urban system between China and Japan in terms of Japanese affiliated entreprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Japanese-affiliated enterprises in China are considered to have played important rolesfor economic development of both two countries. Looking at cities with Japanese-affiliatedenterprises, this research investigates the changes in the international urban system betweenChina and Japan. We selected 5084 direct investments items from Japan to China and investigatedthe spatial structure of the international urban system in 4 periods.

Guoqing Du

2004-01-01

258

Salt Lake City, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

2001-01-01

259

Occupational exposure in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation workers. The date on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official publication of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers was estimated to be about 0.26 million. The annual collective dose equivalents were estimated to be about 22 person·Sv for medical workers, 84 person·Sv for workers in nuclear power station and 11 person·Sv for other workers. The population dose were calculated to be about 2.25 mSv/person/year. (author)

260

Association between mortality and residual radiation in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors exposed at long-distance from the hypocenter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mortality of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at 3 km or longer distance from the hypocenter was compared with that of those who were additionally exposed to residual radiation because of their entrance in the area at 1 km or closer to the center within 24 hr post explosion. The latter survivors (group I), 2,357 men with average age of 28.4 y and 2,618 women of 26.5 y at the exposure, were alive at 1970, and the former (group II, without exposure to residual radiation) was selected to match their numbers in sex, exposed distance, ages at exposure and at start of the follow-up study to those of group I. Follow-up was conducted from 1970 to 2007, and their total, malignant, cerebrovascular, cardiac and pneumonic deaths were observed. Cox proportional hazard model was used for estimation of mortality risk with covariates of sex and age at start of the study. The risk in group II was defined to be standard. Ages at start of the study were 53.3 and 51.4 y in men and women, respectively. Crude mortality tended to be higher in men of group I at ages of 40-49 and 50-59 y at start of the study. Hazard ratios of total and malignant tumor deaths in group I were 0.965 and 1.092, respectively, without statistic significance from group II and of other deaths, 0.982-0.999, also of statistic insignificance. Thus increased mortality due to residual radiation was not observed. (T.T.)

 
 
 
 
261

Nuclear situation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

262

Simplified PWR in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of SLWRs aims to reduce the operation and maintenance human burden and also to improve plant economy by simplifying plant systems and equipment. We have been participating in the U.S. EPRI's SLWR development program in cooperation with Japanese Utilities, as well as undertaking the research and development of SLWRs in Japan that comply with the Japanese site conditions and seismic standards peculiar to Japan. This time we introduce the SPWR development program in Japan. The main object of this program are power uprate, wider plant application such as higher aseismic siting and costdown. SPWR is jointly studied by JAPC, Japanese PWR Utilities, EdF, WH and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Considering the limitation of site availability, larger plant is generally preferable in Japan. SPWR (3-loop plant) is the plant concept based on two-loop U.S.AP-600 to meet the Japanese requirements, such as earthquake resistance. In the SPWR primary system, a Canned motor pump is adopted as the RCP to eliminate the shaft seal and the Cross-over Leg. A third loop is added to increase the power level to 1000Mwe. Based on the 3-loop SPWR concept, further review was made to look at the possibility uprate. We have also studied 4 loop plant concept for the purpose of uprating. In this case, however, the distance between loop pipes becomes narrow, because of the two cold leg per loop configuration adopted in the SPWR. This arrangement makes the reactor internals storage space long and slender, and IRWST located outside of it makes the containment larger than that of 1500MWe APWR. In the 4-loop case, it is possible to attain the 1300MWe

263

FUN CITY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".

2007-01-01

264

Simulation model of pandemic influenza in the whole of Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An influenza pandemic--an outbreak of a novel influenza virus that spreads around the world--is a real threat. To predict the spread of an influenza pandemic across the whole of Japan, this study applies a real individual-based model (ribm) to the whole of Japan and simulates how a single case of influenza could spark pandemic influenza throughout Japan. We used Person-Trip (PT) data for nine regions (the Tokyo metropolitan area, Kansai, Chukyo, Fukuoka, Sendai, Sapporo, Miyazaki, Okinawa, and northern Ibaragi). PT data were collected from randomly chosen persons and contain information on their locations and their uses of all transportation modes including trains, cars, buses, bicycles, and walking. In total, the nine regions have a population of about 72 million, of whom more than 2.20 million individuals participated in the PT surveys. Estimates on the probability of movement among the nine PT regions are based on the results of the Third National Survey for Movement in 2003. Disease transmission in each region or on a train is assumed to occur within a 1-m radius. The approximate numbers of new cases arising on day 14 after the arrival of the first infected person are estimated to be 322,000 in Tokyo, 25,000 in Kansai, 4,800 in Chukyo, 3,600 in Sapporo, 2,600 in Fukuoka, 600 in Sendai, 17 in Okinawa, and 300 in Miyazaki. The disease seems to spread more slowly in smaller cities such as Miyazaki and Okinawa than in big cities such as Tokyo and Kansai. Area quarantines may help to contain outbreaks in smaller cities, but probably not in larger cities. Because this study demonstrates that ribm is useful for simulating the spread of pandemic influenza in Japan, it is hoped that this modeling technique will be used in the creation of preparedness plans. PMID:19305048

Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie

2009-03-01

265

The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.

1998-01-01

266

Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. PMID:22081274

Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

2012-02-01

267

Japan country report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production (Under construction): BWR: 1 unit, PWR: 1 unit. - Electricity production (Preparing for construction): BWR: 9 units, PWR: 2 units. - Research: FBR: 1 unit. Nuclear waste management: NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established as the implementing organization for a high-level waste disposal project in October 2000. Operations are slated to start in the 2030's. NUMO will select the site through the following three-step process. 1- Selection of preliminary investigation areas by documentary studies; 2- Selection of areas for detailed investigation by borehole programs, etc.; 3- Selection of the site for repository construction by test programs in underground exploration facilities. NUMO is recruiting voluntary candidates for documentary studies. Some municipalities have interested in the project, however, they have not let NUMO to do documentary studies. The mayor of the town of Toyo in Kochi prefecture applied for a documentary study in January 2007. It was the first application in Japan, and NUMO was authorized to implement a documentary study there by the national government in March 2007. But NUMO withdrew its application in April 2007 because of opposition from prefecture governors, stakeholders and general public in the town. To improve this situation, the government strengthened its efforts to start documentary studies. For example, they changed the rule so that the government could propose some suitable towns as candidates for documentary studies, in addition to accepting voluntary applications. Other nuclear activities: Implementation of a new inspection system (after FY 2008) instead of the current uniform inspection, change to a plant-by-plant approach. Inspection also during operation. Analyzing the root causes of abnormal occurrences and accidents. This new system improves not only measures against aging facilities but also the reliability of inspection activities by individual plants and the quality of work by equalizing the volume of work. Nuclear competencies (Needs, education and training): It's serious sub

268

Gems of Japanized English  

CERN Document Server

Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as "a Specialist in the Decease of Children"; eggs were sold as "extract of fowl" ; and a notice advised that "Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water. " Fortunately, things are improving, but very slowly. A m

Kenrick, Miranda

2011-01-01

269

Regional and transported aerosols during DRAGON-Japan experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol properties over Japan have been monitored by AERONET sun / sky photometers since 2000. These measurements provides us with long term information of local aerosols, which are influenced by transported aerosols, such as Asian dusts or anthropogenic pollutants due to rapid increasing of energy consumption in Asian countries. A new aerosol monitoring experiment, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Japan is operated in spring of 2012. The main instrument of DRAGON network is AERONET sun/sky radiometers. Some of them are sparsely set along the Japanese coast and some others make a dense network in Osaka, which is the second-largest city in Japan and famous for manufacturing town. Several 2ch NIES-LIDAR systems are also co-located with AERONET instrument to monitor Asian dusts throughout the campaign. The objects of Dragon-Japan are to characterize local aerosols as well as transported ones from the continent of China, and to acquire the detailed aerosol information for validating satellite data with high resolved spatial scale. This work presents the comprehensive results of aerosol properties with respect to regional- and/or transported- scale during DRAGON-Japan experiments.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Nishizawa, T.; Takamura, T.; Takemura, T.; Yonemitsu, M.; Fujito, T.; Schafer, J.; Eck, T. F.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kouzai, K.; KUJI, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

2013-12-01

270

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japana income for the regions in Japan

271

Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the prevalence and mortality of CHF used to be relatively low in Japan, the disorder has been markedly increasing due to the rapid aging of the society and the Westernization of lifestyle that facilitates the development of coronary artery disease. The Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART-1 study was one of the largest cohorts in Japan. The study has clarified the characteristics and prognosis of Japanese patients with CHF, demonstrating that their prognosis was similarly poor compared with those in Western countries. However, we still need evidence for the prevention and treatment of CHF based on the large cohort studies or randomized treatment trials in the Japanese population. Since the strategy for CHF management is now changing from treatment to prevention, a larger-size prospective cohort, called the CHART-2 study, has been initiated to evaluate the risk factors of CHF in Japan. This review summarizes the current status of CHF studies in Japan and discusses their future perspectives.Keywords: heart failure, aging, Japanese

Nobuyuki Shiba

2008-03-01

272

Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

273

Whether Increases in Ambulance Transports is Stratified by Heat Stroke in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan in 2011?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the link between heat stroke and high air temperature from July to September in 2010 in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. Daily data of ambulance transports stratified by heat stroke and the highest air temperature were obtained. Heat stroke was significantly correlated with the highest temperature. The 9.0 magnitude earthquake and following tsunami on March 11, 2011, destroyed many cities in the northwestern part of Japan. Taken together, heat stroke may dramatically increase in Fukushima prefecture, Japan in 2011.

Nobuyuki Miyatake

2011-10-01

274

Food Irradiation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, “kamaboko” (fish-paste products), “Vienna” sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given “unconditional acceptance” for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

275

Solar cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric.incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the programmes and strategies of the Oxford Solar Initiative developed to meet the three aims of reducing CO/sub 2/ emissions from the buildings of the city, to stimulate local industry and to ensure that the citizens of Oxford are future-proofed, in safe and comfortable homes, against the risks posed by both climate change and increasingly expensive fossil fuels. (author)

276

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this...

2010-04-01

277

Safety Concerns of Tourism Business in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state of tourism industry in Japan after the nuclear disaster of 2011. A focus is made on networking activities of Japan Government aimed at boosting leisure travel flows to Japan.

Irina P. Karavaeva

2012-05-01

278

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

279

[Buddhist mummies in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which were laid in daisies for Buddhist images at golden Konjikido, a model of the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, did not bear any evidence of Ainu character in their physical traits. Of these, the mummy of Yasuhira Fujiwara, of which the head and neck were severely injured by swords, showed that it had been decapitated. This decapitated head had suffered mutilations: i.e. a long iron nail had been driven into the forehead, and the both auricles and the nose had been cut off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8237299

Morimoto, I

1993-08-01

280

Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow induced a debris flow and it moved downstream for about 1 km.

Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Tappi Wind Park, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 1992, Tohoku Electric Power Co has been operating a demonstration wind power station at Tappi-saki where the annual mean wind speed is 10.1 m/s. The station, ''Tappi WinPark'' , is the largest in Japan and was commissioned with a total rated power output of 1.375 kW. Its five wind turbines, each of 275 kW, generated 2.3 GWh and 2.9 GWh of electricity in 1992/93 and in 1993/94 respectively. The expansion of the station to a total capacity of 2,875 kW, by adding 5 turbines each of 300 kW turbines, was completed in September 1995. (Author)

282

Economic Crisis in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

283

France/Japan/Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to sustain its steady economic growth Turkey wishes to build 3 nuclear power plants in the next future. In 2010 an agreement was signed with Russia to build the first one on the Akkuyu site in the south region. In last may an agreement was signed between Turkey and Japan to open exclusive trade talks for the construction of a second nuclear power plant that will be localized near the Black sea 320 km away from Ankara. This plant will home 4 reactors probably of the ATMEA1 type, provided by Atmea, the co-enterprise between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and Areva. Turk authorities have justified this choice by highlighted the Japanese know-how concerning resistance to earthquakes and the technological quality of Areva. (A.C.)

284

SCWR Concepts in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two SCWR concepts are being developed in Japan, one corresponding to the thermal spectrum reactor and the other to the fast spectrum reactor. Yamada et al. described the thermal-spectrum reactor concept referred to as the Japan SCWR (or JSCWR). This concept was developed under the financial support of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The basic philosophy of the JSCWR development is to utilize proven light water reactor and supercritical fossil-fired power plant technologies as much as possible to minimize the R&D cost, time and risks. Therefore, the JSCWR is designed as a thermal neutron spectrum reactor using light water as moderator and reactor coolant. The JSCWR plant consists of a pressure-vessel type, once-through reactor and a direct Rankine cycle system. Reactor coolant fed through inlet nozzles is heated up in the core and flows through outlet nozzles with no recirculation in the vessel. Other options to the JSCWR core design are being investigated at the University of Tokyo. The electric output of the JSCWR is assumed to range from 600 MWe to 1700 MWe class to fulfill user’s requirements as much as possible. In this section, the reference value is selected to 1725 MWe, which corresponds to a reactor thermal output of 4039 MWth. Nakatsuka et al. described the core design for the fast-spectrum reactor, which is based on a similar plant system compared to that of the thermal-spectrum reactor. The fast-spectrum reactor, however, would produce higher power rating than the thermal-spectrum one of the same reactor pressure-vessel size. Since the fast-spectrum reactor does not require the moderator, its unit capital cost would be lower than the thermal-spectrum reactor

285

Japan country report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production (Under construction): BWR: 1 unit, PWR: 1 unit. - Electricity production (Preparing for construction): BWR: 9 units, PWR: 2 units. - Research: FBR: 1 unit. Nuclear waste management: NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established as the implementing organization for a high-level waste disposal project in October 2000. Operations are slated to start in the 2030's. NUMO will select the site through the following three-step process. 1- Selection of preliminary investigation areas by documentary studies; 2- Selection of areas for detailed investigation by borehole programs, etc.; 3- Selection of the site for repository construction by test programs in underground exploration facilities. NUMO is recruiting voluntary candidates for documentary studies. Some municipalities have interested in the project, however, they have not let NUMO to do documentary studies. The mayor of the town of Toyo in Kochi prefecture applied for a documentary study in January 2007. It was the first application in Japan, and NUMO was authorized to implement a documentary study there by the national government in March 2007. But NUMO withdrew its application in April 2007 because of opposition from prefecture governors, stakeholders and general public in the town. To improve this situation, the government strengthened its efforts to start documentary studies. For example, they changed the rule so that the government could propose some suitable towns as candidates for documentary studies, in addition to accepting voluntary applications. Other nuclear activities: Implementation of a new inspection system (after FY 2008) instead of the current uniform inspection, change to a plant-by-plant approach. Inspection also during operation. Analyzing the root causes of abnormal occurrences and accidents. This new system improves not only measures against aging facilities but also the reliability of inspection activities by individual plants and the quality of work by equalizing the volume of work. Nuclear competencies (Needs, education and training): It's serious subject ho

Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

2008-07-01

286

Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to...

Tiwari, Vasu; Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

2010-01-01

287

Multibody Dynamics Researches in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into multibody dynamics has long been done in Japan. In this paper, recent developments are surveyed from the conference proceedings and the transactions of the engineering societies of Japan. The D&D Conference proceedings and the transactions of the JSME are mainly focused on and the activities of the workshops and the technical committees in the JSME are reported on. Some reviews of other research in the world are also given. The software developments of multibody dynamics in Japan are briefly reviewed.

Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Imanishi, Etsujiro; Sugano, Naoki

288

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

289

Branding Cities, Changing Societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place.

Ooi, Can-Seng

2010-01-01

290

C40 Cities &  

...C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and Siemens technical partnership and global competition to recognise innovations that address climate change C40 Cities & Siemens ...Publication Sustainable Cities Publication Products & Service Providers About Us News / C40 Cities & Siemens to collaborate on sustainability C40 Cities & Siemens to collaborate ...William Brittlebank |Carbon management, Cities & the Built Environment Related Articles C40 and Siemens award ten cities for urban sustainability Siemens Sustainable Cities Initiative achieves ...new UK wind projects The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) and Siemens have announced a technical partnership and a global prize competition to ...

291

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki A-bomb at the point 1.6 km of explosion point  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 was measured in a concrete sample exposed to Nagasaki A-bomb at the point 1.6 km of the explosion point. Andesite separated from the concrete sample was pulverized and subjected to chemical separation of lanthanoide. To determine specific radioactivity of europium-152 (i.e., 152Eu/Eu) in the lanthanoide-enriched specimen, Eu was measured by neutron activation analysis, and residual 152Eu was measured by the use of a heavily shielded Ge gamma-ray detector connected to PHA. The result of 152Eu/Eu measurement is shown together with values obtained previously to the present work and calculated value by DS86 methodology. (author)

292

Application of the fission-track dating method on sandstones. Depositional age and thermal history of the Paleogene Kishima Group, Nagasaki Prefecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fission-track (FT) dating using both zircon and apatite was performed on sandstone of the Paleogene Kishima Group, Nagasaki Prefecture. The depositional age estimated by zircon FT using two statistical procedures was in good agreement with that estimated by other methods, which shows this method using sandstone is useful for evaluating the depositional age. Zircons ?60 Ma in FT age were found in the sandstone and were assumed to have originated from Cretaceous granites around near- by Mt. Seburi because of their similarity in zircon FT ages. Because an apatite FT age of 23.8±5.2 Ma was obtained from the sandstone, the studied Paleogene sedimentary basin was assumed to have never experienced temperatures in excess of ?100degC since 23.8±5.2 Ma. (author)

293

Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

294

Pediatric CT scan usage in Japan. Results of a hospital survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to examine the usage parameters of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) in children because of concerns of possible overuse in Japanese hospitals, including the ''technical'' CT exposure settings and the ''clinical'' grounds for CT requests. We examined the methodology at the radiology department to reduce radiation exposure to children and performed a retrospective study on pediatric CT requests during a 1-year period at Nagasaki University Hospital. The parameters of diagnostic CT usage for minor head trauma and acute appendicitis were studied in detail. CT radiation dose settings are adjusted for children based on guidelines issued by the Japan Radiological Society, with few limitations. CT requests were made for 62% of minor head trauma cases and 76% of cases clinically suspected to be acute appendicitis. These figures are considerably higher than those reported by studies in the United Kingdom, Canada, or the United States. No specific guidelines are advocated regarding CT usage for minor head trauma. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children is almost routinely referred for confirmation'' by CT. CT radiation risks to children at Japanese hospitals need to be considered more seriously. Physicians should be encouraged to follow diagnostic algorithms that help avoid unnecessary CT usage in children. (author)

295

Environment market keys in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like all the developed countries, Japan is nowadays facing the problems of environment. In this publication, the japanese environment policy is presented, followed by a development on the different technical and industrial process applied to face those pr...

1993-01-01

296

Nuclear power development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

297

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

298

Gluten ataxia in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gluten ataxia, a type of cerebellar ataxia caused by exposure to gluten in sensitive patients, has been considered common in the USA and Europe, and rare in Asia. We measured anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibody levels in 49 patients with cerebellar ataxia, excluding those with multiple system atrophy, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia, or cancer, as well as those who were receiving oral administration of phenytoin. Anti-DGP antibody was positive in eight (16.3 %) patients, five of these patients were positive only for IgA, one was positive for both IgG and IgA, and two were positive only for IgG antibody. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered to five of the eight patients, and was markedly effective in one, moderately effective in two, and ineffective in two. Steroid therapy was administered to four patients, but none had an apparent response. Ataxia symptoms improved in one patient treated with a gluten-free diet only. Although it had been thought to be extremely rare in Asia, we speculate that more than 10 % of cerebellar ataxia patients in Japan currently have gluten ataxia; therefore, measuring anti-DGP antibody or anti-gliadin antibody in cerebellar ataxia patients in Asia is important. PMID:24997752

Nanri, Kazunori; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Ihara, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Takeshi; Takeguchi, Masafumi; Ishiko, Tomoko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2014-10-01

299

Japan's launch vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

300

Worldwide cryogenics - Japan. Research and development at the Japanese National Research Institute for Metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research activities at the National Research Institute for Metals on high-field superconducting materials and the structure materials for cryogenic use are described. The superconducting materials research building equipped with a 17.5 T superconducting magnet, was recently constructed in Tsukuba New Science City of Japan to further progress in superconducting and cryogenic engineering. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Developing a Public Health Training and Research Partnership between Japan and Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of academic partnerships between developing and developed countries is a sustainable approach to build research capacity in the developing world. International collaboration between the Department of Public Health of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine in Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City

Goto, Aya; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Van, Nguyen Thi Tu; Phuc, Trinh Huu; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Yasumura, Seiji; Khue, Nguyen Thi

2007-01-01

302

History of R and D on environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for tokai reprocessing facility in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan's basic policy of utilization of atomic energy is strongly limited only for the peaceful use under the statutory control, reflecting the catastrophic experience of twice atomic bomb detonation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. To attain a sustainable prosperous happy life of people, the energy resource is one of indispensable factor which ranks with foods and environment. Japan has started peaceful atomic energy development program since 1955, the program contained power reactor, uranium exploration, plutonium utilization including reprocessing of spent fuel and MOX fuel and so on. Tokai Reprocessing plant for spent fuel was constructed from 1970 and has been operated since 1977. At the start of the operation, to protect the vicinity people and the environment from radiation hazard which might be occurred by the discharged radioactivity from the plant a total environmental monitoring program was set by the implementing organization. Prior to the operation, environmental monitoring technique had to be developed. This presentation will introduce the history of R and D on low level environmental radioactivity measurement techniques and present status of monitoring for Tokai Reprocessing Facility in Japan. (authors)

303

Magnesium research trend in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different aspects of magnesium research and applications in Japan are described. The paper gives a general overview of the expanding development and industrial applications of magnesium alloys and related technologies. Furthermore, research efforts aimed at increasing the future applications of magnesium alloys, particularly in the electronics and automobile industries are presented. The research trend shows that industrial applications of magnesium alloys, which have gained momentum in recent times, have a bright future in Japan. (orig.)

Kamado, S. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Koike, J. [Dept. of Materials Scienece, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kondoh, K. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Univ. of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamura, Y. [Dept. of Materials Scienece, Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

2003-07-01

304

National gas transmission pipelines - vital for greater gas use in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, unlike Europe and U.S.A., high-pressure transmission pipelines are confined to areas around the cities of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, because they primarily connect LNG receiving terminals with city pipelines. Building longer pipelines has been hampered by the difficulty of determining the routes and the high construction cost due to topographical complexity, concentrated population in the limited non-mountainous areas, and no established concept of right-of-way as in Europe and U.S.A., owing to a complicated pattern of land ownership. This underdeveloped transmission pipeline network has been a bottleneck for promoting natural gas distribution on a nation-wide basis, and construction of a national transmission pipeline running through the Japanese archipelagos is essential for natural gas to play an important role in the future primary energy supply in Japan. As major gas distribution companies, we wish to describe in this report the concept of national gas transmission pipelines in Japan

305

High definition systems in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

1991-01-01

306

High definition systems in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

1991-02-01

307

Building good relationships with neighbors of Japan's oldest plant, Tsuruga  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its establishment in 1957 as a pioneer company of nuclear power development in Japan, the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has gained a great deal of experience with construction and operation of four nuclear power plants - one gas-cooled reactor, two boiling water reactors (BWRs), and one pressurized water reactor (PWR) - at two sites, Tsuruga and Tokai. To gain the understanding and cooperation of the local community, the Tsuruga station must keep running. Each employee is encouraged to make every possible effort not only to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the two units, but also to ensure conscientious coexistence and coprosperity within the local community. The Tsuruga office in the city and the Public Relations (PR) Pavilion (visitor's center) at the site work together as an open window of communication with the local community. Under these basic philosophies, various good neighbor activities are developed and carried out

308

Hydrogen perspectives in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Japan Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) is promoting the World Energy Network System Project which considers hydrogen energy to be a long term option for a sustainable energy economy. The project involves the construction of a global energy network for the effective supply, transportation, storage, and use of hydrogen as a renewable energy carrier. The first phase of the research and development program began in 1998. It involved the construction of a global-scale hydrogen energy network system based on renewable energies which will contribute to a real reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, ensure an adequate future energy supply and improve the quality of air in urban areas. The major research and development results of phase 1 included a conceptual design of a system to generate hydroelectric power at a site where water power resources are abundant enough to convert the hydroelectric power into hydrogen by the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysis method. The research also involved the transport and storage of hydrogen to and at demand sites. The objective was to generate electric power by hydrogen combustion turbines through systems using liquid hydrogen, methanol and ammonia. The PEM water electrolysis system was considered to be the most promising high efficient hydrogen production technology with approximately 90 per cent energy efficiency at a current density of 1 A/cm{sup 2}. Phase 2 of the project began in 1999 and involved hydrogen utilization technology, hydrogen production technology, hydrogen transport, hydrogen storage, hydrogen absorbing alloy for distributed hydrogen storage and transport, innovative and leading technology plus system research. Phase 3 will eventually lead to the development of hydrogen combustion engines. 4 tabs., 7 figs.

Furutani, H. [Japan Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Ibaraki (Japan)

2000-05-01

309

Nuclear power in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

310

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

311

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

312

The City as Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

Bailey, Stephen K.

313

Water changed the cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas

Elle, Morten

2009-01-01

314

A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Residual radioactivity in neutron-exposed objects and residual alpha radioactivity in black rain areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The residual Eu-142 radioactivity due to the atomic bomb explosion in 1945 was first found in 1976 by in-situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at Hiroshima. Since then, various studies on this nuclide have continued not only in Hiroshima but also in Nagasaki and they have contributed to the reevaluation of the neutron dose due to the A-bombing. By radiochemical separation methods and alpha-ray spectrometry, rather high levels of plutonium were found in the surface soil and in the bottom sediment of water reservoir which were collected at "Black rain area" in Nagasaki. The U-234/U-238 activity ratios for the uranium leached with 0.1 HNO3 from the surface of soil samples were found to be relatively higher for the samples which were collected at "Black rain area" in Hiroshima. PMID:1762132

Sakanoue, M; Komura, K; Tan, K

1991-03-01

315

Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ?60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ?3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

316

Estimation of daily uranium ingestion by urban residents in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

125 types of food were collected mainly from Yokohama City which is one of the typical urban cities in Japan. The samples, were divided into the 18 food categories in the report of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS),1 were analysed for uranium by ?-spectrometry after chemical separation. Concentrations of 238U in individual types of food ranged from 9.85 * 10-5 Bq * kg-1 in grain vinegar to 5.90 Bq * kg-1 in boiled and dried hijiki. The median value of 238U was found to be 4.83 * 10-3 Bq * kg-1 on a raw weight basis. The daily intake of 238U per person by ingestion was estimated to be approximately 14 mBq with more than 50% of it coming from marine products. (author)

317

Japan starts two more reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hokuriku Electric Power Company's first operating reactor, Shika 1, reached initial criticality on November 20. Construction on the 513-MWe BWR began in 1987, when the plant originally was called the Noto reactor. The name was changed in December 1988 to Shika, a name more familiar to local residents. The unit is Japan's 44th operating reactor and is scheduled to begin commercial operation in July 1993. Japan's 45th reactor reached initial criticality on December 2. Chubu Electric Power Company's Hamaoka 4, a 1,045-MWe BWR, is scheduled for pre-trial operation in February 1993, and full commercial operation in September

318

Japan:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...member countries, guidelines, methodology, indicators, publications, working party 2, OECD countries Japan:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD ...Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Japan › Revenue Statistics 2013 Revenue Statistics 2013 Send Print Tweet   Tax revenues continue to ...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...

319

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold alcohol. (b) In accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section,...

2010-04-01

320

NSF/Tokyo Report: 1997 Monbusho Summer Program in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... Summer Program in Japan Twenty-three American graduate students arrived in Japan on Sunday, 29 June ... in Japan but also the round-trip international airfare between participants' homeland and Japan ...

 
 
 
 
321

BWR Stability Issues in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR) stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

Hideaki Ikeda; Takanori Fukahori; Yuichiro Kubo; Hideo Soneda; Shinya Mizokami

2007-01-01

322

BWR Stability Issues in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

Hideaki Ikeda

2007-12-01

323

Medical Education in Japan, 1969  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Japan's 19th century feudalistic education system was abolished at the close of World War II and the country has wrought the greatest economic miracle in world history, the Japanese still assign low priorities to health and medical education. (IR)

Brooks, Thomas J., Jr.

1970-01-01

324

Superconducting magnet development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb3Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ? meson channel and ? meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration

325

Japan and America: Culture Counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

Cooney, Barry D.

1989-01-01

326

Radioactivity survey data in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

327

Small store presence in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover, and increasing diversification, but do not seem to be able to profit from scale economies in labour use.

Carree, M. A.; Potjes, J. C. A.; Thurik, A. R.

1993-01-01

328

The March 2011 Japan tsunami  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The March 11th 2011 Tohoku-iki earthquake was the fifth largest on Earth in the last 50 years, it created one of the most devastating tsunamis in history. Dave Tappin describes the background to the tsunami and its impact based on his research on tsunamis and visits to Japan over the past three months.

Tappin, Dave

2011-01-01

329

How Japan Supports Novice Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning…

Ahn, Ruth

2014-01-01

330

Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

331

Safeguards pact signed with Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia and Japan formally signed a joint nuclear safeguards agreement on 5 March 1982. It brought the number of Australian safeguards agreements concluded since 1977 to 10, covering 17 countries. The agreements are designed to facilitate international nuclear trade under strict non-proliferation conditions. Signing of the agreement means that shipments from the Ranger mine can proceed

332

Aerial Measuring System in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

Lyons, C., Colton, D. P.

2012-05-01

333

A clinicopathological study on gastric cancer of the atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, by autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autopsy findings of gastric cancer were examined in 265 patients consisting of those exposed at ? 2,000 m from the hypocenter (group 1), those exposed at > 2,000 m or those entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and non-exposed controls (group 3). The largest number of patients was in their sixties and seventies, irrespective of exposure status. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.6 : 1. The incidence of gastric cancer decreased up to 1975 in all groups. Thereafter, it began to increase, especially in group 1. The most common site of cancer was the pyloric antrum in all groups. Histologically, poorly differentiated type was observed most frequently in group 1; however, this was not statistically significant. Multiple primaries, which were unlikely to be related to exposure, were observed in 22 autopsy cases. (Namekawa, K.)

334

Study of applicability of a small modular type FBR in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applicability of a small modular type FBR (SMFR) in Japan has been studied. The SMFR has merits and demerits from various points of view. Evaluation factors for applicability are discussed and evaluated under the circumstances in Japan. Based on the above evaluations, an appropriate reactor power is evaluated and 300 MWe per module is proposed. SMFR has a potential to be an alternative future FBR system. By enhancement of inherent and passive safety features it may be possibly located near a city or for the replacement of fossil plants on small site area. (author)

335

75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...polychloroprene rubber from Japan...polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201...polychloroprene rubber from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following...202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information...

2010-07-01

336

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol came into force in December 1999 in Japan. After that, Japan makes an effort to meet the Additional Protocol. Through the submission of the initial declaration and the annual declaration, or through the implementation of the complementary access, Japan got many experiences. (author)

337

Estimation of dose due to cosmic rays in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays at all municipalities in Japan are estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. Latitude, longitude and altitude data for all municipalities are assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50-m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component are grouped into two categories, ionizing component including photons and neutron component. The population weighted average dose in Japan is estimated to be 29.2 nSv h-1 for the ionizing component, 6.1 nSv h-1 for the neutron component and 35.3 nSv h-1 for the total. The highest value among prefecture averages is found in Nagano Prefecture to be 44.0 nSv h -1 although it is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumption in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report for dose estimation due to cosmic rays, the doses in Japan are estimated to be 0.21 mSv a-1 for the ionizing component, 0.045 mSv a-1 for the neutron component and 0.26 mSv a-1 for the total. (author)

338

Estimation of dose due to cosmic rays in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dose rates due to cosmic rays at all municipalities in Japan are estimated using a computer code (PLOTINUS) developed by K. O'Brien. Latitude, longitude and altitude data for all municipalities are assumed to be represented by the location of the city office and categorized into 417 data sets every degree for latitude, every two degrees for longitude, and every 50-m for altitude as input data for computation. The outputs for each cosmic ray component are grouped into two categories, ionizing component including photons and neutron component. The population weighted average dose in Japan is estimated to be 29.2 nSv h{sup -1} for the ionizing component, 6.1 nSv h{sup -1} for the neutron component and 35.3 nSv h{sup -1} for the total. The highest value among prefecture averages is found in Nagano Prefecture to be 44.0 nSv h {sup -1} although it is not located at the highest latitude but at the highest altitude. Based on the assumption in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report for dose estimation due to cosmic rays, the doses in Japan are estimated to be 0.21 mSv a{sup -1} for the ionizing component, 0.045 mSv a{sup -1} for the neutron component and 0.26 mSv a{sup -1} for the total. (author)

Fujimoto, Kenzo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); O' Brien, K. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

2002-12-01

339

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 3, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partial Contents: JAPAN: Sumitomo Electric Industries Develops Exhaust Purification Equipment for Buses; JAPAN: Matsushita Battery to Market Next Generation Thin Film Solar Batteries by 2000; JAPAN: Hitachi, Toshiba Use Computer Networks to Build Nuclear Power Plants; JAPAN: Monju Incident Scars Not Yet Healed; JAPAN: Encryption Key Management Debate; and JAPAN: Military Infrared R&D Reviewed.

NONE

1997-03-03

340

Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

 
 
 
 
341

[Some resolutions in difficulties of postgraduate psychiatric education in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Board Certification System of Psychiatry There was a heated debate about "Postgraduate Psychiatric Education and Board Certification of Psychiatry" in the annual meeting for the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology held in Nagasaki in 1968 and in Kanazawa in 1969. The oppositions of young psychiatrists were as follows; 1) Issues of low cost of medical expense as government politics, social protect politics from psychiatric patients, and improper management of patients in mental hospitals should be dealt before making Board Certification System of Psychiatry. 2) Management of the Society of Psychiatry and Neurology dissatisfies many psychiatrists. Board Certification Systems started in many medical societies from 1969 to 1987. Main nine departments except psychiatry started the system. In 1987, the Japan Association of Chairmen of Department of Psychiatry of Medical Colleges (JACDPM) proposed a program for a postgraduate course. The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (JSPN) formed the Committee on Psychiatric Education in 1987 and Working Group on Accreditation Program (WGAP) in 1991 under the Committee of Psychiatric Education. After intensive discussions on the Board certification, the WGAP reported a summary of their discussions in 1994. The essence of the WGAP recommended model for the Board of Association was as follows: Minimal Requirements Outline Training Period--three years psychiatric training after two years primary care experience by rotation through other departments. Field of Training--WGAP recommended that post-graduate training should be given at different kinds of institutes such as the department of psychiatry in medical schools, mental hospitals, out-patient mental clinics, community experiences in rehabilitation, day care, social clubs and health centers. Assessment--both oral examination and case reports are requested for evaluation and board certification. Re-evaluation every five years is required. However, there have been the following opinions and the Board Certification System has not been realized. 1) Making improvement in mental hospital is more important than starting Post-graduate Training and Organization for Board Certification of Psychiatry System (PTOBCP). 2) Starting PTOBCP makes professors in department of psychiatry in medical colleges give great power to suppress the right of personal management. 3) Financial support for postgraduate trainee and trainer is insufficient. Medical and psychiatric situations have changed from 2001 to 2002. 1) A neutral organization instead of academic societies will make Board Certification System in each department in the future. 2) Postgraduate educational rotation system (two years) will start in 2004. 3) Advertisement of being certificated by the Board has been possible. In recent situation, necessity for making of PTOBCP is increasing and many members of JSPN long to make it. In the 98th annual meeting, 2002 it was decided to make PTOBCP. 2. Post-graduate mandatory education system including psychiatry Recently, it was legally decided that post-graduate education for two years should be mandatory for every medical doctor who has passed a national board from 2004. Furthermore, psychiatric training should be mandatory for every rotating resident. The period of psychiatric training is one, two or three months, which depends upon each teaching hospital. It is epoch-making that every resident should receive psychiatric training, however, in other words, it means that psychiatric education in Japan will be re-evaluated through such a new training system. PMID:12708019

Kojima, Takuya; Hosaka, Takashi

2003-01-01

342

Field Observations of Meteotsunami in Kami-koshiki Island, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Meteotsunami; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band, are known in Japan by the local term "abiki", literally meaning "net-dragging waves" in Japanese. Large abiki occur in bays and harbors along the west coast of Kyushu almost every year during winter and early spring. On 24-25 February, 2009, Urauchi Bay, located on west coast of Kami-Koshiki Island on the southeast coast of Kyushu, was subjected to a destructive meteotsunami. In this event, a maximum sea surface height of 3.1 m was observed at the inner part of the bay. At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. This event surpassed the previous record height for an abiki in Japan: 278 cm in Nagasaki Bay, also located west coast of Kyushu, in 1979. Generally, such an elongated inlet with narrow mouth as Urauchi bay provides calm water conditions even when offshore weather is stormy. Therefore, the area is regarded as a suitable place for the farming of large fish with a high market value. Possible damage to the extensive fish cage system as a result of meteotsunami events is of concern, especially because aquaculture is the main industry in the isolated islands. Forecasting of meteotsunami is a serious request from the local people. AIMS The objectives of the present study are to detect a meteotsunami event in Urauchi Bay and to clarify the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions related to its occurrence. This work attempts to observe the whole process of a meteotsunami event: generation offshore, resonance while it propagates, and finally amplification in the bay. Observations were conducted over a period of 82 days; 12 January to 4 April, 2010, aiming to record large secondary oscillations. A comprehensive measuring system for sea level, current and barometric pressure fluctuations was deployed covering not only inside and near Urauchi Bay but also further offshore in the vicinity of Mejima in the East China Sea. MAIN RESULTS 1) Large meteotsunami events with total height in excess of 150 cm were observed five times during the 82-day observation period. On 1 February, 2010, one such event coincided with the high water of a spring tide, which resulted in flooding. The present observations have revealed that meteotsunami events occur more frequently than previously estimated from existing records of flooding. Even if a meteotsunami event does not result in flooding (e.g., if it coincides with a low tide), attention should be paid to the seiche induced strong currents that may damage fishing boats or aquaculture installations. 2) Three dominant modes were found to exist in sea level fluctuation data in Urauchi Bay using spectra analysis, wavelet analysis and phase analysis of the extracted period band components. The node and anti-node structure for each node governs more energetic areas for sea level and the current velocity fluctuations. 3) Analyses of barometric pressure data show that abrupt pressure changes of 1-2 hPa are generated in the open sea area at Mejima when major meteotsunami events occur. The pressure waves propagated eastward or northeastward to reach Kami-Koshiki within 1-2 hours. The propagation speed was found to nearly coincide with ocean long waves over the East China Sea. This air-sea resonant coupling is considered to be a source mechanism of meteotsunami generation.

Asano, T.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishimura, N.

2012-12-01

343

Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance measures have been adopted to assist in managing transport policy challenges, including the application of experimentation, monitoring and evaluation of plans, policies and institutions. The paper looks at two cases of policy management within Japanese transportation: The first is the performance evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance measurement is outlined, the actual application is presented, and the results in terms of how the indicators contribute to promote sustainable transport will be reviewed. A finding is that indicators in both programs seem to have limited positive influence on sustainability, with the most and visible effects in the latter one. The institutional context seems important for the strength of influence.

Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

344

Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

345

The nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the development and use of nuclear power are considered key building blocks of safe energy supply in the 21st century. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle so as to utilize uranium and plutonium from spent fuel elements is to establish nuclear power as a quasi-domestic energy source in Japan. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. is the only private enterprise in Japan to offer nuclear fuel cycle services. At Rokkasho, the company operates plants for reprocessing (under construction), uranium enrichment, treatment of radioactive waste, and a repository for low level radioactive materials. Consequently, an important sector of Japan's future energy supply is ensured on this location. (orig.)

346

Ülemiste City kutsub gümnasiste  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ülemiste City pakutavast võimalusest gümnaasiuminoortele alates sügisest tulla linnakusse ekskursioonidele, et tutvuda kaasaegsete IT-ettevõtete töötingimustega. Sellega soovib Ülemiste City olla toeks Eesti Infotehnoloogia ja Telekommunikatsiooni Liidu IKT-sektori populariseerimise projektile

2007-01-01

347

Deaths from heat-stroke in Japan: 1968-1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is increasingly recognized as a threat to the survival of human beings, because it could cause a serious increase in the occurrence of diseases due to environmental heat during intermittent hot weather. To assess the direct impact of extremely hot weather on human health, we investigated heat-related deaths in Japan from 1968 through 1994, analyzing the data to determine the distribution of the deaths by age and their correlation to the incidence of hot days in summer. Vital Statistics of Japan, published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, was the source of the heat-related mortality data employed in this study. Meteorological data were obtained from the District Meteorological Observatories in Tokyo and Osaka, the two largest cities in Japan. Heat-related deaths were most prone to occur on days with a peak daily temperature above 38 degrees C, and the incidence of these deaths showed an exponential dependence on the number of hot days. Thus, even a small rise in atmospheric temperature may lead to a considerable increase in heat-related mortality, indicating the importance of combating global warming. Furthermore, half (50.1%) of the above-noted deaths occurred in children (4 years and under) and the elderly (70 years and over) irrespective of gender, indicating the vulnerability of these specific age groups to heat. Since a warmer climate is predicted in the future, the incidence of heat waves will increase, and more comprehensive measures, both medical and social, should be adopted for children of 4 years and younger the elderly to prevent heat-related deaths in these age groups. PMID:10639904

Nakai, S; Itoh, T; Morimoto, T

1999-11-01

348

Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

Peter Newman

2013-08-01

349

Japan reforms its nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

350

Fruit harvesting robots in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

351

Japan reforms its nuclear safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

Anon.

2013-11-15

352

Accelerator business in Japan expanding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

353

Potato irradiation technology in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

354

Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ry?tar?. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it ref...

Rosa Lee

2011-01-01

355

Conceptions of CSR in Japan  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese companies in terms of social employee issues and concerns. A strong relationship between companies and employees has always been an advantage of the Japanese economy, and this strength was developed further by the integration of CSR into management systems and strategies. But increasing environmental concerns have raised crucial questions about environmental issues with regards to CSR. How do Japanese companies incorporate environmental issues into their CSR aims and achievements? What is the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan? This paper will analyze the conceptualization of CSR in TEPCO documents and the political discussions following the Fukushima accident. Drawing on rhetorical theory, especially on the importance of metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; 1999) and how this applies to the field of strategic management (Audebrand, 2010), Thus, the paper interrogates CSR as a site of conceptual and metaphorical "struggle" regarding how to conceive the social responsibilities of companies. It identifies three main conceptions of CSR; a narrow economic conception, a broad economic conception and a systemic conception of CSR. They represent different taken-for-granted conceptual frameworks used to understand CSR and the strategic challenges for CSR in Japan. Such a conceptual analysis provides important insight into how Japanese companies conceive of environmental issues and incorporate these into their CSR aims and achievements. As such, this paper will argue, part of the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan is to deal with the preconceptions about the nature of business activities amongst managers, politicians, and other CSR agents.

Lystbæk, Christian Tang

2014-01-01

356

Present status and future development of cogeneration using city gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1981, city gas was adopted for the first time for the cogeneration in the national stadium, as of March, 1992, the cogeneration using city gas reached nearly 750 MW. Meanwhile the positioning of cogeneration changed largely for city gas enterprises and the national energy policy and environment policy, and its importance has continued to increase. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. paid attention to this system early, and based on the long term perspective, it promoted the technical development and the introduction into markets, and realized the utilization in various fields now. According to Japan Gas Association, as of the end of March, 1992, the cogeneration using gas engines, gas turbines and diesel engines has been installed in Japan by about 2.6 million kW, and those using city gas takes about 30%. In cogeneration, at the same time with electric power generation, its waste heat is effectively utilized, therefore, the overall efficiency of 70-80% and the energy conservation of 20-30% as compared with conventional method are attained. The positioning of cogeneration related to environment policy and city planning, the efforts exerted by gas enterprises, the relaxation of regulation and the development of hereafter are reported. (K.I.).

Okamoto, Yozo (Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan))

1992-10-01

357

Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-07-01

358

Japan: desire for energy independence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state of the art of nuclear power development in Japan is reviewed. Given is a list of operating, constructing and planning NPPs as well as prototype reactors. Problems of NPP components and parameters improvement are discussed. Problems of their seismic stability and problems related to fuel cycle are discussed as well. It is noted that the purpose of the Japan energy program emphasizing on NPP construction is decreasing the dependence of the country on the import of oil and other types of fuel. It is underlined that in the nearest future PWR and BWR reactors will be mainly used at NPPs. High priority in developing nuclear power is given to its safety. Besides application of different measures for controlling NPP safety created is a system for early detection of defects of operating components which permits to exclude accidents earlier occurring at NPPs. The work has been done an creating an information system for data processing with accounting for mechanical properties of materials, programming of possible sequences and taking measures to exclude accidents. Much attention is paid to the problem of thermal release of NPP and dissipation of this heat. Work is in progress on improvement of the domestic production process of isotope separation using centrifuges. At present spent fuel is regenerated at the Tokai facility as well as under contracts in Great Britain and France. Japan will be able to satisfy regeneration requirements by itself after 1990ements by itself after 1990

359

Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5oC, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

360

[Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Victory City: The City of the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

362

CaringTV® value creation for elderly people in Sendai, Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan is expected to be the country with the highest percentage of elderly people in the world in 2025. In order to ensure quality care services for elderly people, Tohoku Fukushi University (TFU), Helsinki School of Economics, Laurea University of Applied Sciences and the cities Espoo, Vantaa and Sendai have established the research collaboration “Active Project”. Within this project, TFU aims at transferring the Finnish CaringTV® concept to Sendai. CaringTV is a service for secure broa...

Stahl, Carmen

2011-01-01

363

Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D? - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D? - 0.06)>0, where D? is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

364

Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

365

The Joint Cities The Joint Cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

Romano Fistola

2010-04-01

366

Book review: Precarious Japan by Anne Allison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Precarious Japan." Anne Allison. Duke University Press. 2013. --- In an era of irregular labour, nagging recession, nuclear contamination, and a shrinking population, Japan is facing precarious times. How the Japanese experience insecurity in their daily and social lives is the subject of Precarious Japan. Moving between the structural conditions of socioeconomic life and the ways people are making do, or not, Anne Allison chronicles the loss of home affecting many Japanese, not only in the ...

Krishnan, Sneha

2014-01-01

367

Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

Jorge Morel

2014-09-01

368

Children in Japan and multimedia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

Shimauchi, Y

1999-01-01

369

Bone marrow transplantation in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

370

Fitness and health promotion in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts. PMID:10104215

Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I

1990-01-01

371

Cells and batteries in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, research programs are done jointly or independently by three organization types: private firms, universities and national institutes. This paper presents cells and batteries production in three chapters: the first one is dealing with the 'MOONLIGHT' project (advanced batteries, fuel cells and electric-powered vehicle), the second one with general purpose cells and batteries (Ni/Cd, Ni/Metal Hydride, Pb/PbO2 and lithium batteries), the last chapter gives a list and a precise description of the different organizations visited. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

372

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

373

Recent cryocooler progress in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

Matsubara, Y.

1985-05-01

374

Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

375

Japanese History, Post-Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jason ?nanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuz? and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

George Lazopoulos

2014-03-01

376

Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

377

Japan nuclear ship sea trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

378

Introduction of JNES in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), an incorporated agency, was established on 2003, as a technical support organization to the nuclear regulatory authority. This organization aims to ensure the safety of nuclear installations for energy use. Its activities include inspection of nuclear installations, safety analysis and evaluation, emergency preparedness support, technical survey, tests and research for ensuring nuclear safety and information analysis, evaluation and transmission. This paper presents the outline of the organization, the role and mission and the major tasks. (A.L.B.)

379

A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW, Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including typical depressive states. Suffocations/hangings are the most common methods used to commit suicide by both sexes. Utilities and interactions among these several components were considered, as well as a perspective of suicidal behavior. Conclusion. In order to prevent suicide and avoid the worst tragedy for a family, it is an essential requirement to collect and analyze any information concerning suicide victims.

Yamamura Takehiko

2006-01-01

380

Cities, terrorism and development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article interrogates the relationship between terrorism and development through the lens of cities, arguing that despite the post 9/11 hype in relation to cities of the global North, the impact of terrorism on cities of the global South should not be ignored. Defining terrorism in terms of acts of terror, it is suggested that cities are more susceptible to this form of political violence than rural areas because of the likelihood of greater impact and visibility and the incidence and imp...

Beall, Jo

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

2001-01-01

382

Food irradiation development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

383

Food Irradiation Development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology-Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected, to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

384

Japan's nuclear fuel cycle policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japanese private companies are making progress with the plans to construct a commercial reprocessing plant, an enrichment plant and a radioactive waste management facility. As the site for the plants, the Federation of Electric Power Companies has selected the Shimokita Peninsula. The construction of these three nuclear fuel facilities at the same site will be the first such case worldwide. The Federation made its formal request to the local authorities in July, 1984, and Aomori Prefecture gave its approval in April, 1985. Capacity is scheduled to be 800 tU/year for the reprocessing plant and 1,500 ton SWU/year for the enrichment plant and 200 thousand cubic meters for the radioactive waste storage facility. The Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd, (JNFS, established in 1980) is responsible for the construction and operation of the commercial reprocessing plant and the Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries Co., Inc. (JNFI, established in 1985) will build and operate both enrichment plant and the radioactive waste management facility. Preparations for taking the necessary procedures for the licensing and construction of the facilities are now underway. Operations are scheduled to start in 1995 for reprocessing and 1991 for enrichment (starting capacity: 150 t SWU/year) and radioactive waste management. Plutonium recovered from spent fuel will be utilized in LWR, ATR and FBR. R and D activities on these technologies are in progress

385

The electronuclear program of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear

386

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

387

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

388

The Influence of the Unesco Creative Cities Network on City’s Identity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to define a creative city and ways to become one. Moreover, it focuses on the analysis of reasons, for which cities are trying to be part of a network. Next, the author reviews the UNESCO creative cities network and its classification. Additionally, a research is undertaken on city’s identity and its significance. Furthermore, the author attempts to find the connection between a city’s identity and the UNESCO creative cities network classification. For this purpose the author surveys two cities that belong to the UNESCO creative cities network and finds out whether the classification chosen by the cities matches their identity. Finally, the influence of the UNESCO creative cities network on city’s identity is addressed.

Egl? Štuopyt?

2013-10-01

389

The City at Stake:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

Sophie Esmann Andersen

2009-12-01

390

Japan, a journey in irradiated lands. Japan changes its fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article describes the situation in terms of radioactivity, contamination and decontamination, of living conditions and of issues in the immediate surroundings of the Fukushima power station and in places located at different distances of the Fukushima power station: 10 km away, in a village 20 km away, in a farming and agriculture area 50 km away from the station, and in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (the greatest nuclear power station in the world, 220 km away from Fukushima). The article also evokes works performed in these places, sometimes with the help of French companies, to manage the wastes or decontamination purposes. The second article comments the perspectives of development of new energy sources, with a strong trend of investments in renewable energies. The author indicates that Japan not always possesses the required technologies. In this respect, the article outlines that there could be opportunities for French companies in the field of offshore wind energy

391

NSF/Tokyo Report: The Science System in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MONBUSHO), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science ... and living in Japan. Specific Impressions and Thoughts on the Science System in Japan Because my ...

392

Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

We confirmed infection of 2 patients with Borrelia miyamotoi in Japan by retrospective surveillance of Lyme disease patients and detection of B. miyamotoi DNA in serum samples. One patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of B. miyamotoi. Indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in Japan. PMID:25061761

Sato, Kozue; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Koyama, Kojiro; Kaneko, Minoru; Ohnishi, Makoto

2014-01-01

393

Human infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We confirmed infection of 2 patients with Borrelia miyamotoi in Japan by retrospective surveillance of Lyme disease patients and detection of B. miyamotoi DNA in serum samples. One patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of B. miyamotoi. Indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in Japan. PMID:25061761

Sato, Kozue; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Koyama, Kojiro; Kaneko, Minoru; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kawabata, Hiroki

2014-08-01

394

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Science.gov (United States)

...trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble...other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient...following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient...to exceed current good manufacturing practice. (c) Prior sanctions for...

2010-04-01

395

Research of geological hazards in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution is one the results of authors' cooperation on erosion and landslide hazards studies in two different geomorphologic areas of Japan. The physico-geographical and geological nature of the surveyed regions - typical for Japan - are described and examined from point of view of the intensity and causes of erosion and landslide events. (authors)

396

The Role of German in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

Sang, Juergen

397

Understanding earthquake design criteria used in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the current earthquake design criteria used in Japan for nuclear power plants. Information is presented on the codes and standards and seismic requirements for reactor buildings and containment structures. The most interesting features of the earthquake design criteria used in Japan, in the light of those used in the United States, are summarized

398

Development of clean coal technologies in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

2013-07-01

399

Walkout in Crystal City  

Science.gov (United States)

When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

400

Lost City News Release  

Science.gov (United States)

This press release from the National Science Foundation provides an overview of the 2003 expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the Atlantis Massif. It briefly describes the expedition, features of the Lost City, research results and implications for future discoveries. Photos and images accompany the text.

Affairs, Office O.; Foundation, National S.

 
 
 
 
401

Oral presentations on nuclear energy in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oral presentations on nuclear energy in conferences and meetings held in 1978 were surveyed. A total of 144 meetings contained 4,104 presentations on nuclear energy. Physics accounted for 44%, the highest of all presentations, followed by nuclear engineering and chemistry and materials in decreasing order. It is pointed out that, nuclear fusion comprised 21%, higher than nuclear engineering, and became an important portion of Japanese information. A further survey was then made particular with the conferences and meetings of such major societies as the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Physical Society of Japan, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Chemical Society of Japan and the Japan Health Physics Society. Also it was recognized that the oral presentations are considered as useful data sources for on-going research information. (author)

402

Japan accepts role in world energy drama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mr. Yoda feels the challenge for Japan is to create a new philosophy of energy use that melds Japan's 20th century prosperity with its ancient respect for the enduring value and sustenance of nature. Noting that Japan has had unfettered access to the world's energy resources for nearly a half century, in some nations worsening conditions thereby, he feels it now has a responsibility to ease and improve the plight of others. Drawing from its vast intellectual warehouse, he says Japan should willingly distribute its wealth of scientific and technical knowledge. Further, he feels Japan should become a model for energy efficiency in all stages of energy generation, conversion, distribution, and consumption. He also makes positive recommendations for their leadership in nuclear power, renewable energy, and environmental pollution abatement and control.

Yoda, Susumu (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

403

Universities Scale Like Cities  

CERN Document Server

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

van Raan, Anthony F J

2012-01-01

404

Marriage and the City  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset.

Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael

2005-01-01

405

Retirement memorial lecture. Review of studies on assessment of radiation exposed dose-exposure dose estimation in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described are following author's experiences about studies of dosimetry performed in such fields as in the title and concomitant thoughts of the health effect of radiation. The author expresses the degree of radiation risk, when simplified, with the equation, health effect/dose. The effect is either deterministic like alopecia/leucopenia or stochastic like carcinogenesis. DS02 (Dosimetry System 2002) leading to about 10% increase of the risk in the equation above is established with investigation of 120 thousands exposed people by Japanese and American reassessment study of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where neutron dose has been problematic but solved. Exposed dose 4000 mGy of Dolon village 110 km afar from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site has been said to be the highest among its nearest regions. However, the external exposure dose is estimated to be 400 mGy by dosimetry of bricks and other materials and factors concerned in radiation spread like soil Cs-137, Pu-239/240 against the reported dose above by old Soviet Union. Radioactive contamination in wide areas and in local spots is observed following the hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12-15, 2011) in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and decontamination is in progress with a measure of Cs-137. As for Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, following respective matters are different: the number of evacuated people of 400 thousands vs 85 thousands; 145 thousands people involved in contaminated area of >37 kBq/km2 vs 8 thousands in >30 thousands kBq/km2; areas subjected to forced evacuation of 13 thousands km2 vs areas to planned evacuation of 8 hundreds km2; and released radioactivity of 5200 thousands TBq vs 770 thousands TBq. In Fukushima, there are additional problems of contamination of sea and of waste of the Plant rubbles. The author thinks that all of information and standard criteria about contamination should be more easily disclosed to public for their self judgment and decision. (T.T.)

406

PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation' (IJWBME 2011) will be held on 7-10 December 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan. This workshop was held for the first time on 17-19 December 2009 at NPL, New Delhi. Keeping in mind the importance of organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation and their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world, IJWBME 2009 was jointly organized by the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science & Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Much progress in the field of biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation is expected for the 21st Century. Organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic electroluminescent devices, organic thin-film transistors, organic sensors, biological systems and so on have especially attracted much attention. The main purpose of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for researchers interested in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation, to come together in an informal and friendly atmosphere and exchange technical knowledge and experience. We are sure that this workshop will be very useful and fruitful for all participants in summarizing the recent progress in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation and preparing new ground for the next generation. Many papers have been submitted from India and Japan and more than 30 papers have been accepted for presentation. The main topics of interest are as follows: Bioelectronics Biomolecular Electronics Fabrication Techniques Self-assembled Monolayers Nano-sensors Environmental Monitoring Organic Devices Organic Functional Materials We would like to express our sincere